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1-A list of questions which is handed over to the respondent, who reads the questions and

records the answers himself is known as the:

A. Interview schedule
B. Questionnaire
C Interview guide
D. All of the given options
2-The theoretical framework discusses the interrelationships among the.
A. Variables
B. Hypothesis
C. Concept
D. Theory
3-Hypothesis test may also be called as:
A. Informal test
B. Significance test
C. Moderating test
D. T-test

4. Research method is applicable in all of the following fields, EXCEPT;
A. Health care
B. Religion
C. Business
D. Government offices
5- Hypothesis refers to
A. The outcome of an experiment
B. A conclusion drawn from an experiment
C. A form of bias in which the subject tries to outguess the experimenter
D. A tentative statement about the relationship
6- A literature review requires
A. Planning
B. Good & clear writing
C. Lot of rewriting
D. All of the above
7- Preliminary data collection is a part of the
A. Descriptive research
B. Exploratory research
C. Applied research
D. Explanatory research
8- The literature survey provides a solid foundation for developing the theoretical framework.
A. True
B. False
9- A literature review does not consider the prior studies, their agreements or disagreements in
the field.
A. True
B. False
10- A researcher is interested in studying why the new math of the 1960s failed. She
interviews several teachers who used the new math during the 1960s. These teachers are
considered as:
C. A. Primary sources
D. B. Secondary Sources
E. C. External critics
F. D. Internal critics

1. What is meant by significant test?
Testing of hypothesis is called significant test.
2. Differentiate between contrived and non-contrived setting.
Noncontrived setting -- Natural environment where events normally occur, Field study
(minimal interference), Field experiment (manipulation of variables)
Contrived setting -- Artificial environment, Lab experiment (manipulation of variable
with high degree of control)
3. Differentiate between basic and applied reserach.
To solve a current problem faced by the manager in the work setting. Such research is
called applied research.To generate a body of knowledge about how to solve problems
that could be occurred in organizations. This is called basic research or fundamental
research. It is also known as basic research.
4. What is meant by replicability?
The results of the tests of hypotheses should be supported again and yet again when the
same type of research is repeated in other similar circumstances.
5. Differentiate between hypothesis and proposition.
First time research use propositions and if already litrature is present then we make
Q3:- Write Answers of the following questions. (5x2)
1. Explain the hallmarks of scientific research.
Purposiveness -- It has to start with a definite aim or purpose, The focus is on increasing
employees commitment, Increase employee commitment will translate into more
turnover, less absenteeism and increased performance levels, Thus it has a purposive
Rigor -- A good theoretical base and sound methodological design would add rigor to the
purposive study. Rigor adds carefulness, scrupulousness and the degree of exactitude in
Testability scientific research lends itself to testing logically developed hypothesis and
tested by applying certain statistical tests to the data collected for the purpose
Replicability the results of the tests of hypotheses should be supported again and yet
again when the same type of research is repeated in other similar circumstances.
Precision and confidence Precision refers to the closeness of the findings to reality
based on a sample and confidence means the probability that our estimations are correct.
Objectivity The conclusions drawn through the interpretation of the results of data
analysis should be objective; that is, they should be based on the facts of the findings
derived from actual data, and not on our subjective or emotional values.
Generalizability refers to the scope of applicability of the research findings in one
organization setting to other settings. Obviously, the wider the range of applicability of
the solutions generated by research, the more useful the research is to the users
Parsimony -- Simplicity in explaining the phenomena or problems that occur, and in
generating solutions for the problems, is always preferred to complex research
frameworks that consider an unmanageable number of factors.
2. Expalin the components of a research paper.
Title -- Statement about paper, Minimum 8 words (Main variables and relationship)
Authors Name + Affiliations -- Affiliations, designation, contact, address
Abstract -- Summary about research paper, States (Purpose, Methodology and
Analysis (results))
Introduction -- Use to catch the attention of reader, Create scenario, State background of
problem, importance, how this will benefit to us
Literature Review -- Review of selected variables, Publish or unpublished material, First
define variable, theory behind it, Develop hypothesis e.g. H1, H2, First time research P1,
Theoretical Framework -- Conceptual Framework,,Model, Based on some theory
Methodology -- Method through which we get results
How variables are measure
Constructs (Indicators, latent variables, facets)
Give name, year, items (questions), scale, example (first question), reverse
coded questions, reliability (Cronbach alpha value)
Data Collection
Population, targeted population, sample size, where to collect sample, sampling
technique, percentage of population
Analysis -- Use technique relating our purpose, Interpretation (What communicate)
Conclusion -- Weather hypothesis are accepted or rejected
Discussion -- What is hypothesis (Name, Year), Our analysis accept or reject, Our
findings are same as previous
Limitations -- Specific area, specific instrument, If limitations are changed, then results
may vary
References -- Name, Year, title, journal, volume, issue, page no.
Appendix Questionnaire, Figures, Extra details

