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Practical Supervisory Skills Module 4

Motivation - the responsibility of every manager and supervisor: the only practical
and functional way to create performance improvement
ou will view two videos with ! aspects of motivation" #he presenter claims that
$motivation% is the &ey management s&ill"
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'ey #opics to cover
Practical application of dominant beavioural teories
Maslo!"s #ierarcy of needs $%eeds reduction &eory'
Intrinsic ( Extrinsic motivation
)actors tat motivate
&e Expectancy &eory
&e uman performance environment
Creating a performance culture
&e *blame" culture
&e learning organi+ation
,elegating and coacing- ./& and mentoring 0 te who, why, when and how
Practical Supervisory Skills Module 4
MO#()*#(O+ #,EO-
(+#-(+.(/ *+D E0#-(+.(/ MO#()*#(O+
Things that motivate me:
Put a tick in te first column alongside te numbers of six items from te follo!ing list tat you believe are te
most important in motivating you to do your best !ork1 &en rank te six selected items !it te most
important being 1-te 2
3 2- 4
3 4- etc1 &erefore te least important of te six !ill be 51 &en compare
your list !it your neigbour1
11 #aving steady employment
21 6eing respected as a person
41 #aving ade7uate rest periods and coffee breaks
41 8eceiving good pay
51 9ood pysical !orking conditions
51 #aving te opportunity to turn out 7uality !ork
:1 9etting along !ell !it colleagues
;1 #aving a <ob close to ome
=1 Promotional opportunities
1>1 Interesting !ork
111 Pension scemes and oter aspects of security
121 %ot aving to !ork too ard
141 ?no!ing !at is going on in te organi+ation
141 )eeling tat te <ob is important
151 #aving focus groups and 7uality circles
151 #aving a !ritten <ob description
1:1 6eing told by te boss !en doing !ell
1;1 9etting a performance rating
1=1 @ttending staff and team meetings
2>1 @greeing !it te organi+ation"s ob<ectives
211 #aving te opportunity for selfAdevelopment and improvement
221 #aving fair vacation arrangements
241 ?no!ing tat discipline !ill follo! poor performance
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Practical Supervisory Skills Module 4
241 Borking under close supervision and scrutiny
#aving a large amount of freedom and empo!erment
M*.LO1%. ,(E-*-/, O2 +EED.
.ne !ay of explaining uman beaviour is to look for te needs tat an individual seeks to
satisfy1 .ne suc approac !as developed by Maslo!- !o suggests tat tere are really
five levels of need tat influence an individual"s beaviourC
3hysiological needs 4 te need for food- drink and selter
.afety needs 4 protection against danger- treat- deprivation
.ocial needs 4 te need for belonging- acceptance- friendsip
Ego needs 4 self esteem- reputation- status
.elf-actualisation 4 te need for realising one"s o!n potential
&e needs form a ierarcy- according to Maslo!- because te lo!erAlevel needs ave to be
satisfied first1 .nly !en tese needs ave been satisfied !ill an individual seek to satisfy
te iger order needs1 &us- ungry- cold and omeless individuals !ill focus on getting
food- !armt and selter- !it no concern for teir iger order needsD but !en fed and
!arm- tey !ill seek to safety and ten te comfort of being !it oters1
A musician must make music, an artist must paint, a poet must write, if he is to be
ultimately happy. What a man can be, he must be. This need we may call self-
actualisation. It refers to the desire for self-fulfilment, namely the desire for him to
become actualised in what he is potentially the desire to become more and more what
one is, to become everythin of what one is capable of becomin.!
&ink of a member of your staff- any member1 &ry to consider is $or er' level of
performance1 Is it good- average- poorE
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What a "an can
be, he must be!
