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TO

HADI T H

I NDI A' S CONTRI BUTI O N
THE STUDY OF
L I T E RAT UR E


1
MUHAMMAD ISHAQ,
A SURVEY

INDIA'S CONTRIBUTION
TO TH E STUDY OF
HADIT H LITERATUR E
OF
THE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF HADITH LITERATURE IN THE
SUB-CONTINENT OF PAKISTAN AND INDIA FKOM
TOGETHER WI T
The lives and the works of the leading Mubaddithun
M.A.,
Lecturer in Arabic and I slamic Studies
University of Dacca
Formerly Research Scholar, Government of Bengal
[ Thesis approved for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
in the University of Dacca, J anuary
Bulletin No. XXI I
PUBLISHED BY
TH E UNI VERS I T Y OF DAti&
(East Pakistan)
THE
EARLIEST TIME
DOWN TO THE NINETEENTH CENTURY
of the time
Ph.D.
1947 ]
H
A
1955
PBDfTED
BY
SHAIKH MUHAMMAD A8HBA 7
AT
ASKEAJT FRESS, 7 AIBAIC BOA D
LAHORE

y
Section 3 : Under the later Delhi Sultanate (700
Section 2:
Chapter I. The Advent
*
900/1300-1494):
Transmission of Islamic learning to
of the Sahaba
Ni?am
Sind
Section 3:
in India.
al-Dln
Centres of Hadi t h
Awliya'
Muhaddithan thereof:
learning and the
and

CONTENT S
Introduction
PAR T I
INDIAN TRADITIONISTS IN INDIA
Land and naval expeditions to India during the
Chapter II . Hadl t h
Section 1:
al-Mansura
Traditionists of DebaL
Chapter III . Hadi t h Literature i n Northern Indi a

Section 2 : Under the early Delhi Sultanate (602-
his School of Muhaddithan in DelhiSharaf
Retrospect
al-Dln al-Manirl and his School of
Muhaddithan in Bihar'All al-Hamadfinl
and* his School of Muhaddithan in Kashmir
Caliphate of 'Urnar
and QusdarIsm&'ilite
Zakarl yya
(J3-23/635-43)Sahaba
coup
(388*900/998-1494)
Section 1:
al-Mult&rii
India upto the Caliphate of Mu' awl ya
d'etat i n Sind and its effect on Hadi t h
Under the Ghaznawids (388-582
700/1205-1300):
and his School of
in
/998 -
1186):
(40-60/661-
Literature i n Sind under the
learning

Traditionists of the 7th
century A. H.
Muhaddithan at MultSn
Arab Colonies in Sind . . . . . . 21
Traditionists of Lahore . . . . . . 45
81)

Arabs




PAGE
ix-xiv
120
214 4
22
28
4579
48
54
7 6


Chapter V,
thS-IUl
B

%

#

vi
Sect ion 1:
Section 5:
Section 4:
Section 2:
Section 2:
Section 1:
INDIES
ShSh
Shaykh
Growth and development of the
centres of Hadlth learning in India:
Transmission of al-Hadith
Wall
(I)
Muhaddithun
Al l ah and his School o f
Ahmad al-Sihrindl
Deccan, (II)" Gujarat. (Ill)
from al-HijizMigration
to India

CONTRIBUTION TO HADITH
Chapter IV . Renaissance of Hadlth
of the Tradi-
tionists of the Schools of Ibn
9 9 9 *
Khandish,
Malwa,
Indian Traditionists . . . . . . 117177
Section 1 : Traditionists who flourished from
the middle of the 9th to the middle of the

and his
School of Muhaddithun (1000-1296/1692-
1878) . . . ... . . . . . .
Section 3:
and his School of Muhaddithun
Traditionists who flourished from
the middle of the 11th
*
(1146-1283/1734-1866)The
PART I I
INDIA N TRADITIONISTS OUTSIDE INDIA
Chapter!. Early
Tribesmen of Sind IslamizedWa

Section 2:
Asqalanl'Abd
(V) Sind,
(IV)
(VI)
Hajar al-
al-RahmSn
Lahore, (VII) Jhansi
and Kalpi,
foundation of the Dar al-' Ulam
al-Sakhawl
Zakariyya
(VIII) Agra, (IX) Lucknow,
Shaykh Abd
at Deoband
and the Mu
?
ahir
al-AnsauIbn
(X) Jawnpur,
al-Haqq
al-' Ulam at Saharanpar
Indian
LI TERATURE
Learning in
India (820-992/1417-1584)
Hajar al-Hay
(XI) Bihar, and ( XI I )
11th century A.H .
al-Dihlaw
(1000-1229/
1592-1814)
to the middle of 12th
*
. . . 163
Ruwat . . . . . . . . . 19121
prisoners from India
Cultural activities of the tribesmen
'
-

80 -11 6
80
Bengal 101

120
i
140
* 146
century
%
155
7
r
19 1

Sahih

Cultural activities of the Indian war-
prisoners
Chapter II . Al-Saghrur
Section 1 : His short biography . . . . . . 218
Section 2 : Hadith
Section 3:
of al-Bukha
Chapter I I I . Indian Traditionists (950-1257/1543
1841)
Section 1 : 'All
*
232243
Section 2 : Muft i Qu.b
Section 4 : 'Umar
. . . 240
Bibliography
(a) Manuscripts
(b) Published works
(c) Catalogues . . .
(d)
247259
247
.. 248
. . 258
259
APPENDIX
Copy of Sayyid Murtad.i
His role
90/1511-82
as a TraditionistHi
al-Muttaqi
)
Section 3 : Abu
Bilgraml's
"Sza
Mashariq al-AnwarMis
and his School of
Muhaddithan
' J-Hasan
granted to Sul.an 'Abd
s
and hi s
literature before al -Saghani
other works on al-
Hadlthal-Saghani
(950-1000,1543-92)
al-Sindi
al-Nahrwall
al -Hamld
al-Din
Works .. . . . . 21823
222
as an editor of the
. . . 232
al-Nahrwali
(d. 1138/1726)
and other Tr adi -
Journals . . .
of Turkey (1774-89) ' . . . 261-270
CONTENTS Vi i
19 5
1
n
226
-

(917-
23
238
tionists
:

t

& Ma'irtf
2. Ma'irtf.
1940), PP*
1934); Muqaddima, p. <5
1. Muhammad Fu'Sd
thesis entitled '
justice to the subject, partly because of lack
al -Hayy
Sayyid
of Egypt , t he Indi an Musl i ms are pl ayi ng the leading
r61e in the diffusion and dissemination
In the opi ni on of the late 'AUama
vol s . XII,
(Delhi,
M* 222;
:
al-'Awirif
Nos. 4-0;
Manazir Ahsan
al-Furqan,
'Abd
Indi a' s
of materials
available in this connection, partly because of the range
of their studies being generally wi de and vari eda
of Na dwa
3

Sul aymSn
of Hadi t h l earn-
i ng i n t he worl d t o-day. As a mat ter of fact, according
t o hi m, but for t he painstaking labour of the Indi an
Musl i ms towards the cul t i vat i on of the Science of
al -Hadl th,
Rashld
XIII,

I NTRODUCTI O N
Rida
it woul d have wel l -ni gh died down.
1
If
t he achievement of the mori bund Musl i m Indi a, when
she has fal len on evi l days aft er t he l oss of her pol it ical
power, has been such, it behoves us well to take stock
of what our noble forefat hers did for t he cul ti vat ion of
the sciences in general, and Isl ami c sciences in part i -
cular, duri ng their pal my days which l ast ed for t he
better part of a thousand years. True, ' Allama
Nadawl*
have done some pioneer work as
far as India' s cont ri but i on to Hadi t h literature is
concerned;
f act
that mi ght have precluded them f r om concent rat i ng on
a part icular topic like this. Anyway, the smal l but
very preci ous work they have done is enough to pro-
voke the thoughts of our present-day yout h t o go for -
ward i n search of ' fresh
Cont ri but i on to the St udy of
al-Baql,
Shah Wall
1944), vol. I,
Gllaul,
No. 2, art. Hindustan men
(MS,), t.v,
Miftah Kunuz
fields and pastures new. '
al-Sunna
N
and the late Haki m 'Abd
but t hey have not , I am afrai d, done ful l
Thi s
(Cairo.
Allah Number (Bareily
izUm-i-Ta'Urn
al-Hadlth f!
Dr .
,
wa Tar toy at
p. 106.
Bilad al-Hind .
deal
'Ulu m
Although the invasion of Sind was first launched
during the days of the Sahaba
Hadl t h Li t erat ur e
1
will,
i n 23/643, it was
finall y conquered in the early years of the Tabfun
when al -Hadl th
ment. Up to that t i me no systematic at t empt had
been made to collect the vast mass of t radi t i ons l yi ng
scattered wi t h the scholars in di fferent parts of the
Is l amdom. Nor had the St at e t aken any i ni t i at i ve in
the mat t er. But now wi t h the accession of Cal i ph
'Umar b. ' Ab d al-'AzIz (99-101), things took a new
turn. Himself a Tradi t ionist of no mean reput e, t he
Cal iph issued an edi ct to his Governors di rect i ng the
at t ent i on of the scholars to the collection and codi fi ca-
tion of Ahadi ththe supreme need of the hour. Thi s
Cal i phal mandat e i nfused a fresh l i fe i nt o Hadl t h
l i t erat ure;

X INDIA'S CONTRIBUTION TO HADITH LITERATURE
therefore, make a modest
effort to gi ve a survey of what Indians have contributed
towards the Science of al -Hadi t h f r om the begi nni ng
of India's connection with the Muslim World down to
t he foundat i on of the Islamic
at Deoband. We do not purposely like to
wi t h what has been, and what i s bei ng done aft er
that, as that is a mat t er of common knowl edge t o al l
of us. The work has, for purposes of convenience and
easy handl i ng, been di vi ded i nt o t wo parts. The
first part deals with Tradi t i on and the Tradi i i oni st s
t he Musl i m di vi nes and doctors, therefore,
devoted themselves to t he task of pi ecing toget her the
erstwhi le scattered Apostolic t radit ions. Side by side
with these developments, al -Hadi th made its way to
Sind. But before t he foundat i on of the i ndependent
Arab pri nci pal i t i es i n al -Mansura
and Mul t a n t owards
the close of the third century of the Hijra ,
Uni versi t y of Dar
in
India, and the second, with the Indian Traditionists
out si de Indi a.
entered i nto a new phase of develop-
no appreciable
progress in its study was made in Sind. As a result,
the territory could not keep pace with other Muslim
al-
thQn
nad.
al- I l m
and deputed a number of Taliba'l-'I lm
While the Indian Ruwfit
Unfort unat el y , neither the Mustakhraj nor the
Musnad
of Raj a'
(d. 170) in al -Madi na
the tribes of Sind set tled in al-'Irftq
Hadl th,
outside
India to acquire proficiency in the Science. As a
matter of fact, Sindian MuhaddithQn
could stand the ravages of time. If
ai -Si ndl ,

INTRODUCTION
countries in the services of Hadl t h
or the Science of Iladith
Nevertheless duri ng this evolut ionary
a group of brilliant Talibul-'llm
and to the fami -
lies of the Indi an war-prisoners who had embraced
Islam and established themselves in Musl i m lands,
took an active part in the transmission of Ahadl t h.
Of them al-Awza'i
and Baghdad and Kaja
1

(d. 222) in Khurasan attained great di st i nct i on as
early collectors and codi fi ers
namel y, Muhammad al -Si ndl (d. 286)
compi l ed a Mustakhraj
261), while Khalaf
of the early t hi rd century, prepared a Mus-
preserved,
they woul d have added to the cont ri but i on of the
Indi an Tradi t i oni st s t o Hadl t h
preserved in the Sih&h
of Ahadl t h
referred to above were
working for the cause of al-Hadith
in the fourth
century showed a great promise in the domain of
Hadlth
(d. 157) in Syri a, Najlh
on the Sahlh
literature duri ng its
format i ve peri od. Nevertheless, a fair number of Ahadlth
t ransmi t t ed on the aut hori t y of Indi an Ruwat
outside India, there
sprang up in Sind, under the auspices of the indepen-
dent Arab rulers of al-Mansura
literature. Unfortunately, their cultural activi -
ties had to be transitory and short-lived as the princi-
palities were usurped by the Isma'ilites
Sitia
l i t erat ure duri ng
the second and the third centuries when 'I lmal-Hadith
l i t erature was evolved.
period of al-
belonging to
al -Si ndl
al -Sl ndi
of Ahadl t h. A grandson
of Muslim (d.
al -Si ndl (d. 231), an ardent Talib
has been
and the ot her compi l at i ons
and Multan, seats of
Hadlth learning that produced several good Muhaddi-
towards the
,
in
th*
Sahih
rol e
Imam
x i i
of t he Khanqas
Tha nk s to thei r deep and abi di ng interest for Hadi t h,
the teachi ng of the Sihah
came f orward t o s t udy Hadi t h
al -Mani rl
Mul tanl
gl oomy days of Il adnh
the n e wl y - f o u n d e d Musl i m ki n gd o m of India. Nor
di d t hey gener al l y a p p e a r
ad nini -i ir. -it ton
the Tur ki s h r ul e
602/ 12 )6 Ha i u h
Saghanl
and phr as eol og y
al'Bukhari
Mashariq
pl ace. Suf f i ce i t ner e
as a Tr ad i t i oni s t
gr eat es t Tr a d i t i o n n t s
a l - Si u h a u l
Hadi th,
hi m a n d hi s su ;. :es. sors,
Shafi ' i tc
Th e second
al -Hadi t h
end of the fi rst
s t udy of aMI adl t h
thus, dealt a severe blow
cl ose of this century. Th e Isma' i l i te
Sitta
J o
a I -Anwar
IV H
a n d
M

INDIA'S CONTRI BUTI ON TO HADIT H LI TERATUR E
coup d'etat,
at the devel opment of the
in Si n d and this me a n t the abrupt
s t age of t he gr owt h of the study of
in Indi a .
sta2[e
i hmai l
La h o r e b e c a me
whi ch t ur ne d out , ani on; '
Lahur i
t he phi l ol ogi s t s
b:*ea
t o say t hat as t he aut hor of t he
and the edi t or of the text of the
as we have it
i n t he Mu s l i m count r i e s
has left
Wi t h the f ound at i o n of the Del h i Su l t a n a t e
l i t er at ur e i n I ndi a ent er ed i nt o its
third s t age of d e v e l o p me n t . Th e ei r i y
in I nl i a ,
and t he ei ght h cent ur i e s , wer e t he age of t he F u c p h a
1

who wer e so pr eo ccupi e d with t he f un ct i o n of Qadcl\
of j us t i c e , t hat t hey di d not think
it wor t h t hei r whi l e t o spr ead t he t eachi n g of Hadi th
have borne in thei r hearts
any sof t cor ner f o r t he Ap o s t ol i c
l i t er at u r e in India, the Sufi
schol ars of t he e mi nenc e of Shaykhs Zakarl yya
f d . 666) , Ni za m al - Di n
( d. 782) and Shi hab
l i terature and i ntroduced
it among the di sci pl es of their respecti ve Khangas.
came i n vogue i n s o me
of Nort hern I ndi a i n the course of t h
al -Ghaznawi
i n ; he
betjan
(i. SS-421
pr e s en t
p i r i i r u i a r i y
Awfi va
1

al - Hamadani
wi th the accessi on of the
A. H. ). Under
a seat of al-
ot her Muh- ul di t hf i n ,
( d. 05.)) who was one of t he
o f h i s a g e .
appr ai s ed i n its proper
form
of As i a, al-
an e n d u r i n g n a me .
cent ur i es of
t he s e ve n t h
Tradi t i ons . Jn those
( d. 725), Yahya
(d. 786)
m
Hi s
in

al-
e
Egypt , ITadith
in Guj ar at had been set up. Thus was re-est abli shed
af t er a lapse of f our hundr ed years Indi a' s
The f our t h stage of t he st udv of al - IIadl t h
a ri ch and cove t abl e
br ai ns of t hat r egi on.
and al-'Ir<lq,
make any t angi bl e
8t h cent ur y of the Il i j r a .
l i t erat ure became wi del y di f f us ed i n
I ndi a t owards the mi ddl e of the 10th
soi l whi ch the l at t er, namel y, t he
Muhaddi t hun , di d not . As a resul t , t he Del hi Sul t anat e
was ear l y t hr onged wi t h Fuqaha
1

It is, however, a fact

INTRODUCTION
t hat
so l ong as Indi a' s cul t ur al rel at i on r emai ned conf i ned
t o Cent r al Asia,
progress
were in those days the home of Fi qh
and Ma' qul at .
sol di ers of Cent r al Asi a so was it
Mor eover, 10
were i n gr eat demand i n t he gr owi ng Mus l i m empi r e c f
I ndi a, whereas t he Muhaddi t hu n had no such scope
Hence t he f or mer , namel y, t he Fu q a h a ' ,
f ro m Cent r al Asi a. In
f act , wi t h the except i on of ' Abd
Tr adi t i oni s t wor t h t he
mi gr at ed t o I ndi a dur i ng t he pr e - Rena i s s a nc e
i n
I ndi a, whi ch we have t er med as the Renaissance
peri od, commenced earl y i n the 9t h cent ur y wi t h t he
openi ng of Indi a' s
cul t ur al
r el at i on wi t h Ar abi a, whi ch had r emai ned suspended
as a resul t of t he Isma' i l i t e
cent ur y. The
resul t was r emar kabl e and phenomenal . Hencef or t h,
I ndi a n Tr adi t i oni s t s were f ound i n t he services of
Hadl t h
t he st udy of a MI a d u h
i n I ndi a. The Cent r al
Asi at i c count ri es, par t i cul ar l y Tr ans oxani a,
As I ndi a was conquer ed
admi ni st er j ust i ce
as pr ovi ded f or by I sl ami c Sh a n ' a ,
al -' Azi z
cul t ur al rel at i on wi t h Ar abi a by
t he sea af t er t he i ndependent Mus l i m ki ngdoms of
t he Ba h ma ms
coup d'etat
l i t er at ur e as t eachers, t ransl at ors and compi l er s
si mul t aneousl y i n I ndi a and al - Hi j aza
coul d not
Khur asan
by t he
i nf l uenced by the best
the Fuqa h a '
f oun d i n I ndi a
al -Ardbi l J,
name was f ound t o . have
pe r i od.
i n t he Deccan and the Muzaf f ar shahl s
in Si nd. Now,
wi t h t he comi ng of Tr adi t i oni s t s f r om al - Hi j az
st ate of
things that cont i nued unt i l the f oundat i on of the D&

Xl l l
no
and
t
x i v
al -' UJum at Deoband and the Mazahir al-' Ul um at
Saharanpur at the end of the 13th century A. H . The
Dar al -' Ui um and the Mazahi r al -' Ul um, be it

I NDI A' S CONTRI BUTI ON TO HADI T H L I T E R A T U R E
noted,
marked t he dawn of the modern progressive era of the
cul ture and cul t i vat i on of the Science of al -Hadi t h
in Indi a. Hi t hert o, Musl i m Indi a had no such
centralized i nst i tut ion for higher studi es i n the subject,
and the Indi an students had to go abroad to al -Hijaz
for specialization in al -Hadi t h. These two great
i nst i tut ions have, thus, supplied t he Indi an Musul mans
wi t h a l ong-fel t desideratum and have made them
independent and self-supporting so far as the study
of Hadi t h l i t erat ure i s concerned.

PAR T I
INDIAN TRADITIONISTS IN INDIA
Indi a was i nvaded by t he Arabs for the first
CALI PHAT E OF ' UMAR
A
TH E ADVEN T OF TH E SAM
t i me
Holy
during the Caliphate of 'Omar.
L-TIAD1T H
AB A IN
under al-TTakam
In 23/ 643 a campai gn
mi ght wel l have been i nt roduced i nt o
Indi a by the Sahaba, the
b.


4
Amr
Compani ons of the
al-Taghlibl
Prophet Muhammad (on whom be peace and
blessings of Allah) themselves, had ' Umar, the Second
Cal i ph, allowed the enterprising Arabs who invaded
India i n 23/ 643 by l and and sea to conquer the coun-
t ry duri ng his Caliphate. There were, of course,
i mport ant factors which, as we shall presently see,
reacted on his decision regarding the Indi an campaign.
Al t hough since then the fronti ers of Indi a were sub-
jected to sporadic Arab raids, no serious at t empt for
t erri t ori al conquest was made unt i l the t i me of the
Umayyad Caliph Walid b.


l
Abd al-Malik

CHAPTE R I
INDI A
(86-96/
705-15) duri ng whose Cal iphat e the conquest of Si nd
came about.
Indi a, therefore, cannot be regarded among those
Musl i m l ands where Il adi t h was t ransmi t t ed oral l y by
the Compani ons themselves. But , fort unat el y for us,
it was at least visited by some of these torch-bearers
[13-23/635-43]
advanced as far
as the Indus whi le, in t he same year, naval expedit i ons
were launched on the coast of West Indi a. These
mi l i t ar y operations of the Arabs di d not resul t i n any
of
Il adi th, whose association with India it will be our
humble endeavour in the f ol l owi ng pages to trace.
Wi t h that end in view, we propose to outline the earl y
Arab expedit ions t o Indi a.
1. Ibn
vol. i,
I N D I A ' S
al-Athlr,
t i on of Ahnaf
al -Hi nd, ' the Caliph had apparently Ubulla
Cal i ph ' Umar
Land Fx
Whi le direct ing *Ut ba
p. 399.
Tajnd Asma*
2. Yaqut,
edition
p. 641.
Mu'jam
^ ^
e

3. Ibid.;
an ixpe
Prophet,
1

i i on.
Tabari,
^ u U a
to proceed towards
Tdvikh
1893) vol. i, pp. 2378, 2382.
al liiisul
(
m o C
\
er

n

4. Muir,
wa'l-Muluk, cd.
Annals of the Early Caliphate (Edinburgh, 1915), p. 238.
6. Tabari, vol. i, p 2568.
6. Ibid., pp 2634-35. A little confusion is noticed regarding the date
of general mobilization of Arab soldiers in Persia. On the authority of
Shu'aib. Saif, Muhammad, Talha and others, Tabari
date at 17/639. Again on the same
(i, 2568) gives the
authority heputs
But the question i s what i s to be
it at 21/641 (i, 2634).
probable that Caliph 'Umar
the correct date ? It
circumspection about the
who was foll owi ng
does not seem
expansion
a policy of caution and
of Islamic empire should have

C O N T R I B U T I O N TO H A D I T I I
permanent terri torial conquest as they had to be called
off quite abruptl y by the orders of the
b. Ghazwan,
al-Basra)
observed, "I s l am
in mi nd,
because in his days it was known by the name of
' al -Hi nd.
1 3

(21/641) coul d not make t hem masters of the Sassanide
empi re, nor was it deci sive in bri ngi ng about the final
collapse of the Government , al t hough i t deal t a severe
blow
t he provinci al governors assumed independence.
Apprehendi ng that the f ugi t i ve emperor mi ght i n
fut ure ral l y round hi m hi s scattered forces and take a
stand against the Arabs, Cal i ph ' Uma r ,
b. Qais,
5

vestiges of the Sassanide empi re. Accordi ngl y, in
21/641,
6

al-Sahaba
al-Buld'dn,
De Goeje
ordered a general mobilization of troops in Persia as early as 17/639 when
the Arabs had just achieved initial
L I T E R A T U R E
Cal i ph.
a Compani o
i n 14/634,
shoul d occupy a pl ace
in the l and of a l - Hi nd. "
2
In his reference to


4
ard
Hencefort h, the Arabs advanced steadily
t owards Indi a reachi ng t he Indus Val l ey i n 23/ 643.
The victory of the Arabs in the batt l e of Nihawand
t o the power of Yazdjird III.
4
As a result, the
central aut hori t y became weak and the Marzubans
at the sugges-
t hought it necessary to conquer
the independent provinces and, thus, remove the last
he ordered a general mobi l i zat i on of soldiers
(Hyderabad, 1315 A. H. )
ed. Wustenfeld (Leipzig, 1866), vol. i,
(Lcyden,
successes in Western Persia. As a
2
n
o r
matter
' Asi m
10. Tajnd,
5. See infra, p. 14.
1. Tajrtd,
of fact, after the victory of Nihawand the Caliph 'found
under Abu Mus a al - As h' an
1 0

'Utb&n,
The lirst
Hakam
b. ' Amr
Istakhr;
and Shapur
Mujashi
4

i n Pe rs i a under t he
TH E ADVENT OF TH E SAHABA
that
IN
Yazdjird would give him fight every year and that the affairs would not
improve so long as the fugitive emperor was allowed to remain in Persia*
(vide Tabari, i, 2634). So, the object of the mobilization, obviously, was
to strike a death-blow at the power of Yazdjird, and for thi s the year
17/639 appears to be premature. Moreover, the order of 17/639 was to
reconnoitre (insiyah) Paris {mod. Arabistan in Persia) and not to
concentrate troops on the provinces of Eastern Persia as Tabai i would

INDIA
l eadershi p of the Compani ons .
Thus Ahnaf b. CJais
1

b. Mas' ud
; ' Ut hman
Sari ya b. Jani m
al - Taml mi ,
5

b. ' Amr
di rect move towards I ndi a was made i n
21/ 641. Wi t h a di vi s i on of sol di ers t hat at t ai ned f ame
i n the bat t l e of Ni hawand, ' Abd
a Co mpani o n of the Prophet, *
arri ved at Ispahan. Th e
Persi ans were routed. Ha vi ng decl ared the whol e
provi nce a protectorate under the Arabs , a t reat y was
concl uded wi th Fajusf an,
have us believe (i. 2568-69). To reconcile between these two dates, lbn
vol. i, p. 10.
6. Ibid
8. See infra, p. 14.
9. Le Strange, The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate (Cambridge,
vol. ii, p. 219.
al-Athir (Tarikh al-Kamil. ed. Egypt. 1301 A. H. , vol. ii, p. 273; vol . hi ,
pp. 8-9) status that the orders were issued in 17/639 but were not executed
till 21/641 or 22/642. Ibu
2. Ibid.,
Khaldun {Tankh,
vol. ii, p. 55.
ed. Egypt, vol. iv, p. 122)
supports lbn al -Athlr.
3. Ibid.,
al - Sul ami ,
2

b. Abl
Considering the caution of 'IJmar
vol. i, p. 402.
VA s
.
agai nst Ardshlr
al - Thaqaf i ,
3

al -Ki nani ,
4

agai nst Si ji stan
al -Tagh]ib^,
f ,

Al l ah b.
c
Abd
marc he d
agai nst I spahan, a south-eastern ci ty of the Ji bal
and the impli-
4. Ibid.,
7. Tabari,
was directed against Khur a s a n;
Khur ra
agai ns t
against Ki rman
and al
agai ns t Mukran.
7

Al l a h b.
pr o -
vi nce.
9
A fi erce f i ghti ng took pl ace near the ci ty i n
whi ch the vet eran Pers i an general , Shahri yar, was
ki l l ed. Meanwhi l e, rei nf orcements f rom al -Ahwaz
the governor of I spahan, to
cation involved, the year 17/639 appears to us to be improbable.
vol. i, p. 217.
vol. i, p. 2569.
3
;
-
1905),
p. 202.
'Abd
xy
I NDI A' S
1. Tabarl, pp. 2637 41.
on, *Abd
Traversi ng through the eastern side of t he Great
Desert, 'Asim
Allahthe
Qufs mountains,
4
put up a
b.


c
Adi
of Ki r man.
Short l y aft er,
c
Abd
C O N T R I B U T I O N TO HADI T H
2. Le Strange, op. cit.,
Allah b. ' Umai r
b.
c
Amr
st i ff resistance against the
invaders, but, being unable to withstand the thrust,
they retreated. Di vi di n g the forces into two parts
one under al-Nasair
who had already be
Marching on the outskirts of the Gr<
Desert,
2
he i oined the forces
3. TabarT,
joined him with reinforce-
ments. Scarcely had the Arabs reached t he front i ers
of Si j i st an, when the natives, realizing the f ut i l i t y of
resistance, overflooded
b. ' Amr
K
Thus strengthened, the Arabs launched an attack upon
the province in 23/643. True to their t radi t i onal
chivalry, the natives backed by the hardy Balus
4. j\e
p. 2041 .
Strange, p. 323.
the t erri t ory by breaking the
dams of the Hel mund.
6

al -' Ij Ji
6. Tabarl,
.
pp. 2703-05.
Le Strange, p. 339.

L I T E R A T U R E
whom the conquered terri t ory was restored.
Allah advanced to the provi r
under command of Suh
of the
and t he ot her und
Arabs pursued the retreating natives
and overran the terri tory
marched t owards Si j i stan. Lat er
Thi s, too, was of no avai l.
The Arab soldiers took Zar anj , the capi tal, by st orm
and this weakened the morale of the people who came
to terms. A treaty was made on the basis of regular
payment of t ri but e provi ded t hat t he Arabs di d not lay
any cl ai m on the produce of t he l and. The Arabs are
said to have most scrupulousl y abided by the terms of
the treaty.
7

The di ffi cul t y to mobilize troops through moun-
tainous regions appears to have been a handicap for
further advance of the Arabs in this part of the country,
and this was, perhaps, why they retraced their march
Map. 1, p. 1 ; pp. 321-33.
7. Tabarl, pp. 2705-06
4
1

3
5
.
'Abdi,
t hus
bank
The
1. For different readings of this term, see Elliot, The History of I ndia
a Compani on of t he Prophet , to Umar
The Arab General al -IIakam
The Mukranls,
against Mukran which was then being ruled over by
Rasil,
1

' Abd Al l ah b. ' Abd Al l ah b. ' Ut ban
of the Indus,
Arabs on
The Arabs empl oyed
TH E ADVENT OF TH E SAHABA
(London, 1869), vol. ii, p. 417; Raverty, Notes on Afganistan
a strong army Jed by several
1888), p. 568 ; Tabari, p. 2707, note i ;
(London,
ed.
Baladhurl, Kitab Futuh
by De Goeje (Leyden, 1866), pp. 396-402,438=Murgotten. The Origins of
the I slamic States being a translation
1924) Part II,
of the Jhttitk
pp. 222 seq ;
al-Buldan (New York,
Hodivala, Studies in I ndo-Muslim History

IN INDIA
and j oi ned the army concentrated on the front i ers of
Mukran
the Compani ons of the Prophet, viz.,


4
Asim
and Suhai ]
the ki ng of Si nd. The ki ng in person com-
manded t he army const i t ut ed by Hi ndu warriors wi t h
numerous elephants, ' which
on t hei r part , rose equal to the occasion
maki ng the line of defence apparent l y i mpreg-
nable. Not hi ng, however, could stem the tide of t he
Arabs. In their utter confusion caused by the l i ght -
ning attack of the Arabs, the natives t ook to their heel s.
A hot pursuit fol l owed for qui t e a number of days and
the Indians were forced to beat retreat across the
Indus. Thus the Arabs reduced the entire val ley of
t he Lower Indus.
3

sent Suhar b. al-
wi t h t he
message of vi ct ory and sought the Caliph' s permission
to proceed furt her i nt o Indi a by crossing the Indus.
On an enquiry about the nature of the land by the
Cal i ph, Suhar described it thus : "
(Bombay, 1939) p. 175. [Hodivala is not, however, right when he states
4. See infra.
that the term occurred in the Arab chronicles since A. II,
bAAmr,
find it in Tabari
al - I Iakam
(i. 2707) as early as the year 23/643-44]
b. 'Amr
were being
2. Raverty, loc. cit.
al - Taghhbi
b. 'Adl
dai l y augment -
ed by fresh arri val of men from t hat count ry
1
(Si nd).
2

Its plains are
mountainous, water suppl y is scanty and dates are of
i nferi or qual i t y. The enemies are bol d. The good
al-Buldan,
43. For, we
3. Tabari, pp. 2706-07.
5
.
,
,
3
I N D I A ' S
4. ' Ut hman
1. Tabari, loc.
' Ut hman
The f i rs t and the earl i est naval expedi ti on of the
Naval Expedition. [
ab

s

( accrui ng f rom
C O N T R I B U T I O N T O H A D I T H
cit.


t

o

al-Thaqafi accompanied the deputation from Taif that
2. Ibid.,


I n d i

a

the l and) is little but its evi l
p. 2708.


wa

s

waited upon the Prophet in Ramadan,
3. The following verses (Tabari, vol. i, p. 2708) attributed to the
di rected agai nst
Islam. Alt hough young,
9/December, 030,
General al-Jlakam,
Tha na , a sea-port near Bo mba y.
and embraced
region upto
state, in clear terms, that the Arabs overran the
b. Abi*
his fervour in the cause of Islam was applauded
the Indus which they called Mihriin
l-'A?
by Abu Bakr. The Prophet appointed him 'Amil
and t hat if t he Cal iph di d not forbi d,
(cf. Yaqut, vol. iv, p. 697)
of Taif. During the
troublous days of Abu Bakr, ' Ut hman al -Thaqafi
part and prevented his tribe, t he Thaqlf,
played a conspicuous
from apostasy. He hel d t he

L I T E R A T U R E
is enor-
mous. A l arge ar my appears to be s mal l there and
a s mal l one wi l l be lost. Be yond that regi on worse
awai t s. "
1
Thereupon, t he Cal i ph ordered t he Ge ne r al
not to make any f urther advance.
2
The progress of
t he Arabs was, t heref ore, arrest ed beyond t he I ndus.
Though the campai gn was abandoned it resul ted
i n t hei r di scovery of a l and- rout e to I ndi a through the
Mukran coast.
al - Thaqaf i ,
4
a Co mpani o n of
to penetrate further into India.
they would have crossed the river
^ UDI j ^
governorship of various provinces with success and died in 51/G71 or 65/674
at al-Basra where he had settled and where the celebrated al -Hasan
Basrl (d! 110) learnt Hadith from hi m (Tabari, Tarlkh
Muluk, ed. De Goeje, Leyden, 1879-88.
al-Rusul
Isaba, Biblo
vol . i , pp. 1688 seq;
Indica,
al -
wa'l*
I bn Haj ar ,
1888, vol. i , pp. 1098 seq; Tabriz!, aUIkmalft
AsmW al-Rijal, lithographed with Mishkat al-Masahih,
Of the twenty-nine Ahadith transmitted
have been recorded in the Sahih
al-KamaLed. Eevot. D.
ed. Delhi, p. 606).
* '* - - ~
by ' Ut hman al-Thaqafi, three
"
120) and t he r est ,

of Muslim (Sail
in the Sunan works (Isciba
6
# p*JI Ji t
al -Di n, K hulas a Tahdhtb
loc. cit.) .
,
Egypt,'
8. Lut b.
Bit!dan
J^V I >j*J\
y
s s>S^}\ J^afr
1 ^ i -h/r 1-
1325 A.H. , vol. ii, p. 360; I bn
(^^pUaJ)-
Yahya better known as Abu Mikhnaf
Yad-i-Ayyatn
^^V l
2. *Abd
1. I saba,
14/ 630
6

The date
Al -Bal ddhuri ,
of ' Ut hman
3
of the Sahuba
forces on the coast of Guj arat heral ded
Hakam
and


4
Uma n
the Prophet, who was the governor
vol. i,
Hajar, Li san,
was a hi stori an
or Tart
Dr. 'Abd
al -Hayy
pp. 703, 708;
or 15/ 637
7
as gi ven by Abu Mi khnaf *
of the di ti ons
al -Mughi ra
l _ A t ~
in South Indi a.
2
Si mi l ar expeditions
were al so sent agai nst Ba r wa s or Br oac h and to the
gulf
b. Abl
duri ng the Cal i phat e
al-AH.
17 4 A _ ^ . 1 *T* I
kh-i-Gujarat,
Nadawi,
DhahabI, Tajrid
t o Indi a, does not ment i on thei r
Expedition. dates i n so ma ny wor ds
5
; but what ap-
pears f rom the context of the Futuh
b. Abt ' l - ' As
f -
of al - Daybul ,
M-'As
of Ti n. i r ,
M. B. , B. S.
Nuzkat
Asma*
ed. Lucknow, pp. 4-5.
3. Elliot, History of I ndia, vol. i, p. 416, has misread al-Mughira as
al-Kkawutir
al-Buldan
1
i.e., Debal .
al -Thaqaf i
1
Mughaira.
4. Baladhurl, Kitab
pp. 431-32=pp.
Futuh al-Duldan,
1924).
5. The popular date, i.e., 15 A. H. (637 A. D. ) , which has been
ed. De
generally quoted in connection with the early Arab invasion of India is,
in fact, the date when 'Uthman al-Thaqafl, who sent the naval expedi -
tions to India, is said to have been appointed governor of al -Bahrain and
'Uman (Baladhurl, loc. cit.).
6. Baladhurl, pp. 81-82=vol. i, p. 125 of the Eng. tr. of the Futuh aU

TH E ADVENT OF TH E SAHARA IN INDIA
of a! -Bahrai n
sent thi s
expedi ti on under the c o mma nd of hi s brother al-
who al so was a
Co mpa ni o n of the Prophet .
1
Th e landing'
the advent
Th r
al -Thaqaf i ,
al - Thaqaf l .
4

who records the earl i est Ar a b expe-
i s t hat t he
Indi an expedi t i ons were undert aken at t he i nst ance of
' Ut hman
and al
(Hyderabad. 1315 A.H.),
al-Saltaba
of Lucknow)
(MS. in possession of
j uUU
209-10 of the English
Goeje (Leyden,
by P. K. Hi tti (New York, 1916).
7. Baladhuri,
Hi s death occurred before 170/786 (DhahabI, Mizan,
iv, p. 492).
ed. Hyderabad, vol ,
1866),
p. 431=
of the
l at t er was headed
another brother
a l - Tha qa f l i mmedi at el y af t er hi s ass umpt i on
of the governorshi p of a l - Ba hr a i n and ' Uma n
tr. by E. G. Murgotten (New York,
Murgotten, p. 209.
7
i n
-
vol . i , p. 144.
vol . i ,
l
ed.
1. 'All
Mada'ini
I N D I A ' S
4. Ibn Sa' d,
3. Cf. SanVanl,
2. 'Allama
b. Muhammad b. ' Abd
Mada'inl.
1

C O N T R I B U T I O N T O H A D I T H
vol. i, p. 673; Hitti,
Kitab al-Tabaqat
Sayyid Sulaiman
As the date of the Indi an expeditions is
contingent upon that of the appointment of ' Ut hman
al-Kabtr,
al-Thaqafz in al -Bahrain and ' Uman, it remains for us
to ascertain the correct date of the appointment.
2
That
the above two versions of al -Baladhuri"are
be seen from the statement of Ibn
incorrect can
Sa' d that unti l the
foundation of al -Basra in 16 or 17 A. H. ,
3
' Ut hman al -
Thaqafi was not transferred f r om Tai f where he had
been appointed 'Amil by the Prophet in 9/630. But
when the necessity of a capable governor for the new
city of al -Basra arose, the name of ' Uthman
was suggested to Caliph ' Umar
al -Thaqafi

L I T E R A T U R E
who, however, refused
to pass orders for the transfer of a governor who had
been appointed by the Prophet himself. Nevertheless,
the Caliph had to yield to the popular demand. Accor-
di ngl y, ' Ut hman
was a pupil of Abu
Allah b. Abl
Nadawi
Kitab al-Ansab,
(Leyden, 1915), vol. vii , part i, pp. 36 seq.
5. As for the account of al-Mada'inl
al-Thaqafi was sent to al-Basra after
he had been replaced at Tai f by his brother al -IIakam
b. Abl M-'As al -Thaqafi .
4
That the account of Ab u
Mikhnaf
5
relating to the appointment of ' Ut hman al -
Thaqafz is erroneous, is also evident from the fact that
'Ala b. al -Hadrami , who is said to have been replaced
by ' Ut hman i n al -Bahrai n and 'Urruln, di d not die in
14 A. M . or in the beginning of the year 15 A. M. , as
asserted by Abu Mi khnaf. For, according to al-
TabarT, ' Ala
1

Saif commonly called al-
entertains doubt as t o t he
appointment of ' Ut hman
(Baladhurl,
b. al -Hadr amf ,
Mikhnaf. He died in 224/838 or 225/839 at
the age of 93 years (Mtzan,
al-Thaqafi in 15 A. H. vide his 'Arabun
431) it seems prob-
vol . ii,
J aha-rant
was *Amil
and al -Yamama
p. 236 ; Li
(A' zamgarh, 1935), p. 69,
able that he derived it from his teacher Abu Mikhnaf and as such there is
in
kt
fol.
overal - Bahrai n
16/637,
6

sun, vol. iv,
note; Islamic Culture, Hyderabad,
84b. Encyclopaedia of I slam,
practically no difference of opinion between the two.
6. Tabarl,
led a naval expe
p. 492).
vol. xv, No. 4, October 1941, art. Arab Navigation, p. 448,
History of the Arabs (London, 1914),
ed. Edward Sachau
vol. i, p. 248J
8
-
note.
p. 241.
.
Uma n
md
nl n' s
narj*
di ti on
1. Tabarl, vol. i, pp. 2545 seq.
whi ch c an be gl eaned f rom al -Bal adhuri
Indi a under ' Ut hmf m
Mi hs a n.
9
So the despat ch
al - Yamama
appointment in al -Basra
one


l
Amil
f a b. Mi hs an.
5
Agai n, a l - Ta ba r i mai nt ai ns that
UJthmfi n
Bal f i dhun,
tasks for the f oundat i on of a mi l i t ary barrack
there.
3
AI-Tabarl ,
ed by Ala
appear probabl e that ' Ut ba
i n 17/ 638
1
and
agai nst Par i s ( modern
TH E ADVENT OF TH E SAM
2. l'bn
ti l l 17 A. H.
1 0
was out of question.
Ac c o r di ng t o a l - Tabar i , ' Ut hma n
in 17 A. II. ,
al - Thaqaf i was the governor of Ta i f in the
year 16 A. H.
6
a
pl aces ' Ut hmf i n
as a governor of a
di ed i n 21/ 641.
3

Arabi stan
al-Athir,
a l - Tha qa f i as-
s umed charge of al - Bahrai n and t he out l yi ng provi nces,
namel y, 'UmTin
duri ng
1-Basra
Tankh al -Kami l
Cf. Dhahabi,
(Egypt, 1301 A.H.), vol. iii,
and al - Yamf i ma
14-15 A . H . i n al -
Ba hr a i n whi l e, curi ousl y enough, ' Uman
i n 14 or 15
p, 10.
n
Baladhuri,
Tajrtd, vol. i
f


ABA IN INDIA
i n Persi a) i n
Nor does it, f urther,
b. Ghazwan was s upersed-
A . H .
when the f ormer was j ust accompl i s hi ng the prel i mi -
pr es umabl y on t he aut hori ty of al
whi c h served
as the base for I ndi an expedi ti ons was, duri ng the
peri od, i n charge of anot her governor, namel y I l udhai -
stat ement that corroborates Ibn
Sa' d.
7
Moreover, wi th the excepti on of al -Bal adhurl ,
no other chroni cl er puts the provi nces of al - Bahrai
till 23/ 643. Af t er ' Ut
al - Bahrai n
al so c ame under hi s cont rol ,
8
but
s t i l l cont i nued t o be governed by Hudhai f a
of a naval expedi ti on to
23/ 643
1 1
a
al so by
chronol ogi cal l y arrangi ng the tenures of the offices of
t he governors of al - Bahrai n up t o t he year 23 A. H . I n
(p. 81-Hi tti ,
p. 409. According to a version of al-
p. 124), 'Ala* died in 20/640.
8. Baladhuri, p. 34(5 = lVIiirp:otten, p. 00 ; Evry. of I slam, loc.
4. Tabarl, vol. i, pp. 2388-89, 2420.
6. Ibid., pp. 2389, 2420.
6. Ibid., p. 2481.
7. Vi de above, p. 8.
8. Ibn Sa'd, loc. cit. ; Tabarl, p. 2570.
9. Tabarl, p. 2570.
10. Ibid., p. 2737.
11. Ibid.
9
-
n
d ' U h
b.
dat e
cit.
1. Ibn
125 seq.
Umar,
2. Baladhurl, loc.
al -Athl r,
the Expeditions.


a

The result of
t hereupon, " says al -Baladhurl ,
That Abu
Bahrai rCwas
20/640 Qudama
1 0 I N D I A ' S C O N T R I B U T I O N
ci t.
3. Ibid.
' Ut hman
assigned
That ' Uthman
b. Abi
was appointed governor of both al -Bahrain
M-'As
and 'Uman is known from the fact that while he was engaged in warfare in
al -Thaqafl
Faris, his substitute over the provinces was his brother al -Mughfra
as governor (of a l -
Bahrain and ' Uman) who still held the office at the death
of ' Umar . "
5

or Hafs.
Further, we
In the ci rcumstances, there is no contradic-
tion or disagreement bet ween al -Tabarl
have i t in clear terms i n the Mu' j am
and al -Bal adhuri
" Then he ('Umar)
al-Buldan,
regardi ng the appoi nt ment of ' Ut hman
vol . i , p. 509:
appointed
4
Uthman

T O H A D I T H L I T E R A T U R
b. Ma' zun
di smi ssed on the charge of dr i nki ng and
Aba Hur ai r a al -Dawsi
Hur ai r a held the post for a considerable
l engt h of t i me, is known f r om his establishment of a
st able for breeding horses, which yi el ded hi m a sum o f
12,000 dirhams. The accumul at i on of t hi s money was
viewed
al - Thaqaf l
i n 23 A. H . It may, therefore, be accepted that
Indian expeditions were undertaken in 23/643 immediate -
l y af t er ' Ut hman
vol. ii, p. 379; Baladhurl, pp. 82 seq =
and ' Uman,
al-Thaqafl governor of al-Bahrain
al -Thaqafl had assumed charge of a l -
Bahr ai n and ' Uman.
who still held the office at the death of 'Umar.
Thi s dat e is, furt her, conf i r med
4. Chach-Nama,
"
by the Chach-Nama^
pp. 57-58. (Eng. tr. by Mirza Kalich Beg Fredun
our aut hori t y second only t o a l -
Baladhuri
Beg, Karachi , 1900). It places the event in 11/632
so far as t he recordi ng of t he earl y Arab ex-
pedi t i on t o Indi a i s concerned i nasmuch as i t pl aces t he
dat e of the naval attack against Debal
which is,
short l y before
the assassination of ' Umar, "
evidently,
wrong as Umar
i . e. , i n 23 A. H .
The Arab expedi t i on against Thana was a success
succeeded to the Caliphate in 13/634. He was assassinated
and not a failure. For had i t been
on Tuesday, the 27th Dhu '1-Hijja,
al - j uma\ i ,
f
a
}i
u r e

j

23/October
i
t

'Avid
by Cal i ph ' Uma r as amount i ng to mi sappro-
priation of t he publ i c revenue {Bait al-Mal)


w o u
l d
044 (Ibn a!-Ath|r,
over al-
was appoi nt ed in his place.
1

on t he par t
of Abu Hur ai r a who was consequentl y di scharged.
have resulted i n a
vol . i i,
E
8

Hitti, pp.
p. 26).
for
4. Sayyid
2. Haki m Ahmad Husain, Tarjuma Tar'tkh-i-I bn
1. Muir,
fought shy of naval expeditions.
3
The hi st orical dat a
gi ven below wil l further cl ari fy the poi nt .
The Arabs were not as experienced in naval
fighting as their counterparts, the Romans and the
Persians, were.
4
As a result, the naval expedition sent
against Fari s
the expedi t ion.
not have been killed t o a man ? Jiut
disaster for the Arabs. Who knows Lhat
TH E ADVENT OF TH E SAHARA
Sulayman
Khaldun
The Arabs did not proceed further,
not because their arms were not victorious, but
because they were not allowed to proceed by Cal i ph
' Umar
as i t i s, not hi ng
of the ki nd took place. As a mat t er
Nad awl, 'Arabiin
hi mself. The reason for Caliph's action is not
f ar t o seek. An empi re-bui l der and a st at esman un-
paral l el ed i n worl d hi st ory, Cal i ph ' Umar
of fact, the}'
returned home (evidently wi t h fl yi ng colours) wi th not
a single

