You are on page 1of 8

1

st
International Conference on Rehabilitation
and Maintenance in Civil Engineering (ICRMCE)
Solo, 21-22 March 2009
ISBN No

.
1
THE RECONSTRUCTION OF MODELLING REINFORCEMENT
FOR PREVENT THE EARLY FAILURE OF DEEP BEAM
REINFORCED CONCRETE
Erwin Rommel
1*
Civil Engineering Departement, Engineering Faculty, Muhammadiyah Malang University
1*
Raya Tlogomas 246 Malang 65114 Phone (0341) 464318 Fax (0341)468502
email : erwin67pro@yahoo.com
Abstract
The used of inclined stirrup and transverse reinforcement still can t increase the strength of deep beam
significantly, crack propagation still concentrated of mid-span and the deep beam is have a more
possibility of flexure failure. Longitudinal shear reinforcement can be used as reinforcement to optimize
the strength increasing, so that can prevent the failure of deep beam reinforced concrete. The trial are given
of sixteen concrete beam (13x40x100) cm that have many variation of longitudinal shear reinforcement
from 2 6 mm ( = 0,136%), 4 6 mm ( = 0,272%) and 6 6 mm ( = 0,408%) with each have 4 (four)
beam and being tested in shear span ratio, respectively 0,6 ; 0,8 ; 1,0 ; and 1,2. The result of this
researches explain that using longitudinal shear reinforcement can increase the first crack-load until 87,5%
and ultimate-load until 83,2% and also shear stiffness can increase up to 175%. The crack of beam is
happen more distribute and the increasing of crack propagation can be reduce. Failure pattern of beam is
the shear failure that have a ductility in beam that given some load with ratio a/d less than 1.0.
Keyword :
deep beam, longitudinal shear reinforcement
1. INTRODUCTION
The behavior of deep beam is very
different to conventional beam, where the
collapse occurred due to more dominant
shear strength so that shear reinforcement
design into the internal reinforcing as
important. Shear reinforcement not only can
increase the shear capacity of beam, but also
change the beam of ductility where shear
reinforcement to reduce the risk of occurred
brittle failure. In addition to stirrup shear
receive,so this research study varied use
shear reinforcement longitudinal that is
expected to be contributed to received of
shear capacity deep beam.
Research of shear compression
failure has been done on the deep beam
with ratio a/d between 1.0 to 2.5 with one
point-loading and two point-loading.
Explained that strength of concrete, the ratio
flexurel reinforcement, shear reinforcement
in the ratio a/d 1.0 to 2.5 will affect the shear
compressive failure of deep beam (Zararis,
2003).
Design of deep beams with CIRIA use
normal and hight strength concrete has been
revision made to estimate occurred shear
ultimit. Given the parameters vary in the
investigation, among other things, the ratio
a/d between 0.27 to 2.7; the number of
flexurel reinforcement (1.23 to 5.80%), the
number of shear reinforcement and quality
of concrete used between 25 to 100 MPa
(Leong and Tan, 2003).
Approximate of the region and
dimensions of shear compressive failure can
be carried out on the deep beam with AE
method, which measures the amount of
energy from local sensors provided on
concrete surface. Evaluation of regional
failure can be known from the compressive
uniaxial testing in the beam based on the
maximum amplitudo measured from the
stresses maximum. The length of the region
beam failure the test results appeared more
than 30% of the results of sensor
measurements made from various shapes
and size of the test specimen (Watanabe,
2002).
The effect of the concentration load
with a different shear reinforcement on deep
beams with high strength concrete (f'c> 55
1
st
International Conference on Rehabilitation
and Maintenance in Civil Engineering (ICRMCE)
Solo, 21-22 March 2009
ISBN No
.
2
MPa) have also been examined, where the
test is done entirely with top edge of the
beam, bottom edge of the beam and the
combination of top edge and bottom edge,
with a ratio P
top
/P
bottom
1:1 and 2:1,
respectively. While variations shear
reinforcement that tested, among other deep
beam with the inclined flexurel
reinforcement, vertical shear reinforcement,
combination of horizontal and vertical shear
reinforcement. This research also explains
field of beam deflection, wide crack, form
patterns, failure model, the diagonal crack
load, strength and service ultimit (Tan and
Wei, 1999).
The use of variations of inclined
stirrup have been observed, where the stirrup
with slope of the 45
0
with a layer transverse
reinforcement will provide for increased
stiffness of beam 26%, but the crack beam
has not spread on the shear region, the
concentration of crack occur only the mid-
span toward the top side of beam
(Hermawan and Erwin, 2006). Failure
beams also often occur in the supported of
beam areas, where the distribution of the
shear is large enough before beam collapsed
suddenly (Fardho and Erwin, 2006). This
research aims to find out the influence of
shear longitudinal reinforcement against the
capacity of deep beam reinforced concrete
and other behavior reinforcement.
2. RESEARCH METHOD
Beam test of 12 (twelve) sized
(130x400x1000) mm with a full scale test.
The variables are taken 4 (four) beams
without using shear longitudinal
reinforcement, and then every 4 (four)
beams using, respectively ; 1 layer 6mm,
2 layers of 6mm and 3 layers of
6mm, shear longitudinal reinforcement. All
beams tested with of setting two-points
loading, with the ratio a/d respectively; 0.6;
0.8 ; 1.0 and 1.2. The concrete used 25
MPa. Testing equipment used, among other
things, loading capacity of 30 tons of the
frame, hydraulic jack capacity of 50 tons,
Load ceel capacity of 30 tons, with a load
indicator with a reading accuracy up to 1 kg,
the dial gauge accuracy 0,001 mm. Tests
beam is done with use a loading frame, as
shown in the picture 3.4. The reading test is
done at the expense of data provided every
increase of 250 kg, while load of the initial
cracked beams, load of diagonal crack
occurred, load of the condition ultimit
reached, and displacemen on the point load
(top edge and bottom edge beams). In
addition strain also observed that occur
through the strain gauge was installed in the
flexure reinforcement, stirrup and shear
longitudinal reinforcement, as shown in the
figure-2
Figure 1: Setting of test beam with two-point
loading
Figure-.2: Reinforcement of the test beam
2 10 mm