(nventing the
Practical Supervisory Skills Module 4
.nce you ave determined tis- try to design a programme of development- based on
motivational teory- !ic !ill contribute to an increase in te level of performance1
Maslow%s ,ierarchy of +eeds
Esteem or Personal gro!t
Ego +eeds 8eali+ation of potential
.ocial +eeds Status
.afety +eeds Fove
3hysiological Security
+eeds )reedom from treat
)reedom from pain
,E-67E-8%. #1O-2*/#O- #,EO- O2 MO#()*#(O+
#er$ber"s teory resulted from researc !it engineers and accountants and it ad- and still
does ave- an important influence on management practice and <ob design1
#er+berg and is associates asked teir respondents !at made tem feel bot particularly
good and particularly bad about teir <ob1 It transpired tat !at made tem feel good
concerned responsibility and accomplisments and a feeling of !ort in <ob competence1
&ese !ere called *satisfiers" or *motivators"1 Bat made te respondents feel bad about
teir <obs !ere surrounding or environmental factors- suc as inade7uate salary- poor
!orking conditions- insufficient <ob security- poor supervision- etc1 &ese !ere labelled as
*hygiene" factors or *dissatisfiers and relate to Maslo!"s lo!er order needs 0 tose !ic
must be satisfied first before going up a stage in te ierarcy1
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Practical Supervisory Skills Module 4
#er+berg suggests tat poor hyiene factors !ould make a person dissatisfied1
Improvements in tese !ould reduce dissatisfaction- but no amount of improvement !ould
result in positive motivation and a feeling of !ell being1 &is !ould only come from
accomplising a meaningful and callenging task1
2actors that Motivate
@ccording to te above teory- te ygiene factors provide extrinsic motivation $imposed
!it outside te individual' and te satisfiers provide te intrinsic motivation $comes from
!itin'1 Gsing te exercise on te previous page- tese can rougly be divided as follo!sC
Hygiene Factors Motivators
.ample 2actors
Company policy and administration @cievement
Supervision 8ecognition for accomplisment
Borking conditions Callenging !ork
Interpersonal relations Increased responsibility
Money- status- security Personal gro!t and development
Using the +umbers
E9trinsic (ntrinsic
1 14 2
4 15 5
4 15 1>
5 1; 14
: 1= 1:
; 2> 21
; 22 25
11 24
12 24
&e results of poor performance could be punisments rater tan re!ards1 In te diagram
above- te negative *punisments" is not ade7uately conveyed- so a more neutral term
HoutcomesI is used instead1 If te links in te diagram are strong- regardless of !eter te
outcome !ill be re!ard or punisment- !ill ave a po!erful motivating effectD if te links
are !eak or absent- te outcome !ill ave no po!er to motivate1 %ote also tat if an
outcome is to ave any effect on a person"s beaviour- te person must eiter want that
outcome $re!ard' or want to avoid it $punisment'1
#he lin& between effort: performance and outcome
Remember hen e
!oint the "one# finger e
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Effort Performance .utcomes
#he three distinct factors here are;
te link bet!een effort and
te link bet!een performance and
te types of outcome available
Practical Supervisory Skills Module 4
have three fingers !ointed at
E03E/#*+/ #,EO- O2 <O7 3E-2O-M*+/E
#e %&pectancy Theory empasises te importance of tis relationsip bet!een effort and
re!ardC to exert extra effort- a person must believe tat teir effort !ill increase te
probability of obtaining te re!ard1
Some re!ards come any!ay- regardless of te effort put in- and tese are not likely to be
effective as motivators. Some are linked directly to effort and tey can motivate people"s
efforts1 .ter re!ards are not guaranteed but tey can act as motivators as long as te
individual believes tat by exerting effort tey can increase te likeliood of obtaining te
re!ard- for example- reacing a production or sales target1 In practice- one rarely re!ards
effort unless te effort as resulted in a good performance- for example- increased output or
7uality1 So clearly it is performance tat is being re!arded- not effort1
&o summarise- if !e !ant to improve motivation at !ork and increase performance- !e
need to consider tree distinct factorsC
&e link bet!een effort and performance
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-ole /larity
.ills = ability
-ole /larity
.ills = ability
E22O-# 3E-2O-M*+/E

3erceived 2air
/omparison with
Desired outcomes
Practical Supervisory Skills Module 4
&e link bet!een performance and outcomes $re!ards and punisments'
&e types of outcome available1
#,E ,UM*+ 3E-2O-M*+/E E+)(-O+ME+#
1hy do >only some? teams succeed@
,OME E+)(-O+ME+#
1O-' E+)(-O+ME+#
A" #he 3erson hasC B" -egulations come from
skills internal policy
@ttitudes external regulations
aspirationsJexpectations te Fa!
