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FHSC1014

Mechanics

FOUNDATION IN
SCIENCE




PRACTICAL: Practical 3
TITLE: To investigate the trajectory of a small
ball as it rolls off a surface which is
inclined to the horizontal
DATE: 25/6/2014
NAME: Yeoh Boon Khai
ID: 1403449
GROUP: P8
LECTURERS NAME: Mr Zoheir




Title:

Objective: To investigate the trajectory of a two dimensional motion.
Apparatus and
Materials:
1. Ramp
2. Wooden block
3. Pendulum bob
4. Plumb line
5. Steel ball
6. Wooden board
7. Carbon paper
8. Meter rule
9. Plasticine













Figure 4-1


Setup:
2. A ramp has been set up at the edge of a bench as shown in the Figure 4-1.
3. Suspend a plum-line from the edge of the bench as shown in Figure 4-2.
4. Mount a wooden board horizontally using two clamps so that the board is
situated about the bottom of the ramp.
5. Place a sheet of blank paper on top of the board.
6. Place a piece of carbon paper on the top of the blank paper. The ink-
side of the carbon paper should be facing down.
7. When a ball is released at the top of the ramp, the ball will travel
through a trajectory as shown in Figure 4-2.






















Figure 4-2

Theory:

Let:


g = 9.8 ms
-2

u = speed of the ball as it leaves the ramp
k = constant
y = vertical distance (between the bottom of the ramp and the top of the
board)
x = horizontal distance (between the plum-line and mark on the paper)

The equation which relates x and y is



Procedure:
1. The ball i s positioned at the top of the ramp. The ball is released so that
it rolls down the ramp and onto the board below.
2. The carbon paper removed and observes that the ball makes a small mark
on the blank paper.
3. The vertical distance y and the horizontal distance x is measure and record.
4. The value of y is reduce and repeat the steps above to obtain eight (5) sets
of values of x and y.
5. y, x, and y/x

is tabulated.

6. A graph of y/x against x is plotted.
7. The gradient and y- intercept of the graph is determine.
8. The answer is used from [7] to determine values of k and u.

Observation
Data from experiment
X(cm) Y(cm) y/x
22.20.1 30.00.1 1.35
25.50.1 40.00.1 1.57
29.50.1 50.00.1 1.69
32.00.1 60.00.1 1.88
34.50.1 70.00.1 2.04

Graph y/x against x
Y/X = 0.0537x + 0.1615
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
0 10 20 30 40
Y/X
X(cm)
Y/X against X

Calculation:

k= y-intercept
= 0.1615

=0.0537



(

=2u
2


(

=2u
2



2u
2
=187




u=9.67ms
-1






















Discussion
[According to Ideal projectile motion states that there is no air resistance and no change
in gravitational acceleration. This assumption simplifies the mathematics greatly, and is
a close approximation of actual projectile motion in cases where the distances travelled
are small.]
1
. [The positive x-direction is horizontal and to the right, and the y-direction is
vertical and positive upward. The most important experimental fact about projectile
motion in two dimensions is that the horizontal and vertical motions are completely
independent of each other. This means that motion in one direction has no effect on
motion in the other direction.]
2


[ A projectile is any object that has been thrown, shot, or launched, and ballistics is the
study of projectile motion. Examples of projectiles range from a golf ball in flight, to a
curve ball thrown by a baseball pitcher to a rocket fired into space. The flight paths of all
projectiles are affected by two factors: gravity and, on Earth at least, air resistance]
3


Base on this experiment ,we assume that the gravitation force is a positive value which
is pointing downward. Beside, according to the collected data and the plotted graph it is
obviously that the longer the Y (cm) the longer the X (cm) which the Y/X is linearly
proportional to the X (cm). However, this experiment has some mistake due to human
factor. For example, the ball may not place at the same spot each time during the
experiment. During experiment, some precaution we should take to gain the actual
result. For example we must make sure that the position of stand with wooden board is
only change in the height of it but never moved the angel between the table and the
wooden block. During experiment, we make sure the position let the ball rolling down is
always same.

Reference
1) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Range_of_a_projectile#Ideal_projectile_motion
2) Serway, R.A. & Vuille, C. (2012).College physics.(9th ed.). Belmont, CA:
Cengage Learning Brooks/Cole.
3) http://www.scienceclarified.com/everyday/Real-Life-Chemistry-Vol-3-Physics-Vol-
1/Projectile-Motion.html#ixzz368O9fm5p




Conclusion
When change the input variable, the height the ball is from the ground, the distance the
ball rolls will be proportional to that change. As increase the height of the ball from the
ground, the distance it rolls will increase.