IN INDIA
they would
soul lost, as is clear f r om the speech of the
Cal i ph to ' Ut hmfin
di d not wish
t o play ducks and drakes with human lives.
1
Once an
expedition had been despatched, his sole concern was
to send supplies for the strengthening of the forces of
Isl am ; he instructed his Generals to keep him i nf or med
of the developments so that he mi ght issue necessary
directions. Thus every inch of ground t hat hi s soldiers
gained was the outcome more of the strict adherence,
on the part of the Generals, to the superb plan and
met hod of t he Cal i ph t han of t hei r i ndi vi dual skil l and
knowledge of strategy.
8
Never di d he venture upon an
engagement which he could not reinforce wi t h men
and muni t i ons regularl y. Thi s, perhaps, is the reason
why, wi t h all his mi l i t ar y genius, the Cal i ph


4
Uma r
proved unsuccessful. Thi s was under-
t aken wi t hout t he Caliph' s sanction in 17/639 by 'Ala'
Caliphate (Edinburgh, 1915),
bad, 190i),
(Allaha-
3. Cf. Elliot, loc.
hi J ahVzfanu
al -Thaqafi , who was responsible
pp. 52-53
Islamic Culture, vol. xv, art. Arab Navigation,
11
b.
p. 205.
vol. iv.' Bk. Ii , p. 155.
cit .
p. 445.
1. TabarJ,
Al -Hadrami ,
1 2 I N D I A ' S
vol. i,
the
2. Tabarl,
pp. 2545 seq.; Ibn
adventurous governor of al-13ahrain.
!

vol. i, pp. 2548-49.
The" Musl i m army sustained a heavy loss in this
expedition which would have ended in a st i l l greater
disaster but for the t i mel y arri val of rei nforcement s
f r om al -Basra.
2

3. Ibid., p. 2822, quoted in 'Jlrabtin
Thi s sad i nci dent made a bad impres-
Culture, loc.
kt J aha z rani,
cit. Al-'Ala'
p. 53 ; also Islamic
sion on ' Umar
Bahrain (Tabari,
was punished with dismissal from his office in
wi t h regard to naval expeditions as a
whole. And when JYIu'awlya,
vol. i, p. 2548).
the governor of Syria and
Egypt , sought the sanction of the Cal i ph to undertake
a naval action against the Romans, he wrote, "
4. Bsiladhurf,
You
are well aware of the punishment inllicted, on this score,
on ' Al a'
5.
p. 432 =
b. al -Hadraml . "
3
The Arabs had yet hardl y
any ti me for acquiring efficiency in this art of f i ght i ng
on account of their pre-occupations elsewhere.
Taki ng it for granted that the Caliph' s approval
for naval expedition could not be had, ' Ut hmf m
al -Thaqafl vent ured upon t he Indi an expedition at his
own risk. But even the successful t ermi nat i on of t he
expedi t i on t o Thana could not satisfy the Cal i ph who
administered a sharp rebuke to ' Ut hma n.
of Thaqi f, "
" O
wrote the Cal i ph, "
brother

C O N T R I B U T I O N T O H A D I T H
thou hast put a worm
upon the wood. By Al l ah, I swear that if they had
been smi tten, I would have exacted from t hy tribe the
equi valent . "
4

As regards t wo other expeditions, the one against
Debal
Cf. Mu'jam
ended, according to the Chach-Ni?ma
y
i n
di scomfi ture for the Arabs, their General al -Mughl ra
being ki l l ed in the encounter. Thi s statement is not
t rue as Yaqut
5
has it t hat al -Mughl ra, t he l eader of t he
expedition, was alive as late as 29/650, if not later.
For i n t hat year he was allotted a plot of land by his
brother ' Ut hman
MurOtten,
al-Buldan,
p. 209.
al -Thaqafl at Shat t
al-Athlr,
ed. Wustenfeld (Leipzig, 1866),
4

vol . h\
290-91, &
L I T E R A T U R E
Uthman, on t he
pp. 264-65.
vol. iii,
v, p. 645.
pp.
& -JJJVI J\ u- ^ i c^i kill
Debal
2

shore
2. BaladhurT,
wSCuJa*l
1. TJt hman
of al-Baladhuri
of the Euphrates in al -Kasra,
TH E ADVENT OF TH E SAHABA
l oc.
al - Thaqafi
Mughira, (iii) l;Iafs
had f our br ot her s : (i)
and (iv) Umayya.
al-Hakam, (ii) al -
they came over t o al -Basra
During the Caliphate of ' Ut hman,
f
in
and sett led
the nei ghbourhood of al -Ubullah*
down. A fai rl y bi g area of land
on the shore of the Euphrates, was

IN INDIA
where his house was
built and was known as Mughlratan.
1

that al-Mughira was victorious at
stands.
3

granted to *Uthman al -Thaqafl and was known aft er his name Shaft
J l ^UJ I
c i t .
3. As the Arabic original of the Chach-Nama
' Ut hman or the coast of ' Uthman. ' Ut hman gave each of his brothers a
port i on of this land to bui ld hi s quart ers t herei n. Each house bore a
part i cular name aft er i t s owner. The quarters of al -Mughi ra was t hus
called Mughlratan. Similarly, the quarters of other brothers were known
after their names as Uakaman, Jlafsan
351-52, 3<>2 =
and Uma yvat an
Murgotten,
together with the
pp. 69, SG; M'u'jam
name of i t s aut hor has been lost beyond any hope of recovery, the
(Baladhurl,
al-Uuldin,
value of t he book as an aut hor i t y
vol . i. p. (>45).
becomes hi ghl y doubt f ul and con-
pp.
The
document aut hori zi ng t he grant of l and on behalf of Caliph ' Ut hman
sequently t he aut hori t y of al-Baladhuri
whi ch was wri t t en on t he 22nd of Jumada
in contrast wi t h t hat of the
C hack-Nam a
follows (Mu
becomes at once indisputable and unassailable. In the
j am
II , 29/February
al-Duldan,
light of the above, the depreciatory remarks of Dr. K.C.
Thus the version
650, reads as
vol. iii, pp. 290-91)
Majumdar
13
:
j>\ & ou w
(vi de
Cf. Isaba,
1. ' Abd Al l ah was attached to the Banu-1-Hubla,
Journal of Indian Hist ory, Madras, vol.
' Amr al - Tami ml ,
2

mi t e, has
Khari j i t eno
We have j us t not i ced how duri ng t he Cal i phat e of
' Umar
SAHABA
1 4 I N D I A ' S
p. 199.
of India,
2. A Compani on of the Prophet , ' Asi m b. ' Amr
vol. ii, pp. 817 s cq
Ansars in al-Madina.
a t r i be of t he
x, Part I, art . The
yet di sturbed the uni ty brought about by
the Prophet i n an earstwhi l e warri ng soci et y of Ar abi a.
Th e Compani ons to a man stood sol i d behi nd I s l a m.
Thei r sol e concern was t o del i ver t he mes sage of Isl am
to the manki nd at l arge. So i n the course
t he Arabs reached
of the illustrious Arab soldiers of early lalam
al -Taml mi
; Tajytd,
He was one of t he noblest of the Compani ons of
repri nt ed, Madras, 1931, pp. 28-29)
Arab Invasi on
of t wel ve
years of the Prophet' s demi se (i . e. , 23 A. H. )
I ndi a by l and and s ea. Thi s
peri od synchroni zed wi th the gol den
(Tabari,
vol. i,
played a conspicuous part in the conquest of
wa s one
under the celebrated Khalid
vol. i, p. 2500). He
b. al-Walid
al -' l raq where he f ought
(vol. i, pp. 2027, 2058 seq). He was

C O N T R I B U T I O N TO H A D I T H
IN INDIA DURING TH E CALI PHATE
OF UMAR
age of the Co m-
pani ons of the Prophet . No f act i onShi ' i t e
parti san s pi r i t Umayy ad
they ap-
peared, on t he one hand, beyond t he Ni l e and as f ar as
the I ndus, on the other. As a mat t er of fact, of t he
Compani ons who parti ci pated i n the I ndi an Ca m-
pai gns, t he f ol l owi ng names have come down t o us : (1)
' Abd Al l ah b. ' Abd Al l ah b. ' Ut ban,
1

(3) Suhar b. al -' Abdi ,
3

the historian Elliot {vide
and for t he mat t er of that
the Prophet and leading members of the Ansars (Tabari,
p. 345; Usd al-Ghaba,
the fi rst Arab General who overran t he t erri t ory west of t he Hel mund.
We also meet him on t he Indus Val l ey. Cf. Jbn
(Hyderabad, 1330 A.M.), vol. i i , p. 500 ; Tsaba,
' Abd al - Ba r r ,
3. Suhar belonged to the tribe of Abd
vol. ii, p. 014.
in al-Madina wi t h the deputation
al-Oai s. In
History of India, vol. i,
vol. i, p. 2035). In
21/641 he succeeded Sa d as governor of al-Kufa
8/ 030 he arri ved
f r om Huj r
pp. 415-10)
(Ibi d. , pp. 2008-09).
and embraced Is l am.
During the Caliphate of ' Dinar
regarding
Towards the close of this year he was transferred t o t he governorshi p of
he came over to al -Basra
al-Basra
the powers of the Arabs and their Caliph, do not bear any scrutiny since
and then he start ed his career of conquest in the East ern Persia
where he settled
L I T E R A T U R
or
or Has hi -
(2) ' Asi m
(4) Suhai l b.
they are based on the Chuch-Nama
and i n t he front i ers of Indi a. Hi s deat h-dat e has not been ment i oned.
vol. iii,
al-lalYyab
down. He participated in the eastern campaign. From his description
E
b.
.
J saba, vol. i,
i i , p. II ; Tajr.d, vol. i,
a)baid Mi ah
' Adi,
1

p. 707.
Cf. Tajrid,
Prophet (*~x\*>
303; I siba,
Cf. ltti'vab,
1. Suha. il belonged to the tribe of Azd and was attached to the HanQ
p 282 ; I sabel,
or the region cast of the Tndus as given above, it. i s evi dent
Ma-marai -Tamimi.
b. Al l ah b. Ma' mar
Consequentl y, the
Af t er thei r
SAHABA
and ( 5) aHI aka m
TH E ADVENT OF TH E SAHARA IX
vol. i
f

* J ) .
vol


a

3. ' Ubaid
p. 145; U*d
He was still living in 44/(H>4
vol. i i i , p. 22.
i, p. 578 ; Vsd
' I-Asbhal.
was thoroughly
t hat Suhar
a l - Ta ml mi
next Cal i ph ' Ut hman
first flush of vi ctory i n the region
extendi ng f rom Mukran to that part of Si nd whi ch
compri sed t he wes t of I ndus , t he
IN INDIA DURING TH E CALIPHATE OF
'UTHMAN
b. Abi
came
VA s
Al l ah, who l i ved i n al -Madl na,
al-Ghaba, vol. i i , p. 35 ; J stt'yab,
2. Al-JJakam
al-Ghaba
t

Of hi s suhbat
acquainted
who was
(Ibn Sa' d, vol.
was one ot
direct evidence.
(companionship) with the Prophet, we have no
wi t h t he t opography
those Sahuba
But since in 17/(>3!)
of the pJace
he
vi i , p. 27). lie
who migrated t o al -Bas ra
pai gn in al -jazlra
was a leader of the military cam-
Prophet, while
t ransmi t t ed Hadlt h
the lifetime ol
(Tabarl, vol. i, p. 2199),
He
Mu' awiya
on the authori t y of the
the Prophet ,
it may be assumed t hat during
b. Qurra
he was sufficiently fjrown
al-Muzani
up to have t he
(d. 113) had it from al -Haka
privilege of being a Companion particularly because of t he fact t hat hi s

INDIA
al - Thaqaf i
[23-35 /643-55]
Arabs ret i red af t er t he
nati ves had agreed to pay the usual tri bute. But t he
wi l d and warl i ke hi l l t ri bes coul d have hardl y been sub-
dued permanent l y. Evi dent l y, therefore, as soon as the
Arabs left the country they revol ted and stopped tri bute.
s e nt ' Ubai
Compani on of the Pr ophe t
3
to
in contact with the native people. He was a Xasibi,
and also
vol. i i , p. 472.
brothers were very much loyal to the Prophet. Thus Sahal
vol. iii,
belonged to the tribe of Thaqif. Al l t he adul t members of t hi s t ri be
(Tabarl, vol. i i , p. 80).
vol. i, p. 118 ;
of the Prophet. He t ransmi t t ed Hadi t h
was a younger Companion
embraced Islam before II A. 11. and participated wi t h the Prophet i n
al-Wada' , the farewell pilgrimage {J saba
t
vol. i,
reasonable doubt should, therefore, arise as to the bona
Harith b. ' Adi , ' Abd al
pr o' Ut hmani t e
and died in al -Hasra
Rahman b. ' Adi
p. 703). No
a Sah"ahi
f
probabl y i n the lat t er days of Mu' awl ya.
and Thabit
ide of his being
and count i ng hi s Ahadl t h
b. ' Adi , al -
b. ' Adi
Sa'd, vol. vi i , Part I , p. 01 ; al-lsti'yab,
fought in the
battle of Uhud.
as Mar f u' . Furt her, we have it on
t he aut hori t y of al -Dhahabi
vol. i,
Cf. Ibn
p. 322; Usd
What lends an addit i onal support to our assertion is
p. 22; Tajrid,
t hat al -Hakam
al-Ghaba, vol.
t hat a not i ce of hi m is seen in t he pri nci pal works of the Companion.
vol. i, p.
had companionship wi t h the
and was a man ot vast fort une.
15
.
2
d
i, p. 391, I saba,
Abd
'Abd a
hol d
bdue
5. Elliot, vol. i, loc.
1. The date of ' Ubaid
Cf. al-Isti ' yab,
near Kudbar
' Ut hman.
tion wi t h t he
b. Samura. Sahabi
4

ai - Rahman
I- Rah man b. Samura
t o Pari s and ' Uma i r
over the regi on appears to have t aken a permanent
footing. For, i n 296/30 ' Ubai d AJJah
not onl y
16 I NDI A' S C O N T R I B U T I O N TO H A D I T H
cit.
vol.
Allah' s appointment
He succeeded al - Rabl '
i n Mukran has not been
b. Zi yadal - Hari t hi
mentioned. From the context of the events
a s
governor of Si stan i n 31/650. The new governor was
in al-Tabarl ( vol . i , pp.
2828-29) it appears that immediat ely after his assuming oihee
Cali ph ' Ut hman sent him t o Mukran.
2. Tabari, vol. i, p. 2829,
3. Ibid., p. 2830.
4. He belonged t o t he t ri be of t he Ourai sh
the day of the conquest
and embraced Islam on
of Makka in 8,029
name of ' Abd al -Rahman,
when the Prophet gave hi m the
al-Ka' ba.
his prc-islamie name being ' Abd Ki lal or' Abd
In 9 030 he accompanied the Prophet t o the bat t l e of Tabuk.

L I T E R A T U R E
them.
1
On hi s arri val i n Mukran, ' Ubai d
crushed the rebellion in the teeth of a stiff
opposition but brought the terri tory extendi ng upto the
Indus under his control as wel l .
2

was transferred
b. ' Ut hma n
b. I Tabib
Shams b. ' Abd Manaf
who was menti oned i n connec -
Indi an campai gn duri ng t he Cal i phat e of
a
soldier of great dash and dri ve. Immedi at el y af t er he
had taken over the charge, he pushed eas t ward f rom
Zaranj and brought the regi on ri ght upto the f ronti ers of
Indi a under subjecti on. Advanci ng on the l ower waters
of the Hel mund,
on the f ronti er between modern Af ghani s -
tan and Bal uchi st an.
6

i i , p. G04;
vol. i i i , pp. 153 scq.
He t ransmitt ed Hadi t h on the authority of the Prophet and obtained the
6. K.C.
proud distinction of being Shaykh (t eacher in Hadith) of Ibn
Sa'id b. al-Mussiyyab, Ibn Sirln,
al-Hasan
' Abbas,
' Abd al-Kahman
al-Basrl.
b. Abl Laila and
Of his A hadith. one occurs i n the Sahlhan
another t wo in Muslim alone." Cf. Ibn
I at'yah, vol . i i , pp. 393-94;
Sa'd, vol . vi i , Par t
Usd al-Ghaha
t

ii . pp. 903-04;
and
II , p. 101;
vol . i i i , pp. 297-98; J saba,
Ibn Ha j a r , Tahdh h (Hyderabad, 1325). vol. vi,"
Usd al-Ghaba
t

v o l .
Khulasa,
Hencef ort h Arab
was appoi nted i n hi s
b.


c
Abd
was the next
he came i n conflict wi th the Indi ans
Thei r f i rst t ri umphal career l e
vol . Hi, p. 345; Tajnd,
i n 23/644
cf. supra, p. 5 and note 3 of p. 6.
p. 190;
p. 193.
Majumdar, op. cit., p. 15.
Al l a h
3
d
vol .
MarasiJ .
4
IrS.q,
1. Mu'jam
appoi nt ed hi m commander for t he Indi an front iers
in 48/668.*
Muhabbiq
The last Compani on of the Prophet we meet on
the fronti ers of Indi a was Sinan b. Sal ma
Sinan b.
SAHABA
al -Rahman
i nt o t he
situated in the terri tory of Sind.
1

an i dol of gold
them as far as Bust. Three
TH E ADVENT OF TH E SAM
IN
al-Buld'an,
al -Hudhal i .
4

Sal
temple and cut off a hand and took out the
rubies. But the gold and the
Ibn
2. Baladhuri,
vol. ii, p. 956 ; Lc
p. 394.
3. Ibid., p. 352.
4. He was born in 8 J?29 and was blessed by the Prophet who himself
conferred the name Sinan upon him. Therefore,
fide because the
he was Sahabi bona
Prophet saw him in his infancy (I saba, vol! i, p. 4).

ABA IN INDI
marches above Bust lay
a mount ai n containing a temple of Surya (Arab. Zur),
wi t h two rubies for the eyes. Thi s
mount ai n which became famous as al-Zur
Samur a
j ewel s were ret urned by
hi m to the astonished governor of the place saying,
"
retired to Zar anj . He died in 50/670 in
his residence at al -Basra
INDIA DURING TH E CALI PHATE
OF MU' AWIYA
ma al-Hudhall
b. al-
Zi yad, the governor
On proceeding to assume charge of his
funct i ons he conquered Mukran, founded ci t i es, set up
his residence and organized the revenue system of the
Ibn Hajar recognizes him as a junior Companion and as such includes his
name in the second sectionqism than!of his I saba {vol. i i , pp. 322-23).
So the traditions transmitted by Sinan direct from the Prophet are
His AhadTth have been preserved in the Sahihan,
Abu Dawud, Ibn Maja and al-Nasa'i {Khulasa,
p. 258 ; Usd al-Ghaba,
the Sunans
vol. ii, pp. 357-58
p. 132).," Ci.
5. Ibn al-'lmad,
I only wanted to show
you that it had no power
whatsoever to harm or to hel p.
1
'
2

; J sh'yab,
Shadharat al-Dhahab
Taj rul,
vo l ii. p. 56 .
was then
went
Now after his
successful penetration into the t erri tory of Sind 'Abd
where Sikka Ibn Samura
3
or
the street of Ibn Samura was called after his name.
[41-60/ 661-81
[8-531629-73
of al-
Strange, p. 345.
(Egypt, 1351-53 A. H. ) vol. i,
A
17
]
]
o f
vol. i .
p. 55.
yalqahu).
al-Buldan
during
2. Chach-Nama, p. 65.
1. Baladhuri,
Indi a duri ng t he Cal i phat e of Mu' awl ya.
AI-Muhal l ab,
Al-Muhallab
pl ace
1
t hus
3. Baladhuri, loc.
b. Abl
proved hi msel f a capabl e general and good
admi ni strator.
region : "
cit. : Elliot, vol
Sufra
But f or reasons unknown he was di s-
charged. Ras hi d b. ' Amr
i, p. 425. Topography of the
al -Judai dl
On the north-eastern frontiers of Makran, and close to the
Indian border the Arab geographers describe two districts ;
Turan,
namely,
of which the capital was Qusdar. and Budahah to the north of
this, of which the capital was Qanda'blf " (Le Strange, p. 331). " Qaudabll .
has been identified with the present Gandava, lying south of Sibi
of Kel at. "
and east
(Ibid. , p. 332). Budahah or Budh is no doubt the same as
Budha, and this principality seems to have included the districts of Balis
and Walistan. Cf. K.C. Majumdar, Arab I nvasion,

18 I NDI A' S C O N T R I B U T I O N TO I I A D I T H L I T E R A T U R E
of the tri be of Azd
who superseded hi m, however, fell i n acti on wi th the
Meds.
Khozdar i n Bal uchi st an) i n 53/ 673/
al-Azdi
who was a seni or Tabi 'l
As a general
p. 434=Murgotten,
Nama, p. 65.
p. 55.
4. A little confusion is observed regarding the death-date of Sinan.
According to Ibn Sa'd (vol. viii, Part 1, p. 154) who is corroborated by
later authorities on the Asm a* al-Rijal, Sinan died during the latter days
of al-Hajjaj (83-96/702-713). This seems to be absurd, for, both the Fulvh
and the Chack-AUrna are at one to record the death of Sinan
his campaign in the frontiers of India
appointment of al-Mundhir
and that he died before the
b. Jariid in his (Sinan's) place by 'Ubaid
Allah b. Ziyad (Ibn Sa'd, vol. vii, Part 1, p. til ; cf. Baladhuri, loc, cit.;
Chach-Nama, p. 65). Now al-Mundhir appears to be the first oihcer in
charge of the Indian frontiers since 'Ubaid Allah's appointment as gover-
nor of the eastern provinces (57-67/67G-K6) and as such al -Mundhir must
have been appointed in 57 A.11. Hence Sinan died before 57 A.H. As a
matter of fact, appointed second time
frontiers for two years. So his
i n 60
death
A. H. , Sinan ruled over the
Further, had Sinan died during akkiv walayat
Ibn
must have occurred in 63
al-Hajjaj\
Sa'd, the liqa\
A. H.
as asserted by
meeting between himself and Qatada (d. 117),
Traditionist, would have been established in.
them lived in al-Basra
the
view of the fact that both of
(cf. Tahdluh, s. v. Sinan b. Salmaand Qatada). But
the critics of Ruwat are of opinion that Qatada did never meet him (l am
Nor did he hear any Iiadith from Sinan (ibid. , vol. iv, p.241).
Therefore, the fact remains that Sinan had been martyred in the frontiers
of India some seven years before the birth of Qatada in 61 A.H.
6. As his name occurs in al-I stt'yab,
I n 50/ 670 Si nan was recal l ed and conf i rmed
to the post.
2
He gave as before a good account of
hi msel f by conqueri ng al - Oayqan
Usd al-Ghaba,
5

and Budh where he
rul ed for two years. He was ki l l ed at Qusdar
3

[8-83/629-702
vi si ted
p. 213; Elliot, vol. i
f

Tajrid and I sab
( mod.
]
p. 424; Chach-
a
Jo
Vide* Tabuqat,
Sahabt.
fc^ >&U
2. Briggs in his translation of the Tartkh-i-Firhhta
1. BaladhurT, pp. 396-07 ; I saba,
(s.v. al-Muhallab b. Abl
f ar as Lahor e
2

Si ji stan i n 43/ 663.
1

under ' Abd
TH E ADVENT OF TH E
\
SAM AC
}
vol. i, p. 4) states that al-Muhallab ' penetrated
(Calcutta, 1908,
Sufra),
Havi ng detached hi msel f f rom the
mai n army, he penetrated
a]-Rahma. n
/
\yt
N
JU SJ * J >
as far as Mooltan'. Rut
one i s apt to look upon hi m as a Com-
panion of the Prophet. But accordi ng

A IN INDIA
b. Samura, al - Mubal l ab
into the heart of Indi a wi t h
a troop mostly picked from his own tribe, the Azd.
Marchi ng on the border l and
and raided the country between it and
Bannu in 44/664.
3
The details of the rai d are nowhere
critics of the Asm
to the consensus of opinion of the
vol. ii, p. !W3
curiously enough, no such account i s found i n the ori gi nal Persi an text of
U
He, i.e., al-Muhallab reached Banna and al -Ahwar towns between
a* al-IUjal. al-Muhallab was a senior l abi ' i ,
He
and not a
transmitted Hadi th on the authority of the Compani ons of the
Multan and Kabul (Baladhuri,
Prophet, viz. 'Abd Allah b. *JCmar,
p. 432=
s
Murgotten,
*Abd Al lah b. '
p. 210). It is
Amr b. ul-'As,
Jundab and Bara' b. al -' Adhi b.
unfortunate that owing to the incorrect rendering whi ch has been freel y
Samura b.
whil e on his
quoted by historians and writers (e.g. Elliot, op. cit, vol . i i, pp. 414-15 ; M.
authori ty Abu Ishaq
Ti tus, Indian Islam,
Sabi 'yy, Si mak b. Harb and ' Uniar b. Saif al -Hasi T
was a reli abl e Ham.
Oxford, 1930. p. 48 ;
narrated
He was born i n 8/ 029
vol. ii, p. 1082,
in the last work, reference to
Briggs'
Hadi t h.
has Zaghi i l )
tr. is wanting) that the integrity of the historian Abu 'I
Firishta
and di ed at Katftiul
in Marw
has been exposed to unnecessary criticism (see K.C.
al-KiTdh,
op. cit, p. 18, note.)
3. Baladhuri, p. 432 =
a distri ct,
vol. vi i , Pt.
Murgotten, p. 210 ; Elliot, vol. ii, p. 414. The
I , p. 94; Nawawi ,
ed. Wustcnfeld
raiding ground, according to al-Baladhuri ,
(Gottingen, 1842-47),
(Hyderabad,
was Banna and al - Ahwar.
Banna is no doubt
TtiJ ullnb
1325 A IT.),
the present Bannu i n N. -W.
p. r>K2 ; Tbu
AswW
vol. v, pp. 328-29
Fronti er Provi nce, but the
Hnjar, Tnhdlnb
; Tim
A.II.), vol. i i ,
al-Tahdhxb
Khallikan
pp. 1-15
identification of al -Ahwar has given rise to difference of opinion among
modern
(Cairo, 1310
seq. The Ahadi th
been produced
historians. Elliot (loc.
transmi tted by al -Muhall ab have
i n the Sitnans
cit), B. Meynard.
of Abu HawUd
al-Tirmidhl
the work (cf. Tanhh~i~Firishfa
t

p. 118), S. Sul ayman Nadawi
and al-Nasa'T.
and the Mttsnad
ed. Newul
Dictionnaire
(vide Fitt'ith
of Ahmad b. Hanbal
Kishore Press, Lucknow,
de la Perse,
al-Baldan
Dar-al-Musannifi n,
1874,
the /ami'
(Khn/Tisa,
p. 1G). The translator must have derived the information from al -Bal a-
in possession of
A'zamgarh,
of
dhurl's Vutvh
p. 333). For
further particulars about him, see J iiii-y.
al-Huldan,
marginal note on p. 432) identify it with
Lahore, whereas K.
al-
He
uj Islam,
(Tabari,
vol. ii, pp. (540-41
the earliest source on the subject, but, we are
C. Majumdar
;
Qas i m
came t o
of Kabul , he advanced as
of Khorasan.
al-Lughat
Islamic Cul ture, Hyderabad, vol. xvi i , No. 1 (January, 1943), pp. 1-14.
afrai d, he has not been abl e to fol l ow the Arabi c text whi ch runs thus :
Majumdar,
(loc. cit ), failing to locate the spot, takes
19
.
al-\ f
AJ-Ahwaz
i t t o have been
mat t er of fact di d not beginuntil
their stay here
panions of the Prophet that
one of the aforesaid war -prisoners.
Though a number of Sahaba
Indi an ori gi n. In t he
family of al-Muhall. ib,
b. Salim
uhallab
question relat ing to Asma'
available. Fort unat el y,
20 I N D I A ' S
was t he capi t al of Khuzi st an
a t own somewhere near Hannu.
(Le Strange, p. 233) and as
This di fference may be

C O N T R I B U T I O N TO H A D I T H
Fi ri shta gi ves us an i mpor t ant
piece of i nfor mat i on incidentally
al-Rijal
y

carried away wi t h hi m f r om Indi a t wel ve
thousand prisoners of whom some embraced Islam
inasmuch as al -Khat i b
al-Sindi
was a distinguished Rawi
l i ght of t he above, we can safel y
presume that Khal af might
vi si t ed Indi a, as has
been seen above, they coul d not do t he work of Hadi t h
transmission to this count ry not wi t hst andi ng the fact
t hat t hey must have had with
they were, because ei t her
was too short or they di d not find perma-
nent Mus l i m colonists to whom they could bequeath
the science. Anyway, the details to this effect are
lacking. In
the ninet i es of the
fi rst cent ury of t he Hi j r a when Si nd was brought under
t he Musl i m sway.
explained away by variants in the reading of the place in the original MSS.
such has nothing to do with I ndia. Omitting the dot on
4
)'
al-Ahwar
the oft-repeated
becomes the same as al-Ahwaz and is accounted for duo
slip of th*
1
scribe of the ori gi nal MS. The identification
t o t h e
of Ahwaz wi t h
of the Futuh
Lahore, may, in our opinion, be safely dismissed. In
al-Buldan, vi z. al-Ahwaz,
the circumstances
al - Anwar
t here i s no other alt ernati ve l eft but t o i dent i fy Luhawur
Buldan,
and Luhawur
ed. De Goej e, p. 432, note), Luhur
wi t h Lahor e.
Both Yaqut (Joe.
(Marasid
Goeje) and Lahur
cit. ) and Cunningham [Ancient Geography of India, ed.
(Mu'jam
Pat na, 1924,
al -Baghdadi
(d. 231), a Mawla
have been
them Ahadlth,
a l lttila*
al-Buldan, vol. i,
pp. 226*27)
[Vutuh al-
L I T E R A T U R E
t hrowi ng light on a
namel y, that
has i t that Kha l a f
(client) of the
a descendant of
the Com-
the circumstances, the work of Ha di t h
transmission coul d not begin in ri ght earnest as
ref. by De
p. 747).
support our assert i on.
a
1.
Section
Nicholson, A Literary History of the Arabs (Cambridge, 1928),
coast to Debal
Sind, now
f r om al -Basra
JL the nineties of the first century A.II .
I. Arab Colonies
I I ADI T H
pp. 4-5,
and thence right up to MultSn
vi a Shirfiz,
quoting from A. Muller's
vol. i, pp. 24seq
Der I slam I m
; Sayyid Sulayman
Morgen
Nadawi, 'Arab
(Allahabad. 1930), p. 7 ; Tara Chand,
(Allahabad. 1936), p. 29.
2. Vide supra, p. 6 ; R.C.
3. Baladhurl,
Majnmdar,
p. 437 = Murgotten,
op. ci t. ,
p. 218.

CHAPTER II
LI TERATUR E IN SIN D
TH E ARAB S
in Sin
ME foundation of an Arab pri nci pal i t y i n Si nd
was an
epoch-maki ng event in t hat it t hrew the gates of the
terri tory open to the Arabs. Besides the sea-route with
which the}
7

Kirmfin
came into use more and more.
2
So, both by
land and sea, Sind was linked up wi th Arabia and the
communicati on between these neighbouring countries
became very much faci l i tated. Through these routes
numerous Arab i mmigrants poured into Sind since its
conquest in 93/711 by Muhammad b. al-Oasim
were
dotted wi t h their settlements.
1
Li ke their compat ri ot s
in South India, these Arab settlers set up themselves
as merchant s and formed the via
of Indi a and the worl d outside.
5

4. Nadawi, op. cit., pp. 304 seq ; Elliot, vol. i, p. 468.
had already been acquainted ever since their
commercial relations wi t h India,
1

and Mukrfln
media of commercial
intercourse between Sind and the neighbouring
Influence
6. Arnold,
Und
n>a Hind
The
UNDE R
the land-route issuing
coast t o
who
encouraged the Arabs to colonize the newly conquered
t erri t ory.
3
They spread over the country, and almost
all the harbours and i mport ant towns from MukrSn
countries
Abendland,
Ki Ta'alhtqat
of I slam on I ndian Culture
Preachings of I slam (London, 1935), p. 273: Elliot,
d
i n
p. 45.
vol. i, p, 467.
Tur an
1. Chach-Nama,
b. ' Abd al-Malik
and al -IIadi t h,
and Qandabil.
2

b. al-Qasim
soldiers who settled down in Sind,
Apart f r om the colonists there were also
22 IXDIA'S
p. 192.
2. Nad
(86-96/705-14). Furt her, several
Compani ons of the Prophet, too, came to the region
west of t he Indusa
f ound
stationed at Mul t an alone ' nearl y
swell ing the Arab
popul at i on of the t erri t ory. The vastness of their
number may be gauged
CONTRIBUTION
awl, op. cit., pp. 309 secj;
TO
50,000
horsemen as a permanent force. '
1
There were other
places of the like mi l i t ar y i mportance, viz., Mansura,
Alor,

IIADITH
Arab
f r om t he fact that Muhammad
etc., where evi dent l y Arab forces were posted on
a permanent basis.
Thus arose and flourished in the far eastern territory
of the Caliphate several Arab colonies of which the
principal were Mansura, Mul tan, Debal,
These colonies early became seats o f
Isl ami c l earni ng i n Si nd.
Section I I . Transmission of I slamic Learning to Sin
In the wake of the advent of the Arab soldiers
and i mmi grant s, earl y Isl ami c learning, viz., al -Qur ' an
i t s way t o Si nd. It was probably
brought to the west of the Indus earl i er t han to t he east
and that as a result of the difference in the t i mi ngs of
the advent of the Muslims in those regions. In 23/643,
during the Cali phate of' Uma r
and Budaha, t he t erri t ori es compri si ng the west
of the Indus and wi t hi n a l i t t l e more t han t wo decades,
these became a part of the eastern Caliphate, whi l e the
east was conquered at a later date in the days of Wal l d
fact which strengthens our belief
that Islamic sciences were at least brought, if not
i nt roduced, there. But to thist here is, however, no
allusion.
The first direct recorded evidence of Islamic
sciences being brought to Sind and their subsequent
Elliot,
Sinddn,
LI TERATUR
Qusdar
the Arabs overran MukrSn,
E
d
vol. i, p. 465.
Uchh
1. Chach-Nama,
Malik(96-99/714-17)
appears to have l ong enj oyed reput at i on for
learning and scholarshi p as is evidenced f r om the fact
that as late as 613/1216, Ismfi'il
Thaqafl
and was appointed Qadi
7. Musa
the (JurYm
on whom al-Hajjfij
disseminat ion there dates f r om the conquest of
Muhammad b. al-Qasim.
b. \Ali
2. Ibid.,
p. 78.
and the Sunna
p. 79; also infra, No. 1.

IIADITIT
We are t ol d that among
Arab soldiers were many readers of the OurYin
enj oi ned 'to
Nor was that al l . Several men versed in ihc
accompani ed Muhamma d
to Sind.
2
Henceforth, with the influx of the Arabs,
t here came to be settled in Si nd learned men also to
whose labour and love of knowledge was probabl y
responsible the growth of the seats of Isl ami c l earni ng
i n t he Arab coloni es.
Now, a reference to some of the out st andi ng
personalities of those learned men who carried with them
Isl ami c sciences, part i cul arl y 1
t o be cal led for here.
b. Ya
L
qub
He accompanied Muhammad b. al-Q. lsim
of Alor
who settled permanent l y in Si nd was hi ghl y
learned i n t he Sunna of the Prophet.
3
His
al -Thaqafi ,
2. Yazld
al-Dimashqi
On his becomi ng Cal i ph, SuJaiman
recalled Muhammad
Si nd and appointed in his pl ace Yazld b. Abi
3. Chach-Nama. pp. 186-87 ; Elliot, vol. i, pp. 134. 20?
ladith
b. Abi
b.
*.
LITERATURE IN SIND UNDER TH E ARABS 23
(qurra
1
)
be busy reading it /
lore of
l i t erature, seems
al-Thaqaf
t o Si nd
by the latter. Al -
f ami l y at
a
descendant of his, ' was a mi ne of l earni ng and a soul
of wi sdom, and there was no one equal to hi m in
science, piety and el oquence. '
Kabsha al-Saksak
[ d. 97/775
b. 'Abd
Qasi mf r om
Kabsha
El l i o t , p. m
1

}
4

l
]
al-
i
,
.
1.

i n

Baladhurl,
witnessed in al-'Irfiq.
that brought
3. Al-Muftidclal
Muhammad b. al -Hasan
occur in the Sahlh
Mu'awiya
Marwan b. al - l l akam,
4

Ahadlth
who, however, could not live long in Sind. On the
eighteenth day of his arri val here, he di ed.
1

Yazid was a Tabil.
24 I NDI A' S
p. 282.
hi m
2. Tajrid,
p. 442=Murgotten,
In his ant i -Umayyad designs,
Yazid b. al -Muhal lab succeeded in gaining support from
al -Kufa
b. al-Muhallab
b. Qur r a
the Companions of the Prophet.
He has been reckoned as a thiqa,
f rom Abu
vol. ii, p. 170
p. 225 ; Ibn
and al -Basra.
al-Muzani
reliable authorit y, by
the critics of t he Tradi ti ons. Amongst hi s pupi l s Abu
Bishr,
' J-DardaY
3. Ibid., vol. i,p. 273.
He
and Ibrahi m al-Saksak
al -Hakam
4. Ibid.,
achieved remarkable i ni t i al
successes. For, the rule of the Caliph in the provinces
of Fari s,
b. al -' Ut ai ba,
p. 75.
5. Tahdhib,
al-Ahwaz,
Newul
vol. xi,
Ki r man
Kishore
pp. 354-55:
and Qandabi l
Press, I/iicknow,
Ibn Hajar,
p. 399.
6. Khulasa,

C O N T R I B U T I O N TO I I A P I T H
He
Shurahbll
'All
were noted transmitters of Hadl t h.
5

of al-Bukharl,
al -Shaibanl
by al -Haki m
b. Abi
In 102/721, during the Caliphate of Yazid b. ' Abd
Circumstances al-Malik
rising headed by Yazid b. al -
a former Governor of KhunlsSn,
(part of Si nd)
as far as the banks of the Indus
8
was overthrown and
there Yazid appointed his own men. In order to suppress
the rebellion, the Caliph sent his brother Maslama b.
'Abd
al-Athlr,
Jihad, p. 111.
p. 373; cf. al-Jami'
'
al-Sahth,
7. Tahdh. b, loc.
i
Snfra [cl.
c i t .
&
L I T E R A T U R E
received a good many
b. Aws
b. aJ-Aqmar,
His AhfidTt
Kitab al-Athar
and al-Mustadra
al -Nai sabun
702/727
(101-05/720-24), a serious
MuhalJab
al -Mal i k. A hard lighting decided the day against
Yazid b. al -Muhal l ab who along wi t h his sons was
vol. iv,
Taqrib al-Tahdhib,
ed. Egypt, Kitab al-
Elliot, vol. i, p. 440.
' and
h
by
k
.
]
,
was
.
ed.
al-Sind
6. Tajrid,
3. Supra, p. 18
1. For their names, vide Tbn
Abu Musa
4. Abu Muscl
and Jarl r
the Prophet.
6
His
t he aut hori t y of al -Nu' man
ai-Muhaiiah,
Ai-Mufaddai
appeared there in pursuit of t hem. The brave sons of
al -Muhal l ab, however, did not surrender themselves and
most of the leading members fell
thither. Wadda'
boat to Qandabi l
2

slain. The
TIADITTT LI TERATTRE
.
a
t>.
vol. ii, p. 116.
7. Tahdfvb,
4. Baladhurl,
was a reliable rftwl
I &ra'tl
son Haj i b,
Sind,
b. l l ami d ,
surviving
IX SIND
loc.
vol. x ,
5. His Ahadith
ci t. ; l bn
b. Milsa
al -Mufaddal has been singled
p. 275.
8. Ibid. ; Taqnh.
al-Nasa'I
al-Athir.
p. 362.
loc, cit.
9. PhahabI, Mtzan, vol. i,

I'NDER
member s
(modern Gandava), a north-western
province of the then Sine!.
3

t he Governor of Qandabi l
who owed his office to Yazid b. al -Muhallab,
treacherous when the Caliph' s agent, Ilihll
lighting
end.
4

Among al -Muhal lab' s
out as a t ransmi t ter of Hadi t h . He
was a Tabi'i
b. Bashlr,
Thabi t al -Bunanl
b. Hfizim
al -Mufaddal /
Al -Mufadda l has been regarded by Ibn
reliable.
8

al-Basrj
[d. cite.
He was a native of al -Basra.
and t ransmi t t ed
Hadi t h on the aut hori t y of al -Hasan
2. Baladhurl,
al-Athlr,
have been recorded in the Sunan*
(Khulasa,
p. 97 ; Tahdhib
p. 441 =
TH E ARABS 25
of his f a mi l y
1
lied
But death pursued them
proved
b. al -Taml mi ,
to the bitter
sons ki l l ed at Qandabil in
and narrated Il adl t h
a Compani on of
(d. 127)
narrated Hadi t h on t he aut hori t y of
Hi bban
and other critics of the Science of Tradi t i o n as sadug,
Nazll
155/771
Perhaps as a trader
he came to Sind and set up his residence there as is
evident from his nickname Nazll al-Sind
al -Basr
Murgotten,
of Abu Dawiid
p. 330).
(vol. i, p. 261) has Nazll
by
on
]
?
l
vol . v, p. 41.
p. 226.
and
al-Hind .
' Amr
Bahill,
6. Tahdhib,
1. Sam'anI,
6. Al-Rab%
It i s i nt erest i ng t o not e t hat
c
Amr,
was a brother of Qut ai ba
5. 'Amr
were among hi s pupi l s.
1
Al-BukharT
b. ' Uyai na (d. 198) and Yahya b. Sa' ld
(d. 110) and Abu Ilazim
26 I N D I A ' S C O N T R I B U T I O N TO H A D I T I T
s. v., Isra'Il
fol.
b. Musa
593a ; Tahdhib, l oc .
vol. via, p. 105.
2. Khulasa,
; Ma'arif,
ci t. ; Taqrib,
b. SabiJt
a hazardous life
despite l eading
b. Muslim al-
b. Muslim al-Bcthili
quotes one of Abu Mu s a s
al -Qattan
al-Ashja'i:
p. 31.
al-Sa'di
of a soldier, cultivated, to a certain
extent, the Science of Tr adi t i o n as he is credi t ed to
have narrated Hadi t h
the famous conqueror of Transoxanin.
3
He
came t o Si nd as a governor of Cal i ph ' Uma r b .
t r adi t i ons i n
as many as four different places of his Sahjh.
(d. 115). His
4
Aziz
' Abd al-
3. Baladhuri,
4
Ubai d,
on the aut hori t y of Ya'la
(99-101/717-19) and is said to have conducted
some successful rai ds i nt o al -Hi nd.
4

Ahadith
4. Ibid.
while Abu M-Tahir
ft
received it from hi m.
' Amr' s

L I T E R A T U R E
r ank
as a traditionist may be had from the fact that such
master traditionists as Sufyan al-Thawrl
(d. 198)
have also been preserved in the Sunan
His
[d. cite.
It was duri ng his
tenure of office that many kings i ncl udi ng Jai si nha,
death-date is not known. He, however,
died later t han 120/738 as he was


l
Amil
al-Basri
A Tradi t i oni st and one of the early authors of
p. 362 ; Nuzha,
5. Ibid.; Elliot, vol. i,
7. Taban,
b.
(d. 161), Sufyan
works.
2

123/740)
son of Dahar, accept ed Isl am in response to an appeal
made to them by t he Cal i ph.
himself is said to have
over Marw at
the time.
7

[d. 1601776]
vol. xxii, No. 4, p. 251.
p. 400Murgotten,
p. 440 ; Arnold, op. cit., p. 272.
5

*
vol . i .
p. 152.
vol. ii, p. 1C61 .
3o,
aUTahdhxb.
have us believe, Cf. Tahdhib,
the active (t^i^**)
Al-Baladhuri
according
7. Tabarl,
6. Shadkarat,
4. Barbad (Elliot,
Del hi , 1290), p. 133.
3. Abu
1. J lujJ
Il adi th,
1

IIADITII LITERATURE
a n

d

n o

t

i n

t o l bn
Ilafs,
IN SIXD
the passi ve (J^at^o)
Murgotten
(p. 369) corroborates lbn
Sa'd, al -Rabi'
loc. cit. l bn
vol. i. p. 446, has Barada) has been identified
according to lbn
Khalifa. KashJ
al -Rabi '
a s
with
al-Zumm,
Sa'd verbatim. Unfortunately,
died in the open sea and was buried in
Sa'd (vol. vii, Part I, p. 36,
the present Bhiirbhut,
Sa'd, vol. vii, Part I, p. 30, which Tara
ed. Fluegel
b. Sabl h
P- 18)
in his translation of the Futuh
an island. It is not, however, explicit from the text quoted above whe-
.
5. TabarT.
near Broach in Gujarat (Nadawl,
(London, 1842), vol. iii,
surnamed
entire text devoted to al -Rabi's
al-Buldan
ther the death occurred on the way to or back from the Indian expedition.
vol. iii, pp. 460, 476-77
p. 28.
2. His father's name has been variously represented as Subh
Abu Bakr
3

; l bn
dhuri,
(Bala-
as its narrator al-Ilasan
has confused the
Butl bn' I mad
p. 369=Murgotten,
c a me
to I ndi a i n 160/ 776 al ong wi t h a naval squadron under
' Abd
Chand,
p. !W
Baladhuri,
Indian expedition by associating with it
(Shadkarat,
; Yaqut,
al -Mal i k
al -Basrl (d. 110) (cf. Murgotten, p. 96=
loc. cit.). presumably on this authority, goes
vol. iii, pp. 397-98),
b. Shi hab al - Mi sma' i
p. 396) who predeceased al -Rabi' by half
op. ci t. p. 46) and Ibrahim (lbn Khaldun,
Sahib (Tara
that attacked
Barbad
4
duri ng t he Cal i phat e of al - Mahdl
5

TartMt,
however, is that al-Rabl'
a century. The fact,
"ed. Egypt,
(158-69/775-
85). Th e Arabs conquered Ba r ba d, then a f l ouri shi ng
port.
6
But t hey

UNDER TH E ARABS 27
had to pay very dearl y for the
success. Fo r , pri or to thei r sai l i ng homeward, they
hal ted there f or somet i me i n the expectati on of f avour-
abl e weather. In
vol. iii, p. 209). For the correct name and its reading see Taqrxb, p. 77 ;
Chand (loc. cit.) misreads as Abu Hifs
op. cit.
#

al -Athl r,
vol. i, p. 247.
says (^o^J
a step forward and asserts that al-Rabi*
transmitted Il adi th on the authori ty of Hasan
Murgotten would
vol . i i i , p. 247.
FattanI, al-Mughnt
the meant i me, pl ague broke out i n
the coastal pl aces, taki ng a heavy tol l of the Arabs .
Al -Rabi
6

f t Dah\
al-Basrl and this is conveyed by ^^^. M^JI
al-Rijal
vo l . v,
^
was one of the many who fell vi ct i ms to
(lithographed on the margin of Taqrx
p. 19; l bn
Khaldun, loc. cit.
died while returning(J{j^^J\^)
the verb being
b
.
1)
#

i n
Ta'hqUt
Now.
Th a b i t
Ha s a n
al-Bukhart
t

who states that al-Rabl' died in Sind proper (WX^MJI
the statement of Tbn Sa'd
and their Muhaddithu
Section I I I .
( d. 198)
al - Ta yal i s l
(d. 181),
t r ansmi t t er s of Tr adi t i ons , al -Kabi *
al - Buni l nl
Tr adi t i oni st s of his age, viz., I l am
Ha di t h.
al - Bas r i
Al - ! \ abi \
28 IXDIA'S
J pj\
1. Tahdhtb.
O^
0
)
that al-Rabl'
n
Al t h o u g h i n t r odu c e d i n t he second c e nt ur y A. H. ,
as s hown above, t he s t udy of Ha di t h
Centres
(d. 203) and ' Abd
Suf yan a l - Th a wr l ,
(d. 127),
id a l - Ta wl l
He
a ni l i v c
CONTRIBUTION*
Sabih.
.
al s o
TO
vol. iii, pp. 247-48; Mizan
died in the
of Hadith
a l - Ra h ma n
Wa ki '
Muj a hi d
a c qui r e d t he Sc i e n c e
of a l - Ba s r a ,
HADIT H
& Lisan,
open sea is in
s.v., al-Rabl'
conflict with that of al-Tabari who holds that his death took place at Bar-
b.