fears and doubts
emotionsJfeelingsJ perceptions
C" #he 1or& Environment has: !" E9ternal 2eedbac& /omes 2rom:
resources management
pysical comfort levels customers
distractionsJtime !asters subordinates
a culture friendsJspouses
D" #he ,ome Environment ,as: E" (nternal 2eedbac& /omes 2rom:
demands perceptions
distractions selfAassuredness
comfortJappiness levels personal styleJmotivators
past experience
4" 8uidance /omes 2rom: F" 3erformance -esults 2rom:
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Practical Supervisory Skills Module 4
managersJsupervisors balancing and coAordinating
colleagues all te above factors
#,E 7L*ME /UL#U-E
E. E.
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Kou"ve made a mistake

Conceal it before anyone
else finds outL
6ury itL
3roblem *voided
9et in first !it your
version of events
Sit tigt and ope te
problem goes a!ay
Can you blame
someone else-
or a difficult
Could an
Practical Supervisory Skills Module 4
#,E LE*-+(+8 O-8*+(6*#(O+
,ow should organi5ations prepare to compete in a new industrial order@
Instead of building and competing primarily on capital- companies are no! competing on
&e ne! industrial order re7uires te continuous creation and use of ne! kno!ledge as a
!ay to sustainable competitive advantage and corporate survival1 'nowlede is power(
@s a result- learning and collaboration are replacing command and control as te main
responsibility of supervisors and managers1 &e ability to use information is replacing
seniority as a source of po!er1
1hat is a %earning &rgani'ation(
%ote particularly te relationsip bet!een te needs of te individual and te organi+ational
need to continuously transform itself $to adapt to te external and competitive environment'1
/reating a Learning Organi5ation
&e process of *learning" must be fully understood and organi+ations must approac tis
learning in a strateic manner1 &ey must ave te capacity to learnD oter!ise any
programme for improvement !ill not result in any real cange1 Cange tat !ill occur !ill
be cosmetic- sort term and not make any impact on te viability of te organi+ation1
&e concept of *strategic" !as introduced in te paragrap above and tis is te driving
force for any planning and performance measures- !ic te organi+ation introduces1 &is
concept !ill arise trougout te programme for Supervisors- but suffice it ere to
empasise tat strateic refer to measures and action !ic collectively contribute to te
acievement of te corporate ob<ectives1 &e *corporate ob<ectives"- in turn are determined
by te organi+ational vision 0 !ere te organi+ation is going to be at some preAdetermined
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H@ learning organi+ation is an
organi+ation !ic facilitates
te learning of all its members
and continuously transforms
Margaret ,ale- 1==5-22
HI"m finding
Practical Supervisory Skills Module 4
time in te future1 &erefore te !ole notion of a learnin orani$ation is focused on
being proAactive1
In a learnin orani$ation- ne! ideas are created spontaneously and often unexpectedly1
6ut tis is a process tat can be controlled and managed1 Model companies create systems
tat support and integrate te learning activities1
#ere are a fe! examples of successful companies and teir learning activitiesC
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Ran) *erox gives all employees training in teamA
!orking and problemAsolving1 Employees are given
tools toD
9enerate ideas and collect information $e1g1
8eac consensus $e1g1 !eigted voting'
@nalyse and display data $e1g1 data reduction
Plan actions $e1g1 flo! carts'
&ese are used in systematic problem identification-
solving- implementation and evaluation processes1
6oeing ad difficulties !it its :4: and :4:
plane programmes1 It set up an employee team
to develop a set of lessons learned1 It produced
a booklet !it undreds of useful
recommendations1 Some team members !ent
on to !ork on te :5: and :5: programmes
!ic produced te most successful- errorAfree
launces in te Company"s istory1
4M as ad a target tat 25M of its revenues must
come from products tat didn"t exist five years
It as <ust replaced it !it 4>M in four
.ne !ay it gets tere is by giving employees
15M *bootlein) time to !ork on teir o!n
Practical Supervisory Skills Module 4
,ow to 7ecome a Learning Organi5ation
(t can be seen from the e9amples above that a $earning organi'ation is one
#as a climate in !ic individual members are encouraged to learn and develop teir
full potential
Extends tis learning culture to include customers- suppliers and oter significant
Makes uman resource development strategy central to te business policy
Is in a continuous process of business transformation1
&ese are some of te conditions, which are associated !it te creation of a learnin
#as a proAactive learning strategy $fre7uently based on te appraisal system'
Participative policy making
Information tecnology is used to inform and empo!er people to ask 7uestions and take
decisions based on te available data
)ormative accounting $i1e1 control systems are structured to assist learning from
Internal excange $integration- bot ori+ontal and vertically'
8e!ard flexibility
)rontAline !orkers as environmental scanners