Dial gauge
Load Cell

Hidraulic Jack

Specimen

Beam-support

Actuator Frame
L

a

Loading Frame

Load Indicator

Hidraulic Pump

100 cm

13 cm

40
cm

2 10 mm
4 10 mm
6-100 mm

100 cm

13 cm
40
cm

2 10 mm

4 6 mm

6-100 mm
100 cm
40
cm

6-100 mm

13 cm

4 10 mm

2 6 mm

100 cm

13 cm

40
cm

2 10 mm

6 6 mm

6-100 mm

BT-TGL0

BT-TGL2

BT-TGL1

BT-TGL3

Strain gauges
1
st
International Conference on Rehabilitation
and Maintenance in Civil Engineering (ICRMCE)
Solo, 21-22 March 2009
ISBN No

.
3
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
BT TGL-0 BT TGL-1 BT TGL-2 BT TGL-3
Type Bal ok
B
e
b
a
n

r
e
t
a
k

a
w
a
l

(
k
g
)

a/d=0,6
a/d=0,8
a/d=1
a/d=1,2
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
BT TGL-0 BT TGL-1 BT TGL-2 BT TGL-3
Type balok
B
e
b
a
n

u
l
t
i
m
i
t

(
k
g
)
a/d=0,6
a/d=0,8
a/d=1
a/d=1,2
3. DISCUSSION
3.1 Shear Capacity
Figure 3 explains that with the
addition of shear longitudinal reinforcement,
increase the value of the load capacity that
can beam received deep beam for both first-
crack and ultimit load. The largest increase
occurred in the deep beams are given 3
(three) layer shear longitudinal
reinforcement (beam BT-TGL3) compared
with the deep beams without shear
longitudinal. Increase load of the initial
cracked beams, for the ratio a/d, respectively
of 65.4% (ratio a/d = 0.6); 23.8% (ratio a/d =
0.8); 87.5% (ratio a/d =1.0) and 86.9% (ratio
a/d=1.2). Similarly to load shear ultimit have
the same trend with increasing load ultimit
by 45%; 83.2%; 72.4% and 66.7%
respectively for the ratio a/d 0.6; 0.8; 1, 0
and 1.2.
Figure 3: Relations shear force of beam to shear
longitudinal reinforcement
From the results of the analysis, it
can be inferred that with the addition of
shear longitudinal reinforcement, will
increase the load capacity that can be
accepted by the deep beam. This increase
occurred due to the additional reinforcing of
longitudinal direction or horizontal that is
able to receive shear force occurred as a
result of the loading. Longitudinal
reinforcement would be able to provide
action together stirrup after diagonal crack
occurred in the region shear span. However,
the addition shear longitudinal
reinforcement this must be calculated to
limit fixed rate reinforcing maximum ratio
max
to avoid the over-reinforced condition.
Figure 4: Capacity of deep beam to use inclined
stirrup and transverse reinforcement
(Erwin, 2006)
If the influence of views on the use
of inclined stirrup as shear reinforcement
(Erwin, 2006), that shear longitudinal
reinforcement clearly provide improvements
to capacity shear beam as seen from Figure
4, where the combination of stirrup and
Two-point loading (a/d = 1.0)
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
BT-SV0 BT-SV1 BT-SV2 BT-SM0 BT-SM1
Type Balok
B
e
b
a
n

(
k
g
)
First crack
Ultimit
diagonal crack
Two-point Loading (a/d = 1.2)
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
BT-SV0 BT-SV1 BT-SV2 BT-SM0 BT-SM1
Type Balok
B
e
b
a
n

(
k
g
)
First crack
ultimit
diagonal crack
Two-point Loading (a/d = 0.8)
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
BT-SV0 BT-SV1 BT-SV2 BT-SM0 BT-SM1
Type Balok
B
e
b
a
n

(
k
g
)
first crack
ultimit
diagonal crack
1
st
International Conference on Rehabilitation
and Maintenance in Civil Engineering (ICRMCE)
Solo, 21-22 March 2009
ISBN No
.
4
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
0,6 0,8 1 1,2
Rasio a/d
B
e
b
a
n

U
l
t
i
m
i
t

(

k
g

)
BT TGL-0
BT TGL-1
BT TGL-2
BT TGL-3
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
0,6 0,8 1 1,2
Rasio a/d
B
e
b
a
n