LI TERATUR
was a disciple of al-
( d. 110) under wh o m he s t udi ed
f r o m t he l e a d i n g
(d. 142),
b. Jabar (d. 103)
and ot her s. Among his c on t e mp o r a r y Ruutft
occupi ed a hi gh
pl ace. Th e cel ebr at ed ' Ab d Al l a h b. a l - Mu b a r a k
(d. 197), Abu Dawf l d
b. a l - Ma hdi
we r e a mongs t hi s pupi l s t r a ns mi t t i n g Ha d i t h o n
hi s a ut hor i t y.
1
Fu r t he r , he wa s one of t he pi oneers i n
the field of col l ect i ng and codi f yi ng Ahadi t h in the
s econd cent ur y A. II.
Learning
i n Si nd doe s n o t
appear t o have ma d e mu c h headwa y u n t i l t he f o u r t h
c e nt ur y whe n great ent hus i as m p r e va i l e d a mo n g n a t i v e
s t udent s t o s e e k hi ghe r knowl edge of t he s ubj ec t abr oad.
The slow growt h of Hadi t h l earni ng in Si nd dur i ng
ear l y cent ur i es of I s l a mi c r ul e ma y be a t t r i bu t e d t o
bad. Of the two statements, the latter is circumstantial and as such
The Ahadith narrated by al-Rabl' have been recorded i n al -
the Sunans
p. 98; cf. Sunan
p. 204).
2. Ilajl Khalifa, op. cit., pp. 80-81 ; Ibn Hajar, Muqaddimat
(Cairo, 1347), vol. i, p. 4 ; Tahir al-Dimashql,
pp. 7-8; al-KhawlI, M'iftah
al-Fr.th
Tawjth al-Na.ar (Cairo, 1910)',
al-Smma (Cairo, 1921), p. 21. Notices
of his biography will also be found in Bilgrami's
bay, 1303) and Hakim 'Abd al-Hayy's
Subhat al-Marjan
b. Sablh
better entitled to be accepted. Further al-Tabari
(Bom-
and Ytid-i-Ayyam,
Nuzha,
authorities like Muhammad b. al-Muthaniia
of Abu DawHd
Vol. i, s.v. al-Rabr
ed. Lucknow,
the*
is corroborated by early
p. 347) and Bukharl
Ibn Maja,
pp. 5-6. In the last named book,
author misrepresents al-Rabl'
(d. 252), (Tahdh'tb,
(d. 256)
and Tbn Maja {Khultisa,
ed. Faruql
as a Tabi'I
(Kitaba l-Du-'afa
vol. iii,
al-Saghir,
Press, Delhi, Kitab
and thi s has been wi dely
quoted by later writers. Cf. Ma'arif,
Hadith,
Agra, 1323.
al-J ihUd,
vol. xxii, No. 4,
E
"
p. 11)
p. 251.
Si n
l ai ned
as
1. II.C.
f r om t i me
st udy of I l adi t h
pr osper i t y
pendent Ar ab r ul e
talf
good G
d
Th e f ounda t i on of t he t wo i ndependent Ar a b
pr i nci pal i t i es i n Mul t an
of t he di f f i cul t i es f aci ng
al - ' I ni q
i n cont act wi t h
t he cent r al Go v e r n me n t ;
a mat t er of f act , t he st at us of Si nd
under t he Uma y y a d
t ai ned due t o t he l ack
f or t hei r gr owt hcoul d
i nt e r nal secur i t y of t he c ou nt r ys o
t wo r easons : (1) T h e c i r c u ms t a n c e
HADITH
vol . i ,
Kay, Dynastic
or ot her pl aces of t he Cal i phat e, as it l ay at a
great di st ance wi th
pp. 11-1ft
History Nort/irrn
no easy me a n s
.
India
2. Al-Haladhuri, pp. 442, 4 4 5 ^1 in not ion,
ft. Al-HashshaiJ

LI TERATUR E IN
s
abl e f or t he c ul t i va t i on of ar t a nd l i t e r a t ur e ,
essent i al a f a c t o r
not have al ways been ma i n -
of st abl e a nd st r ong Go ve r n me nt
and t he ' Abbas i d
i n t he east ern
Cal i phat e was mor e of a f r ont i e r out post ( t ha ghr )
2
t h a n
t hat of a t e r r i t or y so as t o
a n d (2) Si nd coul d not come
t he s eat s of I s l a mi c l ear ni ng i n Ar a b i a ,
of c o mmu n i c a t i o n .
Save ent er pr i s i ng t r ades men and advent ur ous col oni st s,
nobody dar ed under t ake t he hazards of sea or l and-
rout es l e adi ng
a t r avel l er t o
and Ma n s u r a
o f t he t h i r d cent ur y ushered i n an era of
Dver nment
wa s a l a ndma r k i n t he hi s t or y of t h e i r
t hree hundr ed ye a r s '
r ei gned ever ywher e i n t he count r y as evi -
denced by t he account s of t he i t i ner ant s vi s i t i n g t he p r i n -
)gress the
made was due, p r i ma r i l y , t o t he
i nt er nal securi t y br ought about by these Gove r nme nt s .
As a mat t e r of f act , dur i ng t hi s per i od great e nt hus i as m
was ma r ke d a mo n g t he
(Calcutta,
ed. De Goej e
al-Maqdisii,
Ahsan al-'J"aqastm
t o t he t e r r i t or y. Eve n i n t he f o u r t h
cent ur y ai - Maqdi s i ,
ft Ma'rifat
(Leyden, 1900), p. 474.
4. Nadawi ,
SIND UNDER TH E ARABS 2
because t he
Cal i phs.
1
As
t he f a mous Syr i a n Geogr aph
t owards t he
i n Si nd. Th e per i od of t hi s i nde-
suzerai nt y over Si nd. Peace and
Si ndi a n st udent s t o seek a b r o a d
hi gher st udi es i n I l a d i t h l i t er at ur e. We have i t on
1931),
pp. 22r>26,
al-Aqalim,
op. cit., pp. 309 seq, 345 ; Elliot, vol. i , pp. 454-57.
9
f avour
3
N
2ft0-ftl .
tu Mtzan,
area.
1 0

tctlibti
vol. i, p. 272.
1. Sara'an
Some i dea of i t s popul at i on may be had f r om
the number ki l l ed by an earthquake in 280/ 893 duri ng
the Cal iphat e of al -Mu' t adi d
built a mosque and settled 4,000
conquest of Muhammad b.
al -Sam' anl ,
al-
c
Iraq,
al-Daybul),
f r om Abu ' Ut hman
Indi a {bilad
30 I NDI A' S
I, Ansab, foi l .
6. Elliot, vol. i, pp. 374 scq
2. K.g.
347a, 347 b.
we have, in his Kitab
al-Hind)
; Cunningham, Amicnt
at Mansura,
Geography oj
sec infra, p. 38.
I ndia,
ed. S.N. Majumdar (Patna, 1924), pp. 340 seq ; Kaveity, JASB,
317 seq ; Haig.
1892, pp.
I ndus Delta Country '.London,
of the Province of Sind (Hombay,
1894), pp. 44 seq ;
391.92 .
1919)
7. Nadawi,
Gazetteer
loc. ci t.
8. Baladhuri, p. 437==Murgotten
l


CONTRIBUTION:
the aut hori t y of al -Sam' anl
went to Nishapur
al -Sabuni
savant.
1
Thi s was not aJJ.
Mansura and Ousdar,
'l-ilm
Khurasan and even Egypt in quest of Hadi t h.
And by the fourth century a halqa
and oral transmission of Hadith
was noticed. Thanks to the indefatiguable
al-Ansab,
(I) S T UD Y OF H A D I T H AT D E B A L
A cel ebrat ed harbour occupyi ng a site between the
present That t a and Karachi ,
6
Debal , duri ng t he Arab
rule, had an extensive sea-borne trade wi t h forei gn
countries.
7
It s i mport ance under Isl am
al -Oasi m
colonists there.
8
A centre
of t rade and commerce, Debal gradual l y became l argel y
populated by t he Arabs.
9

(279-89/892-902),
3. E.g. at. Debal. Vide Tarikk
13, vol. i, p. 53 ; Nadawi,
9. Nadawi, loc. cit.
10. K.C.
(d.
TO HADI T H L I T E RAT U R E
566) that scholars from
to hear Hadi t h
(373-449), the Shafi' ite
Hai l i n g f r om Debal
a band of ardent
travelled extensively in Arabi a, Syri a,
was established
2

was in progress in
Si nd.
3
Even some exchange of Tradi t i oni st s between
Debal and Baghdad,
4
and Mansura and Khurasan


5

labour of
a list of
t he Sindian st udent s reading abroad in Musl i m lands.
dat ed from the
(93-96/711-14)
It was a ci t y of considerable
whi ch
Baghdad, vol. viii, p. 333.
4. Ibid
op. cit., pp.
Majumdar, op. cit., p. 57.
( Ar .
wh o
.
p. 218.
na' s
'Abd
4. See infra.
3. Mu'jam
1. Suyutl.
Mubarak' s
b. 'Abd
Kitdb
Apart from l l adi t h,
(teachers), all
Allah al-DaybulJ,
in Hadlth
The Jirst Dcbalese
/. Abu Ja'far
of Mansura
dent Arab rule, Debal
was estimated at one lac
IIADITII
5. Ibn
*.
al-Bui
Tavtkh
ai-Nadlm,
dan, vol. ii,
2. Maqdisi,
al-Khulafa*,
Kitdb
al -Rahman
al-Tafsjr*
Abu J a' f ar
of whom died by the
surnamed Abu Ja' far.
al-Daybull
and had one hundred villages attached to it .
2
Side by side with
and a half.
1

LI TERATUR E IN
Kitab aUFihfist
He
SIND
al-Birr wa

UNDER TH E ARABS 31
Under
was a port of the pri nci pal i t y
the commercial and admi ni st rat i ve
activities of the Arabs, there went on the disseminat ion
of Islamic learning. The position of Debal was suitable
for the purpose inasmuch as it was linked up by the sea-
route with Musl i m lands from where scholars of enter-
prise arrived there. The local institutions apparently
housed in mosques provided for instructions in religious
sciences. Although prior to the t hi rd century the
cultural activities of the Arabs do not seem to have
developed to any appreciable extent, nevertheless an
interest for HadTth literature had already been created
at Debal resulting in the production of a number
of Ruwdt
TRADITIONISTS OF DEBAL
[ d. 322/934
who went out for higher studies
literature was Muhammad b. Ibrahi m b.
repair-
ed to Makka and read with some noted Makkan
forties of the t hi rd
century A. H. ,
4
it can be reasonably presumed t hat he
must have reached Makka before that t i me
studied Ibn
under the latter' s
al-Makhzumi
'l-Sila*
ed. Calcutta, p. 380 ; Nadawi,
p. 38
Ibid.,
(Egypt,


3

the indepen-
whose names are as follows :
t radi -
tionists. The date of his arrival there has not come
down to us. But from the death-dates of his shuyiikh
' Uyai-
disciple Sa' id
(d. 249) and Ibn al -
under his disciple
p. 479 ; Nadawjf,
1348 A.H ), p. 316.
]
.
l oc . cit.
loc. cit.
.
p. 319.
fol
A
2. Khatlb,
1. Ibn
Abu Ja' far,
A talib
3. Ahmad b.


L
Abd
Baghdad,
2
and Muhammad b. 'All
son of Abu Ja' far,
2. Ibrahim
b. Ibrahi m al -Muqn
science of t radi t i on . He
others.
Abu Ja' far
Makkan Traditionist, 'Abd
Husain
32 INDIANS
Tar.kh

CONTRIBUTION
al-Marwazl
al -Rahnuin
became M uhaddith^
di d not come back' to his
native land. He stayed on at Makka, devoting hi m-
self to the services of Hadi th.
mad b. Muhammad al -IIaj j a j
(d. 381) transmitted Hadi t h on
the authority of Abu Ja' far.
J umada'
b. Muhammad
Ibrahi m was a Kawi,
al -Sa' i gh
Tradi t i oni st of Makka.
3

Allah al-Daybuli
al-ilm,
was one of the widely travelled Tradi -
tionists of the fourth century.
4
Practically the whol e
of the Middl e East from the Oxus to the Nile he
trotted singly, hearing Hadi th from eminent Tradi -
tionists.
Wi t h material available, we cannot exactly follow
Ahmad' s
al -Muqri
237a ; Maqdisi,
Baghdad, vol. iii
t
Abu ' I-Hasan
i i , p 38.
Kitab
Ahmad
trans-
mi t t er of Hadi t h. He narrated it on the authority of
Musa
p. 203; Sam' ani , Ansab,
at-Ansab
Tahdkxh,
(d. 242). He

b. Harun
s.v., al - Daybul i ;
s.v., Mrl.
Mu'jam
h.
narrated Hadi th
on the authority of Muhammad b. Xanbur
weJI-verscd
b. Ibrahi m b. Farras of Makka, Abu ' l -IIusai n
al-Daybuli
al-Bazzaz
par excellence,
was a great
al-Buldan,
Ibrahi m; Shadharat,
3. Sam'ani, Ansab,
[d. circ.
TO HADITH LITKKA1
(d. 2-18),
b. Sablh
in the
Muliam-
(d. 3b8) and Muhammad
He died at Makka in
I, 322/April,
3-45/956
(d. 294), the Hafiz
(d. 291), a
[d. 343/954
Ahmad, a pupi l of
itinerary. Perhaps in the later half of the
Tradi ti oni st (Sam' ani ,
vol . ii, p. 29">
fol. 237a.
t ' R E
a
and
934.
1

]
of
]
Ansab, f oi l . 266b,
640b).
.
.
vol .
Sam'ani, l oc. ci t.
hula
*Ali
1. For the correct reading of the Nisba,
Hasan b. Ya' qub
Before the death ot Ibn
318), the Hafiz;
; at Harran,
b. *Abd
t hi rd cent ury, he went
nADITIT LITERATTRE
out i n quest
al -Day
Muaddal b. Muhammad
of Sha'bJ
al -Rahman
in Damascus, from Ahmad b. ' Umai r
the Hafiz ; at Bay
f r om al -Husain
in Baghdad,
al -Faryabl
al-Oadl
b. Ahmad al - Jawki q T
from Ahmad b. Zuhair al -Tust arl
Nishapur. from Muhammad b. Ishaq
Khuzairna in 311/923
Ahmad reached Nishapur of which cul tural and rel i -
gious
al-ITaddad
was wi t h sufls
Hencefort h, he became pre-eminently an ascetic gi vi ng
himself up to devotional prayers and abstemious prac-
tices. Nevertheless, he went on cul t i vat i ng the science
of t radi t i on. The young al-Hakim
405) took lessons in Hadith
Ahmad died at Nishapur in 343/954 and was
buried in the cemetery of al-Hira.
put on snf,
foot ed.
2. Ibid.,
I\
T
SIX'D
fol . 138a.
t
T
\ PE R
3. Sam'anI,
TH E
bull
(d.
ARAHS
of Hadi th
(d. 322), already a Muhaddith
al -Janadl
(d. 104).
2

and Muhammad b.
b. Jawsii,
rut, from Abu Abd
b. Abl
from J a f a r
(d. 301); in al -Basra,
(d. 305); at 'Askar
(210-306), the Hafiz]
b. Khuzairna
life, part icul arl y the Khanqa,
336), thronged
and ascetics,
3
attracted him. There he
t erminated his wanderjahre
al -Ni sabun
fol. 158a.
4. Ibid.,
In
33
learning
and studied in Makka wi t h hi s compat ri ot , Abu Ja' far
of standing, and
(d. 308),
1
a descendant
Egypt he heard Hadi t h from
Eayyan
(d. 320),
al -Rahman Mak-
Ma' shar
b. Muhammad
from Abu Khal i fa
Mukarram, from ' Abdan
at Tustar,
(d. 312) and at
(d.
311). Besides, he received Hadi t h from many other
contemporary Tradi t ionist s.
convent, of al-
as it
and joined the Khftnqa.
(321-
f r om hi m.
4

He was wont to
wool, and was often seen wal ki ng bare-
ibid. , foil.
fol. 237a.
;
(d.
5

137-38 .
&. Ibid.
'Abd
1. In the middle age,
Khalaf had his t rai ni ng in Hadl t h in his native
t own Debal
A disciple of Abu Ya'la
al-Hasan of Far yab
1

Hadl t h. Me
Faryab was a most i mportant town of the
district of Juzjan in Khurasan (Le
2. Ansab, fol.
3. Ibn
237a.
'Asakir, al-Tarikh al-Kahtr (Di mashq, 1332), vol. iv, pp. 355-56

34 I NDI A' S C O N T R I B U T I O N TO I I A D I T H
It is worth our while to recal l the ti me when an
I ndi an scholar coul d go to such distant places as
NishapQr,
4. Muhammad b. Muhammad b. ^Abd
al-Daybull [d. 346]
Ahmad's compatriot and fellow-student, Muha m
though not so much as Ahmad' s i n
received instructions in
Abu Khal i fa al-CJadi
Muhammad al -Faryabl
Ahmad (210-306) of' Askar
and others. A copyist (warraq)
of Hadl t h literature, Muhammad distinguished himself
as a teacher of al-Tfakim
died in 346/957.
5. Al-Hasan b. Muhammad b. Asad
[d. ctrc.
al-Mawsili
Al l ah (d. 78), the Compani on of the Prophet.
Ta mma m
6. Khalaf b. Muhammad al-Daybull [d. cite.
under 'All
4. A tradition received by Khalaf from his Shaykh 'All
.
b. Musa
al-Daybull at Debal with isnad
_ mn t
traced back to Anas runs (Khatib,
. V VI I VI I I I
Baghdad,
(d. 305) of al -Basra;
Mukarram
al-Nisfiburl
(d. 307), al-
Hasan t ransmi t t ed Hadl t h in 340/951 in Damascus,
his isnad,
b. Musa al -Daybul i .
4

I I v l ^
viii,p.
L I T E R A T U R E
Damas cus, Bayrut and even
Egypt i n quest of Hadl t h and ransack the treasures
t hey of f ered
Allah
mad
al - Daybul l , had a fair share of travell i ng (rihla)
quest of
Ja'far b.
(d. 301), of Baghdad; ' Abdftn
; Muhammad b.
(d. 405). li e
al-Daybull
3501961
chain of authorities, going back to Jabir b.
and others recei ved Hadl th from hi m.
3

360]
He
repaired to Baghdad and lectured (haddatha) on Hadlth.
Strange, p. 425).
333) : CJ \^J
.
from
b.
'
]
vo l .
\ J * I


f
^
s. ibid,
2. Le
b.
Rakr,
6. Ibid.,
4. Khatlb,
as Khan Ibn
(d. 354), while paying a visit to the city, stayed with him.
The uni que combi nat i on of his beLig
Al -Hasan
8. Al-Hasan
al-Wfisiti
b. Duma al-Ni'ali
Ahmad b. Sharik
Muhammad al -Far yabl
Il arbl ya
accordingly. Afterwards
migrated to Ra yy
Born at Debal
7. Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Harfm
Ahmad b. ' Ui nai r
Abu '1-Husain
IIADITII
vol. vii,
vol. v,
pp. 3034)4, Ibn 'Asakir,
Hamid.
6

a scholar and a
commercial magnet impressed the poet so much that
he remarked, " Ha d I eulogized any merchant, I woul d
have certainl y eulogized you.
1,

5

b. Hami d,
b. Hamid
of al -Kufa.
' the great
acquired Hadi t h f rom
b. al-Jundi
LI TERATUR E IX
vol.
Sl XD t
T
XDER
(306-96)
Khal af.
al-Daybul
' [275-370]
in 275/888, Ahmad, surnamed Abu
and became famous as al-RSzI
he settled permanent l y at
nort hern
(d. 301) and also under
Besides bei ng a t rans-
mi t t er of Hadi t h, he was well-versed in the science of
al -Oi ra' at . '
al-Daybuli
a Debalese, unlike his other
compatriots, went abroad as a trader and established
himself in Baghdad. By his business he amassed a
vast fort une and became a leading citizen of Baghdad
as is evidenced by t he fact t hat the poet al -Mut annabl
As a phi lanthropist,
he bui l t for t he poor and indigent an asylum (Khan) at
Darb al -Za' franl
Side by side with his com
1. Khatlb, loc.
Strange, p. 51.
pp. 113-14.
^ . o j
iv, p. 159.
Ahmad b. 'Al l al-Bada (d. 420), Abu 'All
suberb of the west Ba ghda d'
8

(346-431)
3
and al-Qadl
and hence he is called al -Harbl
Abu '1-
(d. 431)
.
Abu Bakr studied Hadi t h in Baghdad
were his pupils. He dird
i n Baghdad,


4
Al a
[iL
TH E ARABS 35
of Baghdad and
under Ja' far
in 370/980/
407]
whi ch came t o be known
1

i
-
cit.
\j*x> u. > u
1.
3. Ibid.
4. Sam'anl,
conquerer of Si nd,
6
between 110/728 and"
ed by 'Amr,
Mansur a
5

Hyderabad
' Rui ned
The great mound of Bambhra-hl-thul,
(II) STUD Y OF IIADTTH
Egypt and established a halqa,
al-Daybuli
9. Abu 'l-Odsiw
also a poet and a lit terateur (adib).
weep while narrat i ng
was so devotedl y
Naqqash
al-MawsilT
Hadi t h,
rnercial
36 I N D I A ' S
l oc. cit. ; Ma'arif,
Tower, '
study circle, where he
lectured on Hadi t h. Abu Sa' id
\d. circ.
Shu'aib
(d. 351) and Abu 'All
he was a pupil of 'All
C O X T R I B T T I O N
vol. xxiv, No. 4,
400/1009
p. 247.
5. The discovery of this interesting place was due to the zeal and
painstaking labour of A. F. Bellasis, l ate of the Bombay
The coins found were those of Mansur
Muhammad 'Abd
pp. 312-16). _
6. Baladhuri, p. 444=Murgotten,

TO I I A D I T H
business, he
(d. 359V Da' l aj
al - Tumar i
attached to Hadi th
i t .
2
Hi s erudi t i on in the science
of t radi t ion may be concei ved from t hi s t hat he went t o
Damascus and Egypt to lecture on Tladith.
He di ed i n Egypt
in 407/1016,
3

b. Muhammad b.
]
He was better known as Abu Qat'fin.
b. Yunus
of Abu Oat' aii.
IN AL-MANSPR
or the
situated near an old bed of the Indus
at a distance of 47 miles
in Si nd, represents the ruined ci t y of al-
whi ch, accordi ng t o al -Bal adhuri ,
the son of Muh?, mmad
120/ 738.
7

Wi t h the establishment, in 270/883,
8
of an independent
Arab pri nci pal i t y i n Lower Sind, it steadily rose i nto
Khatib,
2. Ibid. ' ^ D J J * X >
0
*
Al l ah and ' Umar
b. Jamhur,
Civil Service.
others misread 'Amr as 'Amru
p. 229 ; Elliot, Cunni ngham and
7. Nadawl,
'Abd al -Rahman,
(Ei l i ot, vol . i ,
(Elliot, vol. i, p. 371;
8. Ibid.,
p. 374;
p. 335.
L I T E R A T U R E
carried on cul t ural activities. In
b. Muhammad b. Sa' id
(d. 351), Muhammad al-
(d. 360). He
that he would
He was
Ahmad
He went t o
was a pupi l
to the north-east of modern
was found-
b. al -Qasi m,
Cunningham,
Cunningham,
pp. 341 425.
4

A
the
vol. xii, p. 82.
<
p. 311).
1. Ibid.,
In local townships Hanat i t e
Dawud aMsbahanl
Wi t h regard to the religious and intellectual life
of al -Mansura, al -Maqdi si says,
u
Th e
viz., Bab al -Bahr
Hawqal
prominence. By 340/951when
HADIT11
p. 310.
2. AMstakhrl,
jurists were also in evi-
dence, but no Malikite, I Ianbalite or Mu' tazi li te
Kitab

LI TERATUR E IN
al-Istakhrl
al-Mansura was a flourishing ci t y wi t h an area of four
square miles and was inhabited by the Musli ms.
2
Ibn
repeated the same account.
3
"
says al -Maqdi si
metropolis of Si nd and resembles
The buildings are constiuclcd
The bi g cat hedra] mosque, st andi ng at t he busy market
place, is built of brick and stone and roofed wi t h t eak
like the mosque of ' Uman .
(the sea-gate), Bal
(the Mul t an-gat e). "
people were
generally intelligent and given to pious habits. Islam
was held in high esteem and its principles were st ri ct l y
adhered to with no priestcraft to intervene. The
Dhi mml s
(d. 270), the Zahirite
; so that
Islam was found in its pristine glory and native si mpl i -
city, virtue and chastity being at a premium every-
where.
1
'
5

3. Nadawi,
al-Masalik
Learni ng and the
wa
learned had seen their
better davs in al-Mansura.
6
Since the bulk of the
population was Ashdb
'UMamalik
op. cit., p. 345,
freely worshipped their own gods. The
maj ori t y of the Musli ms were Aslulb
Hadith,
(Elliot, vol. ii, p. 27).
quoting Tbn
4. MaqdisI,
S1ND UNl j ER
Turan (the Turan-
gate), Bab Sindan (the Sindan-gate)
Hadlth,
cultivation of the science
of t radi ti on had naturall y been recoursed to. Here
Tradi t i oni st s engaged themselves in the pursui t of
their own Science. Classes in Madith
Hawqal.
5. Ibid.
well
TH E ARABS 37
visited it
1

Al -Mansur a, "
who visited the city in 375/985, "i s
wi t h Damascus.
of timber and plaster.
The city had four gates,
and Bab Mul t an
adherent s
of Apostolic traditions, who were the followers of Imam
(literalist).
were held i
op. cit., p. 479 ; cf. Nadawi,
6. Ibid.
t he
4

n
p. 34( .
^l^Ji pi .
a statement which has led 'Allama
of vJo^ .
5. ,l*Xitll
1. See infra.
Kitab al-Hadi
voluminous works
8

visited al -Mansura
Ahadl t h
most district of Faris.
4

then held the office of Oadi
al-IIizzanl
al -Athram
the name of al-Oadi
Sam'auj, f ol .
vol. xxi v,
Sayyid Sulaiman Nad
from hi m, suggest s
awl (Ma'arif,
t hat al -Mansuri

38 I N D I A ' S
different mosques of the city. Scholars were found to
compile works on Hadi t h
Abu M-
teacher and a compi l er may
T K A D I T I O N I S T S
7. Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Salih
Ahmad surnamed Abu M-'Abbas
education in Hadi t h in Fari s
(d. 330) and at al -Basra,
commonl y called Abu Kawq
of Arraj an,
3

That on the occasion of his
visit to Bukhara in 360/ 970 aJ -Haki m
had already
established himself as a Traditionist of renown. Fur-
ther, al -Hakim
sharp-witted of the scholars he had ever seen. Towar ds
the seventies of the fourth century when al-Maqdisi
he found that al-Mansuri had been
lecturing on Hadi t h
6

by hi m.
7
He
school of theologians
of which Kitab al-Misbfih
and Kitab al-Nayyir
3. Lisan, l oc.
514a ; Mhan,
Ool ^
Al-Sara'Sni,
ing any reference to al-Hakim, says , l ^*J l
No. 4, p. 247) to conclude that al-Mansuri was a contemporary
of al-Sam'anl (d. 562). But we are of opinion that this was the statement of
al-Hakim and not of al-Sam'ani.
f
*AA3|Ji ^
544a.
says t hat a
in the halqa
$
0. This is apparent inasmuch as al -Mansuti
(d.
1-Man
vol. i ,
cit.
^ C^\) y
was a
C O N T R I B U T I O N TO H A D I T H L I T E R A T U R E
literature. As an instance,
Abbas al -Mansuri
be ci t ed here.
O F A L - M A N S U K
al-Mansuri
al -Mansuri had hi s
under Abu 'J-'Abbas
under Ahmad
(d. 332).
2
li e
the western-
405) received
sun was the most
(study circle) set up
was an eminent author of the Zahiritc
and compi l ed several l earned and
al-Kabir,
have been men-
p. 66 ; Lisan,
4. Le Strange,
Lisan, loc. cit.
without mak-
o
Cf. Lisan, vol. i, p. 272 ; Sam'ani,
Traditionist.
7. MaqdisT, p. 481.
as a
A
b.
vol. i , p. 272.
p. 268.
fol .
O^Ju*
ghan
Rawl
Ja' far
3. Tbid.,
a Tradi t i oni st of Dihistan,
4

Abu ' l -Fi t yan
and Kaj a'
b. Muhammad al -Husayni ,
Amongst his shuyukh
2. Sibawaih
aut hori t y.
3
He
(d. 474), the Haji%?
of Hacllth.
:iI-S;imad
an ascetic. He
Ousdar,
surnamcd Abu Muhammad,
/. Ja'far
TRADI TI O N
in the fourt h century wi t h the
HADITH L1TLRATUKK
fol. 4f>fla .
b.
4. Ibid.,
' Amr
b. 'Abd
Yahya
were al-' As
b. Isimttt
t ransmi t t ed Il adi t h
Abu ' J-Futuh
b. Muha mma d
set t l ed at Bal kh.
aUKhaliub
IX SI XD
5. Le
.
b.
al -
fol. 261a.
b. Abu ' l -IIasan
al -Wahi d
b. Ibrahi m
Dawild
' Abd :U-Ghafir
Asiml.
He
al-Qusdari [d.
Strange,
al -Rawwasi
al -Isbahanl .
li e
circ.
p. 379.

UNDER TH E ARABS 41
establishment of an
independent Ar ab pr i nci pal i t y her e.
1ST S OF OUSDA
450)
a native
was a j urist as well as
took lessons in Il adi t h f r om 'Abd
was a reliable
al -Kash-
on his
flourished early in the 5th century A. II
al-Quzdar
Abu U-Qasim
al -Makhul
He mi gra-
t ed to Makka where he lectured on Hadi t h. The Haf i %
(d. 503),
in t he provi nce of Jurj an,
5

narrated Hadi t h on the aut hori t y of Si bawai h. He
died in about 4G3/1070.
6

Fr om the above discourse, it is evident how the
study of Hadi t h in Lower Sind was maki ng l ong
strides in the fourt h cent ury under a number of devoted
Tradi t i oni st s. We are now going to discuss below t he
causes of t he sudden check t he st udy of t he Sci ence,
then, met wi t h due to a cataclysm t hat overwhel med
the count r y.
1. Se e
vSam'ani,
Sam'ani,
foil. 451a, 452b.
1

R
.
l
Id. circ. 463]
'All
supra.
foj. 472b.
1. Nadawl,
a congeni a l home f or t he Sunni
c h a n g e ;
pp. 313 seq.
2. Al-BIruoi,
schol ars. It was qui t e
l i ke l y t hat t he Tr adi t i oni s t s mi ght
i t had a f ar - r eachi ng ef f ect on t he life
Kitab al-Hind,
ei t her have been
obl i ged t o qui t t he c ount r y or, i n case of t hei r st ay,
t hey had t o suspend t hei r cul t ur al act i vi t i es so near
and dear t o t he m. Nor was i t i mp r o b a b l e
and
f a i t h of t he Sunnl s of Si nd. Bent on de s t r o yi ng not
onl y

42 INDIA'S CONTRIBUTION TO HADITH
Towa r ds t he second hal f
pr i nci pal i t i es of Mu l t a n
by t he IsmS' l Ii t cs.
t he st r uct ur e of t he states of t he Sunnl s, but al so
t hei r r el i gi on and cul t ur e, t he
shows t o what l engt h t hey coul d have gone t o a nni hi l a t e
al l t hat t he Sunnl s st ood f or . Thus col l apsed t he
rel i gi ous or gani zat i on of Sunnl s t hat grew up under
t he f ost er i ng care of t hei r savant s as al so t hei r r ul er s .
In t he sequel , t he Isma' j Ji t e
bl ow t o t he cent uri es -ol d Sunni t e Ar a b r egi me and
what i t bui l t up i n Si n d .
Na t u r a l l y, t her ef or e, t he st udy of Hadi t h, t he f oun -
t ai n-head of t he rel i gi ous l aws
on t he par t
of t he f anat i cs who cl osed down t he Gr a n d Mosque
agai nst t he SunnT Mu s l i ms t o perpet rat e t hei r acts of
vandal i s m on t he educat i onal i nst i t ut i ons of a l - Ma ns ur a
and De b a l
assumpt i on of t he i r powe r ,
ed. Sachau
I s ma ' l l i t i es
whi ch were c ont r i but i n g so gr eat l y t owards
t he di f f us i on and di ssemi nat i on of I s l a mi c c ul t ur e and
l ear ni ng i n t he count r y. Th i s perhaps expl ai ns t he
reason wh y t he st udy of Ha d i t h i n Si nd came t o a
s t ands t i l l at t he end of t he f our t h cent ur y. It i s not
unr e a s ona bl e
and a l - Ma n s u r a
1

Thi s was not mer el y
l e f t no s t one
unt ur ned t o at t ai n t hei r obj ect i ve. Th e f act t hat t he
Isma' l l i t i es
coup d'etat
of t he Sunnl s, recei ved
a great setback. Si nd, under Isma' l l i t es,
t o bel i eve t hat t he Ismf i ' i l i t i cs,
(London, 1887),
Elliot, vol. i, p. 470 ;
LI TERATUR E
of t he f our t h cent ur y, t he
were usurped
a pol i t i c al
cl osed down t he Gr a nd Mosque of Mu l i a n,
2

gave a dea t h-
di d not prove
on t he
suppressed t he rel i gi ous i n-
p. 501
Nadawl, op. cit., p. 315.
2. Elliot, vol. i,
again, captured for themselves the Government of
Lower Sind in 443/1051 from the weak successors of
Sultan Mahmud.
2

the Sunn!
been peregrinating throughout the
that the last
11AD1TH Ll TLKATt ' Kl i
stitutions
literature. Nor di d the cul t i vat i on of the Science on
the part of the Tradi t i oni st s of al -Mansura
have made any further
batch of ardent Talib
Musl i m Jands to
master the science of t radi t i on di ed by the close of the
fourt h century, shows that they
regime. Since then Sind did not and, as a
mat ter of fact, could not send any of her young learners
to study Il adi th
were, thus, responsible for arresting the expansion of
the religious and cul t ural activities of the Sunnis.
True, Sul t an Mahmud (388-421/998.1030)
a champion of the Sunnis, did succeed in setting up
his rule after having overthrown their Government and
driven them out of the t erri t ory.
1
But his career of
conquest was cut short before he could restore Sind to
her cul t ural glories of the past. Nor coul d he effect a
whol esal e ext ermi nat i on from t he
whose secret propaganda was very active among the
natives and who, thereby, succeeded in convening
t hei r own fait h, a powerful Indo-Arab
famous in hi st ory as t he Sumras.
Thus the Isma' ilites regained their
hold which they appear to have maintained till
752/1351 when Sa mma s
(570-602/1174-1205)
1. Nadawl.
pp. 484 seq ; Nadawl, p. 358.
3. Elliot, vol. i, pp. 494 seq ; Nadawl,
IX SIND t ' XDER
ousted them and usurped the
Government .
3
Meanwhile, the province was, no doubt,
conquered by Mu'izz
THE AKABS
al-'IIm
al-Din
43
of the Sunnis. Thi s hypothesis gains in
strength f r om the fact that henceforward no student
f r om Sind was found going abroad to study t he Hadl t h
seem to
advance. Moreover, the fact
who had
were the products of
abroad. Obviousl y, the Isma' ilites
of Ghaznin,
country of the Shi'ites
tribe who became
Now, these Sumras,
Muhammad al-Ghurl
and was governed by hi s lieutenant
pp. 374 seq.
to
pp. 314, 349-G0 .
Naslr
and the Muzaffar
Isma'ilites,
of the territory in the second hal f
al-Dln
44 IXDIA'S
Shahls
in some form or other, was continuous and
uninterrupted in Lower Sind. In the circumstances,
wi t h t he t ermi nat i on of the Sunni
of the fourth century
down to the middle of the eighth,
Oabacha,
1

CONTRACTION' TO HADITH LITERATURE
nevertheless, Delhi Sultanate
could not control it effectively and the real power was
stil l retained by the Sumras.
the influence of the
Arab regime in Sind,
the contact which the t erri tory had maintained wi t h
the seats of Hadi t h
in the Deccan and Guj arat ,
respectively. In the meantime flickering light of Sunna
was visible in Northern India with the advent of the
scholars from Central Asia ever since the Musl i m
conquest began t o t ake shape i n t hat regi on.
learning in other Islamic countries,
part icul arl y wi th t hose of al-Hijaz,
From
was cut off. Thus
the revival of the study of Hadi t h in India was del ayed
unt i l the rise, in the ninth
their usurpation
century, of the Bahmani s
p. 600.
Section / .
1. Firishta, vol. i, p. 27.
The Tradi t ionist
Ghaznaxvids
ITADITIT
2. Cambridge History of India, ed. Haig (Cambridge, 1928),
whose memory
[3S8-582/99S-1186
p. 26.
)
saw
has been associated
wi t h t he i nt roduct i on of Hadi t h i nt o Lahore was Shaykh
Isma' il
T penetration of the Musl i ms i nt o Nort hern Indi a
al - Lahur l , an emi nent sai nt from Bukhara. He
came to Indi a in 395/1004 and settled at Lahore
under Mahmud of Ghaznin
1

wherefrom he got the nisba
who brought the Punj ab
under his sway. Wi t hi n the next t wo hundred years
the Mus l i m domi ni on was extended by the Slave
Sultans furt her afi el d i n t he regi on reachi ng t he Bay of
Bengal .
2
Thi s phenomenal
of al -Lahuri whi l e
political conquest was atten-
ded wi t h the expansion of Islam and t he t ransmi ssi on
of Isl ami c sciences
t he
all

CHAPTER II I
LI TERATUR E IN NORTHER N
I NDI A [388-900/998-1494]
over Nort hern Indi a by the
labour and personal influence of the scholars, saints
and mi ssi onari es who poured i nt o t he count r y from the
nei ghbouri ng Mus l i m countries of the north-west, the
gat es of Indi a bei ng now wi de open t o t hem.
Shaykh
city
was not yet conquered by the Musl i ms.
3
Hi ghl y ver sed
i n Hadi t h and Tafsi r,
vol. iii,
3. Lahore was conquered by Mahmud in 412/1021
Isma' l l
Muhammad Ismail
also distinguished hi mself
as the first Musl i m missionary to preach the f ai t h of
Islftm
HE l at er part of t he fourt h century A. H .
al-Lahurl [d. 448/J056
i n t he ci t y of Lahore. Crowds fl ocked t o listen
to his sermons and the number of hi s convert s swel l ed
(Fi ri shta, vol . i ,
m
]
P. 31).
t he
Sayyid
1. Arnold,
of Sultan Shihab al -Din
He was a nat i ve of al - Kuf a.
Murtachi
the nisba
Hadi t h
a legionto
Shaykh Isma' il
rapidJy
4 6 I N D I A ' S
op. cit., pp 280-81 .
2. Ghulam
Lucknow.
Sarwar, Kkazinat
1902. vol. ii,
al-Asfiya\
p. 230 ; Faqlr
ed. Newul
Newul Kishore Press,
Kishore Press,
Muhammad, Jlada' iq
1886, p. 194; Rahman <\\\,
al-IIanaftyva, ed.
ed. Newul Kishore Press, 1914,
'Tadhkira'Olama-uHind
t

2nd edition, pp. 23, 179. Rahman All
(op. cit., p. 179) has it that Isma'H

C O N T R I B U T I O N T O H A D I T H
day by day, and
448/1056.
saw before hi m the pleni t ude of
the Ghaznawi d power under Sultan Mahmud and its
subsequent decay due t o t he weak and incapable succes-
sors who fol l owed hi m. But he di d not care t o meddl e
i nt o pol i t ics. To propagate Islam and its sciences
Isma' il
carry on the noble task he had begun
except that they were i mbued wi t h love and devot ion
for Hadi t h.
l earni ng t hat produced duri ng t he next hundred
years several noted Tradi t i oni st s. That al ready i n t he
sixth cent ury its reput at i on as a centre of cul t ure
reached beyond the bounds of Indi a is borne out by
al -Sam' ani
al -Lahurl,
who flouri shed in, and were associ at ed wi th,
al-Ktlfi
His
scholar of Hadith and Tafslr,
al -Ghurl
who made hi m one of his courtiers. But since the
Sayyi d had al so i n hi m t he maki ng of a sol di er, he l at er
ent ered the mi l i tary servi ce under hi m
rank of a commander. On his conquest o f Ka n a u
reign of Mas'ud
came to Lahore in 395 A H. during the
(b. Mahmud) GhaznawJ
mistake for Mahmud Ghaznawi
3. Fol.
who i n his KiUlb
(388-421)
497 ; Ma'arif,
it is said that no unbeliever
came i nt o personal contact wi t h hi m wi t hout being
convert ed t o t he fai t h of Isl am.
1
li e
worked hard for a period wel l over half a
cent ury. We do not, however, know the part pl ayed
by his discipleswhose
al-Ansdb
3

(421-32)
vol. xxiv,
.
L I T E R A T U R E
di ed at Lahore i n
number presumabl y have been
Hencefort h, Lahore grew i nt o a seat of
records under
the names of those Muhaddithvn
Lahor e.
[d. 589/1193
reputat ion as a
it is said, attracted the notice
(570-602/1175-1206)
and was rai sed to
which is evi dentl y a
No. 4, p. 248.
2

]
j
3.
Nasir
Hdfiz.
1. According to Tabaqat-i-Nasirt
and settled there.
Abu 'I-Qiisim
[d. arc.
Abu 'l-Qa$im
Sa m' a m
A di sciple of Abu ' Ml asa n
al-Lahurl [d.
2. Abu 'l-Futuh
al -Sul aml
His fame as a Traditionist reached as far as
Baghdad. As a result, Abu M-Fadl
He studied Hadi th
He was at once a Tradi ti oni st , poet,
1. Abu
in an encounter in which he fell
of Zaf ar abad,
wards Benares,
in 589/ 1193
1

JIADITH
2. Taj alii-i-Nitr
Jawnpore,
Tadhkira
(Elliot, vol. ii,
He read Fi qh and Hadi t h
Muhammad b. Khalaf
heard from him the Ahadith t ransmi t t ed to
hi m (Abu M-Futuh)
al -Lahur l
circ.


k
Abd
al -Baghdadi
under Abu M-Muzaffar
'l-Hasan
now in the district of J awnpor e,
Sayyi d Murl ada
while Shihab al-Din
LITERATURE
'All
p. 29 ; Ma'arif,
Mashahir-i-J awnpur,
p. 297), 590/1194.
by his Shaykh Abu ' l -Hasan.
Abu ' l - Fut u
aUSamad
(467-550)
5

b. Umar
met Kaja
b.
3. For noti ce
ed. Jadu
'Abd
who was hi m-
self a Hdfiz received from him Ahadith
al-Lahurl \d.
*
vol. xxv. No. 6, p. 340.

which he
*
of his biography, Shad
subsequently communi cat ed to t he dist inguished Tradi -
tionist al -Sam' ani
karat, vol. i v,
4. Sam'anT.
pp. 155-56
so that the l at t er became a pupi l of
the pupil of Abu ' Ml asa n
fol .
al -Lahuri . li e

IN NORTHERN INDIA
was advanci ng
Uday
U. P. ,
lighting as a mar t yr .
TRADITIOXISTS OF LAHORE
52911134
and l i t t erat eur.
al -Sa' l dl ,
Muhammad b.
was a man of
genial t emperament and di ed at Lahore in 529/ 1134
al-Rahma
550/1158
h
was a lecturer of Hadi t h at Samarqand where aJ
He
flourished towards the first half of the sixth century
A.H.
5

al-Lahuri
540/1148
migrated from Lahore to Isfara' in
wi t h
Press,
6. Ibid.
497 ; Ma'arif, vol. xxiv, No. 4, p. 248.
47
to-
Pal
2

]
t he
/
n
]
-
}
.
munfiziri
3. I nfra, p. 208.
1. Margoliouth,
The advance of the Mongol s under Chengiz Khan
towards Central Asia, carrying with it death and destruc -
t i on,
6
expedited migration of the scholars to India.
Soon places like Mul t an, Lahore, Bhakkar, Hans I
Lahore developed i nto a seat of TIadith
Section I I .
IsfanVin
Tradi t ionist s
Sam' ani .
1

Abu M-Muzallar
48 I N D I A ' S
4. Supra, pp. 45-46 ; cl.
culum
Sufi, Al-Minhaj or the Evolution of CurrU

C O N T R I B U T I O N TO I I A D I T I I
al -Sam' anj ,
li e
of hi s t i me. Besi des bei ng a Tradi t ioni st
and j uri st , Abu 'l-Oasim
controversialist. Al-Sam'anT
and heard Hadl t h
540/1148.
2

Early Delhi Sultanate [602-700/
Under t he Ghaznawi d SuJt ans
l earni ng and
continued shedding its lustre unt i l the end of the sixth
century.
4
But with the foundation of Delhi Sultanate
in 602/1205, the study of Fiqh was introduced into
Indi a. Themselves Hanafi t es,
nat ural l y, at t ract ed from al-' Iraq,
and
Thaneswar were thronged wi t h scholars so as to well
make them rivals of Balkh
Series), p. 2.
I ntroduction to Kitab
in the Muslim Educational I nstitutions of I ndia (Lahore, 1941),
7. Hayat'i-Shibltt
pp. 13*14 .
6. Al-Nadwa (Lucknow),
by Abd al -Hayy
February 1909, art. Islam!
Nadawl ;
S. Sulai man
February 1941,
Nadawl ,
Nisab-i-Dara
p. 10; S. Sulaiman
garh,
art. Shlraz-i-Hind
1943), pp. 2-3;
Nadawl,
Abu '1-Hasanat
Purab
Darsgahen f
Hayat-i-Shibli
A'zamgarh,
pp. 253-f>4 .
Nadawl, Hindustan hi
6. Minhaj
al-Ansab
1930) pp. 8fi-86.
al-Siraj,
the
by
Cf.
grandfat her
also received Ahadith
f rom hi m. li e
the Sul tans
and Bukhara. Thence
cultural activities gradually found their way to the
eastern zone wi t h Delhi as t hei r ral l yi ng cent re
7

(Gibb
(A'zam-
Ma'arif,
Tabaqat-i-Nasirt,
Qad%m I slUmi
L I T E R A T U R E
of al-
f r om some ot her
acqui red some reput at i on as a
met him at
di ed i n about
7205-1300
who were Shafi' ites,
3

of Del hi ,
Persia, Khurasan and
the Transoxani a men versed in Fiqh and Ma' qul at .
5

f r om
where by t he mi ddl e of the seventh century, they per-
Memorial
2. Sara'ani,
vol. xxii,
pp. 339-41.
pp. 2 seq.
)
t oe. cit.
No. 4,
/
*
1. I nfra, p. 52.
2. Tabaqat-i-Nasiri,
colated as far as Bengal.
1
Then there sprang up in
khanl,
p. 124 ; *Abd
Nort hern India schools and colleges through the muni -
ficent endowments of the Sultans. Of them, the famous
were the Fl r uz
Nasirl yya
College at Uchh,
2
the Mu'izzI
Colleges of Del hi
3
and t he Mu' i zzT
and the
Badayun.*
College of
Besides instructions were also i mpart ed in
di fferent cities and townships of the count ry by the
i ndi vi dual scholars who were subsidized by the state.
Wi t h the growth and expansion

HADITH LITERATURE IN NORTHERN INDIA
of t hei r pol i t i cal power
i n Indi a, the Sultans of Del hi promoted the cause of
Zafar al-Walitibi
Allah Muhammad b. Umar
the Islamic sciences more and more.
In the seventh century the s}
r
llabus of studies
comprised Arabic literature, grammar, rhetoric, Fiqh,
Usul al -Fi qh, Mant i q, Tasawwuf, Tafsl r and Hadl t h .
Special stress was, however, l ai d on Fi qh and Usul
al -Fiqh parifiassu with Arabic grammar and l i t erature.
Hadl t h and Tafsl r, the two principal branches of
Islamic sciences, received but scant at tent ion, the
course of the former being only nominal.
except al -Saghanfs
Save and
Baghawl ' s
Mashariq al-Anwar
Masabih
Muzaffar
and al-
al-Sunna?
wa Alih,
no work on Hadl t h, not
even any of t he Si hah
ed. Denisou
title ol
Si t t a,
An Arabic History of Gujarat (London,
Ul ugh-
was included in the curri-
Ross under the
3. Tabaqat-i-Nasiri.
cul um. Circumstances being what they were at the
1921), vol. ii, p. 695.
pp. 188-89 ;
t i me, not hi ng more t han t hi s could be
Ulughkham,
Hasanat,
expected. For,
op. cit., p. 703 ;
op. cit., pp. 17-18
the courses of study fol l owed in Indi a had the same
; Elliot, vol. ii, p. 344 ; Narendra
objective behind them as they
Promotion of Learning in I ndia during Muhamtndan
p. 22.
had in the feeder-
4. Abu '1-Hasanat, p. 33.
countries of Central Asia, namely, to prepare a st udent
5. Ibid., pp. 90-02;
6 .
for the qadlship.
6

Ma'arif,
Abu '1-
Sufi,
Therefore, i t is nothing unusual to find)
Nat h Law,
op. cit., pp. 16-17, 25.
vol . xxii / No.
that among as many as fort y-six scholars who fl ourished
Rule (London, 1916),
4, pp. 263-54,
49
al-Din
Baha
1

1. Diva'
the science. Furt her, of the Sihfth
al -Dl n
1
s
stated i n t he letter that the ' Ul ama
1

a letter addressed to 'Ala'
al -Dl n Zakar l yya
on hi s way t o Del hi , t hat Sultan 'Ala'
duri ng the reign of 'Ala
1

Sitta^
al-Dln BaranI, Tatthh
regime had already dispensed with Hadith con-
fining themselves to Fi qh and that out of sheer disgust
he was now leaving the country although he had gone
there to spread Hadi t h literature.
8

al -Di n Khalji.
al -Mul t anl
al-Din
al-Dln
Firuz Shaht
Calcutta, 1862), pp. 352-54
Khalj i
.