6. What is meant by replicability?
The results of the tests of hypotheses should be supported again and yet again when the
same type of research is repeated in other similar circumstances.
7. Differentiate between hypothesis and proposition.
First time research use propositions and if already litrature is present then we make
8. Differentiate between directional and non-directional hypothesis.
If, in stating the relationship between two variables or comparing two groups, terms such
as positive, negative, more than, less than, and the like are used, then these hypotheses
are directional because the direction of the relationship between the variables is
Non-directional hypotheses are formulated either because the relationships or differences
have never been previously explored and hence there is no basis for indicating the
direction, or because there have been conflicting findings in previous research studies on
the variable.
9. What is meant by significant test?
Testing of hypothesis is called significant test.
10. Differentiate between cross sectional and longitudinal research.
Cross-Sectional Study -- Data are gathered just once, perhaps over a period of days or
weeks or months, in order to answer a research question
Longitudinal Study -- The researcher undertakes a study at several points in time in order
to answer a research question
Q3:- Write Answers of the following questions. (5x2)
3. Explain the hypothetic-deductive method of scientific research.
The seven-step process in the Hypothetico-Deductive Method
1. Observation -- Observation is the first stage, in which one senses that certain changes are
occurring or that some new behaviors, attitudes, and feelings are surfacing in ones
environment (i.e., the work place).
2. Preliminary Information gathering -- It involves the seeking of information in depth, of
what is observed. This could be done by talking informally to several people in the work
setting or to clients or to other relevant sources, thereby gathering information on what is
happening and why. (Unstructured interviews)
3. Theory Formulation -- Theory information, the next step is an attempt to integrate all the
information in a logical manners, so that the factors responsible for the problem can be
conceptualized and tested.
4. Hypothesizing -- It is the next logical step after theory formulation. From the theorized
network of associations among the variables, certain testable hypotheses or educated
conjectures can be generated. For instance, one might hypothesize that if a sufficient
number of items are stocked on shelves, customer dissatisfaction will be considerably
reduced. This is a hypothesis that can be tested to determine if the statement would be
5. Further scientific data collection -- After the development of the hypotheses, data with
respect to each variable in the hypotheses need to be obtained. In other words, further
scientific data collection is needed to test the hypotheses that are generated in the study.
6. Data analysis -- In this step, data gathered are statistically analyzed to see if the
hypotheses that were generated have been supported. For instance, to see if stock levels
influence customer satisfaction, one might want to do a correlational analysis and
determine the relation ship between the two factors.
7. Deduction -- Deduction is the process of arriving at conclusions by interpreting the
meaning of the results of the data analysis.

4. What is meant by variable? And define the types of variables.
A variable is anything that can take on differing or varying values. The values can differ at
various times for the same object or person, or at the same time for different objects or
Type of variables:
The dependent variable (also known as the criterion variable) -- The dependent
variable is the variable of primary interest to the researcher. The researchers goal
is to understand and describe the dependent variable, or to explain its variability,
or predict it. It is the main variable that lends itself for investigation as a viable
factor. Through the analysis of the dependent variable, it is possible to find
answers or solutions to the problem.
The independent variable (also known as the predictor variable) -- Is one that
influences the dependent variable in either a positive or negative way. That is,
when the independent variable is present, the dependent variable is also present,
and with each unit of increase in the independent variable, there is an increase or
decrease in the dependent variable also. (the variance in the dependent variable is
accounted for by the independent variable.
The moderating variables -- The moderating variable is one that has a strong
contingent effect on the independent-dependent variable relationship. That is, the
presence of a third variable (the moderating variable) modifies the original
relationship between the independent and the dependent variables.
The intervening variables -- The intervening variables is one that surfaces between the time the
independent variables start operating to influence the dependent variable and the time their