R
e
t
a
k

(

k
g

)
BT TGL-0
BT TGL-1
BT TGL-2
BT TGL-3
transverse reinforcement that just reduce the
capacity ultimit deep beams. Even in the
ratio a/d = 0.8 load ultimit deep beams trend
to be constant (no-effect) with the stirrup
and transverse reinforcement. Increase the
load cracking diagonal and initial crack of
beams, although the initial fluctuate but have
not seen significant.
3.2 Ratio Shear Span a/d
With see Figure-5, that changes
location based on the ratio a/d give a very
significant to the amount of first-crack load
that can be accepted by the beams. In all
type beams that the more visible a small
ratio a/d, so first-crack load that can be
accepted will be increasingly small. In the
beam without shear longitudinal
reinforcement (beam BTTGL-0) decrease
the shear beam of 49.8% for crack-load and
51.3% for ultimit load beams. Similarly for
the deep beam with shear longitudinal
reinforcement, respectively 1 layer; 2 layer
and 3 layer of decrease 55.3% 59.7% 43.2%
of the crack-load beams and 56.4%; 47.9%;
44% of the ultimit load beams when
compared with a ratio placement location of
the load a/d = 0.6 and 1.2.
Figure-5: Relations with the capacity of beam
ratio a/d on the deep beams
This shows that the loading of the
small distance received beam the ability of
the support beams to receive first-crack load
will increase. Results of this study supports
the results of that research has been done by
Zarraris in 2003 stating that the variations
of a/d between 1 to 2.5 with a single-point
and two-point loading determine the load
capacity that is able to receive deep beams.
From the results of the analysis of
the above can be concluded that changes in
the ratio a/d is very influential on the
loading can be accepted by the beams. This
can be explained that the more a small
distance (the distance between the support
beam with the load), the bending moment
that there will be flexible increasingly small
so shear stress will be greater.
Figure 6: Relations ratio a/d and inclined stirrup
with shear capacity of deep beam (Erwin, 2006)
In research deep-beam in use
inclined stirrup and transverse reinforcement
(Erwin, 2006) also illustrate that the use of
the ratio a/d increasingly smaller yet provide
a significant increase in the ability to
capacity shear deep beams. The increase
Balok BT-SM0
0
5,000
10,000
15,000
20,000
25,000
30,000
35,000
one-load a/d=1.2 a/d=1 a/d=0.8
Rasio a/d
B
e
b
a
n

(
k
g
)
First crack ultimit
Balok BT-SM1
0
5,000
10,000
15,000
20,000
25,000
30,000
35,000
one-load a/d=1.2 a/d=1 a/d=0.8
Rasio a/d
B
e
b
a
n

(
k
g
)
First crack ultimit
1
st
International Conference on Rehabilitation
and Maintenance in Civil Engineering (ICRMCE)
Solo, 21-22 March 2009
ISBN No

.
5
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
BT TGL-0 BT TGL-1 BT TGL-2 BT TGL-3
Type balok
T
e
g
a
n
g
a
n

b
a
j
a

(
M
P
a
)
tulangan pokok
tul. Geser long.
sengkang
0
10.000
20.000
30.000
40.000
50.000
60.000
70.000
80.000
90.000
BT TGL-0 BT TGL-1 BT TGL-2 BT TGL-3
Type balok (jumlah tul.geser long)
K
e
k
a
k
u
a
n