Existence of a learning culture
Self and continuous development for all1
In a learning organi+ation- learning is a core part of all strategies and operations1
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#er+berg derived a set of principles for <ob design from is
!ork- !ic !ere !idely applied in te 1=:>s in an attempt
at improving motivation- and ence performance1
8emove some controls !ile retaining accountability
Increase accountability of individual"s o!n !ork
9ive a person a complete natural unit of !ork
9rant additional autority to an employee in is activity
Make periodic reports directly available to te !orker
imself rater tan to te supervisor
Introduce ne! and more difficult tasks not previously
@ssign individuals specific or specialised tasks-
Practical Supervisory Skills Module 4
/reating a Learning Organi5ation
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ou%ve made a
ou%ve made a
#a&e ownership of
the problem and
assess the possible
#a&e ownership of
the problem and
assess the possible
#a&e corrective
action and
inform those
#a&e corrective
action and
inform those
*re they
y serious@
*re they
y serious@
#ell someone senior
#ell someone senior
(s there a
flaw in a
process or
(s there a
flaw in a
process or
(nvestigate why the
mista&e occurred
(nvestigate why the
mista&e occurred
/o-operate fully
to correct error
and review
/o-operate fully
to correct error
and review
.hare your
discovery and
.hare your
discovery and
#ry to learn
from your
#ry to learn
from your
3roblem .olved
Practical Supervisory Skills Module 4
/O*/,(+8 and O<#
/oaching and Mentoring
#o! can you pass on to someone else your greater skill and experienceE
Bat you can do is coac temC give insigts into tecni7ues or !ays of !orking and
generally elp tem to understand and develop teir abilities and to learn from teir
Ben coacing people- you need to consider teir successes as !ell as teir failures and do
not imagine tat you sould stop during crises 0 tey may be ric !it learning
1hat is coachingE
Coacing is a !ay of transferring kno!ledge and skills from an experienced person to a less
experienced person1 @t all times te follo!ing principles apply1
&e *coach) and te person being coaced spend time togeter tat is protected and
interrupted1 &e first task is to define te problem or !atever it is tat needs to be
@fter te person being coaced as explained te situation for !ic tey need advice-
te coac sould ask 7uestions for clarification and reinforcement1 Probe to see if te
individual as tougt about x and considered y1 &ry to develop broader tinking by
gentle nudging1
%e! ideas sould be offered at te same time as encouraging te individual to seek teir
o!n solutions1 Coaces sould resist saying HI would do NI unless specifically asked
for1 Continue to redefine te problem if necessary1
8eac te point !ere a decision is made1 )eel sure tat te individual being coaced
as all te information needed1
Conclude te discussion- agree and summarise any action1 If necessary- !eig up te
benefits of a rater better result from te !ork against te benefit for te individual
pursuing teir o!n course of action1
Think of an occasion recently when you tried to coach someone. #ow did you o about it+
#ow successful do you think you were+ What else miht you have done+
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Practical Supervisory Skills Module 4
#o summarise the <ob /oaching 3rinciples:
1hat is coaching@
Encouraging a learning environment
@voiding te *blame culture)
)acilitating and enabling improved <ob performance troug learning
#elping staff to overcome <ob problems or problems of competency or skill

1hat should you avoid@
Imposing and coercing
*Tellin) instead of *sellin)
6eing prescriptive
&reats of sanctions
Coacing can often be used in con<unction !it te appraisal system"
,evelop a /ob Coacing @ction Plan for your o!n subordinates and decide te best metod
of implementation1
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1hat does coaching involve@
8einforcing learning points
Support and constructive guidance
Positive encouragement and motivation
Structured advice on problem solving and
decision making skills
Practical Supervisory Skills Module 4
@ similar activity to coacing is *mentorin)- altoug one of te fundamental differences is
tat te mentor sould not be te individual"s line manager1 Mentors are usually
considerably more experienced tan te individuals !om tey are mentoring1 &ey
provide support- encouragement and opportunities for development and act as a sounding
board for ideas1 In recent years- mentors ave become popular !it some large
organi+ations- bot private and public- !ic ave created" mentoring programmes"1
Mentoring is often applied to ne! staff or staff ne! to a specific function1
)or bot coacing and mentoring to be effective- it makes sense tat people need to be able
to relate to one anoter !ell and to communicate accurately and sensitively1 &is demands a
degree of interpersonal competence and an untreatening- but callenging- environment1
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H&is is your mentor1 Please don"t
esitate to contact im if you ave
any 7ueries at allI1