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Physical fitness

Physical fitness is a general state of health and well-being or specifically the ability to perform
aspects of sports or occupations. Physical fitness is generally achieved through correct nutrition,
exercise, hygiene and rest.

The importance of physical fitness cannot be emphasized enough. In todays society that is
moving towards a more sedentary lifestyle, there is a greater need than ever to increase the daily
activity level to maintain both cardiovascular fitness and body weight.

A person who is fit is capable of living life to its fullest extent. Physical and mental fitness play
very important roles in your lives and people who are both, physically and mentally fit are less
prone to medical conditions as well.

Fitness does not only refer to being physically fit, but also refers to a persons mental state as
well. If a person is physically fit, but mentally unwell or troubled, he or she will not be able to
function optimally. Mental fitness can only be achieved if your body is functioning well. You
can help relax your own mind and eliminate stresses by exercising regularly and eating right.

Throughout the physical training industry there are many myths, misconceptions, theories and
principles on different styles of fitness training. This particular article will concentrate more so on the
6 major principles that govern physical fitness.
First of all lets define physical fitness and physical activity. This is where individuals can carry out the
demands and rigors of daily life effectively without being over fatigued, but still able to have enough
energy stores leftover for sporting and recreational activities.
Physical fitness falls into two separate categories being structured and unstructured. Structured
meaning that you concentrate on a planned program of physical activity usually to raise your fitness
Unstructured is a range of everyday activities that are done subconsciously and most of the time you
are unaware that it is actually related to physical training.Things such as walking, climbing stairs,
gardening, even when standing up to change the channels on your T.V. you are effectively
performing a squat and using the power of your legs to stand and sit.
The name says it all. In order to improve fitness whether it be cardiovascular or muscular the body
needs to be stressed above what it normally encounters in order to gain improvement. This increase
must be both systematic (to a planned program) and progressive to ensure performance gains
without injuries. A majority of people when training tend to stay within their comfort zone, therefore
the gains that they are making are minimal.
In order for your body to progress to greater levels of fitness you must shock the system and place a
higher demand on it more so than what it is used to. This can be done by increasing the intensity, for
example increasing the weight being lifted, the speed of which the exercise is being carried out,
increasing your heart rate, the time spent on the exercise, increasing the distance and finally
increasing the frequency at which you do it.
Recovery is just as important as the hard work that you put into your training regime. There are
several methods that may help enhance your recovery phase, these being massage, hydro- therapy,
yoga, and reflexology all of which can help your body make the necessary repairs prior to moving
onto the next training session. Just remember no recovery, no improvement.
The principle of progression in exercise emphasises that a person should start slowly and increase
exercise gradually. This will help avoid muscle soreness and minimise injuries. Progression in a
training/fitness program should contain gradual increases in the number of repetitions, and the
amount of time doing the exercise. The significance of progression is for exercise to be done
gradually and to reduce the risk of overuse injuries, frustration and even burnout. When structuring
an exercise program ensure the following acronym is used to ensure progression.
F - Frequency
I - Intensity
T - Time
T - Type of exercise
No two people are alike. Whether it be gender difference, race difference, or genetical difference
when it comes to Physical Training we all have different requirements that need to be considered.
Endomorphs (larger people) may not recover as quickly or have the same aerobic capacity as a
ectomorph (Thinner smaller build) and these individual differences need to be taken into account
when evaluating a training program.
Specificity is a principle in which specific kinds of exercise need to be used to develop specific parts
of the body and specific elements of fitness. If you are an athlete and you play a sport then you will