g
e
s
e
r

(
k
g
/
c
m
)
a/d = 1,0
a/d = 0,8
a/d = 0,6
ranged up to 10% compared to deep beam
with a stirrup of conventional (see Figure 6).
Shear longitudinal reinforcement so that
siginifikan give more ability shear beam the
increase compared with inclined stirrup, or
combination of inclined stirrup and
transverse reinforcement.
3.3 Reinforcement of Beam
In the deep beams which are
longitudinal reinforcement obtained on the
behavior stress of reinforcement different
because of the stirrup and shear longitudinal
reinforcement as reinforcing a received
shear force of beam and flexure
reinforcement function as a reinforcing
bending of beam. Figure-7 explains that the
influence of the addition shear longitudinal
reinforcement of deep beams are visible
high real behave the stirrup of deep beams.
The more the number of shear longitudinal
will reduce the stirrup in receive shear beam,
so stress that occurs in the steel stirrup also
showed a decrease, but increase the value of
stress on the steel shear longitudinal.
Some of the load will hold by
longitudinal reinforcement and the other by
the stirrup. This will cause the decreasing
strain value in stirrup. The more shear
longitudinal given the increasingly small
strain also occurred on the stirrup. However,
should note that the addition of shear
longitudinal reinforcement this must also
remain to be the maximum limit to avoid the
over-reinforced.
This is seen in the behavior of different
stress in the flexure reinforcement, look at
that strain of flexure reinforcement
measured in the middle of beam (mid-span)
continues to increase with the addition of
bending moment beams in region mid-span
due to shear of beam which is also
increasing.
3.4 Shear Stiffness.
The tendency of changes shear
stiffness in the deep beams due to the
addition shear longitudinal reinforcement
more clearly seen in Figure 5.6 below. From
the relationship graph load received at the
cracked shear of beam with deflection
shown in Figure 9, that the use of deep
beams longitudinal reinforcement that will
generate more, which is also larger shear
stiffness beams. Deep beam with use of
shear longitudinal reinforcement produce the
largest shear stiffness, respectively ; 49,508
kg/cm for the beam with 2 layers
reinforcement (BT TGL-2) and 79,714
kg/cm for the beam with 3 layers
reinforcement(BT TGL-3), where increased
stiffness of deep beam reached 71% and
175%, respectively in the ratio a/d = 0.8.
Figure-7: Stress on steel reinforcement of the
deep beam
Figure 8: The curve between the shear stiffness
with type of beam
This clarify that the use of shear
longitudinal reinforcement also influenced
by how the location of shear load given deep
beams. Giving the load on the beam with
shear ratio a/d = 1.2 is also seen in-effective
because of arch action zone will be
concentrated in areas where the combination
of shear and bending moment tends to be
large. While, on the beam with 1 layer shear
longitudinal reinforcement (BT TGL-1), and
the beam without shear longitudinal
reinforcement (BT TGL-0), shear stiffness
only reached 37,900 kg/cm and 31,704
1
st
International Conference on Rehabilitation
and Maintenance in Civil Engineering (ICRMCE)
Solo, 21-22 March 2009
ISBN No
.
6
BT TGL-0
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