50 I NDI A' S CONTRI BUTI ON TO HADI T H L I T E R A T U R E
(695-715/
1296-1316), only Shams al -Dl n Yahya (d. 747) had
some interest in Hadi t h. But the historian BaranI
had not
been regular in his daily prayers, nor would he attend
the Friday congregation. Thi s mort i fi ed hi m so much
so that he abandoned the project of worki ng for the
di ssemi nat i on of Hadi t h l i t erat ure. But before return-
i ng to his home, he wrote a treatise on Hadi t h and
dedicated it to the Sultan of Del hi . He then l eft it
wi t h Mawlana Fadl
(d. 666) al ong wi t h
Shams
of 'Ala
1

Thus, wi t h his
departure a great opport uni t y for the cul t i vat i on of
Hadi t h l i t erat ure i n Indi a was lost.
Though in the seventh century the general ten-
dency of the ' Ul ama'
a copy of t he
(Bibliotheca Indica,
2. Ibid, pp. 29, 7-9;
UlughkhanI,
to
whom we owe the above i nformat i on has not i ncl uded
yadl t h
AUah,
vol. ii, pp. 831-32,
alto vol. iii, XCVII; Ma'Srif,
among the subjects taught at the t i me.
1
So, it
is highl y doubt ful i f the works on Hadi th were read at
al l or at any rate wi t h any seriousness. Our assertion
is borne out by the fol l owi ng incident. In 700/1300
Shams al -Dl n Turk, an eminent Egypt i an Tr adi -
tionist, came to Indi a wi t h a mass of compi l at i ons i n
Hadi t h in order to popularize them in this country.
But to his great dismay he came to know at Multan,
a grandson of Shaykh
towards Hadi t h remained what
we have outlined above, there were, however, a few
scholars who had some proficiency i n, and interest for,
cf. p. 810 and
vol. XXII , No. 4, p. 252.
Baha'
Sunan
1. I nfra,
He belonged to a cultured f ami l y of Juzjan in
2. Qadi
al -Dl n Zakariyya,
7. Shaykh
of Abu Davvud,perhaps
p. 60.
Khurasan which he left in 623/1228. He had from his
the famous saint of
2. Taj rid, vol. ii, p. 126.
father, who was a Qadi
Multan and a disciple of Shihab
3. Amir
in the army of Hindustan
al -Dl n al-Suhrawardl
Khin,
Hasan,
under Muhammad al-Ghurl
(d. 632), was a descendant of Habbar b. Aswad, a Com-
Ruhtak*
FawU'id
(570-602/1175-1205),
panion of the Prophet.
2

a
al-Fu*ad
Karur, near Multan,
He was born at Qila' Ku t
1313 A.H.), pp. 152
(Urdu trail,
and received his education in

HADITH LITERATURE IN NORTHERN INDIA 51
available in India, was
the only copy then
TRADITIONISTS OF TH E SEVENTH CENTURY
Baha?
Bukhara and Khurasan. He then went on a pil gri -
Minhaj al-Siraj al-Juzjari
good general education which fitted him to hold a
has been misprinted as Mahiyar
63 ; Firishta,
by Ghulam Ahmad
vol. ii. pp. 404 seq.
; 'Abd
(Meerut, 1277).
al -Haqq
pp. 26-28; Dara
Di hl awl ,
Shikuh,
p. 196; Ghulam Sarwar,
Habbar
Akhbar
Saf .nat
Hadiqat
mage to the Har amayn and became a specialist in
al-Akhyar
al-Awliya';
aUAwhya'
%

Hadith,
(Delhi, 1209).
ed. Lahore,
Zakariyya, Khazinat al-As
studying it for live years under the Madinian
s. v. Baha*
jiya, vol. ii,
p. W;
Traditionist, Kamal
pp. 19-26; Rahman 'Ali,
Nadawl, op. cit., ppi
al-Dln Muhammad al-Yamani.
number of high posts under Nasir al -Di n Qubacha of
339, 366;
al-Siraj
al-Dln
He died at Multan i n Safar,
Multan and under the Sultanate of Delhi which cover-
Ma'arif,
al -Di n
found in possession of Mi nhaj
al-Juzjanl,
Zahariyya
666/ 6ctober,
id. cite.
ed the regimes of Iltutmish
op. cit
M

vol. xxii, No. 5,
the author of the Tabaqat~i-Nasiri.
al-Multftn
[ d. 666/1267
1267.
3

668/J270
(707-33/1210-36), Radi yy
pp. 328-29
1

l
]
i
]
a
.
has
Flruz
al-Dln
1. Urdu Fawa'id
(d. 593), the famous author of al-Hidaya.
Burhan al-Din
al-Balkhi
3. Burhctn
suggests that Juzj0.ru
of several Ahadith
College of Uchh
Mahmud (614-64/1246-66).
(634-37/1236-40), Bahram
al Fu' ad,
been misprinted
p. 269; Akhbar
Mahmud, who flourished during
the reign of Sultan Ghiyath al-Din Balban
(664-86/1266-86), was a disciple of al -Saghanl
al-Dln
and Nasi nyya
as Jurjani.
(d. 650)
from whom he obt ai ned a sanad of the Mashariq
al-Anwfir.
pp. 259 seq; Ulughkhani,
He was the first Traditionist who initiat-
ed the study of the Mashariq al-Anwar
2. Pp. 325 26.
3. Ma'arif. vol. xxiv, No. 4, p. 261.
4. Urdu FawU'id al-Fu'ad, pp. 252-53
5. Ibid., pp. 257-58; Mir
Ahhbar
Khurd, Si yar al-Awliya
al-AkhyUr, p.

52 I NDI A' S C O N T R I B U T I O N TO HADI T H L I T E R A T U R E
(637-39/J240-42)
As a principal of
Col lege of Delhi ,
as a chief justice and a preacher, JuzjanI
from the Sunan
must have studied this work at
least.
3
He does not, however, seem t o have been very
much acquainted wi t h the Science of Tradi t i on inas-
much as he took a few forged and weak Tradi t ions
as Mutawdtir.
Mahmud b. Abi
' [ d. 6S7/72SS ]
in Delhi.
Burhan al -Di n had the privilege of meeting i n his earl y
years, at Marghlnan,
He was much
respected by Bal ban who used t o vi si t hi m on Fri days
for his blessings. He di ed i n Del hi in 687/1288 and was
buri ed on t he east ern quarters of the Hawd-i -ShamsI.
al-Akhyar,
68; Hada'iq
(Delhi, 1885), p. 105;
aUHanafiyya,
cp. cit.,
gave a bri l -
l i ant account of himself. In 640/1242, he reached
Lakhnawat I,
Burhp.n
p. 264; Rahman'All.
p. S3; Nutha,
in Bengal, where he remained for two
years. He di ed aft er 664/1266, but the exact date is
not known.
1

al-Din
p. 74. Juzjani
Tabacat-i-Nasirt,
vol. i, s.v. Burhan al-DIn
and Nasir
His quotation in his Tabaqfit-i-Nasiri
2

of Abu Dawud
7 Khayr As^a
al-Marghlnanl
p. 172; Elliot, vol. ii,
Mahmud
4

d
5

vol. iii, LX .
.
.
1. S.yar
Asfiya,
al-Awtiya',
[ d. circ. 700 ]
Sharaf al -Dl n Abu Taw' a ma ,
6. Abu Taw*ama
al -Dl n was said to have been well-versed in Hadl t h
literature. He was a Qadl
to appoint him Imam or leader of prayersan
al'Nayyirayn
Mahmud
the two disciples of al-Saghanl,
Awllya
himself as a teacher
better known as Kamal
Muhammad b.
4. Kamal
viz.,
vol. i, p. 314;
pp. 104-06
who was a native of
Bukhara, migrated to Del hi early in the 7th century.
Duri ng t he Sultanate of Iltutmish
al-Bukhnrl
of Ku'i l
office
which Kamal al -Dl n refused to accept. He died in
Delhi in 684/1285.
1
5. Radl al-Dln
fx AkhbCir
(d. 687) and the author of
Bui han
(d. 725). Me
in Il adl th
al-Dln al -Zahi d,
al-Dhi
Nuzha,
Tadhkira-i-'Ulama'-i.Hind,
; Akhbar
(607-33/1210-36) he
came over to Sunargaon in Bengal where he settled
down permanent l y. Abu Taw' ama
(mod. ' Allgarh)
al-Badayiini
al-Sahjhayn.
read the Mashdriq
Zahid
al-AkhyUr,
[ d.
His
circ.
p. 45 ; Khasinat aU
vol. i, s v., Md. b. Ahmad b. Md. al-Marlkili;
p. 45 ; Ma'arif,
2. Urdu Fawa'id
vol. xxii,
al-Fu'ad,

HADITH LITERATURE IN NORTHERN INDIA
[ d. 684/1285 ]
Ahmad b. Muhammad al-Marlkill,
distinguished
of Shavkh Nizam al-Dln
al-Anwar
a]-Din
the Shark Athar
exceedingly
pious habits induced Sultan Ghiyath al-Dln Bal ba
700 ]
Among his contemporary scholars in Del hi Radl
and
went to Makka, thence to Baghdad where, as a Tr adi -
tionist, he was granted an audience by the reigning
Cal i ph [?]. He returned to India and died at Lahore.
The dat e of hi s deat h i s not known.
al-Hanbal
was a teacher of
great cel ebrit y. As a Hanbal i t e scholar, he was
evi dent l y deeply learned in the science of Tr adi t i on .
Under hi m, Sunargaon earl y developed i nt o a seat of
Hadlth in Bengal, which claims among its alumni
with his namesake Radl
pp. 137-39. Radl
No. 6, p. 329.
al-Dln has been confused
al-Dln al-Hasan
Ct I nfra, p. 204,
b. Muhammad al-Saghanl
also Nuzha, vol. i, s. v. Radl
(d. 650).
al -Di n aUBddUyuni
53
with
n
2

i
.
^ rrr
"Verily,
al-Asfar,
I have seen the emperor of India holding after morning prayers
2. Tarikh
1. Nuzha,
historian Diyfl
1

an ext ent t hat Muhammad b. Tughl aq' s
of the ' UJama'
Next to Fiqh,
Makhdum
Firiiz
3. Ibn
ed.
Shahi,
vol. lxxi.
vol . i..
discussions particularly of 'Ilm
Battuta,
s v. Sharaf al-Din al-Dihlaw!
al -Di n Bar anl
4

was Ma
l
qulat
Sharaf al -Din
TVin
Tuhfat
Battuta.
al-Ma'qulat
al-Xuzzar
which i n the t i me of
Muhammad b. Tughl aq (725-52/ 1325-51) was vi gorous-
pursued in Del hi . Hi msel f a scholar of no mean
order, the Sul t an patronized Ma'qulat.
Ya h ya
Ot >. cit. fvol.
Defremery with French tr.
ft Chara'ib
Hi s circle of
learned men consisted, among others, of the erudi te
phi l osopher, Mawl ana' Al l m
al -Mani rl
statement of Dr. Mahdl
al-Amsav
al -Di n,
Husain
Tughlaq, London, 1938,
(Paris, 1922), vol,
wa 'Aju'ib
wi t h whom he used
to hol d regular discussions on the subj ect.
2
The
Sul t an was so much fascinat ed by Ma'qulat
i v, p. 843. The
t hat he
would personall y conduct lectures on Ma'qulat*

54 INDIA'S CONTRIBUTION TO HADITH LI TERATURE
(d. 782),
di ed at Sunargaon towards the close of the 7th
cent ury A. H.
Section I I I . Later Delhi Sultanate
[700-900/1300-1494
the subj ect that att racted at t ent i on
which
al ong wi t h Fi qh const i t ut ed t he subj ect s of popul ar i n-
terest duri ng the peri od under review. Whi l e the
st udy of t he Qur' an
cont empor ar y
attributes the former's
cruel t y and eccent ri ci t y t o hi s st udy of Ma'qnlnty
(April-June 1939), pp. 196-97
; Calcutta Review,
p. 465.
(vide his Rise and Fall of Muhammad bin
i v n 343
4. TUftk
p. 200) that Muhammad b. Tughl aq pave
study of philosophy (Ma'qulat)before the arrival in Delhi of
and that the latter 'had seen none of it' (philosophy) with th
\
the
celebrated sai nt -t radi t i oni st of Bi har. Abu Ta w' a ma
and the Sunna was negl ect ed to
wide of the mark inasmuch as Ibn Battuta himself maintains
or philosophical sciences
Ibn Battuta, op. cit. (vol. iv, p. 343).
1

]
such
me t a -
.
u o hi s
:
"
h
1. Manqulat
because the Shaykh, 7iMiiqallid4-AbuHariifa
t he Fuqaha
1

al-Din Awliya
and t he Fuqa ha \
bet ween Shaykh Nizam al -Di n
influence of philosophy and logic was responsible for
his whi ms and idiosyncrasies st i l l remains a moot
question.
2

of the Qur'an
in contradistinction with Ma'qulat includes the sciences
(follower
of the Hanafi t e School ) as he was, had not hi ng to do
wi t h Tradi t i ons, and, secondly, because the Ahadi t h
themselves were pro-Shafi' ite
But i t cannot be gai nsaid t hat sober -mi nded
men of that age deepl y felt the absence of humani zi ng
effect of the teachings of the Qur' an
and Hadlth
and, as such, t hey di d not
commend t o their acceptance. Fur t her they asserted
that here in India Fiqhl
and the Sunna.
The number of such men was, however, few and far
between. The ' Ul ama
1
, en
and also the subjects primarily based on them.
fiwftyat
2. The Cambridge History of I ndia,

HADITH LITERATURE IN NORTHERN INDIA
physics, at the cost of Manqtilftt}
masse, were affiliated to the
Hanafi t e School. Thei r interest centred round Fi qh,
the sure passport for government service. Havi ng no
wi de out look and independent j udgment , they vi ewed
the Shaft a
Awli ya
on t he other, duri ng t he Sul t anat e of
Ghi yat h al -Di n TughJaq Shah (720-25/1321-25).
3

rent l y adhering to the school of the Shafi'ites,
ci t ed Ahadl t h
rej ect ed t he Tradi t i ons, i n the lirst
or the decision of the
Hanafite jurists had greater legal value t han Tradi t i ons
themselves. Therefore, they insisted on his produci ng
a defi ni t e opi ni on of Imam Abu Hani fa
3. Siyar at-Awliya',
vol. iii, pp. 136-37.
p. 631; Ulughkhani,
Firishta. vol. ii, pp 397-98; Ma'arif,
i n terms of the Hanaf i t e Fiqh. Any de-
vi at i on f r om a recognized rite of this school, even if
sanctioned by Traditions, was, therefore, opposed tooth
and nail. This rigid attitude of the ' (l l ama
1

i n favour of Samft\
on the mat t er .
The hardi hood of rej ecti ng Apost ol i c Tradi t i ons on the
part of the Fuqahct^
vol. iii, pp. 855-57;
vol. xxii. No. 4,
How far the evil
was strik-
ingly i l l ust rat ed i n a familiar controversy on SamtC
on t he one hand
Appa-
Ni zam
But
place,
shocked Nizam al-Din Awliya*
pp. 254-55; vol. xxii,
55
so
No, 5, p. 93,
Shaykh
Ni ?am
Kh a wa j a ' Ar a b
f at he r s pa t e r nal
BadayQn,
Ni za m a l - Di n Awll ya
1
,
Mu ha mma d b. Ahmad b. ' All,
Ni?am
I. NIZAM AL-DIN AWLIYA'
and hi s school of Muhaddi t hun at Mul tSn.
Shar af al - Di n al - Mani r l
Awl l ya'
and his Sunna, several Sufi
a l - Di n Awl i ya' ,
Ther ef or e, f r om the remarks of Shams al - Di n
the Musl i ms of a l and
much t hat he was obliged t o remark, " How
56 INDIA'S
i n Bi har, {Hi) 'All al - Ha madanl and his school of
and mat er nal Sha ykh
was born i n 634/1236 at
and his school of Muhaddi t hun i n Del hi , ( i t )
survi ve where the j udgment of
an i ndi vi dual is considered superior to Ahadl t h. "
it is clear t hat the atmosphere
obt ai ni ng in the circles of t he ' UI a ma \
The Suf i

CONTRIBUTION TO HADIT H LI TERATUR E
l ong will
Tur k a nd
scholars read the science
themsel ves and also i ncul cat ed its study amongst t hei r
discipl es. As a resul t , f our school s of Hadi t h l earni ng
came i nt o bei ng i n Nor t her n Indi a under the leader-
shi p of t he f our Sufi
a nd hi s school of Muhaddi t hun
Muhaddi t hun i n Kashmi r and [iv)
schol ars of t hese school s car r i ed on t he cul t ur e of
Ha di t h i n Nor t her n Indi a unt i l the end of the 9t h
cent ur y when t he r enai ss ance of t he sci ence was usher-
ed i n i n t he count r y.
AND HIS SCHOOL OF
MUHADDITHUN
al-Din
popul a r l y known as
Uni t ed Provinces, where bot h of hi s gr and*
had mi gr at ed f r om Bukhar a dur i ng t he
Mongol i nvasi on. Havi ng mastered Ar abi c l i t er at ur e
and Fi qh at an earl y age of t went y under 'Ala
who represent ed
i nt el l i gent si a of the day, was not congeni al f or the
cul t i vat i on of t he sci ence of Tr adi t i on i n Indi a. As t he
ma t t e r st ood, t he f u t u r e of t he sci ence seemed t o be
ver y gl oomy. Happi l y, t her e was a si l ver l i ni ng on t he
cl ouded hori zon. Inspi red by t he love
scholars, viz.,
Zakar l yya
Awliya
9

'All
of the Prophet
(i) Ni zam a l - Di n
al - Mul t ani
[ 634-725/7236-1325
and
al-Din
]
J aniya
t on,
Nizam ai-Din
Bast !
I ndia Gazetteer, p. 757.
2. Urdu Faw
1. For Farid
Hadi t h.
stated aboveNi zam
andHadi th
It is curious that Ni zdm
Nizam al -Din, within three miles from Delhi, on
Friday, the 18th Rabl
4

Shakar (d. f>64),
1

a brother of Shaykh Fari d
instance of Shaykh Naj l b
to have a qSLdlshlp
Ghiyath
afterwards the Shams al-Mulk,
al-UsuIl
a'id
II ,
al-Fu'ad,
al-Dln Ganj-i-Shakar, JASB, vol.
al -Dl n
al-Din
725/April,
who saw in the young
al -Dln Mas ' ud
al -Dl n
under government .
al-Dln
of Bada yun
i v,
3. Urdu Fawa'id
p. 48 ;
became a
Firishta.
Khazina, vol. i, p. 229.
al-Fu'ad, pp. 95-96 ; Siyar aUAwhya',
vol. ii, pp. 390 seq ; Jami,
al-Akhyar,

HADITH LITERATURE IN NORTHERN INDIA 57
and Shams a!-Dln
a mi ni st er of Sul tan
Balban, of Delhi, Nizam al-Dln
But at the
al -Mut awakki l
Ganj-i-
scholar the
promi se of a great sai nt , he went t o t he Ganj -i -Shakar
at Aj udahan or Pakpat t an in the Punj ab in 655/1257
for i ni t i at i on.
2
Thus a new chapter of life was opened
for Niz3.m
1325, in the odour
of sanct i t y.
st udent of Hadith not during his educa
had no occasion t o r ead
As a mat t er of fact , no occasion to cul t i vat e
the science of Tradi t i o n woul d have ari sen at al l , i f he
p. 635 ; Thorn-
pp. 52 seq ; Abu'l-Fadl.
Nafahat al-Uns,
pp. 94 seq ;
pp. 452-63;
A'tn>i-Akbari (Niwul
Akhbar
Kishore,
vol. iii, p. 170; Saf tnat
1893),
ahAwl\ya\ p. 92; 'Abd al-Rahman
Mir'at al-Asrar (Ms. Bankipore), foil. 372-84 ; 'All al-Qari.
(Ms. Bankipore) s. v
Chi shti,
Md. b. Ahmad b. 'All
al-Athmar
vol. i, pp. 229 seq ; Hada'iq
al -Di hl aw!;
al-Hanafiyya, pp. 277 seq ; Tadhkira 'Ulama,
p. 240; Nuika,
*
pp.
the Khalifa,
-
t i onal career but whi l e his fame as a saint of eminence
had been est abl i shed. The reason for t hi s i s not very
122-28; Beale,
representati ve, of the Ganj -i -Shakar and
far
to seek. Havi ng l ear nt the courses of studies obt ai n-
i ng i n Indi a i n hi s days courses
Oriental Biographical Dictionary, ed.
Asiatic Society of Bengal,
one of the greatest saints of Indi a. He died in his
Khftnqa,
of studies which were
desi gned t o sui t t he requi rement s of a qadl
1881, p. 211;
al -Khawari zml ,
wanted
(d. 681),
al -Dl n so t hat i n course of t i me he became
convent, at Ghi yat hpur, which is now called
as has been
Khazina,
Encyclopaedia of I slam, vol. iii,
3

aU
p. 992 .
'4uU5"
j UU M
c
Ui J 1
saint, and a famous one at that. Now, t he deeper he
traversed in the realm of spi ri t ual i sm, the greater he
felt for the need of Hadl t h.

58 INDIA'S
were a qadl,
Wit h all the accomplish-
ments of a scholar and saint,
1
he sat at the feet of
Mawlana
him in the Mashariq
1. Cf. below, note 2.
2. The sanad reads as follows. (Slyar
Jj JLJIj
c ^ ^ V I
^
A
Kaml
al-Anwar.
^ w x i l ^
2
al-Dln
He made a thorough
and critical study of the work and, on its completion i n
679/1280, he received from Kamal
al-Awliya',
UU~ > j i \ /
i*l*^> ^ JI>6
CONTRIBUTION TO HADITH LITERATURE
an office for which he aspired. Dest iny,
however, willed him otherwise. He became a wait,
Zahid and took lessons f r om
al-Dln a sanad
p. 104 05)
'
c
UJ 1 j
<*o ^; >>~J
**ol^
2

C
UJ I j . U*0| j.y vi cV
1
J
1
i **. ;
alftt
Dln' s
1. Cf. FawZ'id
Zahi ral -Dl n
He was a pupil of Fand
7. Shams al-Din
Nizam ai-Dm
Ni zam al -Dm
al-janaza
and fell in line with the Muhaddithun, as his opinion
about the legality of sama,
Ahadlth
expiation, for the sin which he thought
Hadi th
aLFu'Zd ed. Newul Kishore
al-Bhakkatrl,
al-Din
Muhammad b. YahyH
does not seem to have been a


k
ala'
qi/aiI
of the Mashariq al-Amvar.
he had com-
mi t t ed in his school days as a result of his memori zi ng
fort y Maqamas of Al-HarlrT,
khalf
as Tradi t ionist of great distinction as it
a Traditionist. appears from the perusal of his
Malfu^aty the Fawa' id al -Fu' ad

HADITH LITERATURE IN NORTHERN INDIA
which goes to show that the Shaykh had taken to t he
st udy of Hadl th after his i ni t i at i on .
made a deep impression on Nizam al-
mi nd . Thi s was not al l. By way of kajfara,
he got by heart the
Further the study
of Hadl t h so widened his outlook on life that he gave
up the ri gid conventionlism,
al-imam
al-ghttib
which contains, inter
alia, many fabricated Tradi t ions.
1
Thi s might have
been due to the fact t hat he had no access to any
standard work on Hadl t h literature save and except
the Mashariq al-Anwar.
TRADITIONISTS BELONGING TO TH E SCHOOL OF
NIZAM AL-DI
al-Awad
[ d. 74711346
al-Shafi'i
the two renowned professors
of t hei r age. He also appears to have read t he
pp. 99-100,
Press, Lucknow,
taqlid
Be t hat as it may, it re-
dounds to his credit that he could create for the people
of his KMnqS.
of the ' Ul ama
1

ampl y demonst rat es.
interest for Hadl t h wi t h t he resul t t hat
there grew up among his disciples and their successors
a number of scholars who had acquired proficiency in
t he subj ect .
59
and
N
i
]
and
ISM,
103-04, 110, 132.
5.
[d.
6. For extracts from Usul
4. ^*ij>
1. Ahhbar
thereby the basis of al-Hidnya
He read wi t h Shams al -Di n al-Awadl
2. Fakhr
In 724/1323, Nizam al -Di n made him one of his
Khalifas.
Awllya'
Mashariq
60 INDIA'S
^j J I
Firuz Shahi,
Hada'iq
al-Akkyar, pp. 90-91; Mir'at
p. 853;
al-Asrar, fol

CONTRIBUTION TO HADITH
al-Anwar
and became, in t urn, a teacher of the royal
institution of Delhi in the time of
c
AIa'
Then Muhammad b.
Shams al-Din was the first Indian Traditionist
who wrote a commentary on the Mash&riq
and was otherwise the second Musl i m t o comment on
the work.
3
Unfort unatel y, the commentry has not
come down to us. The tribute paid to hi m by his
distinguished pupil, the Chirctgh-i'Dihli,
al-Dln
74811347
and other
reputed teachers of Del hi . He was both a j urist as
wel l as a t radi t i oni st . He possessed a deep and wide
knowledge of Hadi t h
Hidctya
Ahadi th parallel to those of al-Hidftya,
itself.
5
Numerous
Ahadi t h abound in his t wo Arabic treatises on
Sama\
Khaz.na,
247a ;
2. Akhbar,
Infra, Part II , Chap. II,
^Ull
6. Ma'aril,
al-Sama',
al-Zarr3d
namely, the Uul
Tarlkh-i-
vol. i, p. 349; Subhat
al-Hanafiyya
t

JI S
al -Di n
alSamanuwl
al-Sama'
6

al-Matjan
t

pp. 284-85 ; Tadhkira-i-'Ulania
IX*.
see Nuika,
p.
LI TERATURE
with his master Nizam-al -Dln
Khaljl.
Tughlaq appointed
hi m a preacher of Islam in Kashmi r but, before he
could j oin his post, he died suddenly of boils in
747/1346 and was buried in Del hi .
1

al-Anwdr*
shows what
an emi nent educat i oni st Shams al -Di n was.
4

al-Dihluw
literature. Whi l e teaching aU
in Delhi he would adduce from the Sahl han
strengthening
and the Kashf
pp. 86-87;
Sec. III
tfTUeJ ^
vol. xxii,
pp. 106-09
i
]
29;
Nuzha
t

p. 147.
p. 90.
.
, UJ | CJ U
Nuzha, loc. ci t .
No. 5, p. 331.
.
Barias
3.
VII I
1. A Ms. copy of this treatise is in the library of ASB under No. 457
Ever since the commencement of his relationship
with Nizam al-Din Awliya',
Diya?
Fakhr al-Din participated in the famous munazara
of the latter that has been devoted to the justi-
fication of Same?
al-Qin&'an
(Persian Mss.) and janother
Dlya
1

al-Din
on Samel
1

Wujuh
near Lucknow
is with Mawlana
al-Din Barani,
b. MxCayyid
with his preceptor, Nizam al-Din
al-Samtf*
the
(Ma'arif, vol. xxii, No. 6
f

' Abd al-Majid
famous author of the Tdrlkh-i-Firuz
al-Mulk
Awliya\
2. Ma'arif, loc.
Shahl^
At the instance of Muhammad b. Tughlaq,
cit.
3. Styar
AhkbSr,
Nuzha,
al-AwltyW,

HAD1TH LITERATURE IN NORTHERN INDIA 6l
particularly the chapter
from the standpoint of Apostolic
Tradi t i ons.
to Deoglr
he went
b. Barsag
al-Barari
lived at
Ghi yathpur
4
and t hus had an opport unit y to be i n cl ose
contact with him. He was a cultured and widely read
man of his contemporary India.
5
The idea of his
knowledge of the science of Tr adi t i on may be had
from the references of Ahadlth
of Dariyabad,
pp. 85-K6
pp. 273-75 ; Ulughkhani,
; Khaztna,
pp. 103-06
4. Akhbar,
.
made in his Tdrlkh*
pp. 96-97.
particularly the brief but comparative study between
Hadlth
5. Nuzha,
and historiography (Tfirjkh)
p. 64.
6. TUrikh-i-Fxruz
he brings to bear
upon its Muqaddimal
vol. iii,
7. Ibid.,
vol. i,
Shaht,
(Dowlatabad)
He observes that the study of
the Qur'an
p. 856;
p. 351 ; Tadhkira-i-'Ulama
pp. 9-11.
f rom where he proceeded to
Makka, thence to Baghdad and attended the lectures
of eminent Traditionists there. In 748/1347 on his
way home, he was drowned at sea.
and the Apostolic precepts makes a man
well-balanced and humane.
8
He died some t i me
pp. 160-61,
pp. 102,
S. Ibid.,
2

5

i
p. 410).
511.
p. 465 .
[d.
Ni%flm
4. Siyar
2. S'iyar al-Awlxya',
1. Tarthk-i'Firuz
Nizam al-Dln
al-Dln
and Fi qh. He belonged
that Muhi yy al-Dln
ditions.
2

He was one of those disciples of Nizam al -Di n
Awliya'
al-Kashanl[d.
4. Muhiyy al-Dln
Shahi,
&. Jalal
Tadhkira-i-Vlama'.
al-AwI tya\
p. 602. Khazina,
'Allami
to a hereditary (Jadl
who took lively interest in Hadith literature.
He att ended the Hadi th classes of Nizam al -Dl n hi m-
self
al-Din
vol. i, p. 346, gives his

62 INDIA' S CONTRI BUTI ON TO HADI T H L I T E R A T U R E
after 758/1357 when he completed his Tarlkh-i-FirU
b. Qutb
719/1319]
in which the latter
We have it from the Khazlnat al-Asfiya
1

was a scholar of Hadi t h, Tafslr
fami l y
of Oudh. But as a result of his taking to the life of a
darvvish,
Oudh. But Muhi yy al -Di n did not accept. He di ed
in Del hi in 719/ 1319/

k
Allaml
735/1334
was a scholar of great
renown. Hi s erudi t i on i n Hadi t h literature earned for
him the title of Zubdat al-Muhaddithin.
death-date at 738 A H. which is evidently a mistake. His biographical
p. 102.
3. Vol. i,
pp. 275 seq ; Akhbar,
he was reduced to the lowest stage of povert y.
A fri end of his brought this to the notice of Sultan
4
Ala'
He began
his career as a disciple of Nizam al -Di n Awl l ya
1

notices will also be found in Khaztna,
pp. 01-02;
vol. i, p.
al-Din Khaljl
but ,
presumabl y on his death, compl et ed the course of
myst i cal t r ai ni ng at Sayyi dwada in Zafarabad, near
Jawnpur, under Makhdum Asad al-Dln
346 ; Tadhkira-i-'Ulama'
p. 97 ; .and
HadU'iq,
pp. 221-22; Nuzha,
al-Dln
would explain difficult Tra-
who offered him the qadlship
al-Husaynl al-ZafarftbUd
Aft ab-i -Hi n d
Beale's Oriental Biographical Dictionary, p. 288.
p. 276;
pp. 163-64.
z
Shah V
i
}
>
p. 325.
p.
pxkr
'All
1. For his biography,
Abu ' I-Fat h
Nasir al-Dln
6. Shaykh
(661-793),
1

HADITH
(Jawnpur,
see Fasih
Sadr al -Dln Muhammad b. Yusuf b.
Mahmud
Nasir al-Din
a saint, who made 'Miam i
Ll TERAtORE
1922), p. 97.
2. Tajain-i-Nur,
al-Din,
al-Husayni al-DihlawI
al-Husayni al-Yazdl
b. Yahya
his Khalifa.
p. 175 .
p. 22;
3. Ma'Urif,
Ma'arif,
Daraz, 'the
commonly called Gisu
al-Awadi
b. ' Abd
He compiled two treatises on Sufism,
vol. xxii, No. 6, p. 331. The Khayr al-Majalis
vol. xxv.
Long Locked/
al-Latlf
Arabic called Zfid
the one in
was
compiled in the course of 755-56 A H. by Poet Hamld,
No. 5, p. 346;
was a saint of great renown.
He was a disciple of Chiragh-i-Dihll
who became famous
under his surname Chiragh-i-Dihli,
called Zcld
al-Sulahtf
al.DIn A wily
the Light of
Delhi, succeeded Nizam al-Dln Awllyif in the

IN NORTHERN INDIA
and the other in Persian
al-Sctlikftn.
735/1334.
Chiragh-i-Dihl
[ d. 757/1356
spiritual
hierarchy of Ghi yathpur. He read Islamic sciences
with Muhiyy
7. Sayyid Muhammad Gisu Daraz
(721-82511321-1422
and succeeded
him in the Khanqa of Ghiyathpur. Born in Delhi on
Rajab 4, 721/July,
Sharqi Monuments of Jawn>
Nusha
t

a' (Akhbar
a disciple of Nizam
al-Din
1321, he read with Sharf al-Din al -
Kathhih,
al-Kashani,
Ta j al-Dln
Shams al-Dln
Muhammad al-Awadi and others. He was fairly con-
versant with Hadlth
Muqaddam and Qadl
al-AkhyUr.
4. S.yar al
literature, as his Malfu%at,
'Abd
p. 80).
Awltya",
al-
dis-
courses, Khayr al-Majcllis,
Muqtadir (d. 791). In 801/1399, he quitted Delhi on
account of Ti mtir' s
pp. 236 seq.; Akhbar, p. 74; Khat na,
364;
He died at Zafarabad
testifies.
3
He died in
Delhi on Friday, Ramadan 18, 757/September,
invasion and after spending several
years i n Guj arat and Dawlatabad he reached Gulbarga
in 815/1412 and was received with every mark of
vol. i,
Tadhhira-i-'Ulama',
in
a

i
}
1356. *
)
p. 86 .
(iv)
{Hi)
(i t )
1. Firishta,
the most Sahlh,
He fl ouri shed in the 8th century. Hi s t i t l e to fame
rests on his being the author of Miftah
8. Shaykh
Kitctb
Tarjuma-i-Mashdriq
fol l ows
October, 1422.
1
Sayyi d
respect by
vol. i, p. 316 ;
82; Tadhhira-u'Ulama',
Akhbar,
' approved, '
al-Jin&t?
Wajlh
al-Arbain,
:
{i) Shark Ma$hCiriq
Muhammad Gisu
Sultan Flruz
b. 'All
vol
al-Husaynl
pp. 123 seq ;
(the
Key to Paradise), a Persian dissertation containing
directions regarding prayers {awrad\
al-Dl
a treatise of select forty
Tradi t i ons. The author added to every
Hadi t h
al-Anwar.
i . p. 347b.
Khaz'ma,
2. Nuzha,
pp. 381.
l ee. cit. a

64 INDI A' S CONTRI BUTI ON TO HADI T H L I T E R A T U R E
Shah Bahma nl
1422). Prince Ahmad Shah became his disciple and
bui l t for hi m a fine house wi t h a convent at tached t o
it He died there on Monday, Dhu ' 1-Qa' da
Daraz is said to have
wri t t en over one hundred books on different branches
of Islamic learning.
2
Hi s works on Hadi t h
The peculiar
feature of this commentary is the interpreta-
tion of Ahadlth
al-Anwdr,
parallel sayings of the Sahaba,
A treatise on Slrat
n
Another emi nent disciple of Chiragh-i-Dihli,
religious obser-
vances and moral conduct. The book, as the author
st at es i n the Muqaddima,
treatise on Tradi t ion
8
and
that is presumably the Mashariq al-Anw#r.
p. 82 ; Nuzha, vol. iii. (Ms), s.v. Md. b. Yusuf
Ibid. 4. Ibid. 5. Ibid.
al-Dihlaw!
6. Ibid. 7. Hajl
; Beale,
Khalifa, op. cit., vol. vi,
8. Rieu, Persian Mss.,
t ab i
vol. i,
(800-25/1397-
26, 825/
are as
from the point of view of
Sufism.
3

a Persian
translat ion of the Mashariq al-Anwar
un and Masha' ikh.
a l - Na bl .
who
was well-versed in Hadith literature, was Waj l h al -Dl n.
is based on the Qur' an
A Ms.
op. cit., p. 187 ; Rieu,
pp. 40*41
?
5

6

and
Persian Mss.
p. II .
.
[ d.
1. No. 601,
Shihab al -Di n left us, among other works,*
Malik al -' UIama'
fol. 844
2. Nuzha,
b. ' Umar
Shihab al-Din b. Shams al-Din
p. 71.
al-Zawull
3. Hunter, I mperial Gazetteer, (Oxford 1008),
al-Ghaznawi
4. Firishta, vol. ii, p. 306 ; Akhbar,
vol. xiv, p. 317.
al-DawlatabadT,
Marjan,
Abjad
a
p. 29 ; M
pp. 156,
celebrated scholar of the early 9th century A.H.,
a'athar aU Ki r
aWVlum
am, pp. 188-89;
160-70
was
born at Dawlatabad in t he Deccan. He was educated
in Delhi under distinguished professors like Mu'ln
Din
al-
(Bhupal
Nawwab
; Subhat aU
' Imra' ni
1295), p. 893;
Siddlq
and Qadi
(d.circ.
'Abd
A.H.), p. 164; Khazma,
Tiqsar al-J uyud
Hasan,
807),
-i-J awnpur
vol. i, pp. 390-92; Thaiia'
'(Bhupa'l,
Mawlana Khawajgl (d. 819)
Ullah,
al-Muqtadir al-Shuraihl

HADITH LITERATURE IN NORTHERN INDIA 65
copy of this work transcribed in 1084/1673 is in the
British Museum.
1

9. Shihab al-Din Dawlatabad
849/1445
(d. 791) of whom
the last mentioned scholar, who was a disciple of
Chiragh-i-Dihll,
2

a
treatise on the excellence of the Sayyids, entitled
Maniiqib
(Calcutta, 1934) pp. 19 23; Tajallui-Ntir,
1208
Tad h kit
p. 319;
was his spiritual guide. During
Ti mur' s
a 'UlamW
Tadhkira-i-'Ulanta/
invasion, he migrated along with Mawlana
Khawaj gl t o KalpI
3

vol. ii, p. 33;
pp. 88-89;
whence he came over to Jawnpur
and settled there permanently. Shi hab al -Di n enj oyed
patronage of Sultan Ibrahi m al -Sharql
Hayat-i-Shibli,
(804-44/1401-40)
who conferred on him the title of Malik al
J
Ulatn&\
al-S&dat
pp. 11
'the Prince of the Scholars.
1

or Sharaf al-Sadat,
Persian Literature (London, 1927), Section i, pp. 9-10;
He
wherein he
quoted copiously verses f r om the Qur'an
vol. i, p. 932.
"* 5.
died on Raj ab
from the MasMtiq
Brockelmann,
25,
849/October, 1445, and was buried beside the Atala
and Ahadl t h
al-Anwar,
Hada'tq,
Geschichte
-13;
mosque of Ibrahi m Sharql
Ma$abih
Storey,
(Leiden,
at Jawnpur.
4

al-Sunna
Ency. of I slUm,
1938) Sup. I, pp. 300-10.
l
]
,
.
Sh ams
Mishhlt
4. Supra, cf. Nuzha,
1. Infra, Retrospect, VI .
661/August,
Makhdum
AwadL
t omb
3
whi ch was on t he bank of the Ganges has been
washed away as late as 1940. Though
Allahabad, on Muharram
ed from the Maslulriq
from
scholar and
70. Mawldna
al-Mas&blh
66 I NDI A' S
Isma'll
pp. 170,
2. Nuzha,
al-Mulk
Nasir
18, 87c/ May,
b. j a
c
far
J-' Uraydl
Khawajgl
and Shark Ma'ani
3. _
vol. iii,
No, 268,
s.v. Shams al-Din Khawajgl.
a]-Sadiq (d.
al -Mul i ani
171, No. 272.
al -Kanuvi
5. Manir has been variously read as Munair,
[Calcutta Review,
Maner and Munayr
ing, *Abd
vol. lxxi

CONTRI BUTI ON TQ HADI T H
al-Athar
TahawL
al-Karaun
al -Di n KhawaitrT
traced
148). He
al~Anwar
memory. He died at his native
1473.'
we have no
evidence connecting him with the Tradi t i oni st s
School of Ni zam al -Dl n,
which was under the sphere of influence of the dis-
cs of Nizam-al-Din,
al-Din Chirairh-i-Dihlj
II . SHARA
SCHOOL OF MUHADMTII'U
Sharaf al-Din al-Maniri
[661-78211263-13S1
Sharaf al-Din Ahmad b. Yahya
celebrated saint
1263, at Mani r,
s

His tomb enshrined the following inscription composed by
al-Hayy,
(April-June 1939), p. 195]. For correct read-
b.
L I T E R A T U R E
by al
[ d. S7S/1473
Ahmad b. Shams
compiled an Arbainwiih
and
his descent
was a Sufi
place at Ksira,
His
of t he
nevertheless we presume hi m
to be one of them inasmuch as he flourished in Oudh
such as Shams al -Di n al-
and others.
4

al-Bihar
al-Maniri,
of Bi har, was born on Fri day, Shawwal,
a village 60 miles off from
Khawajgl himself
Nuzha (Hyderabad*
-
1

]

Di n
1
ted
near
I HI S
N
i
]
the
t
:
1150) , p. 9.
* ^ k j >
Rijdl
Sharaf ai-Din,
3. Akhb'ar,
also Nuzha,
^. j Jl f Ui i
1. Mir*at
al-Hadith
o f Ha d l t h
as a t hi s par t of Indi a. He was t hor ough
(d. 733).
a

became a di sci pl e of Shaykh Na j i b
On t he conc l us i on of hi s st udi es i n 691/ 1291, he
proceeded t o De l hi , had an i nt er vi ew wi t h Sha ykh
Ni za m al - Dl n
at Sunar gf i on
t he pr esent Bi h a r Sha r i f i n Pat na. li e
HAQ1TH
p. 9 ;
-
p. 109 ; Mir'at
Ma'arif,
fiM -iJ I
and 7/ m
l i t er at ur e, wa. ,
Traditionist ]
y

He s ubs equent l y spent t he ne xt t hi r t y ye a r s
of his l i fe in the forests of Bi hl ya
Awl i ya '
1

unde r t he f os t er i ng
Asrar, foil. 461a, 461b
pp. 290 seq ; Tadhkira-i-'Ulamfr,
; Khazma,
vol. xxiii, No. 4, p. 297.
2. He was a disciple of Rukn
^l ku >
Mustalahat


l
I lm
and Kaj Ri r
and t hen we nt
car e of hi s t eacher
( af t er war ds, f a t he r - i n- l a w) Ab u T a w' a m a
p. 84; Nuzha. pp. 8-10;
vol. ii,
Beale,
Bankipur Catalogue, xvi, 25; A'tni-Akban
pp. 249, 254;
Calcutta Review, vol. lxxi
; vol. II . p 219. S. K. Rahman,
(April-June 1939), pp 195-214, art. Shaykh
Sharaf al-Dln Ahmad Yahya

LITERATUR E IN NORTHERN INDIA
was e duc a t ed
a l - Ha n ba l l .
t o La hor e a nd
a l - Dl n al - Fi r da ws I
in the
medi t at i on of and in hol di ng communi on wi t h God.
Some t i me bet ween 720-24/ 1320-24, he gave up t he l i f e
of secl usi on a nd s t a r t ed t he c a r e e r of a s p i r i t u a l gu i d e .
11
Shar af a l - Dl n was an out s t andi ng Tr a di t i oni s t o f
a c qua i nt e d wi t h all the br anch
Tawll
al-Hadith.
A

al-Asrar,
C^j ^ i
pioneer of the Firdawsi
al-Dln al-Firdawsi
of Munayr ; Ma'arif, vol. xxiii, No. 4, p. 297.
4. I.e., the sciences of interpretation, transmition and technique
of Traditions. For details on these aspects of Hadlth
Abjad
is Kh a n q a
aWUlum,
at Mani r ,
pp. 289, 354; Miftah
whi c h ha d or i gi nal l y been b u i l t
up b y hi s f r i e nds a nd a dmi r e r s , was, l at er , ext ended
and r ebui l t by Sul t an Mu h a mma d b. Tu gh l a q who,
al so, as si gned t he Pa r ga na of Kaj gTr
al-Hadith,
(d. 724), the
order in India {Khaztna,
literature, vide
al-Sunna, pp.
t o me e t i t s ex-
penses. T h e mo n u me n t s t ands t o t h i s d a y. T h e
Ma k h d u m di ed at Ma n i r on Sha wwal 6, 782/ J a nua r y,
1381.
3

^llm
His
CLl*~
vol. ii, p. 286)-
145,160
67
fol. 462a
>
,
.
\
Dln
al-Din
(d.
Rlwi
t
3. See I nfra,
A>I**
1. For his works, see Cal.
and Nizam
mate of Sharaf al-
A comparative esti-
al -Mani rl
As both Nizam al -Di n Awl i ya'
672) is bel i eved to have been in his possession f or
the purpose of his study.
2
He
Further, a copy of Shark Saklk
Mawsili,
(conditions for an approved transmit ter)
not all
Ahadlt.h
Maktubat
68 I NDI A' S
o~^\
Review, pp. 210-11.
2. Cal. Review, pp. 197, 211 ; Ma'arif, vol. xxii,
Shah Najm
No. 5, pp. 331-32;
al-DIn, Ma'arif, vol. xxiii. No. 4,
^r*
pp. 21)5-98 art :

C O N T R I B U T I O N TO H A D I T H L I T E R A T U R E
and books on Sufi sm
1

both verbat i m and reproduced. Thi s is
At times he would devote pages of his works
for the discussion of the di fferent aspects of the
science, e.g.,
and so
on and so fort h. In his works references have been
made of the Sahlhan,
Muslim,
i s credi ted to have, for
the first ti me, introduced the teaching of the Sahlhan
in Bihar, nay in Indi a,
3
He was not merely well -
conversant with Hadi t h.
of Del hi and Sharaf
of Bi har were Sufis and contributed
mat eri al l y to the cause of Hadi t h literature in this
country, an estimate of their achievement in this regard
may not be out of pl ace here.
Sharaf al -Di n pl ayed t he rol e of a l eading spi rit ual
guide
*****
Riwayat
the Musnad of Abu YaMa
in Bihar as di d Nizam al-Din
p. 77.
4. Cf. his Khawan-i-Pur-i-Ni'mat
*
btl-Ma'nd
Shark al-Masabih
As a mat t er of fact, he prac-
tised it to such an extent that he di d never
Awllya'
(Aljimadi
al- ^


q

{

A.H.),
(narration of the
Tradi t ions and not the wordings
and Ma
i n hi s l i fe
taste melon si mpl y because there was not hi ng to show
that the Prophet of Islam had tasted i t .
4
Last but not
the least, he was an authorit y of the myst i cal teachings
of both the Qur' an


l e a r n i n g

-

Press,
3rd Majlis, p. 8.
shut
are interspersed with
thereof), Shurut
iq al-Anwar
by al-Nawawi
and the Sunna.
in Delhi. Bot h were scho-


A

g

Pat na, 1321
0. Nuiha,
al-
al -
,
5



t

Q



t h e i



r

^>r ^
p. 10.
Dl n
Anwar
1

Din
1. Supra,
unt i l 25 years after his i ni t i at i o n during
Manir!
sor of Kushk La' l
Born and educated at Del hi , Muzaffar was appoi nt ed
by Firuz
Muzaf far b. Shams al -Di n al -Bal kh i was the
Khalifai
1. Shaykh Muzaffar al-Balkhi
copy of the Sah'ih
Sharaf al -Di n had access to quite a large number of
works on
who must, of necessity, have l ai d stress on Hadl t h .
Nat ural l y enough, he became more conversant wi t h
H.idnh
whereas Sharaf al-l.)in
that Ni zam al-Din
Traditionists.
Awiiya\
HADITH
p. 59.
as
2. Ma'arif,
t o hi m. But owing t o
Hadl t h
2

AwlTyfi
1

at tainment s in the field of Hadl t h
vol. xxiii, No. 4, loc.
3. I nfra, pp. 76-77 .