realise that you need to allocate training sessions to train for the specific sport that you play.
For example it would be inaffective for a golf player to revolve his training around sprints. Where he
could be using that valuable training time to concentrate on light resistance training (weights) and
technique training. Ensure your training sessions are of benefit to your particular sporting needs.
You know the saying, "Variety is the spice of life" well it also applies in fitness training. Some may
say that this contradicts the fifth principle, specificity however it doesn't. By adding variety to your
training regime you ensure that you don't plateau or stagnate due to a lack of interest. Even by
changing running routes, venues where you train and a change in the exercise or activities that you
perform on a regular basis will ensure that monotony doesn't set in.
In conclusion, these are only six of the basic principles of physical fitness, and many others can be
found in other texts all of which will result in improving your fitness and lifestyle in general.
It is not the mountain we must conquer, but ourselves
11 Components of Physical Fitness Definitions and Examples:
1. Agility The ability to stop, start, and change directions quickly. Agility is a skill-
related component of physical fitness. (example: a football player cutting across
the field, a gymnast doing a floor routine, or a soccor player dribbling the ball
around defenders) View the video at bottom of page to see examples of
agility in action.
2. Balance Controlling body positions while standing still or moving. Balance is a
skill-related component of physical fitness. (example: a gymnast on a balance
beam, a surfer on a surfboard riding a wave, or a one leg deadlift pictured above)
3. Body Composition The ratio of muscle to fat in the body. Having a high
percentage of body fat compared to lean muscle has shown to increase risk
of heart disease, certain cancers, strokes, and diabetes. Body Composition can
be measured by skinfold calipers, bioelectric impedence, and hydrostatic
weighing. Body composition is a health-related component of physical fitness.
4. Cardiovascular Endurance Engaging in physical activity for long periods of
time. (example: a cross-country runner, running a marthon, or jumping
rope) Cardiovascular endurance can be measured by a stress test on a treadmill
or stationary bike. Cardiovascular endurance is a health-related component of
physical fitness.
5. Coordination Making movements work together smoothly. This usually
consists of upper and lower body movements being performed at the same
time. Coordination is a skill-related component of physical fitness. (example:
performing a squat on a BOSU while doing a shoulder press, or a baseball
pitcher throwing a pitch, or jumping rope) View the video at bottom of this
page to see examples of coordination in action.
6. Flexibility Moving specific joints or a group of joints through a wide range of
motion (ROM). Flexibility is a health-related component of physical fitness that
plays a very important role in the functioning of all individuals especially
athletes. (example: a gymnast doing a leg split, someone doing yoga, or bending
over to touch your toes) Flexibility can be measured by a sit-and-reach test.
There are three techniques that can be used to increase ones flexibility: ballistic
stretching, static stretching, and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation
(PNF). Ballistic stretching is a short-duration, high-force stretch that uses
bouncing movements to stretch muscles. Ballistic stretching is a high-risk injury
type of stretching and is not recommended to the general public. Bring It Home
Personal Training does not teach this stretching technique. Static stretching is
the most common type of stretching that uses slow and steady movements that
takes a muscle to a point of slight tension and then force is slowly applied to
produce a greater stretch. PNF stretching is more advanced and requires force
applied against the stretching muscle while incorporating an isometric contraction
of either the muscle being stretched or its opposite. This advanced type of
stretching should be done with a professional trainer.
7. Muscular Endurance Using muscles repetitively without fatiguing (example:
long-distance cycling, using a rowing machine, or doing push-ups until fatigue
has been reached) Muscular Endurance can be measured by a 60 second push-
up test. Muscular endurance is a health-related component of physical fitness.
8. Muscular Strength Produces force using muscles. Strength is a health-related
component of physical fitness. (example: performing a bench press, pull-ups,
biceps curls, or lunge pictured below)Muscular Strength can be measured by
performing a 1 rep max test on the bench press.