0 200 400 600 800 1000
Defl eksi ( x 0,01 mm )
B
e
b
a
n
(
k
g
)
a/d = 1,2
a/d = 1,0
a/d = 0,8
a/d = 0,6
BT TGL-1
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
0 200 400 600 800 1000
Defl eksi ( x 0,01 mm)
B
e
b
a
n
(
k
g
)
a/d = 1,0
a/d = 1,2
a/d = 0,6
a/d = 0,8
BT TGL-2
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
0 200 400 600 800 1000
Defleksi ( x 0,01 mm)
B
e
b
a
n
(
k
g
)
a/d = 1,2
a/d = 1,0
a/d = 0,6
a/d = 0,8
BT TGL-3
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
0 200 400 600 800 1000
Defleksi ( x 0,01 mm)
B
e
b
a
n

(
k
g
)
a/d = 0,8
a/d = 0,6
a/d = 1,0
a/d = 1,2
kg/cm, almost the same beam with use
reinforcement inclined stirrup (Erwin,
2005).
In the research that has been done
before, about the influence of the inclined
stirrup of deep beam (Erwin, 2005) the
results that the stiffness beam only use
inclined stirrup will be increased 125%
compared with conventional stirrup,
wherease if use a combination of inclined
stirrup and transverse reinforcement,
stiffness of beam is not increased
significantly.
Figure 9: The curve between load and deflection
on each type of beam
This clarify that the use of shear
longitudinal reinforcement with
conventional stirrup so far better than if the
beams using a combination of transverse
reinforcement and inclined stirrup. Give
shear longitudinal reinforcement (the
horizontal direction beams) will be able to
prevent and reduce the crack, which
occurred as a result of shear, because
trajektori of tension on the deep beams tend
to have a horizontal direction, especially in
areas shear span, the ratio a/d. Meanwhile,
inclined stirrup is done in-effective because
receive compressive stress of arch action
concrete trend to the direction perpendicular
to the inclined stirrup.
3.5 Crack Propagation
Addition shear longitudinal
reinforcement will improve the ability of
longitudinal beams hold the load in the first-
crack, the slowly propagation crack and
increase in the ability to receive ultimit load
of beam. Relations load history and long
crack on each shear span ratio a/d given can
be seen in Figure 10. From the graph that
looks at the ratio a/d=1, adding shear
longitudinal reinforcement provides a
significant influence on the pattern
propagation crack of deep beam. In the
beam BT TGL-0, when the load reached
9,500 kg of the approaching peak load of
9,635 kg, the length of the crack occurred
reach 35.25 cm. But on the beam with a
single layer longitudinal reinforcement(BT
TGL-1), with the same load (of 9,500 kg)
long crack can be hampered, so crack
occurred only during the 24 cm. This will be
long crack on the wane for the beam to get
the additional reinforcing of shear
longitudinal more than one layer. In the BT
TGL-2 long crack that happens reached 15.5
cm, while the BT TGL-3 long crack on the
wane until 0 cm (not yet occurred in the
cracked of beam load 9,500 kg). The same
trend is also visible in the ratio a/d = 0.8 and
0.6
Based on the analysis of the above
can be concluded that the shear longitudinal
reinforcement provide a very real influence
on the propagation crack of deep beam. The
propagation crack can be hampered by the
existence of shear longitudinal
1
st
International Conference on Rehabilitation
and Maintenance in Civil Engineering (ICRMCE)
Solo, 21-22 March 2009
ISBN No