LITERATURE IN NORTHERN INDIA 69
literature, the for mer seems to have
carried away the palms.
began t he study of Hadl t h
late in life, and had no access to any standard work
on the subject, besides al -Saghanl ' s
had the advantage of
being educated under the ITanhalite
literature. Further, unlike Nizam al -Di n Awl l ya\
which he presumabl y col l ected fr o m
his teacher
3
as also fro m his fri ends. The fact that
Shaykh Zai n al-I)ln
of Muslim,
5
supports our cont ent i on.
Now a word about t he Tradi t i oni s t s of his school.
[d. 786/13S4
representative, of Sharaf al-Din al-Maniri.
Shah Tughl aq (752-90/1351-80)
College in Del hi . As his father
Shams al -Di n was a disciple of Ahmad alias Chi r m
Push (skin-dressed), a saint of Bihar, he nat ural l y
desired that his son Muzaffar, t oo, were i ni ti at ed by t he
Chi r m Push. Because the Chi r m Push was an un-
lettered saint, Muzaf far preferred Sharaf al - Di n al-
his official preoccupation
in Delhi, he could not join the KhanqH
whi ch
period, however, Muzaf far recieved i nst ruct i ons by
4. He was a scholar of the 8th century (Nuzha,
Mashfirig
5. Ibid., Ma'arif,
Thi s was because of the fact
al-
Abu Taw'ama
of Dewa
4
presented to hi m a
a Profes-
of Sharaf al-
vol. xxiiijNo.
]
cit.
p. 46).
4, p. 296.
A.H.). p. 99.
JJct**^ rz** tir-r?
He
1. Ma' arif,
t he Sahlhan
Br ought up by Ma kh du m
of t he Fi r da ws j
2. Husain b. Mu'izz
Af t e r t he demi se of his dearl y bel oved precept or,
Sharaf al - l ) ! n
do hereby cer t i f y t hat Hus a i n
t hat he i ssued a saturd
Traditionist
Muzaffar, a*
cor r espondence.
a

HADITH
He t hen came over t o Ma n i r al ong
wi t h t he member s of his f a mi l y . In r ecogni t i on of
his pr of ound schol arshi p i n I sl ami c sciences, Mu z a f f a r
got t he sobri quet of I ma m
prepared a c o mme n t r y
Anwar,
s eem t o ha ve l ong s ur vi ved his deat h.
Hi s rol e as a Tr adi t i oni s t
t o hi s nephe w and di sci pl e
Hus ai n Na ws h a - i - Ta whi d
*f*^
has got sanad
i n Hadi ' t h f rom me havi ng rend
a l - Ma ni n ,
and event ual l y di ed at Aden i n J
1384.
al-Biharl
Hus a i n al i as Na ws ha- i - Tawhi d was a nephew and
Khalifa of Mu z a f f a r al-BalJvhi.
order as well
Shar af al - Dl n,
wi t h his uncl e Mu z a f f a r t hor oughl y wel l .
3
Hi s f at her Sha ykh al - IsJam
2. Akhbar,
vol. xxiii, No. 4, p. 298.
3. Supra.
p . 110 ; Mtr'at-i-Asrar, fol. 620a ; Khazina,
t he Sahih
vol . ii , p. 299;
Ma' ari f, vol. xxiii, No. 4. p. 298; Nuzha
s

igraml,
of Mu s l i m and
(Ms ), vol. iii
f

Wzfayat
can be
a l - Bukhan
Mu' i zz
s.v. Husain b .
al-Akhyar
on
*
v V
' ^

LITERATURE
f r o m his t eacher Shar af
the Mashdriq
whi c h, however, does not
had f r o m t he f act
as f ol l ows :
v- ^^
f r om t he begi n-
ni ng t o t he end and s cr ut i ni zi ng ( ever y) wor d
Muz a f f a r mi gr at ed t o Ma kk
[d. 844/7447 J
He was a mys t i c
as a Tr a di t i oni s t .
Nawsha read
a l - Bi h a r l , who wa s
(Lucknow,
70
a l - Dl n .
al-
V
ith
a
2

788/J
1320
Husai n
Sunn r
Hi j j a ,
but
Fi/sli
Hi j az
1. Muhammad Shu'aib,
t e r mi na t e d t he l i ne
the Mashariq
He s ucceeded his f at her in the Khanqa
al-Biharl
of al-TIfikim
al so f rom Sun
is full of Ahadf i h
f a mous
al-Hij . lz.
Na\ vsha- i - Ta\ vhi d
Ma'arif,
Manaqib
al-Amv&r
al -Ni sf i l mri .
bHr v'

HADITH LI TERATURE IN NORTHERN INDIA 71
hi ms el f a Tr a di t i oni s t of some di s t i nct i on , made a
pr esent to hi m of a copy of the Sahlh
t r anscri bed on a silk
cal l i gr aphy,
and f ur t her st udi ed t he science of Tr a d i t i o n a t
Aden under a l - Kh a t i b
added to t he
a number of l l adl t h
He wr ot e several
I lddirrJ t-i-Khanis,
Per s i an. His t r e at i s e
not only f rom the Sihdh
an of al -Bai haqT
He
S M' Ma y ,
3. Ahmad Langar-i-Darjya
[d.
of Mani r.
He c ommi t t e d to me mo r y the ent i r e Masdbih
wi t hi n six mont hs i n order to get a ppl aus e a n d
approbation f r om his gr a ndf at he r
In his Munis al-Qulub,
di scour ces,
and ot her Hadi t h
t i ons. He di ed i n 891/ 1486
3

of t he r eput ed schol ars of t he house
of Muzaf f ar al - Bal khi
vol. xxiv, No. 4, p. 251.
2.
al-Asfiya',
al-Bihari; Ma'arif, vol. xxiii.
and a Di wan
p. 150,
No. 4, pp. 298-99
of Musl i m,
brocade i n beaut i f ul Ar abi c
as a t oken of t he Jat t er ' s great i nt er est f or
Ha di t h l i t er at ur e.
1
He accompani ed his uncl e t o al-
al - ' Adani
Khanqa of Mani r
works which were brought fro m
books on myst i ci sm, the
in
cal l ed Risala Awrad-i-Dah
Sitta
and the Mustadrak
died at Mani r in Dh u *1
1441.
b. Hasan b. Muzaffar
891/1486
al-
Muzaf f ar al - Bal khl .
a collection of his Malfuqdt,
Ahmad freel y quot es f r om the Sahihan,
compi l a-
and wi t h hi m perhaps
who s ucceeded in the KhQnqft
quoted i
; vol. xxiv, No. 4,
.
-
*
]
of
Mani r.
n
p. 251,
note 2.
3 . 299
Hadith
3. Brockelmann,
1. Arnold, Preaching of I slam, p. 292.
2. Jami, Nafahat,
Adhkanl
(2) Arba'in
the Musnad
collection of seventy Tradi t ions dealing wi t h excel-
lences of Ahl
(1) Al-Sab
l
in
AI-Hamadiln!
786/January,
Amir-i-Kabir
III . 'ALI
Kashmir
bait,
'All
GeschichU,
pp. 399-400;
Amiriyya*
of Fi rdaus al -Dayl aml ,
the descendants of the Prophet .
The bul k of these Ahadlth
ft Fada
1385,
b. Shi hsb
AL-HAMADANl
vol. ii, p. 211; Nuzha,
(Lahore, 1303, A. H. ) ,
Khawaja
a collection of forty Tradi-
tions which al - Hamadanl
al - Hamadanf ,
Khazina,
148;
A'zam
pp. 36-37; Mir
1

Shah, Tarikh-i-
at4-Astar, foil.
vol. ii, pp. 293 seq ; Hada'iq,
Nuzha, pp. 87 seq;
pp. 297-98

72 I NDI A' S C O N T R I B U T I O N TO HA D I T H L I T E R A T U R E
AND HIS
SCHOOL IN KASHMIR
was first brought to Kashmir by Sayyi d
an i t i nerant
darwish of Khurasan, who entered the t erri t ory in
773/1371 wi t h a retinue of seven hundred followers.
He was a great success as a mi ssi onary in Kas hmi r
where he and his disciples were mai nl y responsi bl e
for the expansion of Islam.
1

whi l e on his way to Persia. He
was buried at Khutlan
has to his credit the following dis-
sert at i ons on Hadi t h :
il Amir
have been gathered f r om
a book not con-
sidered reliable by the Tradi t i oni st s.
transmit ted f r om Anas b.
Malik on the authority of hi s
(d. 778).
323 seq
History of Cashmere,
Firishta, vol. ii, pp. 339;
pp. 89-90.
So great was his i nfl u-
ence over there that Sultfm
; Tadhkira-i-'Ulama',
JASB,
;
p.
Beale.
Outb
p. 238 ; Newell,
vol. xxiii,
other references,
al -Di n, the ruler
Kashmi r (770-95/1368-92), took pride in accepting
his discipleship. AI-HamadSnT
p. 414 ; vol. xxxiii,
vide Rieu,
spent in that count r y
the last years of his life and died on Dhu
al-Mu'minln,
Shaykh Naj m
Persian Mss.,
' l -Hi j ja
in the Transoxani a.
a
al -Din
p. 278. For
vol. ii, p. 4476.
8

al -
3


Hindl,
Qadi
K hung a
Di n
Tamal
1. Cf. Bankipur
i -Jahani yan
mant le fel l
pioneer of Hadit h
Shaykh Baha'
a master fabricator [waclda),
al -Hamadanl .
Husayn al-Shirazi.A
it developed i nto a semi nary of Haj l
Hamadanl ' s
Khanqd-i-Mtialla
Among the followers of


c
AIl
Besi des, hi s Dhakhirat
copy No. 943, vol. ix,
Sayyi d Jalal
on the shoulders of his sons and grandsons.
The Tradi t i oni s t Jamal
al-Din
Sul t an Sikandar appoi nted hi m j udge i n
his dominion.
4

native of
son Mir
al-Muluk,
194.
2. Tarikh-i-Kashmir,
al-Din
Husayn collected Ahadith
3. See below,
p. 39 ; Khazlna,
Ratantyya?
ch. v, sec. I, No. 13.
4. ttftkh-i.Kashmir, p. 39.

HADITH LI TERATURE IN NORTHERN INDIA
a t reat i se on
political philosophy, abounds wi t h Tradi t i ons, furni sh-
ing proof of his mastery of TTadith
al -Hamadani ,
al - Dl n was a Muhaddi t h
appointed as a teacher in Kashmi r.
2

in Kashmir &
was bui l t by Sultan Sikandar,
Sultan Out b al -Dl n , in 799/13%
Muhammad al -IIamacl anT
who, on his father' s death, had come to Kashmi r wi t h
three hundred disciples. It was a seat of learni ng
Kashmi ri ,
tionist of the 10t h cent ury.
3

Shinl z,
came to Kashmi r wi t h his preceptor Mir
the forged Tradi t i ons emanat ing from Baba
of the early 7th
cent ur y A. H. , who had t he audacit y t o gi ve out t hat he
had enj oyed suhbat,
IV. SHAYKH ZAKARIYYA AL-MULTANl
SCHOOL OF MU11ADDITH
Zakarl yya
learning at Multan.
al - Dl n al -Uchl
al-Bukhari
products of t hi s cent re.
vol. ii,
5. Brockelmann, Supplement ii, pp. 625-26.
6. IsUba,
U
vol. i ,
l i t erat ure.
1

Sayyi d
whom Sultan Outb
Hadith.This
the successor of
for Mi r 'Al l
(d.809),
a Tradi -
Husayn
Muhammad
Rat an
companionship of the Prophet.
6

AND HIS
N AT MULTAN
(d. 666) was a
Aft er hi m his
and Makhdum-
were the
p. 297.
pp. 1087-1101.
73
al-
al -
unt i l
al -
m
Islam
Dl n .
Di n
Di n
Bnkhilrl
Anwdr
Ba h a '
Jamal
3. Ibid.,
1. Khazina,
l essons on Hadl t h
and Saldt
Ni zam al - Di n Awl i ya' ,
u n d e r h i m . Be s i de s be i ng a s a i nt a nd s chol a r of gr eat
emi nence, Jal al a l - Di n was al so a Mu h a d d i t h . Hi s
deep i ns i ght i nt o Ah a d i t h
successor Fi r uz
of Si nd by Mu h a mma d b. Tu gh l a q
of a l - ' I r a q
Al l a h al - Ma t a r i
Chi ragh-T-Di hl l ,
He f ur t he r recei ved i ns t r uct i ons i n Suf i s m at
Del hi f r om Shams al - Di n al - Awadi
( d. 735), a gr a nds on of Ha ha '
Di n Za ka r i yya
al - . VIuhaddi t h,
2

Ahmad a l - Hus a vni
(707-85j
Makhdilm-i-Jahariiyan
and the Masdblh
al - Di n.
of Sha ykh
al-Din
74 INDIA'S
pp. 11,
aUJanCtza
to practise air
1

i n a l - Ma dl n a
a l - Di n . He r e , o n
f i n i s h i n g wi t h i n one year t he exi st i ng courses of s t udy
comprising the Mashdriq
at Mul t an,
al -Bukhari al - Uchi
1307-83).Jalal
al-Sunna.


l
ala

CONTRIBUTION TO HADITH LITERATUR E
aUMuhaddith.Me
Sa d r a l - Di n ( d. 684) , a s on and successor of
Fo r ma n y year s h e wa s a Pr of es s or at
hi s nat i ve t own, Uchh, wher e he t aught t he Mashariq
So devoted was
h e t o t h e Sun na of t h e Pr o p h e t t h a t h e used t o p u t o n
coarse ga r me nt s as t he Pr ophe t d i d . J a ma l a l - Di n
flourished in the lirst
Sayyid
al - Di n a M. I us a yn
was born at
Uc hh i n 707/ 1307. Af t e r his educat i on at his nat i ve
t own under Oadl
he j oi ned t he school of Ba ha '
whi ch was t hen bei ng c o n -
duct ed bv Shavkh Ab u M- Fa t h
al-Anwar
al-Sunna, Jal al a l - Di n became a di sci pl e of Rukn al-
and Nasi r
f r om 'Aflf
and also f r o m some ot her Mashaikh
and Eg yp t . Th e n he was made Shaykh al-
whose
Shah hi ms e l f accept ed di sci pl eshi p
i mpr e s s ed hi m, as di d Sha ykh
at khalf
H-GhaHb.
l i t e r a t ur e, s o t ha t we f i n d h i m l ect ur -
37 ; Nuzha,
2. Nuzha, p. 25.
p. 29; Khazina,
Ba ha '
Rukn
vol. ii,
was a disciple
half of the 8th century A. M.
Jalal al-Din al-
b.
a l - Di n a l - Uc h i and f a ma l
a l - Di n b. Sa dr a l -
and the Masabih
a l - Di n
al - Di n ' Abd
al -Imam
He used to i mpart
pp. 24-25
s. v. Jalal al-Din al-Bukhari
al-
1

a l -
al -
.
.

5. I .e
al-Durr
Sharaf
Sunna
i ng
7. E.g., Sunan Abi Dawiid,
E g., Musnad
, Sahih al-Bukhart
3. Law, Promotion of Learning,
1. Nuzha, vol. iii. s.v. 'Ala al -DIn
Masanid*
etc. The quot i ng of Ahadi t h f r om non- I l adi t h
Aba M-Oasi m,
Taftaz2Lni,
al-Manthur,
Baidrruu,
f rom al-Hiddya,
t i me bet ween 807- 49/ 1406- 45,
al-Saddt*
a l - Ta ha wi .
Mishkat al-Masfibih
ci t y of J a wn p u r
3

Unt i l the mi ddl e of t he 9th century A. M. , the onl y
Ha d i t h compi l at i ons avai l abl e at
781/ 1379.
1

dur i ng
on the Mashnriq
HADITH
&
b, 'All
Al-Nadwa,
al-Nasa'i,
and J ami'
4. Cf. Ms. Bankipur,
p. 102.
2. Akhbar,
b. As'ad
or Sunan wo r ks
7

Ahhbdr
ul'Btt'kr
Shark Far<fid
Fa 1u\l
Taf&lr
a n d
li e
etc.
/
d i e d
pp. 133-35
al -Di hl awI
duri ng the per i od unde r
r evi ew, at J a wnpur . No w, as a resul t of Ti mor ' s
al-Mnklf,
al-Kashshdf,
.
; Nuzha, pp. 28-35 ; Kncy.
i n-
vasi on (801-02/ 1398-09) c ul t ur a l cent res of De l h i we r e
mo s t l y di ve r t e d t o J a wnpur ,
8
s o t hat t he l at t er became
a r epl i ca of t he f or me r a nd as s uch t he rot at e
Tarlkk

LITERATURE IN
al-Anwar
his s oj our n at Del hi in 775/ 1375 and
at Uchh
Retrospect
t he great Uni ve r s i t y
wer e the Mashdriq,
the Shark Ma\1nl
Thi s we gat her f r o m t he perusal of t he
a t r eat i se wri t t en at J; \ \ npur
whi ch cont ai ns Ahadi t h
not on.lv f r o m t he af oresai d wor ks on Hadi r h
and Tafslr
-Oadikhtln*
Sirajlyya
al-\\isab
al-Thimar,
works
as me n t i o n e d above poi nt s t o t he dear t h of any c o m-
pr ehens i ve coll ecti on of Tr a di t i o n s like
of af f ai r s
of Hadi t h l i t erat ure at Del hi was not l i kel y to be any
di f f er ent f r o m what now obt ai ned at J awnpur . As a
mat t er of f act , dur i n g t he per i od under revi ew De l hi ,
a s a c ent r e of Ha di t h
ot Islam, vol. i,
No. 1179
Ahmad b.
al-Tirmidht.
March 1941 ; Hayat-i-Shibli,
NORTHERN INDIA
and the Masdblh
i n 7 8 5 / 13 8 3 .
the Masrfblk,
H-Athar
s ome -
but also
al-
Fatxva-t-Tiltarkhunlya,
by al -
bv
Fara id al-Hahl/J yya,
the J ijxrilmt*
l e a r ni n g, does not seem t o have
possessed any mor e Hadi t h wor ks t han the Mash&riq
p. 1003.
(Persian Mss.)
Hanbal
pp. 11-13
75
ah
2

the
by
m
,
.
.
.
Ndsiri
1

1. Pp. 325-20
copy of the Mashariq al-Anw#r
Anwar began to be more and more popular among the
Sufi
Awliya'
7th cent ury.
1

(d. 676), a pupil of al-Saghani,
was al-Saghanl' s
The earliest
brought
Mahmud
written during
of Abu Davvud
The earliest reference of Ahddlth
7. Sunan
Below i s an at t empt
the Mishkat
the Masahlh
76 I NDI A' S
; cf. Ma'arif,
scholars of India. During
Mashariq al-Anwdr
and the Shark Ma'ani

C O N T R I B U T I O N TO H A D I T H L I T E R A T U R E

y
l-Athnr.
al-Masdbih,
to trace the advent of the
standard works on Hadi t h literature in Northern I ndi a
during
of Abu Dawud
from the Sunan
is noticed in al -Juzjam' s
the Sul tanate of NasTr
(644-64) and as such the Sunan must
to Delhi by the middle of the 7th century. As
no trace of the work was found in Del hi subsequently,
we may presume that it had ei ther been lost or removed
elsewhere.
2. Mashariq al-Anwdr
available work on ITadith
which had been
introduced into Delhi by Burhfm
about the middle of the
By 679/1280 Shaykh Nizam al-Din
completed his study of the work which he later
commi t ted to memory.
3
Since then the Mashctriq
the time of Sultan
Muhammad b. Tughlaq (725-52), it was the only avail-
able work on Hadith in Delhi as is evident from the
fact that the Sultan received bay'a,
only.
4
While leaving
Del hi for t he Deccan on account of Ti mur ' s
vol. xxiv,
al-Dln
oath of allegiance,
from his officials in the presence of the Qur'Sn
As for
we have no evidence to show
if it was available at Delhi at the time.
the period under review.
Tabaqat-i-
al-Dln
have been
in India
Mahmud
and a
invasion
No. 4, p. 261.
2. Supra, p. 52.
3. Supra, p. 59.
4. Tarthh
.
.
ah
.FirVz ShW. p . 495
1. Supra, p. 68.
Of al l pl aces t he presence of t he Sahihdn i n t he Khan-
qd of Manir
Makhdum al-Mulk
al-Uchi
al-Bukhari
Al - Ba gha wl ' s
3. Masdbih
t he Mashariq al-Anwdr, was i n evi dence not onl y i n
Del hi , as shown above, but was also found in other
educational centres of Indi a, viz.,
(801-02), the on]y book on Hadi t h
2. Calcutta Review,
at this time seems to be a myst ery that
cannot be easily unravelled. Maybe that while a
student at SunSxgSon,
Sharaf al -Di n was the fi rst
scholar to have made reference of the Sahihdn in his
respectively, and that it was referred to in t he
works of Sharaf al -Di n Yahya al -Maniri
(d. 785) and the Tradi t i oni s t Jama]
Masdbih
Mult
Gisu Daraz (d.

Sin,
al-Sunna

HADITH LITERATURE IN NORTHERN INDIA 77
825),
the then representative of t he spi ri t ual hi erarchy found-
ed by Ni zam al -Di n , coul d lay his hand upon and did
carry wi t h hi m was a copy of the Mashariq al-Anwdr
on whi ch he commented afterwards. Thi s book, i.e.,
Uchh and
Mani r. As a mat t er of fact, the Mashariq was the
most popular treatise on Hadi t h then known.
al-Sunna
was pr obabl y
introduced i nt o Indi a by t he mi ddl e of t he 8t h cent ur y
as i t appears from the fact that the book was taught i n
Del hi and Uchh
al - Di n
(d. 7S2).
4. Al-Sahlhdn
works compi led sometime between 741
the Makhdum al -Mul k had pro-
cured them f r om the collection of his teacher and
father-in-law Abu Taw' ama
Muslim presented t o hi m by Zai n al -Di n of Dewa, a
scholar of the 8th century. To add to that, Shaykh
3. Supra, p.
vol. Ixxxi,
by Makhdum-i -Jahani yan Jakl l al -Di n
-86/1340-84.
2

who must have brought
them wi t h hi m when coming over to Indi a.
3
Furt her
the Makhdum had also an addi t i onal copy of the Sahlh
.
1

.

p. 210.
53.
1.
jBmi*
I .e. the Sunan of Abu Dawud,
appear s t o ha ve been i nt r oduced
The Mishkat
8. Mishhat
Ka b i r Shi hf i b
7. Musnad Firdaws
on Fi q h dedi cat ed t o Sul t an Fi r uz
Th e Ma' amM- At har
6. Shark Ma
{
ani
Ta whi d
tadrak of al -Hfi ki i n
Musnad of Abu YaMfi
SaJfilnln,
782/ 13S1,
Unt i l the death of Ma kh d u m
5. Sunan
Ta whi d
a Ms l Sm
78 INDIA'S
al -f
of al-Tirmklhl
al-Nasa'I
al-Mascibih
l amadani
by a l - Ta h a wj
al - Ni s abur i
nl -Mawsi l i .
the Masabih
t he Khanqa
Arba\
l

Mu' i zz
CONTRIBUTION TO HADITH
.

LITERATtTR
al - Bi har ' i
of the Khanqa with a f ur t he r copy of the Sal
of Mu s l i m.
Sunan al-Baihaqi and al
Mustadrak
Sharaf al - Di n
of Ma n i r possessed onl y
al-Sunna
}

Subsequentl y the
Khanqa was enriched by the addi t i on to it of the
Sunan Arba\
brought by Nawsha-i -
f rom al -ITi j az
U-Aihar
(d. 320) was
i nt roduced i nt o Del hi towards the mi ddl e of the 8th
cent ur y as t he wor k has been r ef er r ed t o i n Shar af
Muha mmad al - ' At t ar i ' s
Shah Tu gh l a q
90).
2
Th e wo r k was al s o avai l abl e at J a wn p u r .
al-Daylami
Thi s work was brought to Kashmi r by Ami r -i -
( d. 786) but does not s eem t o
have been ut i l i zed by an ybod y e xc ept i ng hi ms el f ut i l i z -
i ng it as he di d in compi l i ng his al-Sab'in
al-Masabih
by al - Tabr i zi
i nt o I n d i a i n t he
begi nni ng of t he 9t h cent ur y, i f not e a r l i e r , a s t he wor ks
wer e avai l abl e at J a wnpur a t t hi s t i me .
and Ibn
2. Banklpur
Fawaid-i-Flruz
r e wa r ded
the Mashdriq
the Sunan of al -Bai haqi and t he
Shahl,
hi s son Na ws h a - i
t he
and the
Mus-
a work
(d. 739)
Maja and the.
Catalogue, vol. xiv, No. 1225.
E
-
fill
-
.
in
.
.
(752-
.
.
.
Musnad
Sunan
Mishkai
of Fi rdaws ; and
Musnad
Al-Musladrak
Shark Ma
l
&rii
Mashariq
Masabih
Sihah Sitta
To sum up, the
HAf tl TH
;
of Abu Wl a
It
following works on Hadl t h
LI TERATUR E IN


NORTHERN INDIA 79
litera-
ture were found ext ant in di fferent cul t ural seats of
Nort hern Indi a duri ng t he period under review :
-
al-Sunna
al-Anwar;
al-Masdbih
m
'l-Athar
al-Baihaql;
'l-Hakim;
al -Mawsi h
;
:
l
;
.
Sec/ion
INDIA
T
Muzaffar Shahl dynasty in Gujarat towards the
middle of the 8th century and the beginning of the
9th century respectively ushered in the mi l l enni um for
the culti vat ion of Hadi t h literature in that part of the
country from where the science subsequent l y

CHAPTER IV
RENAISSANCE OF HADI T H LEARNI N G IN
1820-992/1417-1584
I . Transmission of Hadith
from al-Hija
HE rise of the Bahmani s
made its
way to Northern India. The period of one hundred
and eighty years covered by the rule of these neigh-
bouring Musli m kingdoms was a landmark in the
domain of cultural activities. Enlightened and accom-
plished, Sultans of bot h these houses di splayed mar-
vellous zeal for the promotion of learning in their
respective dominions. Wi t h that end in view, they
invi ted to their capitals men of letters from far and
near, and extended to them their lavish munificence.
Few dynasties during the Musli m hegemony in India
could produce a ruler of the attainments of Firuz Shah
Bahmanl
1. Law,
(800-25/1397-1422) or Muzaffar II (917-
32/1511-25), the royal Maecenas of Gujarat. A good
linguist, the former used to send ships every year from
the ports of Goa and Chaul to different countries,
particularly to invite to his court men celebrated for
their learning.
1
Whereas the latter promoted learning
wi t h great zeal, and men of letters from Persia, Arabia
and Turkey found it worthwhile to settle in Gujarat
in his liberal reign.
2
Not the Sultans alone but some
of their viziers also distinguished themselves as edu-
cationists and patrons of learning. Ment ion in this
respect may be made of Mahmud
in the
GawZLn
op. cit., pp. 83-8
]
to I ndia
Deccan and the
of Deccan
2. Ibid., p. 106.
z
5
1. Cambridge History of India,
litterateurs^
Muzaffar
tionists and scholars, and, in spite of t hei r onerous
state duties, devoted themselves to l i t erary act i vi t ies,
and spent most of t hei r i ncomes on t he mai nt enance of
the poor and fami shed litterateurs living i n di fferent
parts of the Mus l i m Wor l d . As a mat t er of fact , t he
Deccan, under the Bahmani s,
and Asaf
p. 256 .
2. Many a Traditionist,
III, p. 312;
poets and talented person,
Sbahis,
Khan of Guj ar at . They
too, came to India for the purpose of trade but
desirous of
obt ai ni ng patronage. As a result, the Muhaddi t hun
from al-IIijaz
werq,
finding great scope lor carrying on cultural activities in the Deccan and
and Egypt began to flock to their
ki ngdoms. Thi s mass movement of t radi t i oni st s was
due as much to the love
and reverence shown t o t he
Apostoli c t radi t i on by the Sultans as also

RENAISSANCE OF HAD1TH LEARNING IN INDIA
bot h tradi-
and Guj ar at under the
became a cynosure for the scholars,
t o t he easy
means of communi cat i ons, now avai l abl e, by t he open-
i ng of t he pi l gri m-rout e across t he Arabi an Sea i n pl ace
of t he l ong and hazardous land-route hi t hert o used by
t he Indi an Musl i ms. Henceforth, regular sail ings were
arranged under the orders of the Sultans duri ng the
pi l gri mage season f r om the ports of Sout h Indi a
part i cul arl y f r om those of Guj arat whi ch t hen came t o
be known as Bab Makka,
l earni ng i n Indi a.
Before goi ng i nt o details of t he mi grat i on of t he
Traditionists just referred to, it wil l not be out of
place here to fi n d out whether religious l earni ng was
Ma'arif, Vol. XXII, No. 4,
Gujarat, they permanently settled there (Infra,
t he Gate of Makka.
1
Furt her,
as t he commerce of t he Arabs wi t h Sout h Indi an ports,
that had l ong been established, now became extensive,
sailings were undertaken more frequent l y.
2
The
i nt i mat e relat ionship, which thus subsisted between
Indi a and Arabi a, coupled wi t h l i beral patronage
extended to the Tradi t i oni st s by the aforesaid royal
houses, pl ayed a vi t al part in the di ffusi on of Hadl t h
81
p. 89) .
I slam,
1. Muslim settlements were founded on the Malabar Coast. Ma'bar
had to be given instructions in the rudi ments of
Isl ami c rites and rituals. As a mat t er of fact, the
Arabs were as much soli ci tous for new converts as for
t urni ng them i nt o good Musl i ms. Wi t h this end in
view, they bui l t mosques wherever they found some
converts. Ordi nari l y, a mosque served a t wofol d pur -
pose. It was, first, a place for congregational services
(jam&at)
i ng into South Indi a is shrouded in darkness. The
erection of as many as eleven mosques on the Malabar
Coast i n t he 3rd century of the Uij ra,
1

i nt roduced i nt o t he Musl i m settlement s of South I ndi a
which had come i nt o being under the auspices
(Coromandal
and, secondly, an institution for i mpar t i ng
religious i nst ruct i ons; so that religious education flour -
ished side by side wi t h conversion. Thus?
Coast) and Gujarat. For details, see Nadawl,
Hind ke Ta'lluqat, pp. 265,
2. Zayn al-l)in
f
Tuhfat
Tara Chand, I nfluence of
al-Mujahidin,
p .
ed. Hyderabad, pp. 14-21;
I slam on I ndian Culture, p. 35 ; Preaching of ,
265; Dacca University Journal, vol. xvi,
Expansion of Islam in South India
3. Ency
4
.
of I slam, Vol. Ill ,
Mas'udI,
pp. 350-53 .
Murvj al-Dhahab, ed Menard,

82 INDIA'S CONTRIBUTION TO HADITH LITERATUR
of
t he Arab t raders and mi ssionari es prior to the Musl i m
conquest.
1

The history of the introduction of rel igious learn-
however, sug-
gests that wi t h the progress of mi ssionary act i vi t ies in
t hat part of the count ry religious learning must have
been introduced there. For, aft er al l , t he neo- Musl i ms
the raising
of a mosque in the early Islam necessarily meant t he
foundat i on of a religious i nst i t ut i on.
3
We can, there-
fore, reasonably hol d that t he introduct ion of rel igi ous
learning i nt o South India dat ed as far back as t he 3rd
cent ur y A. H . when mosques were founded on the Mala-
bar Coast. Henceforward, wit h the expansion of Islam
and the establishment of Arab colonies there, there
rose chapels and splendid mosques on all sides* which,
1942, p 82, art. Early
also Nadwl,
Paris, Vol. I, p. 382;
E
'Arab wa
302.
pp. 269, 280-81, 283 seq.
1. Nadawi, p. 279,
Ma'barl
That , havi ng been introduced in the 3rd century,
Islamic learning went on gaining i n popul ari t y i n t he
Musl i m colonies of South India, is abundant l y clear
from the account of lbn
Shahriyar
quoting from 'Aja'ib
Hat tuta.
(Leiden, 1836), p. 144.

RENAISSANCE OF HADITH
evidently, developed into seats of Isl ami c learning.
Further, i nst i t ut i on in the 4th century of the office of
Qadi in the kingdom
activities of the Isl ami c Shan' a
By his ti me, i.e.,
the mi ddl e of the 8th century, religious learning was
so much in evidence and the number of learners
increased so vastly in the Musl i m settlement of
Honawar
by name, who, over and above his official
duties, used to carry on teaching work at a school
in the city.
5
In the Jami '
mosques he saw at Calicut
gious teachings.
The foregoi ng l i nes ampl y demonstrate how wide-
spread religious education was among the Musl i m
settlements of South Indi a on the eve of the Mus l i m
2. lbn Battuta, op. cit., Vol. IV . pp. 65-67.
(modern Il onavar
3. Ibid.,
in the district of Kanar a,
Bombay Presidency) that as many as thirteen schools
for the girls and twenty-three for the boys had to b e
built there. The ladies of this settlement, en masse,
were hafizclt,
pp. 79 80.
memorisers,
4. Ibid., pp. 81-82. Hill
of the Our' anan
has been identified with Mount Delly.
miles
extra-
ordinary feature of the great popul ari t y of religious
learning seldom t o be met wi t h anywhere at the t i me.
2
At Manj ar ur (Mangalore
north of Cannanore in the Province of Madras [Gibb,
in South Kanara, Madras),
l bn Bat t ut a saw a Shafi' ite
of Illli,
Travels in Asia 6
of Zamori n
1

qadi,
again, a number
of students were found receiving instructions, whi le
their board and l odgi ng were supplied gratis.
4

aUHind,
Africa (London 1929). Vol. II , p. 296;
16
l bn Bat\uta
t

LEARNING IN INDIA 83
shows the growi ng
t here.
Badr al-Din
The
likewise provided for rel i -
by Buzarg
Nadawi, p. 292].
al-
b.
'
1. Cf. Ibn Battuta, pp. 66,
The Moorish traveller Ibn
Unlike the Muslims of Northern India who pr o-
fessed the Hanafit e School of Law, those of the South
were Shafi'ites,
68, 80, 88 ;
2. Ma'arif.
Nadawl,
Battuta to whom we
owe some interesting sidelights on the religious and
cultural life of the Muslims of South India, does not,
however, refer to have seen any Muhaddi t h there.
Inci dentall y, he came across many a Shafi'ite
the former representing the religious
learning of the Central Asia,
(faqlh)
Vol. XXII.
j urist
latter that of aI-Hij2Lz,
viz., Fi qh,
2
while the
No. 4,
3. Shah Wall
pp. 253-54.
in the Muslim colonies.
5
About fifty years after
Ibn Battuta had visited the South, there were found in
some towns of t he Deccan a number of Muhaddit hun
who were recipients of endowments f r om Sultan
Mahmud
viz., Haditha
1900), pp. 77. 70 80.
4. Supra, p. 55
Allah al-Dihlawi,
Shah Bahmani
state of things
that cannot but serve as an object lesson for our present
query. After all,
.
aUInsaf,
1 (780-99/1378-97).
6
Who
were these Muhaddithun, is the question that naturally
presents itself to us. Firishta, who furnishes this piece
of information, does not'give
Hadi t h
3

the Shafi' ites

84 INDIA'S
conquest. Whether with the growth of religious learn-
ing the study of Hadith was pursued alongside that of
the Qur ' Sn
than t he Hanafites
were more attached to
us any details. One thing
that emerges out of it is that these Traditionists were
not foreigners. For, in that case we would have
some of their names at least preserved in the bi ographi -
cal literatures of the 8th or the 9th century scholars
who had evidently migrated to the Deccan. Nor d i d
they belong to Northern India
ed. Mujtaba'i
5. Pages 66,68,
who concerned themselves
_ _
78, 80, 88, 00
6.
CONTRIBUTION TO HADITH LI TERATURE
remains yet to be seen
more with Fiqh, as we have already observed
either, where Muhaddith,
Press (Delhi,
Firishta, Vol. I, p. 301
.
.
p. 259.
.
.
4. Al Nur al-SUfir,
nyya a l
l
pp. 287-92;
3. Al-Nur
2. Ibid., Vol. VIII.
1. Shadharat.
Ansarl
Haj ar al - Hayt hami
(831-902) and Zai n al-Dln
uans mi t t K
Muhaddithun through process of being transmltted
Duri ng t he fi rst quarter of the 9th century while

Muzi ffar
i n t he t rue sense of the t erm,
RENAISSANCE OF HADITH
al-Safir,
al-Safir
iS S


a



ne

w



s c h o o

]



o

f

i
Shadharat,
pp. 122-23;
'An Akhbav
pp. 15-17.
Zakarlyya*
MuhaddithOn
4
Shahi s
was scarcely known at
the t i me. Hence, in al l probabi l i t y, they were the
natives of South Indi a. Thi s hypothesis gains in
st rengt h from the presence in South Indi a at the t i me
of Ibn
aUQatn
'AM

al -Ansan
up i n Egypt under t he leadership of
Ibn Haj ar al-' Asqalanl
ne bctiools
Hadi t h literature was just in the
Bat t ut a
o f *
of t he Shfdi ' i t e

LEARNING IN INDIA
scholars who may well be
called Muhaddi t hun. We may, therefore, safely pre-
sume that the Shaft
4
!
came t o power, Hadi t h literature had
already been i nt roduced i nto South Indi a by the
Shafi' ite
#
t o Indi a,
(773-852), one of the greatest
Tradi t i oni st s Islam has ever produced.
1
Thi s school
produced among others 'Abd
(826-
925), the t wo outstanding Tradi t i oni st s of their t i me .
Of t hem, the first had Har amayn as t he cent re of hi s
activities,
58

(909-974), a worthy pupil of Zaka-
who was responsible for enhancing the
reputation of Makka as a famous seat of Hadi t h
learning.
4

Vol. VII.
ol-'Ashir
al-Qadir
Shadharat,
Vol. VIII,
Fuqaha
1
of I bn Bat t ut a' s descri p-
tion were the self-same persons who were later i dent i -
fi ed as Muhaddi t hun by Fi ri sht aMuhaddi t hun wh o
then came to settle in the Deccan under the patronage
of the Bi hmani Sullans.
t
Thi s hypothesis, furt her,
leads us t o concl ude t hat before the Bahmani s
i
al -Rahm5n
whi le the other, al -Qahira.
s

al-'AidarUsi,
and t he
scholars, although the 9th cent ury marked the
dawn of i t s new era.
T i
al-Sakhaw
It was Ibn
Thus ri ght t hrough the first quarter of
pp. 270-73.
(Baghdad. 1934). pp. 17-20.
Vol. VIII. pp. 134-36
pp. 370-71.
85

i
al-Nur
.

8 6 I N D I A ' S C O N T R I B U T I O N T O H A D I T H
the 9th century down to the t hi rd quarter of the
10th century, there flourished, in succession, in both
Egypt and t he Haramayn four schools of Muhaddi t hun
which served as the via media for the transmission of
Hadi t h literature to I ndi a.
A not ewort hy feat ure about t he founders of these
.
(d. 923). To the credit of Egypt , may it be said
that most of the Tradi t i oni st s who t ransmi t ted Hadi t h
to Indi a were either Egypt i ans or their disciples.
Nevertheless, Arabia remained the t ransmi t t i ng centre
from where Hadi t h literature
must be said that but for the Egypt i an Muhaddi t hun,
Hadi t h literature in this country could not have made
that much progress as it really di d.
MIGRATION OF TH E TRADITIONISTS
Before we discuss the mi grat i on to Indi a of the
Muhaddi t hun of the above four schools, it is in the
fitness of things to say
Damaml nl
earliest i mmi grant s to I ndi a.
, Y schools was that all
Egypt: the Home ..^
of them belonged


f

of Hadith, Arabia:
. . , ..
t o Egypt ,
eventually made
its way to Indi a. Thi s was because Arabia was
l i nked up wi t h India in more ways than one and,
consequently, the Schools of Muhaddi t hun of t he for -
mer became i nt i mat e
Indeed,
wi t h the latter. As such, the
Schools of al -' Asqalanl
duri ng
its transmitting centre


u n
de r
and al-Ansarl
,
t he peri od
revi ew, Egypt
in Egypt , coul d
not command that amount of popularit y as those of
al-SakhawI
was part icul arl y
ri ch wi t h Muhaddi t hun. In addi t i on
to the tradit ionists above referred to, it also produced
in this period al -Suyut i
and al -Hayt haml
and Nur al -Din
(d.


c
)ll )
i n al -Hi j az
al-ShlrazI
L I T E R A T U R E
and aMj ast al l an l
di d. Wi t hou t
mi ni mi si ng Arabia' s contribution towards the trans-
mission of Hadi t h in India, in fairness to Egypt , it
a few words about Badr al-
who were the
aUNubala',
f i
Gharlb
6. Al-Daw'
5. Al-Damamini, al-Manhal
4. Nuzha, loc. cit.. Yad-i-Ayyam,
1. 'Abd
days of hi s l i f e unt i l he di ed' i n
c a pi t a l of t he HahmanT
of l e a r ni ng. The l a t t e r ' s
Ah ma d Shah (825-38/ 1422-34),
Shah Ba h ma n i
khulasa
Shark al-Nughrii
shows t hat a l - Da ma ml n i
Hukha n
he pr epar ed
Prof essor i n t he Jami
1

On the eve
Sul t an Ah ma d b. Muz a f f a r
Sha ' ba n,
a l - I s ka n d a n
Badr al - Di n
Badr al-Din
RENAISSANCE OF HADITH
al-Saft f t
181-82; S
aULami',
(MS in Asailva
Sharh al-Wafi,
al-Hayy
Hayat
'1-Labib
ha d al r e ad y been i mpr es s ed
wi t h the l i t erary muni fi cence of t he Sul t an. In Guj a r a t
a l - l ^a ma ml ni
ent i t l ed MasHbih
n c o mme n t a r y
820
hawk
vol. VII , pp. 185-86; Shadharat, Vol. VII , pp.
Library, Hyderabad,
al-Muqaddima
Nadawl,
al-llayawan
wr ot e his Tatiq
al-J ami
1
.
S e p t e mb e r ,
ant, al-Badr al-Tali'
vol. II , 1658, No. 50. ) fragments
Nuzha, II I (MS) s.v. al-Badr
by a l - Da ml r l
al-Damamini ;

LEARNING IN INDIA
al-Damamini {763-827\
Muhammad b. Abl
a l - Ma l i ki a MJ a m; I mi n i
1417,
Shah (814-43/ 1411-43).
1

of his mi gr at i on
Za bi d, i n a l - Ya ma n .
2

u p o n t he Sahl h
Whi l e still at
Zabi d, his dedi cat ion of this work to Ah ma d
al-Faraid,
and 'Ain
all of
whi ch were consecr at ed t o the me mo r y of hi s pa t r on
Ah ma d
( 800- 25/ J 397- 1422)
t wo i l l us t r i ous pat r ons
p a t r o n a ge
Sul t ans , whe r e he s pent t he
Sha' ban,
Loth, Catalogue of the Arabic Manuscripts in the I ndia Office (London,
p. 36.
quoted in the Sultan Ahmad Shah Bahmani, a biographical treatise, by
(Cairo, 1348 A.H.), Vol
1877), p. 267. No. 964.
2. Al-Sakhawi.
185-86.
3 Hajl Khalifa, Vol. II , p. 529; Nawwab Siddiq
ed. Bhupal, p. 53; aUHitya
Hasan Khan, I thaf
(Cawripore, i283A.H.),
From an old MS of the Masabth
p. 93.
pleted the
al- janti* it appears that the author com-
work at Zabid in Rabi' I, 818 A. H. The date 828 A.H. as given
in the I thaf al-Nubala, loc. cit. and al-Hitta,
take for 818 as al-Damamini
Ba kr
al-Daw' al Lami*
loc. ci t. ,
Mawlawl Zahir
1361-1424
al - Ma khz um
reached Gu j a r a t i n
d u r i n g t he rei gn
to Indi a, he was a
Her e
of al-
Shah
Tuhfat
al-Haydt
Shah.
4
At t hi s t i me , the Deccan had i n Fl rQz
a n d hi s successor
t o t he l e a r ne d and
t he pi ous at t r ac t ed a l - Da ma mi n i to Gul ba r ga ,
5

827/ Jul y,
( Cairo, 1353 A.H.) Vol. VII,
is evidently a mis-
died in 827 A.H.
al-Din (Hyderabad, 1936 ) pp. 132-35
II , pp. 150 seq.
87
)
l
of
al-
the
l ast
1 4 2 4
6
.
pp.
.
' 9. ' Fihris, Vol. I,
ahSahth
m
Wu'at*
Jami '
Ibn
p. 376.
10. Fullanl. Qataf al-Thamar
al-Muhaddithln
1. Al-Manhal al-Safi,
Abu' l -Fut uh
al-Shlritzi
AbtCl-Futuh
Masabih*
emi nent l y t o grammat i cal intricacies of the text of the
Sahlh
in the Khadl wl yya
ture. His Masablh
He also wrote a few books on Hadl t h
ment i oned as such by al -Suyut l
al -Azhar
al-Qahira
Khal dun
father al -Baha'
Damcimlnl,
Born at Alexandria in 763/1361,
a treati se on Arabi c grammar to his BahmanI
88 INDIA'S
MV
7. ' Qamus
loc. cit.
appended to the Rasa'il
al-Tarajim.
2. Al-Daw*
was born at Abar quh
1 1

Nur
the first is also
of al -Bukhan.
6

al-J ami\
for several years.
2
He
and Makka,
al -Damami ni ,
on fi ni shi n g
CONTRIBUTION TO IIADITH
al-Lclini', loc.cit .