Walking Lunge to improve strength and coordination
9. Power The ability to use muscle strength quickly. Power is a skill-related
component of physical fitness.(example: plyometric training, jumping exercises,
or in track and field: the running long jump or high jump)How can power be
improved or increased? Power can be increased by three general ways:
increase the force-producing capabilities of muscles; decrease the time it takes
to move across a distance due to faster speed; and increase the distance a force
acts on ones body. Total body strength training, increased flexibility through
stretching, sport specific training and improved technique, sharp mental focus,
and increased reaction time are many ways to improve overall power. View the
video at the bottom of this page to see examples of power in action.
10. Reaction Time How quickly an individual responds to a stimulus. Reaction
time is a skill-related component of physical fitness. (example: playing
tennis/table tennis; a baseball player swinging at a pitch; or a soccer goalie
saving a ball kicked at the goal) View the video at the bottom of this page to
see examples of reaction time in action.
11. Speed Performing a movement or covering a distance in a short period of time.
Speed is a skill-related component of physical fitness. (example: sprinting 50
meters, swimming 50 meters, speed skating) Speed can be measured by timing
a 40 yard dash. View the video at the bottom of this page to see examples of
speed in action.


Health Related components: Those factors that are related to how well the systems of your body

Cardiovascular Fitness: The ability of the circulatory system (heart and blood vessels) to supply
oxygen to working muscles during exercise.
Body Composition: The relative percentage of body fat compared to lean body mass (muscle,
bone, water,etc)
Flexibility: The range of movement possible at various joints.
Muscular strength: The amount of force that can be produced by a single contraction of a muscle
Muscular endurance: The ability of a muscle group to continue muscle movement over a length
of time.

Skill Related Components: Those aspects of fitness which form the basis for successful sportor
activity participation.

Speed: The ability to move quickly from one point to another in a straight line
Agility: The ability of the body to change direction quickly
Balance: The ability to maintain an upright posture while still or moving
Coordination: Integration with hand and/or foot movements with the input of the senses.
Reaction Time: Amount of time it takes to get moving.
Power: The ability to do strength work at an explosive pace.

Physical wellness involves aspects of life that are necessary to keep yourself in top condition. Optimal physical
wellness is developed through the combination of beneficial physical activity/exercise and healthy eating habits.
Elemental components of physical wellness include building muscular strength and endurance, cardiovascular
strength and endurance and flexibility.
Physical wellness is also concerned with developing personal responsibility for your own health care, such as caring
for minor illnesses and knowing when professional medical attention is needed. Developing physical wellness
empowers you to be able to monitor your own vital signs and understand your body's warning signs. You'll
understand and appreciate the relationship between sound nutrition and how your body performs. The physical
benefits of looking good and feeling terrific most often lead to the psychological benefits of enhanced self-esteem,
self-control, determination and a sense of direction.

Physical wellness is generally referred to as more than the physiological absence of disease. The
concept ofwellness encompases an individual's ability to maintain homeostasis in the context of his
or her environment. This includes but is not limited to adapatbility, social relationships and
interactions, response and reaction to physical or emotional crises, and adaptation, when necessary,
to maintain or return to a state of physical equilibrium. Hope this is a helpful answer!


Health Insurance
SelectCare and SelectMed are managed care plans that focus on coordinating
healthcare through a network of participating physicians, hospitals, and urgent care
facilities. Both plans provide catastrophic coverage, preventive care, pharmacy, mental
health, and adoption benefits. When you use participating providers and facilities, you'll
receive a higher level of coverage.
Dental Insurance
SelectHealth dental insurance offers 100% coverage for preventive services (dental
exams, fluoride treatments, x-ray's, and cleanings) and provide partial benefits for
restorative work. One plan option also pays a portion of orthodontia for subscribers
through age 19.
Vision Insurance
Vision Insurance through EyeMed is available to help reduce the cost of eyeglasses,
contact lenses, and other vision services. A physician eye exam is not a covered
benefit in the vision insurance plan since one annual preventive eye exam is a covered
benefit through our health insurance plan.
Health Care Flexible Spending Account (FSA)
Save on taxes by using this before-tax account to pay for up to $2,500 in eligible
healthcare expenses.
Intermountain Employee Assistance Program (EAP)
EAP offers professional counseling services to all Intermountain employees and their
immediate family members. EAP staffed by licensed healthcare professionals who offer
confidential counseling, elder care services, crisis intervention, and training and
education to address a variety of issues at no cost to employees.

Activities List

The Physical Fitness Test* includes five activities that measure muscular strength/endurance,
cardio-respiratory endurance, speed, agility, and flexibility:

Curl-ups (or partial curl-ups)
Shuttle run
Endurance run/walk
Pull-ups (or right angle push-ups or flexed-arm hang)
V-sit reach (or sit and reach)
We recommend testing your students at least twice a year, in the fall and spring, so they can see
how theyve progressed through the year.

Before getting started, educators should make sure each student is healthy enough to participate.
In fact, we recommend that teachers review each students medical status to identify medical,
orthopedic, or other health issues that should be considered.

Students should be taught the correct techniques for all activities, including proper pacing and
running style. There is no limit to the number of tries students may have on each activity.