.
7
Rasio a/d = 0,8
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
Panjang Retak (cm)
B
e
b
a
n

(
k
g
)
BTTB-0
BTTB-1
BTTB-2
BTTB-3
Rasio a/d = 1
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
Panjang Retak (cm)
B
e
b
a
n

(
k
g
)
BTTB-0
BTTB-1
BTTB-2
BTTB-3
Rasio a/d = 0,6
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
Panjang Retak (cm)
B
e
b
a
n

(
k
g
)
BTTB-0
BTTB-1
BTTB-2
BTTB-3
reinforcement, so that it can increase the
load capacity that can be accepted by the
deep beams.
Figure 10: The curve between load and length
crack on the deep beams
3.6 Crack of Pattern and Failure of Beam
In the ratio a/d = 1.0 and 1.2, crack
of beams begins from the mid-span and
cracked it will be long in line with addition
load to the top of the beam with propagation
direction that tends to vertical. The
propagation crack this kind shows that the
patterns of behavior occurs is flexure crack.
Meanwhile, the ratio a/d = 0.6 and 0.8 crack
started in support of beam the region toward
to the concentrated of load with the pattern
of diagonal crack. This pattern of
propagation shows the behavior shear
dominant of beam.
Based on the pattern of crack
occurred can be concluded that the deep
beams, the failure occurred is a combination
of shear and flexure failure. Meanwhile, the
ratio a/d = 0.6 and 0.8 crack of beam
occurred below the point load and then
spread to the diagonal direction toward the
point load itself, which means that the
behavior cracked more toward the behavior
of shear, but with the addition of the number
of reinforcement will change the behavior
shear of beams into the behavior of shear
ductility.
Based on the above discussion can
be taken conclusion that changes in the ratio
a/d of beams cause differences in the types
of failure beams where with the ratio a/d =
1.2 and 1.0 tend to collapse the flexure
failure, while beam with a ratio of a/d = 0.6
and 0.8 tend to collapse the failure shear, but
have better ductile with the decreasing ratio
of a/d.
So the shear force of location determine the
failure of pattern occurred on the deep
beams. When the load is near the support of
beam (a/d increasingly small), the failure
that occurred more patterns tend to collapse
due to shear stress. Conversely, if given the
shear force that keep the support (a/d larger),
then the failure that occurred more patterns
tend to collapse due to flexure stress.
Meanwhile, due to the addition shear
longitudinal reinforcement will change the
behavior of failure beams from the shear
failure britlle into failure ductile. This is due
to the contribution shear longitudinal
reinforcement in receive the shear stress so
that failure beam more dominant caused by
the stress flexure.
CONCLUSION
Addition rshear longitudinal
reinforcement as the reinforcing of deep
beams can increase the crack-load capacity
up to 87.5% (P
craks
max = 18,930 kg in the
ratio a/d = 1,0) and the ultimit load to 83.2%
(P
ult
max = 24,562 kg in the ratio a/d=0.8)
compared to deep beams without
longitudinal reinforcement, trend where
more and more small ratio a/d, the ability to
deep beam larger. Shear stiffness of deep
beam also increased to 175% in the ratio