LI TERATURE
He dedicated his al-Manhal al-Safi fx Shark al-Wafi,
pat ron,
Ahmad Shah.
1

Badr al -Dln
his studies under his grand-
his cousin, the famous
(d. 808) and some other teachers of
held
was an aut hor i t y
on Arabi c lexicography and gr a mma r
3

in his Rughyat
litera-
a MS. copy of which is
l i brary of Egypt ,
5
is devoted pre-
Of his two other works on the
subject, viz., al-Fath
preserved in the Khadl wl yya,
9
whi l e t he ot her i s found t o have been ext ant in Arabi a
at the t i me of Sahib b. Muhammad ( d. l 218) , a
Madi ni an tradit ionist, who was otherwise known as
Ful l anl .
1

al-Din

al-Tftwusi
in Faris. He
3. For his works, see Brockelmann,
(Hyderabad, 1328), p. 34.
11. ' Ibid. p. 15.
aUAsantd,
4. Bughyai ahWn'at, ed. E^ypt,
5. Fihris al-KhadlwIyya.
6. AUDaw*
supplement, i, pp. 26-27.
aULSLmW
p. 27
Vol. T, p. 422.
loc. cit.; Shah 'Abd
(Delhi, 1898), pp. 117-18 .
Vol. lTI,p. 872.
al-Rabb*1ni
Ahmad b-
8. The full title of the book is Ta'liq
and Ta%q


u
Abd
al-'AzIz
(/Ma/ al-Nubala
the Professorship of the
and had been
al-
Allah
al-Dihlawi.
ahMasab'ih
p.41)
al -
al-
0

Bust an
'ala* Abwab J ami*
.
parts
2. Y ad-i-Ay yam,
1. Le
Din,
Yasuf
5. Nuzha,
4. Ibrahim alKurdi,
3. Nuzha,
Jumada II
830/1426-27,
He came of a fami l y of Makkan Tradi t i oni st s who
were known under their pat ronymi c Ibn
al-Hashimi
7. Yahya
OF IBN
I. TRADITION ISTS
Tabrl zl
5

al -Rahl m
of the Mishkat
Harawl
Bukharz
sanad, so cal l ed because between al -IIarawi
of al-Bukhrln
al -HarawI.
3

(d. 833), Sayyi d Sharif aJ-Jurjdni
al -Di n al -Fl ruzabadi
wi t h the shrine of Tawus
derived his nisbu
Thamar,
Vol. Ill ,
al-Amam
Vol. III . s.v. Ahmad b.
g
Abd
he l anded at Camba y
6

ahShajtl
6.


k
Abd
HAJAR
al-Masabih
and al -Bukhari .
4

and received from him 'sanad
(d.817),
al -IIaramay n
of al -Tdwusl
loacit


k
ali
%


RENAISSANCE OF HADITH LEARNING IN INDIA
from his connect i on
there.
1
He
came t o Guj arat probabl y duri ng the reign of Ahmad
Shah (814-844/1411-43).
2

Shams al -Di n al-Jazarl
(d.822) and Baba
Wit h the last, he studied the Sahih
high
and al-
the number of t ransmi t t ers was fewer t han
that existed between any other cont emporary of al-
Abu
1
1-Fut uh
from Sharaf al-Din 'Abd
who in his turn had them from Imam
a disciple of the celebrated author al -Khat l b
(d739)
BELONGING TO THE SHCOOL
AL-'ASQALANI
al-Rahman
{789-843/7387-7439)
Fahd. In
and aft er his stay
there for t wo years, he went to Gul barga apparent l y
wi t h a vi ew to enj oy the patronage of Ahmad Shah
BahmanI
or Raj ab, 843/November or December, 1439.
Strange, p. 284.
p. 34.
Allah al-ShirazI
13, 15; Muhsin
(Rasa'il
.
6. In Bombay Presidency, lat.
al-Asanid),
al-Tirhati,
I. He died at Mahur,
p. 5; Qa\af
al-Yani*
72: 19N:
aU
aUJ ani
He was a pupi l of Maj d
had his lessons
(d. 852)
b. AbV l-Khayr
.
in South Berar,
(Delhi, 1287 A H.),
Long. 72.
89
m *
al-
al-
.
in
.
pp. 26-39 .
88. E ,
al-
' Al a'
I jaza
Ibn
1. Ibn Fahd, Mu'jam
As q a l a ni .
f r om t he Munawala
(d. 845) r espect i vel y. He also r e a d Ha di t h wi t h several
A'immft,
Mu s l i m wi t h I bn Ha j a r and Za i n al - Di n
Ha j a r al-' AsqalJLnl .
4

a l - Di n
Ba h ma n i s .
al - Ki l anl ,
Kh a wa j a
al - ' Ir aql
Sh u yu k h
Ha
Sakhawi, op.cit.. Vol . X,


c
I
(MS. Bankipore, No. 2429),
Exc e pt i ng his quot at i on of AhadTt h
Pr of es s or s of Ha d i t h
To pursue hi gher
Shah Ba h ma n i
He came t o t he De c c a n
c o mmo n l y known i n I nd i a n hi s t or y as
Ma h mu d Ga wa n ,
mad a l - Di n Ma h mu d
(d. 806) and Nur
of Kg ypt ,
jar al - ' Asqahl ni
foil.
II
at
b . Md .
p. 233.
2. See Mahmud Gawan's Riyad al-Insha ' (M5. HabTbganj) letter,
No. 21 vide Indian Historical Records Commission, Proceedings (Simla,
1941) art. The Kiyad
H.K.Sherwanl,
pp 135 seq.
3. Le
Strange, p. 172.
4. Sakhawl, Vol. IT, 94-96

90 I ND I A' S C O N T R I B U T I O N TO H A D I T H L I T E R A T U R E
i b n Fa h d acqui r ed t he Sci ence of Tr a d i t i o n f rc m
and ot her c ont e mpor a r y
Ma k ka and a l - Ma d i n a
( aut hor i t y t o t e ach Ha di t h ) f r om Za i n al -l )i ' n
al - Dj n
2. Mahmud Gawan {813-8611410-81
b . Ah ma d
was t he f amous mi ni s t er of t he
t he t i me of
( S3S- 02/ 1434 - H58) .
Bo r n i n 813/ 1410 of a house of pri nces i n Gl hl n,
a s mal l pr ovi nce on t he Caspi an,
3
Ma h mu d recei ved
educat i on under his brot her Ah ma d , a pupi l of Ibn
st udi es i n
Ha d i t h l i t er at ur e, he proceeded t o a Mj a h i r a
al - Za r ka s hi
of Syr i a. Th at Ma h mu d
was wel l - ver sed i n t he Sci ence of Tr a d i t i o n i s g a t h e r e d
gr ant ed t o hi m by I b n Ha j a r
i n
his Riyad al - Insha' ,
7
a col l ect i on of l et t ers a dd r e s s e d
298b. 299a;
al -Insha' as a source Book of Deccan History by
.
5. Ibid, vol. X. pp. 144-45:
Nuzha,
p. 171; Firishta,
Vol. Ill ,
Mahmud al-Kllani
843/ 1439 and r ead t he SaJ iJ hs
vol. i,
.
6. Indian Hist. Record Commission, )oc cit.
a l - Ha yt h a m l
of al - Bukhar l
p. Z6S ,Ency.
7. Law (op. ci t,
s.v. I
and had
( d. 807) .
1

i n
and
of I slam,vol.
mad al-DTn
p. 87) mistakes Rauzat al-I nsha' for Riyad
)
2

iii,
al-I nsha'.
1.
He
Cambridge History of India,
al - Hi j az
Ha d i t h
854/ Apr i J,
]. AbiVl-Fath
II . TRADITIONISTS BELONGING TO TH E SCHOOL OF
'ABD AL-RAHMAN AL-SAKHAWI
l i br a r y '
the Shaf Vi t e
Tw o years bef or e
1481, cast a ' ' l oom
Bahmani II
news of hi s u nj us t i f i a b l e mu r d e r b y
litterateurs
RENAISSANCE OF KADIT H LEARNING IN INDIA 9
Vol . Il l , p. 420.
2. Fncy.
i n 8 70/ 1465 .
f r o m al - SnkhawT
b. al-Radi
School ,
6

his deat h Ma h mu d bui l t a
magni f i cent coll ege at Bi dar whi ch he equi pped wi t h
his personal l i br ar y c ont ai ni ng
( 867- 87/ 1403- 82)
of mer i t and di s t i nc t i on .
2

of Islam, loc. cit.; Law. p. 87 ; Firishta,
3. Sakhawi, Vol. X, p. 145.
4. Firishta, Vol. II. p. 360.
5. Murtada Husai n, Hadtqat
6. Cf. Sakhawi, vol. X
f

aUAqaVim (MS ASB).
p. 144 and Vol. II , p 94.

1
t o d i f f e r e n t personages of I n d i a a nd out s i de, we have
no ot her evi dence of hi s p r o f i c i e n c y i n t he Sc i ence of
Tr a di t i on.
Ma h mu d Gawan served t he Ba hma ni dynast y
wi t h conspi cuous abi l i t y f or t hi r t y- f i v e years.
1
Hi s
cel ebri t y was as much due t o hi s admi ni s t r a t i ve r ef or ms
as to his wi despread l i t er ar y muni f i cence. He was a
benef act or of h u ma n i t y a nd ma i ns t a y of t he poor
As such, t he
Mu h a mma d Sh a h
on Sa f a r *5 ,
over t he l i t er ar y ci rcl es at Ma k k a .
3,000 vol umes
4
or,
accordi ng to anot her versi on, 35,OCO
he nat ur al l y emphasi zed t he
t eachi ng of Ha di t h i n his col l ege. And his ' s pl e ndi d
must have i ncl uded some books on Ha d i t h
l i t er at ur e.
(d. 902).
ahMakkl
was born at Ma kka i n Rabl ' i - Awwal ,
1450, and came i n cont act wi t h, and heard
dur i ng t he l at t e r ' s
Shor t l y af t er , he l ef t
7. Now in Dhar State, Central India, situated,
E, 26 Miles irom
in 22. 2 N. & 75. 26.
Dhar town {Imp Gez.
t

{d.
886/ Apr i l ,
vol umes ,
5
and of
whi ch rui ns ar e f ound t o t hi s dav. As a Tr a d i t i o n i s t
886/1481
soj our n i n
f o r Ma n d u ,
7

Vol. I, p. 359.
Vol. XVII , p. 171).
3

o f
)
Kablr
' Umar
bayat
1. SakhawT.
t he Shafi ' i t es.
i n al -Qahira.
Sara bi nt al -Jama*
who was born at Damascus, was at once
a fellow-student and a disciple of al -Sakhawi .
3. 'Umar
al-Sakhawl.
at Mandu was Ahmad b. Sal i h.
Another student of al-Sakhawl
2. Ahmad b. Sali
9 2 I NDI A' S C O N T R I B U T I O N T O H A D I T H
h
Whi l e on deput at i on from t he Governor
of Cambay to that of al-Qahira, he broke hi s j ourney
at Makka in the winter of 886/1481
His

L I T E R A T U R E
the capital of Malwa, where he l i ved for about thi rt een
years. Then he returned to Makka and died in
886/ 1481.
*
whe settled down
fat her, a nat i ve of
Makka, had mi grat ed t o Indi a where Ahmad was born.
But he was brought up and educated at Makka. A
Hafiz
To secure a l i vi ng Ahmad came t o Ma ndu
duri ng the latter day$
b. Muhammad al-Dimashqi
(829-circ. 900/1425-94)
Al ong
wi t h al-Sakhawl, he attended in Shawwal, 853/
November, 1449, the lectures of t he l ady
a (d . 855) on Tabr a nf s
In 857/1453, he came to Ca mba y
( Ar abi c Kanbayat ) as a merchant and subsequently
accepted office under the l ocal government as ya di
and st udi ed Hadi t h
l i t erature under al -Sakhawi for one year. Then he went
t o al -Qahi ra, and performed hi s busi ness wi t h whi ch he
had been commissioned. Before sailing back, he agai n
heard Hadi t h and obtained I jftza
1. Ibid..
Vol. XI ,
of the Qur' an,
of Sultan Ghi yat h al-Din
Naztl
from al-Sakhawl who
happened t o be there at the t i me.


l
Uma r
p. 125.
he read Hadi t h literature with
of
Mal wa (874-906/1469-1500). Hi s death date is not
known.
2

al-Kan
Tr adi t i oni s t
Mutant
settled per-
manent l y at Cambay and, accordingl y, came to be
Vol. I, p. 31d
1

-
al-
o f
.
Waj i h
'Abd
1. Ibid., Vol,
f or Ca m
in Hadl t h
j uri st s of Egypt where he was born on Sha' ban
5. Wajih al-Din Muhammad al-Malikl
Ramadan, 836/ March, 1432. Me
al-'Aziz
4.


L
Abd
known as Nazll
VI , p. 73.
6 ,
2. Ibid , Vol, IV. p. 234.
Muhammad b.


4
Ab d
was born at Tus in Khurasan in
al-Aziz
*
Haj ar al -' Asqal anl
al -' Azl z
acqui red Hadl t h fr om
al-ShirazI
and Mi r
al -Abhan,
Asil
a pupi l of I bn
al - Di n b. J ama l al - Di n
(d. 883). I n 870/1463 he migrated to Makka and
heard Musalsal Tr adi t i on from al-Sakhawi.

RENAISSANCE OF HADITH LEARNING IN INDIA
Kanbayat.
1

come down to us.
b. Mahmud
(836-circ. 910/1432-1504)
But he coul d
not long enjoy the association of al -Sakhawi as he had to
leave Makka in search of his living elsewhere. Thus he
came t o t he Deccan duri ng t he later days of Mahmud
Gawan who appointed hi m t ut or for t eaching his son-
i n-l aw al -Muharra,
2

(856-919/-
1452-1513
al - Di n came of a f a mi l y of the Malikite
856/
August, 1452. He received early education under hi s
father Muhammad, a j uri st , who had the pri vi l ege of
readi ng wi t h Ibn Haj ar .
4
In 886/1481, he j oi ned the
School of al-Sakhawi at Makka and engaged hi msel f
for a considerable peri od i n the st udy of Hadl t h l i t er a-
t ure. We next meet hi m in al -Yaman
at t he col l ege of Zayl a'
bay en route to Al.
3. Cf. Bankipore Catalogue, Vol. V, (2),
4
al-Tusi
a work on t he Shafi ' i t e
madabad.
Sakhawl,
Hi s deat h-dat e has not
al-Shdft
Fi qh.
3

as a Lect urer
from where he sai l ed
As for hi s arri val
in Guj arat , i t coul d not have been later than 898/1492,
as in evident f r om his correspondence f r om Guj ar at
wi t h hi s fri ends at Makka.
Vol. VII , p. 287-88
93
^
.
)
p. 71.
.
3.
In
Ul ughkhani .
Khan, a noble of Guj arat . The latter in his turn sent the
book t o t he l i brary of Sultan
some remunerat ions. Thus, Jar Al l ah b. Fahd,
4
a
Makkan Traditionist, compiled for Waji h al-Din an
Arbii^ln
amonj*
Vol , I, p. 118.
4. He was a pupi l of al -Sakbawi
ent i t l ed Fath al-Mubin,
others the Shi fa
1

a treatise highly
spoken of by cont emporary scholars.
5
His interest for
Hadl th
of Oadi


4
l yad.
1


94 I NDI A' S C O N T R I B U T I O N TO I I A D I T H L I T E R A T U R E
At the instance
Waj i h al -Di n
Soon his
name spread far and wide. In recogni t i on of his
scholarship Sultan
ferred upon hi m the title
the Prince of the Tradi t ionist s.
2

appoi nt ed hi m as t he chei f
his kingdom
spite of his official duties, Waji h
make t i me t o cul t i vat e Hadith
l i t erat ure was so great t hat he woul d al ways be
on the l ookout for new publi cat ions on the subject, so
that as soon as the copies of Ibn
the celebrated comment ary on the Sahlh
were ready for circulat ion, he secured a copy for hi m -
self, which he presented to his fri end Mukhat i b 'Al l
Muzaffar
fief of Broach.
Waji h al-Din died at Ahmadabad
1. Ibi d , Vol,
2. Al-Nitr
5. Ul ughkhani ,
p. 117.
opened a I iadith
Mahmud
of the Kevenue
al -Di n
Haj ar ' s
Shah (917-38/
1511-25). The Sul tan was so much pleased wi t h the
presentation that he granted Mukhat i b


4

al-Safir,
6. Ibid., p. 118.
7. Nnr'
Al l
p.
of the Governor of Cam
class there and t aught
I (803-017/1458-1511)
of Malik al-Muhaddithln^
The Sultan furt her
Officers of
and l avi shl y showered his bounties upon
could
literature. For c ompi l -
ing books on the subject, he engaged experts on hand-
Fath al-Bdrl,
of al-IJukharl,
Kha n t he
in 919/1513.
IX , pp. 90-91
pp. 102-03
{Shadharat, Vol . VI I I , p. 301) .
102 ; Shadharat, Vol. VIII, p. 94.
bay,
con-
him.
5

6

7

.
.
dur i ng
Sak'ih
(d.
2. Nitr,
1. Al-DaW
Al r eady a sound schol ar, he came i nt o cont act wi t h
al - Sakhawi i n t he pi l gr i ma ge season of 894/ 1489
read I l adi t h
t o Guj ar a t i n 928/ 1522,
2

Jamal a l - Dl n who was f amous as Rahr aq,
7. Jamal al-Dln Muhammad b.


l
Umar
hi s s oj our n e xt endi ng
he l i ved f or al )out f our vca r s
89f >/ H00,
l i t er at ur e and obt ai ned al-Ijaza
Mashariq al-Anwar,
of al - Bukhar i ,
his pa t r on ymi c Asil
A nat i ve of Makka,
arc.
6. Hustiin b. '
p. 147 a ri d
aULUmi',
wi t h h i m.
4
Hi s
He was a Tr a di t i oni s t as we ] l
as a j uri st of t he Shaf i ' i t e
he came t o Da bul
t he Mumad
Abd Allah h.
cf . p . 132.
School .
3
ITe
(I)abi l
3. For his woks on Shaft'ite Fiqh,

RENAI SSANCE OK HADI T H LEARNI NG IN INDIA 95
Awlly.V
930/1523
Tl usai n,
a l - Dl n , read wi t h al - Sakhawi t he
of al -Shaf i ' ]
li e
f r o m al - Sakhawi . In
i n Bi j a pu r )
and t hen went back t o
Makka. i n about 901/ 1495.
1
Thou gh records do not
me nt i on a n yt hi n g
over a peri od of f our year s ,
nevertheless, we can presume t hat as a Tr a d
al-Hadram
{869-93011464-1524
came
di s t i ngui shed hi m-
sel f as a t eacher of Sul t an Mu z a f f a r II
unusual popul ar i t y i n t he
Cour t of Mu z a f f a r Shah exci t ed j eal ousy of t he nobi l i t y
as a resul t of whi c h he was poi soned to deat h on t he
ni ght o f Sh a ' b a n
J amal a l - Dl n was born at Ha d r a ma u t i n 869/ 1464.
a n d
under hi m he gave a l i ni s hi ng t ouch t o his educ at i on i n
Ha d l t h a
Vol. Ill ,
4. Ulughkani,
Brockelmann,
p. 119 ; Yad-i-Ayyam,
it ion
Sup., i,
6. Nur,
al-Kirmdn
who was known by
and the
was a keen st udent of I l adi t h
wh e r e
about his academi c act i vi t i es here,
ist he
di d car r v on t he wor k of t he di f f us i o n of I l a d i t h
l i t er at ur e.
of Guj a r a t , who
20, 930/ June, 1524.
5

subj ect he l ong st udi ed wi t h Mu h a mma d b.
p. 147-48.
pp. 554*55
pp. 13,
pp. 143. 151
i
)
i
)
.
34.
.
Zabid.
1

'Abd
1. Ibid., p. 146; Shadharat,
(863-917/1458-1511).
9

902/1496,
father of Rafl'
century, the life
works from al -Sakhawi .
6

mere correspondence, al-I jdza
under Jalal
of the 9th century, Rafj '
character.
5
Born at Shi'raz
the Safawi
traced his descent to SafJ
on Hadith
Al-Sakh&wl's
8. Raft al
wa'l-Tahdhiba
al-Targhib
al-Latlf
9 6 I N D I A ' S
2. Nur,
Rafl '
Din
wa
p. 147.
Thence he came to Agra
al -Di n mi grat ed t o t he Haramayn.
8
Thi s
offered our young
and religion of the Sunni s
al -Di n al-Dawwani
at Agra, was Kafi
1

pupi l who carri ed
al-Safawi [d.
^l-Tarhib
al -Sharj i
3. Catalogue, Vol
4. Ma'arif.
I, No 69.
Vol. XXII ,
5. Browne,
18-20, 22 ,
6. Akhbar, pp. 235-36; Hadaiq.
7.


4

p. 376.
Red-head * men (Qizilbash in Turkish or Surkh sar in Persian)
were the followers of the Saiawi Order (Browne. Vol. IV , p. 48).
8. Bada' uni, Muntakhab
p. 126-IIai g' st r.
ut-Tawarikk
p. 19.

C O N T R I B U T I O N TO H A D I T H L I T E R A T U R E
and Muhammad al-Safigh
He prepared a compendium of al -Mundhi ri '
under the title of al-Taqrib
MS. copy of which is to be found in
the State Li br ar y of Ram pur.
3

954/J 547
on a pioneer work
al -Di n al-Safawi.
1

al - Di n, t he famous founder of
Order in Persia, which under Shah Isma'il
(905-930/1499-1523) had assumed the mi l i t ant Shl' a
in about t he third quarter
al -Di n, while yet a student
(d. 928), obtained, by
for good many Hadi t h
As towards the close of this
in Persia
were daily being endangered by the Qizilbash,
7

learner an opportunit y of coming into
close touch wi t h and mastering Hadi t h literature under
al-SakhSwi.
al -Di n left for Gujarat where he reached
in the later period of the reign of Sultan Mahmud
whi ch
at this time, through the l i beral i t y of Sultan Sikandar
Vol. viii, pp. 176-77 ; Ulugkhani,
No. 4. p. 258.
A Literary History of Persia,
(Calcutta, 1925),
(Biblio. Indica, 1869).
9. Or during the Sultanate of Sikandar LudI
Vol. Ill ,
Vol. Ill , p. 184; Akhbar, p. 266;
(894-923),
He
Probabl y after the death of al-Sakhawi in
(London, 1931), Vol. IV , pp.
Browne,
as in the
Akhbar al-AkhyUr
at
s
)
the
I
p. 119.
.
Rafl
c

Lud l
1. Bankipur Catalogue,
also the author of the Kitab
and was on terms of i nt i macy wi t h the enlightened
f ami l y of 'Aidarusl
a qari,
al-Qahira.
1.


l
Abd
III . TRADITIONISTS BELONGING TO TH E SCHOOL
OF ZAKAR1YYA
(946-52/1539-45) whose premat ure
expected Sul tan Sikandar Lucli
(894-923/1488-15), developed
2. Law,
vol. v (2),
op. cit.,
8. Bada' uni,
pp. 73 seq.

RENAISSANCE OF HADITH
i nto an i mport ant
seat of learning. That the Sultan took a keen interest for
Hadlth
bui l t for the Tr adi -
tionist a house in a quarter of the ci t y, which was
subsequently named after him.
2

al -Di n was also
death frust rat ed hi s
project of deput ing the Tradi t ionist t o the then Ott oman
Emperor wi t h a vi ew t o put down t he Shi ' a
Persia and t o connect India wi th al -Hi jaz
highroad.
AL-ANSARl
al-Mtiti
He was born at Makka in ttajab, 905/ February,
1500, and j oined along wi t h his father al -Hasan
School of Shaykh al-Islam
Bot h attended the l ect ures of al -Ansari on
the Sahlh of al-Bukharl,
reader of the text, while the son of a
settled in Ahmadabad. Hi s
chief occupation in Guj arat had been the teaching of
Hadl t h, part i cul arl y the Sahlh of al-BukharJ.
AsvuV
4. Ma'arif.
p. 129Haig, p. 183.
l i t erat ure is seen f r om the t ranscri pt i on under
his orders of a part of the Sahlh of Muslim now pre-
served in the Ori ent al Li br ar y at Banki pur.
1

Here Ivafi'
al-Hadtaml
al-Rijal
vol. xxii No. 4, p. 251;
[d.
sdmi\
xr*. _ OK
LEARNING IN INDIA
As
al -Di n
taught Hadl t h for about thi rt y-four years and di ed ful l
of honour in 954/1541.
int i mate wi th Sher Shah Suri
menace i n
by a pi l gr i m
(d. 925)
9S9/15S7)
Zakanyya al-Ansari in
t he father pl ayi ng the role of
list-
ener. He mi grat ed to Ahmadabad prior to 903/1555,
5

He was
al-Bukharl
5. Nut, p.
97
3

4

the
.
p. 219.
Ahhbar, p. 236.
A
256
al-Ijaza
IV-
4
Abd
1. Ibid., pp. 364 seq.; Shadharat.
'Aidarusi,
Shaykh
1. Shaykh
OF IBN
TRADITIONISTS
observer of the Sunna
f t l-Hadlth
903/1497! li e
al - Di n Ahmad al-' Abbasi.
devoted to the cause of Hadi t h
Another student of Zakarl yya
2. Shihab al-Din aUAbbasi
and says that the book, though incomplete, was a
vol uminous one. He died at Ahmadabad
al -Qadi r
9 8 I ND I A' S C O N T R I B U T I O N TO H A D I T H
(d.
p. 34 ; Ma'arif,
vol. viii, pp. 417-18;
at Tarl m
the author of al-Nur al-Sclfir.
3

was the father of our 'Abd
&.


l
Abd
HAJAR
BELONGING
even in the day-to-day affairs of
hi s l i fe. Muhammad b. 'Abd
and al -Nawawi ' s
learnt by heart al -Maqdisi ' s
He
al-Ansari,
makes ment i on of it in his al-Nur
TO TH E
vol. xxii No. 4, p. 260.
i n Hadramaut i n 919/ 1513
lie
Allah al-'Aidarusi,
al - Rahman
Arba'in.
[d.
2. ' Ulughkhanl,
School of Ibn
was born
al -' Umudi
viii, pp. 426-27.
vol . i i , p. 640;
Haj ar al -Hayt haml
and earl y j oi ned t he
Nur,
3. Shadharat,
pp. 404-05
at Makkaand
4. Ibid.,
p. 423.
from hi m. He also read with ' Abd
obt ai ned
manuscript
pp. 256-58. The work has not been printed as yet but
al -Dayba*
al - Rahman
who was a famous pupil of al -SakhawI
author of a comment ary upon the Mishkat

L I T E R A T U R E
al-Safir
in Dhu' J
Hi j j a , 939/ J anuar y,
992j
who was
in Guj arat , was Shihab
was born in Egypt in
'Umda
He was a st r i ct
of
Ahmadabad was among hi s di sciples. He di ed i n Safar,
992/ February, 1584.
2

SCHOO
AL-HAYTHAM
990/1582)
al -Qadi r al
and the
al-Masablh.*
In 958/1551, he mi grat ed t o Ahmadabad. Hi s f a mi l y
enj oyed reput at i on for learning and scholarship. Hi s
home, which was a seat of Tasawwuf and Hadi t h
learning, was a resort of scholars of all grades. As a
Yad-i-Ayyam,
; Shadharat, vol.
copies are available in Bombay and Surat.
-
1581.
1

15S4)
L
1
-
4.
li e
{d.'992j
man
1. Nur*
monl y known as Mir
Muhammad Sa' ld
Mir
death in 974/ 1566,
in gi vi ng instruct ions in arts and
and obtained al-ljaza
(d. 816). He studied Il adi t h
abad before the year 957/1550.
3
in
AbuM-Ilasan
had occasion to hear Il adi th
2. Abu H-Saadat
of 'Abd
al-Bukhari
in such an esteem t hat on t he concl usion of his lectures
on Ihyci*
pp. 350, 358.
from hi m. Fr om Makka
Murt ada came t o t he Deccan and thence,
al -Bakn
f r om as many as ninet y
teachers of Makka, Hadr amaut
al -Mu' ti ' s
al-Ulum
2. Ibid., pp. 372-79;
st andi ng
3. Nut, p. 409.
Shadharat,
4. Ibid., p. 256.
6. Ibid., pp. 407-09 ; Shadhatat,
6. Bada' unl,
pp. 427-28
p. 540;
.
pp. 320-21 *Haig,

RENAISSANCE OF HADITH
scholar, Shaykh b.


4
Abd
by al -Ghazah
in 981/1575
recited poems as a
mark of his great appreciation for hi m.
1
li e
Ahmadabad in Ramadan, 990/ Sept cmber ,
Muhammad al-Fakihl
1584
Al t hough a disciple of al -Haythami,
and Zabid
(d. 952). li e
963/1555,
t o Sur at
4

3. Mir Murtada Sharif al-S/ijrazi
was a grandson of al -Sayyi d
with Ibn
in 972/1562,
to Akbarabad (Agra). Here in the court of Emperor
Akbar, he at t ai ned hi gh posi t i on and ' empl oyed
sciences
1

He had Shf a
Kalan Muhaddith ahAkbarabadl
b. MawlanS
Kal an Muhaddith,
vol. viii,
Akbar Nama,
pp. 442-44; A'in-i>Akbari>
vol . ii, p. 278 ; T adhkir
and
Ha
(d.
vol. i,
a-i-'U lame?,
LEARNING IN INDIA
Al l ah was so popul ar and
and the Sahlh
985/1577 respectively, a
di ed at
1582.
al-Hanbal
Abu ' l -Sa' adat
i ncl udi ng
mi grat ed t o Ahmad-
he moved
where he died i n Jumada I, 992/May,
(d. 974/1566
Shari f al -Jurj ani
jar at Makka
hi msel f
unt i l his
procl i vi t i es.
6

983-1575
Khawaj a, com-
came to
pp 423-24.
pp. 223-24.
99
heJd
of
2

i
)
1584.
5

)
)
Q
Mulla 'All
Shaykh
Tadhkira-i-'Ulama\
6. Subhat,
long residence at Makka as a Professorall
in Indi aa
3. Ibid. ; 'Abd Allah b. Salim
p. 208.
2. Jamal al-Din. t he
1. Bada' uni,
Nahrawal l
al-Haram
Muhaddith.
2

Kal an was a grandson of Khawaj a
p.
p.
ol
67 ; Ma' t har,
of them were the Shuyukh
st at ement
al-As'anid,
al-Basri,
disciple of his uncle Asll
famous aut hor of the Rawdat
vol. ii,
(d.
al-Makki
Prior to his migration
Kuhi,
al - Di n
par t hi ),
Kitab al-Imdad,
p 56 ; Qataf al-Thamar,

100 I NDI A' S
Akbarabad in about 981/1573 and was appoi nt ed by
Akbar the first tutor of Prince Sai i m
1

977/August, 1569), afterwards Emperor Jahanglr.
an emi nent
saint of Khurasan, and acquired Hadi t h l i t erature at
Shiraz
to India, he was
a Professor of Hadi t h at Makkahence
where
al -Qari
4
(d. 101.4) and Ghadanfar
1000) read the Mishkdt
with him
5
. He died at Akbarabad in Muharram,
April , 1575
6
.
p. 170, also Ma'thar-al-Kiram,
al-Shirazi
al-Ahhab,
p. 28.
4. Basing his st at ement on the introduction
in the Muqaddima
and Mi r Kalan t he last being f
Makka and were more or less contemporaries (rf. Mi rqat , Cairo,
5. Al-Amam,
p. 207 ;
Mishkat by Mulla 'All
of Mirqat f t
al-Qari, Azad
p. 67 and Ma'thar
Shark
Bilgrami in his Subhat al-Marjan,
al-Kiram,
undated)a fact that establishes that' All
p. 207, purports to say t hat al ong with other
al-Qari read Hadi t h wi t h Mi r
Mir
wi t h which we do not concur. For, nowhere
Kalan at Makka and not in India as Azad
of his Mirqat docs 'All
would have us" believe. In t he
al-Qari assert t hat he ever
li ght of what we have said above, we are unable t o uphold the opinion of
"Aliama
came to India and read Hadi t h there. But readi ng bet ween t he li nes of
Sayyid Sulayman Nadawl
the pages of his Muqaddimi
t hat Mulla *Ali
what we gather is t hat he read the Mishkat
al-Qari came to
India from his home at Hirat
pp. 230-31.
Abjad,
from Nasim
among others wi t h Shaykh ' Ati ya
and read the Mishkat al-Masabih
p. 904 ; TladaHq,
But ac.
al -Di n
al-Sulami,
with Mir
to Badauni
211), 981 A. H. Bilgrami (c/. Ma'arif,
'All
p. 386 ;
Mirak Shah b. J amal
al-Muttaqi
Kalan at Akbarabad since it i s based on the authori t y of Azad
(p. 151Haig.
vol. xxii,
wa s a
(d.
al'Amam,
Mo.
C O N T R I B U T I O N TO H A D I T H L I T E R A T U R E
(born Rabl
4

Mi r ,
al -Di n
his t i t l e
amongst others
b. Ja' far
al-Masablh
983/
p. 207 (sic)
883). Ibrahim al - Kurdi ,
p. 69.
(Rasa' il
(d. 976)
called
Bi l gr a mi
4), pp. 266-67
I,
al -
(.c f
loc. cit.
.
1. Skadharat,
' Imadshahi
Al t hough the House survi ved i n name up t o 934/ 1527,
the Ki ngdom had already broken i nt o fi ve pr i nci -
palities, viz.,
Muhaddithiin
in the Ha n ma yn .
1


RENAISSANCE OF IIADITH
Section II. Growth and development of the centres
of Hadlth learning in India.
Al t hough t he t ransmi ssi on of Hadl t h i n Indi a com-
menced in 820/1417,
considering
Hencefort h an era of regular
mi grat i on of the Tradi t i oni st s set in and cont i nued
till the close of the 10t h century. The peri od of trans-
mission t hat played such a vi t al part in the growt h
and development of the centres of Hadl t h l earni ng
in Indi a may, conveni ent l y, be di vi ded i nt o three
parts, viz.,
(886-954/1481-1547) and post-Sakawi
periods.
/. DECCAN
It was in the pre-SakhawI
were f ound t o have come to the Deccan.
But as the count ry became i nhospi tabl e, no f ur t her
mi grat i on of the Tradi t i oni st s took place in the
Sakhawi period. The fact was that the dawn of the
Sakhawi period synchronized wi t h the decay and
downfal l of the BahmanI
mi ni st er who coul d hol d t he host i l e el ement s i n check.
1

the ' Adi l shahi
at Ahmadnagar, the Qutbshahi
at Berar and the Barldshahi
vol . viii,
prc-SakhawT
ki ngdom as a result of the
murder in 886/1481 of MahmGd
pp. 15-16.
(820-86/1417-81),
Gawan,
at Bi j apur ,
at Bi dar.
3
The rulers of the first three whi ch were, however,
the maj or powers, adopted Shl' ism
2. Ency. of Islam, vol. iii, p. 136 .
LEARNING IN INDIA 101
it di d not make much headway,
the smal l number of the Tradi t i oni st s
who mi grat ed to Indi a in the 9th cent ur y, unt i l af t er
t he foundat i on i n 886/1418 of t he School of al -Sakhawi
Sakhawi
(954-92/1547-84
peri od that several
the abl e
the Nizamshahi
at Gol konda, the
as t hei r state
3. Cambridge History of India, vol. iii, pp. 433,
)
425-26 .
1. Ibid., p. 433.
Agai n, we have i t on the same aut hori t y that as soon
as the 'Adil
wazcfifand
To quot e a few instances, we have it on the aut hori t y
of Fi ri sht a that Burhan.
cuted the Sunni
Fr i day Khutba
Abu Bakr and ' Umar,
only that. Even al-Tabarri,
t he Shl ' a
The Shi' a
the Sunna
meant the end of the Sunni
and Berar, the former was absorbed by Bi j apur
102 I NDI A' S
2. Firishta.
rul ers of the Deccan pushed up the cause
of ShJ'ism to the great det ri ment of the Sunnis and
what they stood for.
2
The anti -Sunni

CONTRI BUTI ON TO HADI T H L I T E R A T U R E
rel i gi on. As to the smal l Sunni Ki ngdoms of Bi dar
in
1028/1619 and the latter by Ahmadnagar i n 982/1574.
1

Thus the extinction of the BahmanI
regime
was pre-emi nent l y the heritage of the
Sunnis.
regime that was now installed in the
Deccan was not on the whole quite congenial to the
rel igion and culture of the Sunnis who, however,
f or med the bulk of the popul at i on of the count ry.
Encouraged by the growi ng power of Shah Isma'll
(905-30/1499-1523) of Iran, the champi on of Shl'ites,
movement of
the Shl' ites was reflected in their replacement of the
SunnT f or mul a of al-Adhan
or condemni ng Il adrat
also was i nt roduced i nt o the
or sermons.
4
The Shl ' a
scholars by confi scat ing their pro-
perties and benefi ces grant ed t o t hem by t he Bahmani s.
Ni zam Shah of Ahmadnagar
wi t hdrew f r om the Sunni ' LJlama
1

gave t hem away to the Shi' a
Shahl
3. Ibid.
4. Ibid.,
vol. ii,
p. 229,
by a Shl' ite
pp. 1819, 21,
(sic)


cr
^wJ l w* - *
32,
5.
rule event ual l y
of the Deccan,
with which was inextricably bound up the growth and
expansion of Hadi t h l i t erature there. Aft er all,
one.
3
Not
rulers perse-
al l allowances
' Ul amaV
dynast y came to power, t he des -
cendants of Gi su Daraz had to lose their lands whi ch
had been previousl y granted to t hem by Ahmad
6162,148-60
Ibid., p. 151.
,

pur,
1. Ibid., vol. i,
Shah (803-25/1397-1442), at Gulbarga a group of
scholars were found ransacking the Sahihan
Jiwul,
SuIt anMahmud
about a century and a half
post-SakhSwi
haddithiin
ant i -Sunnlt c
then their scholars
Shah Bahmanl I
!
.
pp. 319-20.
periods when the Deccan had been
under the domi nat i on of Shi'ites
feeling of
1. Supra, pp. 33 Seq.
who, as we have
just seen, were hostile to the Sunni


4
Ul ama \
the Shl'ites

RENAISSANCE OF HADITH LEARNING IN INDIA 103
Ci rcumst anced as t he Sunnl s
could not have been expected to
carry on their cul t ural activit ies unhampered.
had its reper-
cussion also on the cul t i vat i on of Hadl th
came to India in the SakhSwI
In
the sequel, the Tradi t i oni st s di d not proceed to the
Deccan and, instead, settled down in Guj arat and
Nort hern Indi a. Thus the history of Hadl t h l i t e-
rature
so that it could not
render as much service to the promot i on of Hadi t h
l earning as di d i ts count erpart in Sind.
Before we close d own the discussion of Hadl t h
literature in the Deccan, it wil l be worth our while
to take stock of the cont ri but i on t he Bahmanl s
to the culti vat ion of the Science.
Shah I (780-99/1378-
97) was the
fi r?t Indi an Prince who
extended patronage to the
Tradi t i oni st s. He provi ded for t hem faci l i t i es t o work
for t he cause of Hadl th li t erature. Thus, t he bi g ci t i es
of the Deccan li ke Gulbarga, Bidar,
and Dabul
and the
3. Firishta,
in Sind repeated itself in the Deccan wi t h
this difference that whereas the Sunni regime of the
former lasted for over two hundred and fifty years
so that it was possible for it to t urn out a batch
of Traditionists,
2

were
l i t erature
in the Deccan. For, the bulk of the foreign Alu-
and the
that of the latter lasted for only
Dawl at abad, IJich-
(Dabhol) became centres of their
activit ies.
3
Dur i n g the reign of his successor, Firuz
vol. i,p. 302.
The
made
xi,
Ibn
II .
1. Ibid,
Our survey of the none-too-bright history of
ITadlth
surpassed the Muzaffar
Fahd from Guj arat to the Deccan
4

the pre-Sakhawi
Of the seven M
1482-1518)"
Abu Sa' id
of the Sunna
or the Saint Bahmani
e of Gisu
in great demanda
were not merely existing
can gather
the question of al-Mut\i}
Mishkat al'Masablh
104 INDIA'S CONTRIBUTION TO HADITH
p. 307.
uha ddithiin
2. Ibid., p. 323 ; Zahir
ShahT
of the Prophet. Over and above his
knowledge of Fi qh and Kal am,
Daiaz,
al-DIn,
3. This MS.
pp. 122, 124.
Sultans. Indeed,
Sultan

LITERATURE
with a view to issuing fatwa
From this incident, we
that standard works on Hadlth
in the Deccan, but were al so
state of things which was unknown
to the contemporary
Ahmad Shah Bahmani I
(825-838/1422-36) earned the name
by vi rt ue of his strict observance
he was quite conversant
wi t h Il adi t h literature.
2
Further, in 887/1473 a copy
of the Mishkat al-Masdbih
b. Il usavn,
present of Sultan (887-924/
probabl y on the occasion of the latter' s
accession to the throne.
who came to Indi a in
period, as many as four fi nal l y set t l ed
down in the Deccan. Thi s was undoubtedly due to t he
encouragement they must have received from the
Bahmani
furt her shows
that as patrons of the Tradi t i oni st s, the Bahmanl s
the
history of Il adi t h l i terature in the Deccan woul d have
been more glorious, if the Bahmanl s coul d ret ai n t hei r
hold
literature in the Deccan is bound to remai n
incomplete unless and unt i l we touch upon the peculiar
cont ri but i o n Bl j apur
is in possession of the Hablbganj
of Walt
Library (Ma*
No. 2, p. 99).
literature
Nort hern India. A devoted dis-
Bahmani,
was transcribed at Bidar by
a scholar-merchant, who made a
Sultans. The mi grat i on of al -Damami nl
longer.
made i n this behalf.
arif vol
4. Supra, pp. 87. 89-90
on
and
.
l .
Bijapur (Agra, 1915),
Basbir
j
vol . i , pp. 99,
and other subjects.
6
A bibliophile, Ibrahim II
Muhammad 'Adil
Bukharl

of the Sunna.
Imams.
3
As a Miislim,
and Sunni
who brought
Ibrahim 'Adil
Of the eight rulers of the House of ' Adi l
222.
BashXr
Ahmad,
and the Mishkat
quoted in Banklpur
p. 209;
al-Masablh,
3. Firishta,
Ibrahim Zubairl,
4. Bashlr
Catalogue, v (1), p. 54.
vol. ii , p. 66.
Ahmad, op. cit. vol. ii , pp. 25, 28-31.
5. A moustache. For details of its procurement,
vol. i, p. 207, vol. ii , pp. 34 seq.
6. Ibid., vol. i, p. 274; vol. ii , p. 34; Indian Historical Records

RENAISSANCE OF HADITH LEARNING IN INDIA 105
Shah,
Ibrahim I (941-65/1534-57) and Ibrahim II (988-1037/
1580-1627) were Sunnls
1
;
Shah IL ,
about a reconci l i at i on between his Shl ' a
subjects by entering in the Khutba the
names of all
Ibrahi m was a strict observer
No better proof of his great regard for
the Prophet and his Compani ons can there be t han
his decoration of grand mosque at Bi j apur with ins-
criptions of Ahadlth
bearing among
others, on the excellences of the


k
A$harat
Shah (1037-68/1627-57) into two
sister Madrasahs for i mpart ing lessons on Hadl t h,
was the
real founder of the Royal Li brar y of Bi j apur, a treasure-
house of the books on Islamology and a worthy monu-
ment of the 'Adil
Ahmad, Wa
Commission, Proceedings, vol. xii (1940-41), p. 125.
sharat*
the four Khul af a'
To enshrine the sacred relic of the Prophet,
5
Ibrahi m
Shahl
7. The remnant of the works of this library has been removed to,
as d
t he rest were Shi ' as.
Rashidln
drawn from the Sahlh
raised a famous construction known as Athar
Sharif or Athar Mahal in which arrangements were also
made for the teaching of Islamic learning. Thi s insti-
t ut i on was later
dynasty.
7
Apart from the
collections of Ibrahi m and his successors, the Li brar y
was supplemented wi t h books found at Aslrgarh
Basaiin
preserved in the Library of the India Office (Loth, Catalogue)
I t was
known popularly as Nawras,
1

along with the
of al
alMubash-
developed by his son and successor
and
Bi dar when t hese pl aces were conquered by Ibrahi m in
al-Salailn
vide Bathir
Preface, v) .
-
Fi qh
q
Ahmad,
1.
al-Du'tf
'Adil
History, vol. III .
For Aslrgarh,
'inda
beginning from the chapter on I stisqa
1

(2) A third volume of Ibn
(1) A copy of the Sahih
cause of Hadi t h
and his son Muhammad 'Adil
a reminiscent of the great interest Ibrahim 'Adil
Shahi
the Iatter's
it is evident that the MSS. found their way to the
Brj apur Li brar y from Muhammadabad-Bi dar
1004/1595 and 1028/1618 respectively.
1
As a matter
of fact, from
106 I NDI A' S C O N T R I B U T I O N TO HA D I T H
p. 433.
see Firishta, vol. ii, p. 277,
al-J amratain^
Haj ar ' s
of AI-Bukhari,
conquest by Ibrahi m in 1028/1618. That
the books of Bidar, the capital of the Bahmanis till
934/1527, were bequeathed to the Band Shahls by the
Bahmanl
the inscriptions borne by the MSS. pre-
served in the libraries of India Offi ce
2

2. Loth, Nos. 211.
regime, can be gathered
299, 42G, 994, 995.
3. Ma' arif, vol. XL No. 2, pp. 98-99.

L I T E R A T U R E
and Il abl bganj ,
3

upon
from the fact t hat
among books entering the Brjapur Li br ar y f r om Bidar
also included some of those works which had previ ousl y
belonged to Mahmud Gawan as the seal of Mal i k
a-Tuj j ar
4

The fol l owi ng works on Hadi t h belonging t o t he
Library at Brjapur have come down to
Shah II
Shah evinced for the
l i terature in Bi j apur
ornament -
ed, bearing an inscription to the effect that the MS
entered the library of Ibrahi m II in 1028/1618 as a part
of spoils from the conquest of Muhammadabad-Bidar.
6

Fath al-Barl,
and ending with
having a seal bearing the
name of Nawras Ibrahim (Ibrahi m I I ) .
7

and for Bidar, Cambridge
4. I. e. , Chief of the Merchants, a title of Mahmud Gawan (Cambridge
Hist. vol. iii, p. 396 ; Kncy. of Islam, vol. ii, p. 136).
5. Lth, Nos. 211,426,967,994
6. Hablbganj
.
Library (Ma'arif, vol. XL , No. 2, pp. 98-99).
or Mahmud Khawaj a Jahan
7. Oriental Library, Bankipur,
clearl y indi cated.
5
What further strengthens our conclusion is the lack of
evi dence t o show t hat t he Band Shahls had ever estab-
lished a l i brary at Bi dar .
Catalogue, vol. V, Part I, No. 165
us as
:
.
shahi
// .
'Adil
Ibn
1. Loth, India Office Library, No. 340.
cat i on at Zabld
rulers as patrons of Hadi t h
True, by 818/ 1415
Ibrahim


c
Adil
from Kitab al-Nikah,
(8) A complete copy of the Mishkat
beari ng a si gnat ure of Muhammad *Adil
(7) A copy of Al -Baghawfs
Haj a r al-' Asqalani,
(6) Kitab
Muhammad ' Adil
(5) Al-Nawawi ' s
(4) A copy of the Sahih
(3) Al -Nawawi ' s
2. Ibid., No. 120.
dated 1085. An inscription on
the second vol ume pays t hat t he copy was transcribed
by Jal al
Masabih
al-Iydah
Riyad al-Salthln
al-Bukhari,
Hilyat
3. Ibid.,
al-D' in
hi Takmilat
al-Abrar
No. 16S.
b. 'All,
Ibn
4. Ibid., No. 198.
al-Salah
5. Ibid., No. 149.
6. Ibid., Nos. 152*63 .

RENAISSANCE OF HADITH LEARNING IN INDIA 107
dated 1033,
the collection of Ibrahim II.
bearing a seal
of Muhammad ' Adi l ' Sha h I (1037-68 A. H. ) , dated
1059.
with a seal of
Shah, dated 1059/
by
wi t h a seal of Muha mma d
Shah, dated 1046.
4

al-Sunna^
Shah.
5

al-Masabih
a st udent at the Mausol eum of
Shah I I .
6

Besides the above-ment ioned works whi ch bear
some i nscri pt i on or ot her, t he Brj apur Li bra r y had al so
a number of unseal ed and undat ed Hadi t h works t hat
are now available in the India Office Li brar y, London.
GUJ ARAT
t he reput at i on of t he Muzaffar-
reached beyond the
confines of Indi a as i ndi cat ed by al -Damami ni ' s
of his comment ar y on the Sahih
7. Cf. Loth, Preface, V-VI,
Nos. 120-23, 125.26, 135-36,
185,
161, 158,
188, 196 and 200.
i.e.,
1

*
7

dedi -
al -
164,
1. Supra, p. 87.
Mahmud' s
Malik al-Muhaddithin*
Deccan earl y in t he Sakhawi
less, the study of Haduh
Bukhan
2. Ibid.
successor Muzaffar
period, Guj arat became
the nat ural resort, thanks to the muni fi cence of
Sultan Mahmud Begarha'
in Guj arat di d not make
much progress in the pre-Sakhawi
3. Ibid.
I (863-917/1458-1511),
period when the
scholars were devoted chiefly to Arabi c l i t erat ure and
this elicited f r om the pen of al -Damami ni
not
4. Ma'arif,
onl y of the foreign Muhaddi t hun, but presumabl y also
of those f r om the nei ghbouring Shi ' a
conferring upon Waj ih
kingdoms. By
al-Din al-Malik! the title of
Mahmud publicly recognized
the status of the Tradi t i oni st s of his kingdom as a class.
Hencefort h, wi t h t he progress of t he t eachi ng of Hadl t h
at di fferent centres, such as Ahmadabad,
Mah&'im,
Cam bay,
subject
Surat and Naharwala, standard works on the
were gradual l y being i mport ed i nt o Guj arat .
How qui ckl y books were procured f r om the outside
worl d in those days may be gathered f r om this fact
that the Fath al-B&ri which entered in al -Yaman

108 INDIA'S CONTRIBUTION TO HADITH
to Ahmad Shah I (814-43/1411-43).
1

commen-
taries on several standard works on Arabi c grammar .
2

On the dissolution of the Sunni
onl y
in 901/1495 made its way to Guj arat as early as
918/1514 if not earlier. Furt her, works of t ranscri bi ng
and also t ransl at i ng popular Hadl t h collections i nt o
Persian were undertaken. To quote a few instances,
the St at e Li brary of Kamputr
Shah II (917-32/
1511-25), who was hi msel f a Tradi t i oni st ,
vol. XXVI . No. 2, pp. 126 seq.
has a MS of the Sahih of
Musl i m wi t h a seal of Sult an Mahmud 1 affixed on it ,
4

while a Persian t ransl at i on of the HisnHasin dedicated
t o t hi s Sul t an has been preserved in the Li br ar y of t he
India
LI TERATURE
Neverthe-
regime in the
Office.
5

granted the
6. Infra, p. 121.
al-Bdri
l

1. Supra,
The pursuit of Hadi t h literature in Guj arat had n o
smooth sailing either. As a mat t er of fact , Huma yun' s
of the l at ter' s
fief of Broach to Mukh&tib
p. 94.


4
Al l
2. Ulughkhanl,
invasion of t he
Khan in
3. Ibid.
country in 041-42/1534-35 duri ng the
reign of Sultan Bahadur Shah* (932-43/1526-37) lasting
for 13 long
4. Ulughkhanl,
mont hs
2
disturbed the serene literary l i f e i n
Guj arat . In the sequel, the leading Muhaddi t hun like

Ali al -Mut taqi


al-Sindi
al -Burhanpuri
*Abd
(d. 975),*


4
Abd Allah
(d, 993) and others migrated to the Hi j az.
3

al -Awwal al - Hus aynl (d. 968), however, stayed on
and continued his researches at Ahmadabad. Sultan
Mahmud the Thi rd' s (944-61/1537-53) l i beral i t y and
patronage was responsible for rehabilitating Guj arat
wi t h Tradi t ionist s many of whom then came to settle
there from al -Hi j az.
Mahmud that 'All
It was at t he i nvi t at i on of Sul t an
al -Mutt aqi t wi ce sojourned at Ahmad-
abad where on these occasions he i mpar t ed lessons on
Hadi t h literature. Further, Mahmud supported the
scholars of the Haramayn wi t h stipends, and built a
Madrasa at Makka
4


RENAISSANCE OF HADITH LEARNING IN INDIA 109
appreciation
presenting to hi m a copy of the Fath
an act that speaks a volume about his deep
regard for Apost ol i c Tr adi t i ons.
evidently for the purpose of Hadith
learning. On the assassination of both this benevolent
prince and his wise councillor Asaf Khan in 961/1553,
the Muzaffarshahi ki ngdom gradually sank down a nd
was ul t i mat el y annexed by Emperor Akbar in 980/1572.
So far as the culture of Hadith literature was concerned,
the breakdown of the Muzaffarshahi
vol. I, p. 260 also Index, LI .
vol. I, p. 313.
power was a great
Joss t o Guj a r a t i nas much as t he great and ceaseless
activities of the Muhaddi t hun declined sc that we have
very few noted Tradi t ionist s from Guj arat after the
t ent h cent ur y A. H .
Hirat
/ / / .
1 1 0
1. Now in Dhar
Aft er a lapse of five
who raised the pri nci pal i t y 't o
Burhanpur,
al-Bukhari
Manduwi
4

al -Manduwl
3

Mahmud
came a centre of ITadith
Shadi abad-Mandu,
1

State, Central
Khalji
India, situated in 22.21 N and 75.26
(839-74/1435-69) who was a patron of
arts and letters.
2
Two disciples of al -Sakhawi,
E, 22 miles from Dhar town (Imperial

I NDI A' S C O N T R I B U T I O N TO HA D I T H L I T E R A T U R E
MALWA
the capital of Malwa,
learning
noticed
before, came to settle here. Of the products of this
place, the names of Shaykh
(d. 902) and M awIanS.
have been preserved
at the Bab Um m
I V. KHANDISH
the seat of the Faruqi dynasty of
Khandesh owed i ts foundat ion t o Nasi r
a high position in the
literary wor l d' . Hi s Madrasa at Burhanpur
6
which
continued to flourish for two centuries or thereabout,
must have cont ri but ed to the di ffusi on of Il adl t h
learning, as will be seen presently.
7

V. SI N
hundred years, the study
of Hadi t h in Si nd was revived in the fi rst hal f of t he
tenth century by Makhdum 'Abd
a Tradi t i oni st who having migrated in 918/1512
on account of the oppression of the Safaw
2. Firishta,
Gazeteer of India, vol. XVII ,
vol. I, p. 243 ; Law op. cit. pp. 96-97).
3. Firishta,
4. Nuzha, vol. I V
5. Sakhawi,
.
vol. X, p. 148.
6. Law, pp. 99, 259.
7. Infra, p. 129;
Sindi.
8. Abhar lay in the province of Jibal
al -Muhaddi t hm
'Alim
al-'Aziz
and s.v. Shaykh Tahir b. YEsuf;
(Le Strange,
Sa' d
Il an j
duri ng the reign of
Al l ah
al-Din
for us. There can be
no better expression of Mahmud' s l ove for Hadi t h t han
his establishment of a Madrasa wi t h a Chair for
Hadi t h literature under the Tradi t i oni st Shams al -Di n
in Makka
Khan al -Faruqi
al-Abharl,
8

' UthmSn
pp. 221-22).
be-
al-
.
D
f r om
i
p. 171.
p. 257.
al -
1. Mir
men
1

Bukhdri
VL
'All
Ma'sum, Tartkh-i-Sind,
and the Mishkdt
For close upon a decade *Abd
by Haj l
entitled al-Minhdj
Sher
3

the Khanqa-i -l khl asl yya
rulers of Persia settled down at Kahan, a smal l
township situated then in Si nd
1

Elliot, vol. I, p. 235.
ed. Da'udpota
al-Masdblh
al-'Aziz
Khal i fa
4
and a part of which was preserved
i n t he l i brary of Mir
but now f or mi ng a
part of modern Baluchistan. Before his mi grat i on to
India, 'Abd
2. Nuzha,
al-
c
Aziz
Vol . IV.
3. For 'All
s. v. 'Abd al-'AzIz
Sher, Rieu,
4. Kashf
al -Abhari .
al-Zunun,
6. Page 77.
6. Tartkh-i-Sind, p. 76. Elli ot, vol . I, p. 235, has Asll al-Din.

RENAISSANCE OF HADITH LEARNING I N
had been a Professor of the
Madrasa-i -Mirza 'Ufi ,
at Hirat.
2

he wrote at the instance of the Prince Nizam al-Din
(d. 906),
at Ilirat,
al-Mishkdt
Ma' sum Bhakkan
author of Tankh-i -Si nd.
al -Abhari
lectured at Kahan on Hadi t h and other branches of
Islamic learning. He died there in 928/1523, leaving
behind hi m his two accomplished sons, Mawlan&s
LAHORE
Lahore became an i mport ant centre of Hadi t h
learning under Mawlana Muhammad (circ.
the Mufti and ' one
the city, who taught for many years the Sahih
to a number
of pupils of whom some had been ' the
of their t i me. At every concludi ng lecture
on the aforesaid works, the Mawlana used to treat
his audi ence to Bughrakhanis
7

(Poona 1938),
Persian Catalogue, vol. I , 366a.
7. A dish invented by Bughra, king of Khurasan.
Jt consists 01
quadrangular
al-Din
INDIA 1 1
the Madrasa-i -Sul tdni yya
As a Tradi t i oni st ,
who was a great patron of letters
a comment ary on the Mishkdt al-Masabih
which has been noticed
(d. 1019),
and Muhammad.
6

900-1000),
of the most respected t eachers'
most learned
(of which our Bakur
p. 76 ;
ed. Fluegel, V, 503.
section of paste, dressed with gravy or milk (Haig, p. 215,
1
and
the
5

Athir
of
al
-
n. 4).
Rafl
1

khctni
1 1 2 I NDI A' S C O N T R I B U T I O N TO HA D I T H L I T E R A T U R E
may be the corrupted form who knows ?) and
sweetm
VII. J
Sayyid Muhammad Ibrahi m, a Tradi t ionist of
Baghdad, came to Indi a in about the mi ddl e of the
10th century and started Hadi t h classes first at
Jhansi and then
came all
al-Tanzd,
Davvud and the Jami"
V I I I . AGRA
In the 10th century, Agra could boast of as many
as three institutions for i mparting Hadith learning,
viz.,
Akbarabadi (d. 1010),
Shah Mir
(i ) The Madrasa of al-SafawL
al -Di n al-Safawi
al -Thanesri
al-Qadir
the Muntakhab
1. Bada'unl,
(i) the Madrasa of Raf i
c

p. 154=*Haig, p. 2)5
at Kalpl
the Sahlh
(it) the Madrasa of Haj l
2. Tadhkira-i-Mashahir-i-Kakun,
.
on the bank of the Jumna.
Hi s reput at i on as a Tradi t i oni s t must have spread far
and wide as is evident from the fact that Shaykh
(afterwards Makhdum) Nizam al-Dln
the way to Jhansi from KakurT
al-Bukhari,
Ibrahim al -Muhaddi t h
(d. circ. 1004) lectured on Hadi t h for about
fifty years.


4
Many
ut-Tawcirikh
p. 447;
Bihkarl
(15 mi l es t o
the N. of Lucknow) to sit at his feet. The books on
which Muhammad lectured comprised
the Sunan
al -Di n ai -Safawi
and {Hi)
(d. ci rc.
in the heart of Agra became
a seat of Hadi t h l earni ng as shown above.
3
Here,
on his death, his disciple Abu M-Fath
able and ready scholars
1

al -Bada' um
and Kamal
Nuzha,
Ibrahim al-Baghdadl
HAN
(d.
(d.
.
SI & KALP
981)
of the Ma'ahm
of Abu
al-Usul.
(d. 954),
the Madrasa of Sayyi d
1000).
The house of
al -Khurasam
like *Abd
1004), the famous author of
al -Di n
IV, s.v. Muhammad
3. Supra, pp. 96-07
eats.
1

I
2

al-
.
X.
{Hi)
1. Bada'uni, pp. 126, 129=*Haig,
The seat of the Sharql
a nd t he J ami
Lucknow figured as a seat of Hadlth
the Mashariq
who was a nephew (->tj
The Madrasa of Shah Mir.
Whi le attending t he 'I bddatkhana
especially the traditions of the Prophet
1

a nd was 'occupied
al -Muhaddi t h
[it) The Madrasa of Haj l
Husayn al-Shlrazi
RENAISSANCE OF HAD1TH LEARNING I N
Ma'arif,
j^y.)
Vol. XXI I
pp. 187, 187-88 ; T. <Ulama\
l earning in
the second half of the 10th century on the arrival at
its suberb of Shaykh Dl ya'
No. 4, pp. 251-59
al-Dln,
2. Bada'uni, p. 139 =
p. 265-66

INDIA 1 1
(d. 1C20) ' shar ed
t aught by this great ma n.
1

Ibrahi m. Haj l
al-Akbarabadl
i n teaching divinity fjL*)
at Agra.
by t he orders of
Akbar, he would not observe the usual etiquette and
ceremonies connected with it, traditionist that he
was.
Thi s Madrasa
stood in the locality of Shaykh Baha*
of al -SafawI
4

ah
IX LUC
a Madinian Tradi -
tionist. For over four years he taught Hadi t h lite-
rature to a host of pupils, including our Makhdum
Bihkari
al-UsuL
JAWNPU
Sul t anat e, Jawnpur ' be
.
3. Haig, p. 78, n. 2.
4. Bada'uni, p. 109=Haig,
5. Ibid
p. 162.
pp. 119-20*174-77 .
6. Tadhkira-i-Mashahir-i'Kakurt;
who read with h i m t he Sahih
Nuzha,

.
learnt Hadlth
al-Din
He died at Kakurl
Haig, p. 196; T. 'Ulama,
Vol . IV,
the benefit of being
Ibrahi m
in Arabia
Muf t i
on the eastern side of the Jumna.
3
Sayyi d Shah Mi
lectured on
al-Bukhar
probably
towards the close of the 10t h cent ur y.
6

p. 7; Ma'arif,
s. v. Dlya'
3
1

a n d
2

r
Anwar.
1

KNOW
i
R
-
p. 6 ;
al-Din.
1. Law,
1 1 4
pp. 99-100,
of Sharaf
scholars of Mani r were the torch-bearers of Hadi t h
al-Sakhawi
Muhadhdhab
Dawl at abadl
in t hat Hadi t h occupied a mi nor place in the curri -
cul um.
of the t i me.
1

came a famous Uni versi t y ci t y'
I NDI A' S
259.
2. Brockelmann,
(d.849), whi ch were mai nl y on Juris-
prudence and Arabi c l i t erat ure
8
non-Hadl t h
To subst ant i at e t hi s, we may quot e the works
of the Malik al-Ulama?

CONTRI BUTI ON TO HADI T H L I T E R A T U R E
and far out shone Del hi
The si t uat i on here so far as the subjects
of study were concerned had been analogous wi t h t hat
of Guj arat at the pre-Sakhawi
Qadi
wor ks as
t hat , Guj arat , however, had the advant age, by reason
of its geographical posi t i on, of havi ng the Science
i nt roduced by forei gn Muhaddi t hun, whi ch J awnpur
had not. As a result, no appreciable act i vi t y was
not i ced unt i l t he 10th century when, however, Hadi t h
was l i kel y to have been i nt roduced here at Jawnpur as
the t i t l e of Zubdat
Inci dent al l y, we meet a scholar f r om Jawnpur, Hafiz
al -J anf un
(d.902)
XL BIHAR
Unt i l the close of the 9th century, the Sufi
i n
Bihar.
5
Then the centre of Hadi t h l earni ng moved
away to Ful warl
al - Dl n al -Mani ri ,
6

3. Ma'arif,
Sup., i, p. 309.
Vol. XXV ,
4. Sakhawl,
No. 5, p. 347.
op. cit. Vol. Ill ,
Shi hab
al-Muhaddithln
al -Hi ndi
Shari f. Al t hough Hadi t h had been
i nt roduced i nt o the Khanqa of Ful war l in the 8th
cent ury by Sayyi d
6. Supra, pp. 66 seq
al-Dln
borne by certain
local scholars i ndi cat ed.
3
Possibly Hadi t h was trans-
mi t t ed t o t he Sharqi
hearing Iladlth
at Makka,*
Mi nhaj al - Dl n al-Rasti,
6. Ma'arif,
.
period (820-86/1417-81)
al-
Sul t anat e ei t her from some Indi an
centres ment i oned above or direct f r om Arabia.
f r om
but the reference is too
meagre to establish t he real connect i ng l i nk.
a disciple
no appreci able progress in
Vol. XXIII , No. 6,
p. 87.
p. 361.
'Ala'
was
Rafi
1

2. Ibid., p. 120-1 p.
1. Yaslnwasa
Madrasah'
al -Hadith
Makki , t he Ki n g of ' Benga l
al-Din
Dihlawl
also a pupil of Nflr
al-Waqt
RazzSq
t wo Tradi t ioni st s, namely, 'Abd
Muqtadi r, hi s father, ' Abd
successive Ful wan
Sayyi d Yasin
to the l abour of Sayyi d Yasln,
from some eminent Tradi t ionist s of al -Hi j az.
2

Guj arat from Waji h
al -Dm
in the 10th
i t s st udy seems t o have been made till
RENAISSANCE OF 1IAD1TH LEARNING IN
166-67.
3. Ma'arif,
the Khanqa turned intc

INDIA 1 1
t he advent here,
century, of Sayyid Yasln,
al-Safawl,
1

al-Din
Thanks
a seat of Hadl t h learning as is manifested in the sanad
handed down to Shaykh
through the intermediary of three
Muhaddithun,
al -Nabi and ' Abd al -Razzaq.
It is wort h recording in this connection that the lasi
al -Nabi and 'Abd
and Hdfiz
al-Haqq b. 'Abd
(d. 1070)
XI I . BENGAL
Husayn Shah b. Sayyi d Ashraf al -
(900-24/1493-1518)
4
,
Bengali language and literature,
5
was also respon-
sible for the great advance, the study of the Qur'an
made in his domi ni on. On his accession to
the throne of Bengal, in 905/1499, Husayn Shah invited
scholars from far and near to come and settle down in
his Ki ngdom and under his liberal reign. By
Ramadan 1, 907/ March,
at Gurra-i -Shahld
cousin (f
the nephew of al-Safawl (Ibid., p. 109-Haig,
Vol. XXIII , No, 5. p. 333.
4. Cambridge Hist, of I ndia, Vol. Ill ,
'Atlq
.
b. 'Abd
viz.>
pp. 270-72.
Dinesh Chandra Sen.
Ul ^jX*)
al-'Alawi
al -Sami '
'Abd
al-Waqt
of Shah Mir (Bada'uni,
History of Bengali
al-
a nephew of
who acquired the Science at
(d.999) and also
from
al-
won for themselves the distinctions of Shaykh
respectively on account
of their erudi t ion in Hadl t h literature, and that ' Atiq
al -Haqq
whose
memory has been associated as the earliest promotei
1502, he erected an 'excellent
in Gaur (now in the
p. 120),
Literature (Calcutta, 1911),
pp. 12-14,222
5
al-
\
and
p. 162.
.
* -
.the
1 1 6
by Hakim #ablbur
1. Law, p. 110,
al-Fuqahti!
(d. ci rc.
cribed in 911/ 1503 for ' t he
al -Bukhan.
support.
2

religion.
1 1

district of Malda)
I NDI A' S
n. 3;
wo*
' for
Rahman
Abu '1-Hasanat,
Ravenshaw,
l-Muhaddithin\
700
5
),
Royal Tr eas ur y
1

As a patron of Apostolic Tradi t ions,
Husayn Shah ranked himself wi t h the contemporary
rulers of Gujarat. At his instance, Muhammad b.
Yazdan Bakhsh, famous as Khawajgl
That Hadi t h formed an integral part of the
curricula in these institutions may be gathered f r om
the presence, at the capital of Ikdala,
He also
CON T RI B UT I O N TO HADI T H
Gour
op. cit., pp. 54-56.
(London, 1878),
Taqi
Sunargaon rose into prominence as a
centre of learning during the rule of the Sadat
(900-45/1493-1538). As a headquarter of East ern
Bengal, it was a t hri vi ng t own with ' Ul ama'
at Ikdala
Shirvvanl;
3

' f ounded
2. Law, 109 ; Stewart, History of Bengal (London, 1813), p. 113,
al-Din
Sahlh of al -Bukhan in three volumeswhich
a College' at Panduwa
in Malda as a memori al to the famous saint Nur
Qutb-i-' Alam

3. He was a native of Shirwan
b. 'Ayn
full is now a precious possession of the Oriental Library
of Bankl pur
4

4. Vol. V.
in Adharbyjan
al-
Di n in 929/1522 at the ti me of Nasrat b. Husayn Shah
(924-39/1518-33).
6

part i, Nos. 130-2
5. Supra, p. 53.
6. Ma'arif,

L I T E R A T U R E
the teaching of the sciences of
and settled a grant of land for its
of scholars as
also of Hadi t h compilations such as the Sahlh
trans-
.
Sunargaon. Aft er t he Hanbal i t e Abu Taw' am
and seat s
Islamic learning. Inscriptions on mosques and
mausoleums here point to the existence not only of
scholars but also of Traditionists during the period
under review. As a matter of fact, one mosque had
been bui l t by a leading Tradi t i oni st and jurist {Qudwa
So, we may safely presume that
during the rule of the Sadat, the teaching of Hadi t h
mi ght have been i n vogue at Sunargaon.
p. 80;
(Le Strange,
Vol. X X X I I I , No. 2, pp. 118-124,
of Dacca
of
in
a
t
p. 159).
.
art.
,
1. Ibn Fahd, Mu'jaw
Talib
Rihla fl
al-L5mi\
(MS. Bankipur,
The i i rst
al-llm
Talab
T during the period extending over 820-992/1417-
Indi an student of this epoch who sailed
for Arabi a in quest of Hadith
al-llm
1584, gave a fillip to the culture and cul t i vat i on eft
of Gulbarga. He went
l earning was Jamal All ah
Il adi th
t o Makka in 845/1441 wi t h his
father Khawaj a Shams al -Di n,
l i t erat ure i n this count ry. As a result, ardent
and earnest learners undert ook j ourni es i n quest of
H idith
f r om distinguished Makkan
and learnt the Science
l earni nga
Tradi t i oni st s, viz., TaqI
state of things reminiscent of al-
so common a feature among
of olden days. At the outset, the
journey was confined to Indi a, but ere l ong as i nterest
in al -Hadrth

CHAPTER V
I NDI A N TRADI TI ONI ST S
HE ADVE N T of the Muhaddi t hun i n Indi a
grew wider, a tendency to acquire
higher studies under distinguished Tradi t i oni st s in the
Haramayn developed i nvol vi ng among ot her hardships
t he hazards of sea voyage in those days of sai ling ships.
Not hi ng could damp the spirits of the seekers after
knowledge of Apostolic Tradi t i ons, and al most al l our
outstanding Tradi t i oni st s beginning from 'Abd
al -Di n b. Fahd, Zayn al -Di n
Jamal Al l ah was fol l owed by many others as
woul d be evident f r om the f ol l owi ng list of Indi an
Vol. IX ,
No. *429>.
Awwal al -Husayni
al -Amiut l,
Maraghi
(d. 968) down to Shah Wal l
al-Dihlawl
Aba ' l -Fat h
and Ahmad al -Wasi t l .
al-
al -
Al l ah
(d. 1172)
He di ed at Makka on
Rabi'
f ol 26U:
had had to undergo the ordeal i n
their student career.
I 29, 907/October, 1501.
al - Daw'
1

p. 151.
11.
(Ijaza
1 1 8
1. 'Al-Daw\
12. Ni' m
Mas' ud
the Sahlh
9. Qasim
8. ' Urnar
7. 'All
al -Nawawi
5. Hafiz
3. Ahmad b. Muhammad al -Hi ndi.
5
4. Al-Hafiz
2. Ahmad b. 'All
Il anafi,
1. Ahmad b. Ibrahim al -Awadl
Shams al -Di n
students who read Hadl t h
I NDI A' S CONT RI BUTI ON TO HAOI T H
vol. i, p. 208.
2. Ibid., vol. ii, p. 44.
Allah b. Ni ' mat
b. Ahmad al - Kanbayat l :
of al -Bukhari
b. Dawud al -Ahmadabadi .
b. Baha
1

b. 'Abd
b. Ilyas
b. Muhadhdhab al -Janfurl
a keen st udent of al -Bukharfs
i n the Har ama yn
3. Ibid., p. 71.
brother Kajih
along with his
al -Hi ndi .
5
6. Zahid b. 'Arif
4. Ibid.,
b. Jal a!
vol. Hi,
5. Ibid.
al -Lakhnawi
6. Ibid., p. 232.
7. Ibid., vol. v, p. 254.

L I T E R A T U R E
al -Sakhawi (d. 90?).
under
al -Hi ndi
Sahih,
whom al -Sakhawi grant ed a general ljaza.
Hafi l a).
al -IIi ndl .
(Jawn-
al -Hi ndi.
He read out to al-Sakhawi the Arbain
at Makka i n Ramadan, 894/1489.
6

Allah al-Kanbayatl.
7

al -Di n al - Kanbayat l .
He read
(q.v.).
9

10. Muqbi l a l - Hi nd i : he is stated to have read
profusely with al-Sakhawi.
10

he read wi t h
al -Sakhawi at al -Madi na.
1

Allah al -Kul barj i
of Gul barga) Nazll'Makka.
1

8. Ibid., vol. vi, p. 145.
9. Ibid., p. 180.
10. Ibid., vol. x
#
p. 168.
11. Ibid, p. 156.
12. Ibid., p. 20
al -
1

2

pun) .
4

of
8

1

{i.e. ,
*
p. 87.
b
Shadharat,
Ij&za
5. AhDaw\
1. Ibid.,
indicate; so
fact remains that a new era for Hadith
Although the Hajj
H-Nawawi.
such as 'Umda*
and also
al-Bukhari' s
out to him {qara
1

al-SakbawT
a mast er of Ma
1

born at Ahmadabad
15. Rajih
14. Abu Bakr b.


c
Ali
He heard Musahal
13. 'Ata'
quint

I NDI A N T R AD I T I ON I S T S
Allah b. Ahmad al-Muhammadabadf
Traditions from al-
Sakhawi.
b. Fakhr al-Dln
(d. 873).
b. Dawud al-Ahmadabadi.
in 871/1466 and became
and Arabic literature
by 899/1493. Accompanied by his uncle
Sulayman
3

at Makka in 899 A.H.,

%
alaih)
Sahih,
had lessons on al-Sakhawl's
and Shark al-Taqrib
Al-SakhawJ
wherein he paid high tribute for his
mastery over Islamic learning.
5

might have been a great factor
in attracting some of the above students to the
Haramayn where they did avail themselves of the
opportunity to listen to the lecturers of al-Sakhawi,
learning had
been opened, by the close of the 9th century, not only
in the coastal places of West and South India, but
also in the up-country centres as would the nisbas*
that some of the above-mentioned students
might have been primarily actuated to go to al-Hijaz
for the sake of acquiring knowledge of al -Hadlth
vol. v, p. 146.
2. Al-Daw',
vol., viii, p. 16.
p. 64.
.6. 7.*.,
vol. iii, p. 222;
al-Awadl (No. 2), al-Jawnpurj
Tadhkira-VUlama*>
(No. 4), a
and his brother Qasim,
al-Nawawi's
p. 62;
1-Lakhnawl
aad al-Dihlaw!
al-Dihlaw
He was
he met
and read
the major part of
Arbctin
works
gave him a general
vol. xi, p. 61.
S. Ibid., vol. iii, p. 216.
4. Full title of the work:
Yad-i-Ayyam
(No. 14).


r

119
.
1

L
a

It
the
.
5* latfJ I fvs&wJ 1 ^x*. g* L J !j ^ ULM ikk*
,
(No. 6)

v

of

120 I NDI A' S C O N T R I B U T I O N TO HADI T
The t enth cent ur y of Hi j r a was a l andmark so far
as the services the Indi an Musal mans rendered for the
cause of Hadi t h l i terature are concerned. Tw o groups
of students applied themselves to this noble task. The
first group included those students who permanent l y
migrated to Arabia wi t h a view to pursui ng the st udy
of
as also comi ng in contact wi t h eminent Tradi t i oni st s
and standard works over there. The second group
who were either local products, or those who having
acqui red profi ci ency i n Sci ence of Hadi t h from Arabi a,
devoted themselves in India proper to teaching Hadi t h
and wri t i ng books on i t . Thus t he Indi an Tradi t i oni st s
kept up t he t orch of Hadi t h learning burni ng in Indi a
and Arabi a si multaneousl y. And this they di d unt i l
the foundat i on of the Dar al-' Ulum
the Mazahir
13th cent urya
Section L
T R A D I T I O N I S T S
MI D D L E O F TH E 9T H DOW N T O TH E MI D D L E O F
TH E 11T H
T HE I R OW N
1. Abu Bakr b. Muhammad al-Bahruj
(d. circ 915/1509
Shah I (863-917/1459-1511) of Guj arat . He died pro-
babl y in the first quarter of the 10 century A. H .
His biographi cal not i ce i s not avai labl e.
1

1. Hermann Ethe,
THA T
al-Hadith
al -' Ul um
F L O U R I S H E D
Catalogue of
within the sacred precincts of the I
in Saharanpur
(875-1030/1470-J621
FRO M
C E N T U R Y AN D THA T COUL D NO T CL AI M
T O HAV E F O U N D E D AN Y
Persian Manuscripts in the Library
the India Office (Oxford, 1903),
laramayn
at Deoband
at the end of t he
period that covers well over t wo
centuries. The Tradi t i oni st s of the first group will be
noticed together wi th their works in the second part of
our thesis. As for those of the second, we are going to
discuss here bel ow:
)
TH E
R E C O G N I Z E D S CHOO L O F
)
Abu Bakr was a Tradi t i oni st of Broach i n Guj arat .
He flourished duri ng the reign of Sultan Mahmud
Vol . I, No. 2641
H
and
:
i
.
c
Abd
2. Ivanow, Catalogue of the Persian Manuscripts, ASB (Calcutta. *
1. 'Abd
the i nvi tat ion of Bayram
the cause of al -Hadl t h
pursuing higher courses of Il adl t h learning. Back to
Ahmadabad
Shams al-Dni
of al -IIusai n
under his grandfather ' Ala'
a village near Jawnpur, migrated. li e
al-Awwal
ahZaidpurl
2. Mir Sayyid
(it)


1
Ayn
910/May,
Him Hasln,
No. 2641 ;
(i ) Tarjuma-i'Hisn
al-Hayy
and other branches of Musl i m
learning unt i l he devoted himself exclusively to the
contemplat i ve l i fe of a Sufi
before 941/1534*,
al-Jazari
al -Fat hi
al -Di n


l
Abd
al-Wafd
a collection of Tradi t i ons with special
reference to prayers {acViya)
Bankipiir,
Hastn
Nadawl,
(d. 833).
1
By t he fi rst quarter
of the 10th century, ' Abd
Tarjiima-i-Shifa'
Ma'arif
(Asafiyya,

INDIAN TRADITIONIST
(Ethe,
XVf , No. 1418): a Persian
translation with explanatory notes of al -Jazar/' s
of the Prophet. The
author compiled the present work for Sultan Mahmud
Shah I of Gujarat and completed it on Dhu M-Hijja
1505.
I,
682, No. 487) : a Persian translation of the ShifcV of
al-Oadl
al-Axvwal
(d. 968 1560)
was a native of the Deccan where
his forefathers who had originally bel onged to Zaidpur,
studied Il adl t h
al -Husayni,
who, in his t urn, was a pupi l of
al -Awwal moved to Guj arat
probably on account of Shi
he worked very hard f or
in his advanced years. At
Khan, the Khan-i -KhanSn,
he went to Del hi in 966/1558 and died there two years
al-'Awarif
1924). No. 990.
India Office,
(d. 833)
' l yad
al-Husayn
a pupi l
a disturbances, and sub-
sequent l y spent several years in the Haramayn
(MS.), Chapter
S
121
24,
.
l
'
I NDI A' S
2. Akhbar, loc. cit. ; I thaf,
1. Akhbar, pp. 237-38 misprints Bayram
Khawaj a Mubarak was born at Bak' hara,
al-Ruhtaki
3. Khawaja
(it) Muntakhab-i-Kitab-i'Sifr
al-Tawdih
mentary of the Sahih,
(i) Faid
Khazina.
li
3. Ma'arif, loc. cit.
Khan as Plr
sout h of
Benares where some of his ancestors had come f r o m
Kuhtak,
aUBancLrasl
Mubarak 6. Makhdum
996 Perf.
al-Saclda
'l-J&mt
the first of its kind ever written
in Indi a,
3
does not appear t o have survi ved down to our
times in full,
al-Barl f i
4. Infra.
6. Akhbar, loc, cit.; ASB, loc. cit., under the title of Riiala-i-AhuftL
Khan ;
A collection of Traditions relating to
the person of the Prophet selected f r om the Sifr al-
al-Sahlh
Shark al-Bukh&rh*
Sa
l
ada
-i-Paighambar
Vol. I, p. 427, mistakes 998 A.H. for 968 A. H. ;
by al -Fi ruzabadi
by ' Ut hman
.
6. C/. Ulughkhanl,
pp. 379-80
Hada'iq,
(d. 817) and translated into
Persian. The work is divided into ten babs.
al-Sadiqin
; /Ma/, p. 302 ; Tiqsar,

C ON T R I B U T I O N TO HAI DT H L I T E R A T U R E
Hi s works :
This com-
only some extracts from the first part of
the comment ary havi ng been preserved in the Ghayat
b. Ibrahim
al-Sindl
4

(ASB No.
It was
composed at Ahmadabad in 941/ 1534 with a view to
achieving t wofol d purposes, namel y, avert ing the i n-
vasion of IIuirKlyun
al-Arrajari
(d. 981/1573)
his family originally hailing from Arrajan i n
(MS. Bankipur, No
p. 177 ; Muhammad Siddlq.
7. Ivanow,
Vol. I, p. 260.
671 (Pr).
p. 106 ; Yad-i-Ayyam,
fol.
pp. 35-36 ; Ma'arif.
Kali mat
80b ; Tadhkira4^Ulama\
Storey, Persian Literature, Vol
Vol. XXII , pp. 42,
II , pp 192-93 ; 'Abd al-Awwal
269.
b. *Ali
is a mistake for 'Abd al-Awwal b. al-'Ala'
Ill , Li .
who was then marchi ng t owards
Guj arat from Del hi
6
and avoiding the plague that was
raging there at the t i me.
as in the Akhbar, loc. cit.
Catalogue ASB, No. 996 ; Storey, op. cit. ii,
later.
1

(q.v.) .
7

i
p. 66.
p. 193 .
Faris
1
,
pur, V (2), 93 (sic) e, *"*^!
3. TajallU-Nur,
1. Le Strange, p. 48 ; Suyuti
Nizam al-Dln
al-Sunna,
Madarij al-Akhbar
as the nisba al -Arrajani
i i w l l l
p. 65 ; Maarif.
Khawaj a Mubarak classified the Tradi t i ons
of al -Saghani ' s
&>\**
JLX* c ^ i jS
J-
loc. cit.
4. Cf. Tajalli-uNur,
Mashdrig
U^~l >
al-Anwar
'
5. No. 364, Tradition. As the compiler of the Catalogue, Bankipur
according to
subject mat t ers and named it Madarij al-Akhbdr*
Library (Vol. V, part II , p. 92) has not been able to correctly identify the

INDIAN TRADITIONIST
suggests. He was a
disciple of his father Makhdum ArrajanT,
scholar
2
, who gave his son Mubar ak a good educat i on
in Isl ami c l earning. Besides being a learned di vi ne,
Khawaj a Mubarak possessed admi ni st rat i ve abi l i t i es
whi ch secured hi m the post of mi ni st er under Sher
Shah Sun (946-52).
981/ 1573
3

Hi s works :
(Bankipur No. 364 Tradition).
Following the arrangement of al -Baghawl ' s
(the
gradation of Traditions), a title significant of its con-
tents. Its Banki pur MS.
5
which is presumably a
unique copy shows that t he work has been di vi ded i nt o
25 kitabs,
some of the babs into fasls*
4. Shaykh Bhtkarl
1

{890-98111485-1573)
b. Amir
; Lubb aULubab
2. His grave is still to be seen at Bak'hara
loc. cit.; Ma'arif,
present work and its author, his opinion in this connection cannot carry
any weight.
6. Ibid.
7. Bada'unI, p. 24 (Haig,
Haydar
p. 42) mistakes Bhikan
Kakuruwl,
for Bhikari,
Mashahir-i-Kahurt
each kitab
Saif al -Dln,
loc. cit. : Catalogue,
(Lucknow, 1927),
(Nuzha, IV,
a noted Suf i
He di ed in the fort of Chunar in
Masabih
has been subdivided into bdbs
al-Kakuruw
popularly
ed. PJ . Veth, p. 9.
s. v. Shaykh
Mubarak al-Banarasi)
(Vol. XXV , No. 6), 347 ; Nuzha.
Banki-
p. 441.
S 123
.
and
.
i
.
.
}
Cf .

y
^ ^ ^ J o .
J a ma l
Qur ' a n
He
[d.
4. Yad-i'Ayyam,
3. Bada' uni,
1. Supra, p. 112.
2. 'Abd
bor n at Na h r wa l a - Pa t t a n
al-Muhaddithin,
Fa t t a n i
a l - Dl n Mu h a mma d b. Ta h i r b. 'Al l
6. Tahir al-Fattani
vot ed hi s whol e
and the Sahih
di sci pl e of al - Sakhawi .
read I J adl t h
circ.
5. Shaykh
t r eat i se on Usul
al - Muhaddi t h
Ibr dhi m
known as Ma kh d u m
124 I NDI A' S CONTRI BUTI O N TO HADI T H
p. 55,
24 =
al-
(sic) ^ U S A J I
Kakuruwi,
Haig, 42; Tadhkira-i-'Ulanw'
al-Hayy
the Pr i nce of the Tr adi t i oni s t s ,
al - Hi ndi
l i f e f or t he cause of a l - Ha dl t h
al -Bukhari , ' Abd
A Hafiz,
wi t h his brother Qu t b


l
Abd
al - TIadl t h
a l - Ma d a nl
b. Muhammad al - Ba ghdad]
Bhikan,
J $ 3 Nuzha IV ; Ma'arif,
*t* 0
Mashahlr-i-Kakvft,
p. 33; Haydar
Nadawi,
a l - Ha na f j ,
al - Dl n,
al-Malik al-Kujrati
enti t l ed al-Minhaj
2

respect i vel y.
1
li e
and Di ya '
was born at KakQrl,
a f a mo u s Suf i
J
a
pp. 441 seq ; Nuzha vol. iv
t

Ma'arif
MS.
copy of whi ch t oget her wi t h his Sanad-i-Had'ith
read the Sahih
s. v.
of al -Bukhari , t he

Sunan

L I T E R A T U R E
scholar,
ne a r Lucknow i n 890/ 1485. He
of Abu Da wu
and Jami
al - Dl n
wr ot e a
is
l i kel y to be available in the l i brar y of the Khanqa at
Kakur l
al-'Abbas
970/7562)
me mor i s er of the
al -Mal i k de-
of wh i c h
he ha d been a t eacher i n Gu j a r a t u n t i l he di ed i n about
970/ 1562/
{914-98611508-78)
the cel ebr at ed Malik
was
i n Nor t h Guj a r a t i n 914/ 1508.
Th r ou gh his mot her he was a de s c endant of Abu Bakr
aWAwarij
al-Dln b. Saif al-Dln ; Ma'arif,
Nizam
c ^V^^^O ^
vol. xxii No. 4.
pp. 259-60
*
al-Usrd
where*
at J hans l
Ma khdu m' s
and Lucknow unde r
descendants are st i l l l i vi ng.
He di ed t her e i n 981 / 15 73.
vol. xxii, No. 5,
d
3

i
.
.
Ch. on &
p. 332.
3
.
Taqrtb,
al-Dln
'Al l
Ustad
4. Al-Mughm
2. N'ttr,
1. Majma*
(i) Al-Mughni
Al -Fat t an i has, however, been i mmort al i zed by his
i nval uabl e works on al -Il adi t h
al -Jawnpurl.
al -Nahrwal l .
al -IIavt ham L
over there for about six years. Besides his beloved
teacher 'All
al -Mut t aq i at Makka in 944/ 1537
al -Zaman
al-Siddlq
pp. 361-62
Bihar al-Anwar,
f t Dabt*al-RijaV
Abu ' l -Hasan
(d. 13),
p. 43 ; Khaztna,
; Akhbar,
vol. I, p. 3;
(Newul
[published].
p. 264 ; Ma'thar,
Kishore, Lucknow.
vol. i, pp. 436-37 ; I J ada'iq,
pp. 194-96
Abjad, p. 895
pp. 385-HO
; Subhat,
; Tiqsar,
; J thaf.
p. 180 ; Lakhnawi,
p. 397 ;
graphed on the margin of his al-Fawa'id
al-Ta'hqat
p. 67 ; Tadhkirai-'Ulama',
al-Bahtyya
al-Samyya litho-
p. 264 ; Bankipur
pp. 195-96;
(Lucknow, 1895),
Ma'arif, vol. xxii No. 4,

INDIAN TRADITIONIST
the first Cal i ph of Isl am. Educat ed
in Guj arat under Shaykh Nagurl,
and others, he j oined the school of
and read Hadl t h
al -Mut t aq i whom he mentions wi t h gr at i -
tude in t he i nt roduct i on of his works,
1
al -Fat t ani read
wi t h other Makkan Traditionists also notabl y Ibn
al-Bakn"
On his return t o Guj arat in about
950/1543 he concentrated his energies on threefold
tasks: (1) the popularization through his school at
Pattan of the science of Tradi t i o n in Guj arat , (2) com-
pi l at i on of books on aMJadl t h
Though a promi sing reformer, he coul d
not achieve much as his l i fe was cut short through his
murder on Shawwal 6, 986/December, 1578 by the
Mahdawis at a place between Uj j ai n and Sarangpur.
8

whi ch are as fol l ows :
Thi s
is the first compi l at i on of Tahi r al -Fat t ani wri t t en
i mmedi at el y after his return from Arabia, at Pattan in
Dhu
1314 A. H. )
al-Mughrit
Brockelmann,
Catalogue Vol. 2, pp. 32-34 ; Buh|r Cat. vol. ii,
ed. Delhi,
(lithographed on the margin of lbn Hajar's Taqrib
Suppl.
Mulla
and Muft i
and (3) recl amat i on of
the members of his own communi t y, the Buhiras who
had become followers of a pretender Mahdi
'l-CJa'da,
(lithographed on the margin of lbn
ed. Del hi,
1, pp. 001 02.
3. For the correct title of the work, see author's
1290
Majma'
Maht a, the
Ha j a r
Out b
Mahmu d
952/January, 1546/ and is otherwise a
short but nonetheless comprehensive work designed to
Hajar's
A. H. ), pp. 3-4
pp. 467 ;
Bihar, p. 4.
1308 A.H.), p. 352
S 125
.
,
.
I V
al-Dhail
da'if
1. Bankipur
wa salldm*
Rahmatihi
Kitab al-Tawhid*
I -'I raqi,
al-Hasana
}

and Kitab
hi s predecessors, viz.,
Ahadi th
{it) Tadhkirat
al-Taqrib
The work has been l i t hographed t wi ce i n Del hi , i n
1290/ 1873 and 1308/ 1890 on the margi n of I bn
readi ng. All
narrators {ruwdt)
suppl y us correct readi ngs [dabt)
126 I NDI A' S C O N T R I B U T I O N TO I I A D I T H
2. Cf. Tadhkirat al-
wa Shafaat
al - Saghanf s
al-Firuz3. badi's
al-Wajiz,
al-Suytitis
al-Mawdii\lt
such conf used names {mushtabihftt\
of Hadi t h, thei r fathers, grandf athers
and of their kunyas

L I T E R A T U R E
of such names of t he
or la
the
author arranges al phabet i cal l y. At the end of the
di scussi on of the confused names under every al pha-
beti cal l etter, he al so gives the correct readi ngs of al l
the confused nisbas that c o me under the letter con-
cerned. Thi s i s not al l . Occasi onal l y, short bi ographi -
cal notices of the ruwat
and the authors of the Sihah
Hajar' s
al-Tahdhib
1