1
st
International Conference on Rehabilitation
and Maintenance in Civil Engineering (ICRMCE)
Solo, 21-22 March 2009
ISBN No
.
8
a/d= 1.0 due to the addition shear
longitudinal reinforcement.
Improving the ability shear of beam
the followed transfer of shear reinforcing of
deep beams, namely the reduction of tension
on steel of stirrup so that increased tension
in steel of the shear longitudinal
reinforcement.
With the shear longitudinal
reinforcement propagation crack
increasingly hampered where the crack
spread more evenly on the entire beam, both
in the region mid-span and the support areas
of beam, with the failure occurred is the
shear failure of ductile in the ratio a/d more
small or a/d<1.0
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The author would like to thank all of the
financing of this research from the
Directorate of Research and Public Services
to the Directorate General of Higher
Education Ministry of National Education,
Indonesian, Jakarta, for Fiscal Year 2008
with the number of contract
229/SP2H/PP/DP2M/III/2008.
REFFERENCES
1. Anonim (2005) Design of Beams for
Shear, Dept. of Civil Engineering
University of Pretoria
2. Anonim (1996) ACI Code 318-95,
Building Code Requirements for
Structural Concrete, Portland Cement
Association, Illinois, Chichago
3. Erwin R (2006) Pengaruh Pemakaian
Tulangan Bagi Terhadap Rambatan dan
Lebar Retak pada Balok Tinggi,
Proceeding Seminar Nasional, 9
Desember 2006, Universitas
Muhammadiyah Malang, ISBN 979-
796-09-0
4. Erwin R (2006) Pengaruh Jumlah
Tulangan Bagi dan Arah Sengkang pada
Kemampuan Geser Balok Tinggi, Jurnal
Teknik GELAGAR, Volume 17, Nomor
01, edisi April 2006, ISSN 0853-2850,
Terakreditasi, Fakultas Teknik UMS,
Surakarta.
5. Erwin R (2005) Pengaruh Jumlah dan
Arah Penulangan Geser pada Perilaku
Balok Tinggi Beton Bertulang, Laporan
Hibah Penelitian PHK-A2 Tahun 2005,
Jurusan Teknik Sipil Universitas
Muhammadiyah Malang
6. Leong, C.L., and Tan. K.H (2003)
Proposed Revision on CIRIA Design
Equation for Normal and High Strength
Concrete Deep Beams, Magazine of
Concrete Research, Vol.55 Issue.3, pp
267-278.
7. Tan, K.H., C.Y Tang, and K.Tong,
(2004) Shear Strength Prediction of
Pierced Deep Beams with Inclined Web
Reinforcement, Magazine of Concrete
Research, Vol.56, Issue.8, pp.443-452.
8. Tan, K.H and Weng, L.W (1999) High-
strength Concrete Deep Beams with
Different Web Reinforcement under
Combined Loading, Australian
Conference on the Mechanics of
Structures and Materials, 8-10
December 1999, Sydney.
9. Teng, Susanto., Fung-Kew.K., Soon-
Ping. P., Lingwei W.G, and Tan K.H,
(1996) Performance of Strengthened
Concrete Deep Beams Predamaged in
Shear, ACI Structural Journal, Vol.93,
No.2, March-April 1996, pp159-171.
10. Watanabe, Ken., Mitsuyasu Iwanami,
Hiroshi Yokota, and Junichiro Niwa,
(2002) Estimation of The Localized
Compressive Failure Zone of Concrete
by AE Method, Proceeding of the 1
st
fib
Congress, Osaka, Session 13, October
2002, pp.117-124.
11. Zararis, Prodromos.D., (2003) Shear
Compression Failure in Reinforced
Concreted Deep Beams, Journal of
Structural Engineering, Vol.129, No.4,
April 2003, pp 544-553.