[published]. I n thi s
book the author makes a col l ecti on of mawdil
k

f rom works on al-Mawdu'at
Kitab aULd'li,
al -Sakhawl ' s
Mukhtasar
al-Mawduat
and endi ng wi th the bob f t
al-Nabi
Every Tradi t i on has been preceded by
i t s s ource ( ^^)
Catalogue, vol. x\i, p. 68.
3. Ibid ,
Mawdu'at
and the labaqas to whi ch they
bel ong have al so been added. Name s of prophets and
rel evant pl aces t hat are l i kel y t o gi ve ri se to conf usi on,
al so have not been left out. The l as t f ew pages have
been devoted to the brief l ife-sketches of the Prophet,
hi s four Caliphs, the I ma ms of the Madhahib
salla
(Egypt,
p. 11.
4.
gabs as are l i abl e to mi s -
Arba
.
and
wri tten by
Kitab
aUMaqasid
Kitab al-Mughni
and others.
2
The
Tradi t i ons have been arranged accordi ng to subject -
matters i nto as many as 226 babs begi nni ng wi th ah
Sa'at
Allah


l
alaihi
and has been f ol l owed by author' s own
remarks, such as t hat t he Tradi t i on i s unf ounded, base -
1343 A.H. ) 1st ed. , p. 4.
Ibid., p. 226.
Sitta .
a
naw
{

anwa
1

(Hi)
Ibn
of whi ch the first deals chiefl y wi t h the ten most
emi nent
has been devoted, in the mai n, to a short l i fe-
sketch of the Prophet. The second, extending over
onl y t wo folios, contains some accounts of other
prophets. The t hi rd Fa$l
i nto three Fasls
(iv) Asma'
ment to the Tadhkirat
Qanun al-Mawdu
L
dt
aut hor' s
compl et ed in Dhu
(d. 952) together wi t h the opi ni on of hi s own Shaykh,

4
Ali
(d. 748), al-' IraqT
al -jawzl
(d. 303), al -Daraqut nl
b. Hanbal (d. 241), al -Bukhan
(forgerer), or by those of the other critics, viz.,
of the ruwat is dctlf
less or forged J* ' ^


1
)
Compani ons of the Prophet, called al^Asharat
al-Rijal
al-Mawdial.
wa


1

'l-CJa'da,
al -Muttaql
(d. 806) and Ibn
(d. 597), al -Saghanl
(d. 385), Ibn
(weak), Kadhdhab
al-Mubashsharat,
(Bankipur, XII ,
It covers, in a
short compass, the whole range of weak and apocry-
phal authorities (ruw<tt)
l-Du
l
afa
1

958/November, 1551,
(d. 975), as Jti .
Hi bban

INDIAN TRAD1TI0NISTS
or t hat one or other
(liar) or waddd*
Ahmad
(d. 256), al -Nasa' l
(d. 354),
(d. 650), al -Dhahabi
Haj a r al - I Iai t haml
The work was
as is
evi dent from a MS. i n t he Banki pur Li brar y,
1
and was
first publ ished in Egypt in 1343/1924 along with
Qanun al-Mawdu
l
at
is a supple-
arranged alphabet i cal l y. The
author does not give any detailed i nfor mat i on of the
ruwiit by way of biographical notice as has been done
in the Mlzan
No. 730). It
is a biographical work on Ruwat al-Hadjth,
of whi ch the first, consi st ing of several
has been di vi ded i nto t wo
and the second which forms t he maj or
part of the work, comprises of notices of other male
and femal e Companions, their successors (TabVun)
1. Bankipur, vol. v, part ii,
al-Vtidal or the Lisan al-Mtzan, but
merely puts after every name the verdict s of the critics
regardi ng hi m.
divided
127
the
.
and
p. 33.
RuwaU
Mafdtih
al-Usnl
i.e.,
1. Banklpur
abridged from his ahMughnu
correct reading {Dabt)
Techni que of Iladith
al-Zarkashl,
Sharh al-Masabih,
by Ibn al-Athlr,
al-Nawawl,
by al -(jastallanl
also utilized the foil
al-Nihaya
al-Masablh
al -Hadi t h.
(v) Majmat
ot her Tradi t i oni st s, al l
128 I NDI A' S
Cat. xii, p. 67.
and what yet remained has been covered
by the Takmila?
The work comprises the Art al-Kitab (Main
Book), a Khatima
2. The full
The words have been arranged
alphabeticall y and that according to their
(Appendix) and a Takmila
al-Tanzil
title of the work is Majma*
(Supple-
ment ). The author has collected in the Asl
wa Chara'ib

CONT RI B UT I O N TO HADI T H
arranged al phabet i cal l y.
1

Bihar ah
difficul t and uncommon words in al -Qur' an
al-Kitab
which is divided into three volumes almost all the
GhanVib
roots. Under
each root all its derivatives along wi t h the relevant
passages of the Qur' an
has been his basic source, al -Fat t anl
owing works:
and by al -Kirmani,
Sharh al-Mishkat
Nazir
Hashiat
Madarik al-TanzIl
y

and others.
4
As for the Khatima,
5
he has devoted it to
the discussions of the Science of Tr adi t i on , ic,
literature, fabricators {Wadda
1
)
and fabricat ed Tradi t i ons abridged from his Tadhkira,
of the confused name of the
events {slyar)
chronological
3. Majma*
aUAkhbar
Bihar (Newul
of the Qur' an,
and al -Hadlth
of the life of the Prophet from his birth
down to his death, and lastly several famous Ruwat
aUHadlth.
4. Ibid, vol. i/pp.
.
the Sihali
and t hei r i nt er -
pretations have been stated. Al t hough Ibn
Sharh
by al-Tlbi,
al-Bukhari
Tafs]r
In fine, the Majma
u

Bihar a
Kishore,
5. Ibid,
I -Anwar
3-4, vol. iv,
L I T E R A T U R E
Anwar [published]
2
: a very
popular and compendious dictionary of the Gharaib^
Sitta and the Mishkat
al-Athir' s
Sharh al-Bukharly
Muslim by
Sharh Jam?
Ain al-Gharibayn,
by
al-Baydawi
Bihar ah Anwar may
wel l be regarded as a short commentary of both t he
f t Lafa'iJ
1314 A. H. )
vol. in, pp.606-51
and
has
the
vol.i :
p. 2. ,
.
5.
Mishkat
Qur ' a n
2. Abjad
f amous as Makhdum al - Mul k,
A schol ar and a Tr a di t i oni s t , Shaykh ' Abd
8. Shaykh


l
Abd
Ta Ti qa t
of a l - Bu kh a n
Ber ar and al so at Bu r h a n p u r
t o have t aught t he Sci ence of Ha di t h
under ' Abd
Yu n u s a l - Si n dj
7. Shaykh
Na wwa b Si ddl q
t eacher ' Ah
Sc i e n c e
and the Sihah
' Al a
f o r
al-'alim,
a per i od of f i f t y ye a r s
a nd di e d i n t he ni net i es of t he 10t h c e nt ur y.
3
Th e
Tr adi t i oni st J a m
al - Awwal
a l - Mut t a qi ,
3.1
al-l
i.e.,
3. Nuzha
p. 896.
bef or e
Ahrar
(MS), vol. IV, s.v., Mawlana

INDIAN TRADITIONIST
Sitta,
of Tr a d i t i o n . Th i s val uabl e c o mpi l a t i o n ,
whi c h had been be ^un
975/ 1567, t ook t h e
a ut hor about seven l ong year s t o f i n i s h i t .
1
It was
l i t hogr aphed at t he Ncwul
Hasan, by wr i t i n g t hi s book whi ch
met wi t h universal approval and recogni t i on of the
schol ars, a l - Fa t t a n i
Tayyib al-Sindi
Bo r n and bred i n Si nd, Sha ykh Ta y y i b recei ved
hi s ear l y educat i on at hi s nat i ve pl ace f r o m Ma wJ a na
a nd t hen
l usayni
at Ui chpur
al - Dl n
f r om start to f i ni sh wi t h Shaykh Ta yyi b
at Bu r h a np u r .
4

Hi s
Mi shkat
al-Masfibih
Allah al-Ansari
( d. 990/ 1582) .
Al l a h,
a t i t l e gi ven hi m by
1. Ibid., vol. I, p. 3 ; p. 450;
referred to in Nuzha', Yad-i-Ayyam
t

al -Tayyi b
Nuzha, l oc,
Ki s hor e Press, Lu c k n o w,
f or t he second t i me i n 131-1/1896.
{d. 968). He
a l - Bu r h a n p u r i
al - Mas abi h,
al -Si ndi ;
pp. 35-36.
4. Nuzha, IV, s.v., al-Shaykh
[d. circ.
Jamal
and a h a n d b o o k of the
d u r i n g t he l i f e t i me of hi s
I n t he o pi n i o n of
has pl aced t he Wo r l d of I s l a m
u n d e r a de e p de bt o f g r a t i t u d e .
999/1-590).
read Ha d i t h at Ah ma d a b a d
i s credi t ed
read the Sahih
wo r k:
Gl osses on t he
al-SultSnpur
Guljaf*i~
al-Burhanpurl
S 129
1

i n

*
*

l
'
vol. Ill , p. 506.
.
cit.
Sam a'
Fasl s.
His
'Abd
1. Bada' uDi .
of Ibn Haj ar al -Hayt hami .
9

Shaykh
c
Abd
9. Shaykh 'Abd
Prince Mui zz al -Dln
(it)


{
Ismat
on the Shamctil
(i ) Shark 'Ala
self.
4
He
duri ng the successive reigns of the Afghan Rulers of
Delhi.
1

Humayfi n
1

p. 70Hai g.
al-Nabl
al'A?ibiya'
ShamcVil
p. 114.
2. I .e. Sher Shah, Sali m
( Bankl pur ,
Shah, Fi ruz
from 946/1539 to 962/1554. cf. Haig,
3. Ibid ; also p. 113, No. 2 .
4. Nuzha, Vol. IV,

130 I NDI A' S CONTRI BUTI ON TO HADI T H
(937-46/1530-39), was
Dur i n g the time of Akbar (963-1014/1556-1605),
he was the leader of the orthodox party and had, on
that account, to suffer a great deal along with hi s fel l ow
4
Ul ama V
All ah was held in high esteem for his scholarship
by no less a person than Ibn Il aj a r al -Hayt haml
breathed his l ast ' i n
after his return fro m the holy ci t y. He
Sul t anpur,
works:
al-Nabta
al-Nabl
Vo l . X, No. 569) :
The work is di vided i nto a Muqaddima
The author dedicated
Muhammad Ka mr an
al-Ganguhl
a l - Na bT, a c o n t e mp o r a r y
al-Mulk
al -Quddus
The st udy of Hadi t h i n-
fluenced him so greatl y ' that
in which he had been trained according to t he
t radi t i on of hi s fami l y as a necessary concomi t ant of
Shah and 'Adil
s. v. a)-Shaykh ' Abd Al lah al -Sult anpurl
5. 1006 A. H. according to Khazina,
6. Bada' unl. p. 73 = Haig, p. 116.
7. 3'in.i-Akbari and Ma'thar al-Umara\
T. 'Ulanta'-i-Hind, p. 103 ; Beale,
8. Bada' unl, p. 71Hai g.
9. Nuzha, IV ,
p. 6.
p. 114.
i . v. ' Abd al-Nabi
t he chief of
vol. i,
L I T E R A T U R E
the ' Ulama '
Whi l e on pi lgri mage to Makka, Shaykh
him-
Guj arat in 990/1582
5

was born at
now in Kapurt hal a State, in 937/1530.
7

Co mme n t a r y
of a l - Ti r mi dh i
and three
the present work to
(d. 964).
(d. 990/1582).
of Makhdum
and a grandson of the famous saint 'Abd
(d. 945) of Ganguh, was a pupi l i n al -Hadl t h
he altogether discarded
Shah reigned
p. 98, No. 6.
pp. 447-8.
s. v. ' Abdullah Sultanpuri
a l - Ka nkuhi

.
.
.
It
(*)
11
a Sufi life
9. Brockelmann,
6. Npr,
4. Haig,
2. Beale,
1. Bada' uni,
a coll ecti on of Ahad' i t h
[it) WauYif
par t s agai n
t hr ee Pa r t s {uqsdm)
Th e book compr i s es (if
is a col l ect i on of Tr a di t i o n s sel ect ed f r o m nut hent i c
I l adi t h
No . 132
Sttnan
Decree
5
. li e
f or ced, on pai n of deat h,
disgrace.
4
Al onj :
' Ab d ai -Nab' i
who a ppoi nt e d
pp. 7-S
Sup. 11, p. 002.
pp 370-80. Bada' uni gi ves hi s deat h-dat e
.
3. The Superintendent
p. SO^JIaig,
al-Yaxcm
works {Kuiub
al-Huda
di ed at Aqra
t o si ^n
wi th


4
Ab d
held till
him Sadr
f ]
t he
same as the Waza'if
A. H. (Vol. Il l ,
vari ously in 901
benevolent
of al l lands devoted to ecclesiastical and
al-Nabt
p. 131) and
similar
992 AH .
purposes and also the highest law oflker
(Vol. II p. 3l2),
graphy will also be found in
Notices
havi ng powers
fol. 262b ; Ma'lhar
A'tn-i-Akbatt.
on his bio-
Lakhnavu,
al-Umata'\
Voi. I , p. 490 ; Mir'ai-i-'AIam,
Tarb al-Awathil,
Darbar-i-Akban,
p. 134; Catalogue, Buhir,
pp. 320
ed. Lurknnw,
Vol . J l ,
p. 140.
7. A MS. copy is also preserved in Dar al-' UIum

INDIAN TRADITIONIST
i n those days.
1
He
irt-Sudur*
ye a r 980/ 1578 when, as a
result of the machi nat i on of Fai di
Al l ah a l - Su l t a np u n
Akbar ' s
on Kabi
4

is works :
Muiuhaut
Ar . ; ASM No. 500 Ar . ; Ka mpur
al-AI nldUh
bear i ng on r el i gi ous dut i es a mi
a Muqrfddima
and a Khiltima
are s ubdi vi ded into Fash
xca
on ruViya,
p. 127 : Ma' arif,
to those of the present -day Administrat ors-General
p. 412 note.
5. Bada' uni,
of Deoband.
8. For detailed description of the contents of the work, see Buhar
Thi s t reati se appears to be the
f t AtVtyat
2 S
al-Musliifa
al-Sahlha)
7 Laila
Vol. XXII ,
No. 2 quoting A'in-i-Akbari,
; 'Abd al-l layy
Catalogue,
al-Mathvra
p. 84 =
Vol. II ,
al-Hayy
was a t eacher of Akba r
2

whi ch exal t ed office
(d. 1004), he
he was
Kel i gi ous
1 12, 990/ Ma r c h ,
( BuhSr
No . 185 Ar . )
7

ha vi ng
obser vances.
(i nt roduct i on),
( concl usi on) ; the
(chapt ers).
8

al-Nahuictyya?
or pr a ye r s .
No. 4, p. 266.
Vol. I , p. 270).
Haig, p. 131.
p. 218; Tadhkira-i-'Ulatna',
pp. 446-50
mentioned by ' Abd
Nadawi in his Ma' arif al -' Awarif
S 131
f el l i nt o
1582.
6

(Haig, p. 122,
.
s. v.
10.
INDIA'S
4. No. 16 (Usgi
2. Yad-iAyyam
t

1. For 'Imad al-DIn
Shaykh Tahi r was born at Patri,
10. Shaykh Tahir b. Yasuf
Waj i h al -Din
A celebrated Professor of Ahmadabad,
yarl,
aU.iadith)
Waj i h al-Din
Shaykh
(d. 941)
was a pupil of ' Imad al -Din
and Shaykh
al -Tarl mi
Ghawt h Gawal i yan (d. 970) \ He
was born at Champani r i n Muharram, 910/ June, 1504,
and founded at Ahmadabad a Madrasa which during
his l i fe-t i me developed i nt o a great seat of l earni ng.
He wrot e annot at i ons {haw&xhi)

CONTRIBUTION TO HAD1TH
Shaykh Wajih al-Din al-'Alawi
(910-98/1504-1580)
and comment ari es on
as many as t went y-t hree books varying from Shark
Jdmi
died at Ahmadabad in Muharrarr,
al-Sindi
near Cut ch
in Guj arat , and took his earl y educat i on from Shaykh
Shi hab al -Di n al -Si ndi . In 950/1543, he proceeded to
Guj arat and j oi ned the Hadl t h
Bada'unI,
al-Tailml,
p. 33 ; Abu'Mlasanat,
3. Banklpur, Vol. V, part ii, No.
.
6. Hand List No. 704 (Nawadir).
6. Bada'unI, pp. 44.45 =
to Tafsir al-Baidawi.
Haj ar ' s Nuzhat al-Na%ar f i Shark Nukhbat al-Fikar
Haig
f

ment
entitled Shark Shark Nukhbat al-Fikar
classes of
c
Abd
pp. 70 73; Mir
f
at-i-Ahmadt,
tr. by Nawab *A!J
tbar,
has been
al -Awwal
al -Husai ni
(Bombay, 1924). pp. 67-69 : Subhat,
p. 196;
preserved in the libraries of Banklpur,
3

at Ahmabad. On compl et i on of the course,
he was i ni t i at ed t o Sufi sm
Supple
Hada'iq,
His
Nadwa
by t he famous sai nt Shaykh
Ghawth Gawaliyarl
p. 45 ; Ma' -
pp. 388-89 ; Abjad,
249 ; Buhar,
N'ur,
LI TERATUR E
al-Kujrat
comment ar y on lbn
Ka mpur
4

at Lucknow.
998/ February, 1580.
6

al-Burhdnpilr
(d. 1004/1595).
(d. 970). Accompani ed by Maul an
p. 204, and for Ghawth Gawali-
p. 6Hajg,
op. cit, p. 76.
p. 896 ; Tadhkira-i-'Ulama,
Vol. II ,
i
.
and
5

i
a
p. 6.
454.
p. 188.
Ibn
Sari f t
(in)
Asuia
Hi s
t. Ibid.
4. Ma'arif
2. Ibid., s.v.,
1. Nuzha,
Haj a r al - II ayt haml
i n 908/1502, al -Sarfi
Mujaddi d-i -Al f -i -ThfwT
Hadi t h
Shay kh Ya' qub
12. Shaykh
or the l ast, di scourses {malfilzdt)
(iv) Riydd
BukhfulVs
Shark al-Bukharl,
Sti yuti ' s
(it) Multaqat
al-Rijdl
'l-Kirmariiy
(/ ) Talkhis
up hi s resi dence. He
Ta y y i b al - Si ndi ,
1
he entered BurhanpQr
Tahir b. Yusiif
at Makka
Ya'qiib
al-Salikln,
Sakik
Shark Asmd
1

i n 9 6 4 / 1 5 5 6
8

or the Gardens of the
Pi ous. The work consi sts of three rawdats

INDIAN TRADI TI ONI S T
where he set
di ed t here i n 1004/ 1595.
works :
aURijal
a compendi um of al -Ki rrnani' s
al-Bukharl.
J am al-J awami
1
?
J am'aljawdmi
1
'
a comment ary on al-
based on al-QastallSLni's
Shark al-Bukharl.
(gardens)
of whi ch the first contai ns a sel ecti on of authenti c
Traditions, the second, essays on Suf i sm
of emi nent sai nts.
6

b. al-Hasan
Kashmiri (908-1003/ 1502-95)!
became f amous as a t eac he r of
of Ahmad al -Sarhi ndl ,
(d. 1034). Born in Kashmi r
came under t he i ns t ruct i ons of
af t er
he had been educat ed at hi s nat i ve pl ace, as al so at
Samarqand i n Ma' qul at
Vol. IV. s. v. al-Tayyib
al-Si ndi;
al-'Awarif,
6. Ibid. 5. v. ^t i vJ I
6. Nuiha,
7. Infra, p. 140.
ft. Bada' unl , pl 2- Hai g.
and Fi qh. In Persi an poet ry
he was a pupil of Shah Anl ,
al-Bukharl I t
Shark
a sel ect i on of al-
I rskdd
and the third
aUSarfi
better known as
a disciple of VAbd
al-Sindi.
Guljaf-i-AbrUr.
Ch. J^o^vM
S 133
2

.
al-
ah
al -
J , CXMJI JA I
^
l oc . ci t .
p20.
\
L

[Hi)
(// )
(/ )
I I
(Persian), kkaiima.
3. Nuzha,
2. Ma'arif,
Ibid, pp. 142-49
t o t hat c ount r y as e nt our a ge
Mu h i mmi d
fro m Kashmi r, a c ont e mpor a r y
Anot he r devot ed di sci pl e
13. Haji
on the life
(iv) Magluiz]
Mus anni f i n
of the Oi i r' an
Tafsir
al-J-Uikhari' s
S/iarJ j
Kas hmi r
which h;
year, pr ocur i ng
al -TIi j fu
whi l e he was a teacher in
the nom
Ra hma n al -Jf i mi
134 INDIA'S CONTRI BUTI ON TO HADI TI I

= pp.
^
loc. cit.
4. Vide his Shark Shama'il
Ya'qub b. al-Vlasan
200-09;
of 'Al l
aJ - Kashmi n. *
of al - Sar f l ,
of Ibn
Muhammad ul-Kashmlrl
of trie
al-Sohuxcxcat,
at A' s
al-Our\m.
Siihlh,
Sah'ih
in Dh i Tl - UAl a
i nt r oduc e d
hooks
f or t he second t i m e and s t a yed
de
(d.89S),
^JLI ^
sian), fol .
til-Mab:
2<i0
11a
en
^^^S } \
(MS. Banklpiir,
pp. 110*11
; Hada'iq,
= p. 360; Kuzha,
Hi s
whi ch docs
al-lhthlidrl,
18, l uO. Vj ul y ,
into h h
Taf s i r . Hadi t h
plume
and coin
cX
n<t
; Tadhkira-i-'Ulania,
pp. 391-U5
p. 2.M.
; A'/ami, Tartkh-i-Kashmir,
The date of his birth given by the

L I T E R AT U R E
posed poems under
(takhallus)
Kas hmi r , he pai d a vi si t to
t her e f o r a
and Fi<]h
i nst i t ut i on ,
1595.
i s wor ks :
a c o mme n t a r y on
hccm
sur vi ved,
an i ncompl e t e c o mme n t a r y
preserved in the library of Dfir
i mL' a r h .
Risrila-
a t r eat i se (in verse)
T r o p h a
(d. 1006/ 1597)
j ar al - I I a yt hami
4

was 11
ancest ors had come
a MI a ma d a
iv, s. v. ,
last two books as 97S A. H. and which has been quoted in Ma'arif,
Vol. XXI I (4).
3.
6. For his name, see his Shark I Hsn
No. 1182 Per-
^ . U
vol. XXI I (4), p. 261, is not correct, cf.
Ha
of al - Sar f j .
ljada'uul,
sin (MS Bankipur,
loc.
La t e r ,
li e
to have l ong
cit. and also
Storey, op. cit., Vol. II,
No. 1419
di ed i n
1


al-
2

i-A dhJ car .
/
.

a j I
m
p. 193.
.
*r
{Hi)
(ti)
Pr. ;
al so
6. Supra,
2. Tadhkira-i-'Ulama*,
was educated in Gujarat under Wajl h
al-Hanafi
14. Mawlana
al - l azarf s
AS B No. 993 Pr. ) :
6

(iv) Shark HisnHafm
compendi um of mi s cel l aneous
KiUlb
Shark Mashariq
I, 988/ June,
al - Ti rmi dhf s
Buhar No. 159\
Shark Shamail
works on Tladith
Muha mma d compi l ed
learnt Hadl t h
School of Ibn
semi nar for Hajl
(d. 786) whose Khanqa
1

Ma'arif.
n. 3.
0. Banklpur, XVI , No. 1419.
p. 46 ; Catalogue, Bankipur, Vol. XVI , p.
al - Dl n
al-Sindi
*Uthmfin
Him Haaln
(Bankipur, XVI ,
Khulasat
al-Amvar
15^0
ShanuYil
a comment ary,
al-Nabl
as many as ei ghteen books i n-
cluding a commentary of the OurYm
from emi nent Madi ni an
Hajar
Muhammad.
Vol. XXI I No. 4, p. 261;
b. 7stf
al-J ami
at the Khanqa of 'Ah
(Banki pur,
in Persi an.
3

at Makka,
Storey,
b.
f l J am'

INDIAN TRADITIONJSTS
therei n became af terwards a
Before joi ni ng the
he read in Delhi. He
Tradi t i on-
ists.
2
A man of wide and vari ed l earni ng, Haj l
His
are as f ol l ows :
No. 1182
in Persi an, on
al-Nabl compl et ed in Jumada
al - IIamadanl
in Kashmi r.
4

(in Persian).
al-Hadith,
Tradi t i ons.
No. 1419;
a conci se Persi an comment ary of
written in the above ment i oned

Khanqa. Thi s work, as the author tel l s us, was his
last compi l at i on.
I brahim ahSiddiq
(d. 1008/ 1600).
A native of Buskan (?) in Si nd, Shaykh ' Ut hman
' Al aw
1. Supra,
Vol. ii. p. 175.
3. The author enumerates his works in the khatitna
1340/1833
copy transcribed at Chittagon*
Sharh-i-Hisn Has'tn
a
(end) of bis
: cf MS. Bankipur.
4. MS. Banklpur,
135
*
5

*
i
l
p. 73.
51;
fol. 144.
i n
.
(it)
Ghilyat
Hi s
1. Nuzha,
AVAqa'id
and chronology of Tradi ti oni sts,
troducti on in nine sections (J**)
al -Awwal
f rom the Faid
' Asqalani ,
ment ary on al -Bukhari ' s
al-Tawdlh
Ma^qilhlt
Shah b. Mubarak ( 974- 84/ 1566- 70) ,
Burh&npur
Hus a y n af - Baghdadi .
(d. 998),
136 I NDI A' S
i-Abrar
Vol . V,
Snhih
and
the Faruql Kin g
who appoi nted hi m Professor and Mufti of hi s domi -
ni on whi ch office ' Ut hman fil l ed up for a period
seventeen years. Whi l e l i vi ng a reti red l ife

CONTRI BUTI ON TO HADI T H L I T E R A T U R E
Qadi
In 983/ 1575,
was cordi al l y recei ved
at hi s
vi l l age home at Bus kan, he was murdered al ong wi th
seventeen members of his f ami l y by a gang of dacoi t s
in Sha' ban,
and Manqxddt
wor ks :
lil-famt
preserved in the library
of the India Office
3
and the Asaf i yva
No. 220).
Th e author says i n the preface that he compi l ed
his work f rom the comment ari es of al -Ki rmani ,
aMJastal l ani
al-Bari^
al - Husai ni .
treati ng in general of
the Sci ence of Tradi t i on, of al -Bukhari ,
etc. Th e Co m -
ment ary itself consists of annotati ons on si ngl e
passages of the text, the first word of whi ch is onl y
gi ven, i ntroduced by *Jy.
al-Sunlyya:
.
2. Ma'at
s. v. 'Uthman
3. Loth, No. 12.
4. Ibid.
1008/ February,
Muha mma d al -Mawri
1600.
apart, ' Ut hman
'al-Sahlh
2
,
The n follows (foo
if al-'Awarif,
he
b. 'Isa
and Shay kh
had been to
by Muha mma d
A schol ar of
was ski l l ed
i n
the Sci ence of Medi ci ne whi ch earned
hi m the title of
al - Ha kl m.
a com-
Li brary (Vol.
and also, i n the first porti on,
a comment ary by Sayy i d ' Abd
2-6) an in*
of the na me s
A di ssertati on of 50
pages publ i shed by the Far uql Press at Del hi i n 1309
b. Ibrahim al-Sindl;
s. v. ^
1

al-
4

GulUv-
}jJ *

al -
AwUrif, s .
Isra'Ul
l anl
A.II .
Abd al-Majid
3. Nuxha,
1. Bada'unI,
al - J az ar l ' s
bution to TIadlth
the Qur ' a n,
ed Oadl
ft Tartlb al-Ay
During his internment in Gawfiliyar,
1010/April,
1587, perhaps
(d. circ.
Shaykh
al-Shnkiir
15. Shaykh Munaxcxcar
al-Burhanpu' ri
suppl ement i ng
Sunnls
It discusses the


l
aqaid
v
t
a.v.
wa

INDIAN TRADIT10NIST
or the tenets of the
as have been based on the Our' an
t hem at ti mes by the opinions of the
doctors and theologians of early Isl am. Among the
aut hori t ies quoted i n t he t reat i se, t he comment ari es of
the Sahih
fi gure promi nent l y. It has been di vi ded
i nto seventeen fash
b. 'Abd
al'Lahurl
Munawwar,
1000)
1
and Ishlq
for his orthodox views, he was imprisoned
in the fort of Gawaliyiir
1602.
Shaykh
H-Suwar
Shihab al -Di n
al-Bahr
literature, he has to his credit com-
ment ar i es of a l - Sa gha ni ' s
Hi m HasinJ
p. 5SHaig,
t. p. 52
Munawwar b.
al-Lahurl;
v. - I
of al - Bukhan by al -Ki rmam and al -Oast al
m


J

Kfiku
and the ManJuij
(d. 996.)* He
compl et ed hi s educati on at the age of t went y. In 985/
1577,
-
*****
al-'Ummal
Akbar appointed him Sadr
al-Karim
Mashariq
by 'All
al-Majld
(d.
a nat i ve of Lahore, was a
pupil of two noted teachers of hi s ci t y, Sa
4
d
of Mflhvfi.
whence after live
Munawwar compiled his book called al-Durr
and al s o
Dawl at abadi ' s
al-Mawwaj.
al-Anwar
al
and Ahadith
Mut t a qi
or chapters.
b.


k
Ab
1010/1002).
Al l ah Ba n!
In 995/
years
he was removed to Agra, his property and books hav-
i ng been confi scat ed. Fur t her, he was subj ect ed to
t ortuous punishment unt i l he died on Dhu '1-Qa'da
aUNaqhn
vocaliz-
Comment ary of
As for his cont ri -
and
S
137

d
12,
*
p. 87.
p. 86.
$
Ma'Sri f
a.
Ci.
{ii)
()
k
Abd
4. Hadaiq
2. Supra, p. 98.
3. Autobiography ; al-Nur
N o . 453, 11) :
"Iqd
Al-Manh
' Ab d al - Oadi r
t e mb e r ,
bor n on Kab f
came of t he
He was the f a mo u s a ut hor of al-Nnr
al'Ahmadabadi
Allah al^Aidarilsi
17. Muhlyy
Ti r mi dhi ' s
( d. 990) and had gr eat r e put a t i on as a Tr a d i t i o n i s t as
welJ
In Ha di t h
16. Shaykh


1

al-'Athr, ed.
al-Safir. pp. 334-43 ; Muhibbi, Khula
1 10, 978/ August , 1570. At once a
schol ar, a mys t i c and a Tr a d i t i o ni s t , ' Abd
cul t ur ed f a mi l y of ' Ai dar usl

138 I NDI A' S CONTRI BUTI ON TO HADI T H LI TERATUR E
Ashiq b.


l
Umar
( d. 1032) .
he was pupi l of Abd AILlh
as a j ur i s t . He wr ot e a c o mme nt a r y of al-
Shamail
al-Dhi
alHadraml
(978 1037/ 1570-1027)
al-Sdfir
whi ch had
mi gr at ed i n t he mi ddl e of t he 10th cent ur y f r o m
Ha d r a ma w t
a l - Oa d i r
succeeded hi s f a t he r as t eacher of t hei r f a mi l y school
at Ah ma d a b a d
1627.
3

wr ot e a number of books
4
on di f f -
er ent br anches of I s l a mi c l e a r ni ng of whi c h t h e f o l l o w-
i ng are on Ha i d t h
al-Barl
al La'l
a t r eat i s e on t he excel l ences of t he des cen -
da nt s of t he Pr oph e t based on Aha dl t h
(Egypt), Vol. II , p. 44;
al-Hanafiyya,
tfftr, p. 338,
'Abd
t o Ahmadf i bad.
2

and l ect ur ed i n Ha d i t h and Ta s a wwuf .
He di ed at Ah ma d a b a d
bi KhaUn
f i FadiVil
pp. 406-07
Ta'Lq
;
al-Hindi
aUQndir
He r e ' Abd
on Mu h a r r a m
Sahih
al-Al
aUSamyya,
Tadhkira-i-'Ulama*
p. 407,
Brockelmann,
b.
10,
p. 30;
al-Hanaf
Sul t a npur l
al-Nabl
Shaykh b.
al-Hind
and
a l - Oa d i r
1037/ Sep -
al-Bukhftri*
( Buha r vol . II
Hada'iq,
p. 129.
enumerates eighteen of his works.
Sup. I, p. 617.
i
}
i
.
wa s
'
:
,
.
sat
1. His
(// )
(/ )
1011.
Agra,
4

Mm
Sharif,
iv)
|JL* Jf Jf i
4. Wafayat
2. Nut,
al-Bukhari
pupil Ahmad b. 'All
(Hi) Shark Hadith
Shark Nuhkbat
c o mme nt a r y on t he Mishhlt
Dhanat
t o by Rahman 'Ai l
wor ks and t reat ises on Tl adi t h
Hi s
Tl a di t h . He
dar d wor ks on Phi l osophy, Lo gi c , Qu r a n i c
He wr ot e comment ar i es on a good
a di sci pl e cf
ITanaf i
ad nl-DTn
18. 'Abel
a work depi ct i ng
Kit
t o say that c^
[
i
( Buhar
(/V) Al-Oazcl
[Hi) Risala
p,
logue,
' Ab d
ab
^
N
T
<>. -137.
al-AhhyUr,
338.
3. On Shattan
al-Baskan
o ^ i ^ '
al-Najitt
i n his Tadhkira
dt - a t h - da t e
l i ved at Agra
Al l ah al - Suf i
al - Shat t ar i "
Muhammad


c

al-Nabi
t he mer i t s
al-Anmudhaj
or Sut i s m
I I ) . In t hi s t reat i se t he aut hor has
expl ai ned t he me a n i n g
al-J am?
f i Manitqib
f i
ef
who read the Sahth
jUaJl
Shark al-Mishhlt:
al - Shat t ar i
c o mmo n l y cal l ed ' Ab d
al-Shalttlrl
of Ah l
a
f i Haydn al-
l
I lm
al-Bukkarl
I -Latif f i

INDIAN TRADITIONISTS
( Buhar ,
al-Nclfi
the ITadi t h
i s obl i gat or y
A
Ba dr or t he
Compa ni o n s who di ed ma r t yr s i n the bat t l e of Ba d r
(2/G23).
(d. circ.
Ari f al - MJt hmf ml
a l - Na b i wa s
(d. 1010) of
ma n y st an-
sci ences an d
as l at e as t he year 1020/
has not come down t o us. Hi s
as have been r ef er r ed
'Ulama'-i-Hind*
ars as fol lows :
a
al-Masdbih
al-Fikar
: a t r eat i se
on t he me a ni ng of t he I l adJt h
with him also has a treatise of the same
order, vide JASB, 1874, Part I, p. 216.
p. 05.
5. pp. 134-35.
hi
Vol. II,
No . 454,
Dadr
1030/ 1621
title (Buhar
No. 454, IV).
139
III).
1

1

^ i j *
t o al l .
al -
2

)
al-
.
.
.
of
Cata-
Fahd.
3

Mulla
ft
Athar:
(*v)
3. The statement of Rahman 'All
Cf. ZuMa*
2. Nuzha.
1. For him
r

from Q;ldi
Tabrizi ' s
Al-Sarfi
Kamal
to Kashmi r st udyi ng Mcfqithlt
971/ May,
Shaykh Ahmad
(v) Lawiimi
1

Abd
(Tadhkira-i-'Ulama,
al-Maqasid
v, s. v. al-Shaykh
see A'zaml,
Bahlul
Mishkat
al-Din
1564. He
b.


c
Abd
al-Anxvar f l
al -Badakhshi
2

and al -Suyut l ' s
al -Kashmi ri
MatuJqib

140 I NDI A' S CON T RI B UT I O N TO HADI T H
Shark Hadith j ^ ' - ^ - J
al-Sadat
a work on the excellences of the Ahl
described in Ahadith
SECTION II . Shaykh Ahmad ahSihrindl
School of Muhaddithun
Shaykh Ahmad al-Sihrindi
al -Ahi d
Sihrindi,
or the Reformer of the Second Mi l l enni um , was the
celebrated founder of the Muj addi di ordi nat i on. He
was born at Sirhind (commonly called Sirhind Sharif
in the Pathlla.
received his early education
f r om his father. Then he went to Siyalkot,
and Manqftldt
(d. 1017)
1

Shaykh Ya' qub
grant ed him Ijaza for al -Bukhari ' s
al-Jami
i

Ahmad obtained furt her Ijaza for the Sihah
who was a pupil of
the famous Makkan Tradi t i oni st , 'Abd
In 1007/ 1598 he was admi t t ed t o the *Naqsh
Tartkh-i-Kashmir,
al-Badakhshi
'Ahmad al-Mujaddid.
(Ms. Bankipur No. 197 Pers),
al-Rahman
p. 10) that
foil.
L I T E R A T U R E
*>'-
al-
Bait as
& his
(1000-129611592-1878)
(971-103411564-1624)
al-Ffiruqi
popularly known as Mujaddid-i-Alf-i-Thilrii)
State in the ( E. Punj ab) i n Shawwal ,
t henct
under
and
al -Sarfi (d . 1003) respectively.
Sahih,
al-Saghtr.
al - Rahman
p. 119.
The isnad
is as follows :
91a-93b.
was an Indian Traditionist is not correct. Cf. Zubdat
^
.
.
.
al-
al-
Siita
b .
-
of

al -
Maqcitid, f ol . 92a.
\ }
Yani'
band!
4. Burhan al -Djn,
2. Ma'arif,
aUJ am,
1. Akhbar,
whi ch were at once di srupt i ng and di si nt egrat i ng t he
body pol i t i c of Isl am.
5
Against these and other abuses
of the day,
6
the Muj addi d rose in an open revol t and
began to preach the true i mport of Isl am to al l and
sundry by delivering sermons
t he Mughul
al -Hadl t h.
Hi s role as a Tradi t i oni s t and a Reformer consi st ed
not in wr i t i n g books on, or i mpar t i n g lessons in ,
Hadi th
order by Khawaj a Wbd
The
1940) , pp. 16 sq.
&
Mujaddid's
p. 303; Khazma,
admi ni st rat i on , were out t o under mi ne
t he rel i gi on of t he Sunnl s.
Al-Furqan
t

vol. I , p. 607;
Wa l l Allah
1941) 2nd ed. pp. 172-3;
Number, ed. Manzur

INDIAN TKAD1TI0N1ST
al-BSqi
(d. 1012). He di ed at Si r hi nd on Safar
November, 1624 at the age of sixt y-three.
1

Al t hough a profound schol ar i n t he l ore of Hadi t h
as is seen f r om a perusal of hi s Makt ubat ,
Ahmad al-Sirhindi
t hough occasionally he di d so
3
but i n creat i ng
out of chaos and confusi ons t hat were rampant in t he
body pol i t i c of Islam
As a result of Akbar' s
pol i cy / t he Shi ' a
in the 'Abbasid
Whi l e , on t he ot her hand,
t he Sufi s, i n t he name of sanct i t y, were preachi ng and
pract i si ng al l sorts of un-Isl ami c
as well as by writi n g down
tracts and epist lesacti vi ties
pp. 91-95; Tadhhira-i-Ulama,
llada'iq,
Vol. XXII .
3j5Li!)
conception of Tawhtd
Ma'arif, l oc. ci t.
6. For details, see al-Furqan, pp. 46*52;
Nu' manl
Burhan al -Di n,
al -Naqshbandi
20, 1034/
Hi s t omb
whi ch exists to this day is always frequent ed by
visitors.
Shaykh
left us his only treatise on Arba
in his t i me, an atmosphere
congenial to the st udy and cul t ure of the Our ' an
ant i -Sunni t e
di gni t ari es l i ke t he Persian Mi ni st ers
court , who had become all i n al l i n
i nnovat ions ibid*a)
for whi ch he i ncurred t he
404-06;
pp. 10-12
No. 4. pp. 334-35.
(Lahore,
(Barielly
op. cit,
S 141
itt.
2

a n d
aU
.
Nuzha. loc. c i t .
,
10c. ci t.
3.
Sa' i d
l ay
1 4 2
Sha ykh Sa' i d
and I i adi t h
above al l i n hi s e mphas i z i ng t he s t udy o f t h e
( J ur ' an
l ast his l i f e' s mi s s i on r ecei ved t he r ecogni t i on of t he
r o ya l t y and st eadi l y met wi t h success i n br i ngi n g
about r ef or ms a mo n g t he Mu s a l ma n s
s u r n a me d
of hi s c o n t e m-
por a r y I nd i a . Mi l l i o n s of Mu s l i ms of nil
Khazin
s t r a t a of
soci et y bot h fro m I nd i a and out si de t ook bay\i
al-Rahmat,

I NDI A' S C O N T R I B U T I O N TO I I A D I T H L I T E R A T U R E
di spl easur e of t he go ve r n me n t whe r e on Emp e r o r
J ahangJ r
Af t e r s uf f er i n g i nc a r c e r a t i on f or t wo l ong
f i nal l y rel eased. Hi s
t r ut h of I s l a m, however , i mpr essed J a ha ngl r
ext ent t hat he was p r r s u a d c d
Khur r a m
fro m
hi m and t her eby paved t he way f or t he i r mo r a l a n d
s pi r i t u a l r e gene r at i on.
of I s l a m as al so by s et t i ng a n obl e e xa mp l e
f o r c e f u l per s onal i t y, Sh a ykh
onl y saved I sl am f r o m di s i nt egr at i on
Th e secret of t he Muj a dd i d \ s
and l l adi i h
st ar t ed bv
1. Shaykh Sa
l
ld
1594-1659)
or
t he Tr e as ur e r of Bl essi ngs, l ear nt t he Sci ence of
Tr a d i t i o n f r o m hi s f at her and
a l - Ru mi .
b e c a me a Prof essor of t he Khanqa
Ha d l t h
Ma'arif,
b.
pi et y and s t e a df a s t ne s s
i ni t i a t e d by t he Muj a ddi d .
l ?y hi s cor r a c t
but al so br ought
about a mu c h needed synt hesi s bet ween Shared
a mo n g hi s co- r el i gi oni s t s .
1
Th e
nobl e wor k of r e f o r ms
hi m was abl v
Ahmad al-Sirhind
al so ' Ab d
I
h a d h i m i mp r i s one d i n t he f or t of Ga wa l i ya r .
year s , he was
t o t he
t o an
t o have hi s son Pr i nc e
Th u s at l o n g
i nt er pr et at i o n
of hi s
Ah ma d al - Si r hi ndi
and
success, however ,
t hr ough t he s t udy of t he Our ' a n
car r i ed on b y
gener at i ons of t he sci ons of his f ami l y as will be
not i c ed bel ow.
( 1003- 70/
a l - Ka h ma n
At t he advanced age of hi s f at her , Sh a ykh
a nd t aught
a nd ot her subj ect s u nt i l 1034/1624 when h e
not
Tarlqa.
.
loc. ci t
(f)
i
1201 )
:i

2. Al-Yani,'
1. AUYanV
Tarjuma-i-Fdrsi
Di hl awi
al ong wi t h his f ami l y members mi grat ed to
Ra mp u r
4
.
subj ect ed t o Si kh
3. Sirnj
t oget he r
2. Sh a ykh S a r d ' s
cr edi t a Hashiya
1069/ 1658 a nd di ed
l oc.
cit; Nuzha, s. v. Farrukh b. Sa'id.
3. For Shaykh Murshid see. Ahmad 'Ali
p. 190;
'l-J aw.
Sahih
and Shah Wb d
Si r aj Ah ma d read l l a dl t h
son Furrukh
( f l osses)
p. !)">;
also Nuzha',
Hadajq,
a l - \ \ z i z
l i t er at ur e wi t h
hi s f a t he r who was hi ms e l f a schol ar of t he sci ence.
He was a c ont e mpor a r y of Sa l a m
Shah (1038- 1112),
on t he
p, 417; Tadhkira

INDIAN TRAD1TI0NIST
l eft for the Ha r a ma y n .
i n 1070/ 1659. li e
Mishktlt
a
ver sat i l e Tr a d i t i o n i s t , was sai d t o h a v e c o mmi t t e d t o
me mo r y as ma n y as s e ve nt y
wi t h asariid
a l - Ha f i z .
Ahmad al-Mujaddidi
Si r aj Ah ma d b. Mu r s h i d b. Ar s had b.
Shah was bor n i n 1176/ 1762
persecut i on for
Al l a h ( d. 1229),
t he Tr a d i t i o ni s t of t he house of


l
Ab d
al - Di hl awi
He di ed i n 1230 1815 at Lu c kn o w
body was br ought t o Ra mp u r t o bur y by t he si de o f
hi s f a t he r
6
.
Hi s wo r ks
Muslim : a Pe r s i an tr.
wi t h e xpl a na t o r y not es of the Sahlh
Ma'arif al-'Awarit;
Khan Shawq's Tadhkira-i-
Kamilan-i-Rampur
4. Ibid, p. 389.
5. Ibid, p. 147 49. Ma'arif, Vol. XXXI I I ,
Pani pati ,
Ansab,
He ret urned to Si r hi nd in
ha d t o hi s
al-Mastiblh.
t hous and Ah a d l t
and t he r e by acqui r ed the t i t l e of
( 1176- 1230/ 1762
Fa r r u k h
at Si r hi nd wh i c h wa s
t he t h i r d t i me i n
1177/1763 whe n hi s f at he r Sha ykh Mu r s h i d (1117-
al - I I a qq
(d. 123:).
wh e n c e h i s d e a d
of Mus l i m. An
Tadhikirat
s. v. Sa'id b. Ahmad al-Sihrindi
(Delhi, 1929) pp. 38991
No. 6, p. 444.
S
143
1

h
2

-
1815).
al-
i- Ulama
aU
.
.
Thanj
He
{Hi)
{dabi)
CJ
c

cJk
i
i
)-
Arbc?
{it)
1. Kha
of Muhiyy
Khawaj a
(d. 1119).
and a spiritual guide of Muhlyy
4. Shaykh
Risula
in Dhu ' Ml i j j a ,
by Nizarni
Tirmidhi
Sharh-i-Farsi
Ul<ma\ p,
tintsi
Ma
1

dar
Vol. I
f

al-Sunna
He
Dhikr-i-T\i
l
&m
1222/Jan.,
Press at Delhi. The work was
begun in Dhu 'J - Hi j j a ,
'alajtimi
212:
wa
1808. The aut hor st at es in
the preface that at t he t i me of compi l at i on he had not
any comment ary or translat ion t>f the Jcimi

144 I NDI A' S C O N T R I B U T I O N TO HA D I T H L I T E R A T U R E
autograph copy of this work in three volumes is avai l -
abl e i n t he St at e Li brar y of RSmpur
\il-Tirmidlii\
concise Persian comment ary of the Jfimi
1

published along with Majmua
1220/ Feb,
before
him to consult. So the work is the result of his inde-
pendent l abour and vast scholarship in the science of
Tradi t i on . A special feature of the comment ary is
t hat t he aut hor has b*en
Furt her, he has given correct readi ngs
of tha uncommon names and nisbas
the jami
4

Shurb
Persian MSS) : a Persian treatise on the f ood and
drink of the Prophet as descri bed
sum b.
1080/1009
was the second son of the Mujaddid Alf-i-
al -Di n
was well-versed in Iladith literature
and obtained sanad from Makkan
t i me of his pilgrimage to the Har ama yn.
1

Sayf al -Di n
or the Revivor
pp. 639 sccj
a bl e
;
1806, and
t o t race in the maj or i t y
of the cases the isnad of those Ahadith which have
been referred to by al -Tirmi dhi
Taditionis-.ts
lladci
Bankipur
as j
iq, p, 419 j
Cat.. XVI ,
a
of al-
Shuruh-i-
compl et ed
v ^ '
occurring in
(Rdmpiir
y

in Ahadi t h.
Ahmad al-Sirhindi
' Al amgi r
at the
His
(d. 1098) earned for him the title
of Sunna by dint
of his l i fe-l ong devotion to the cause of al -Hadi t h
Tudhkita-i
p. 7i-2 ; Ma'arif,
.
<y j )
.
(d.
)
son
.
*
loc, cit.
Qa' da,
didl
Din ,
(#)
His
He
4. Al-Yani
1
;
3. Ma'arif al-
4

2. Nuzka
1. Hada'iq,
at Tonk in Shawwal,
ed by Mlrza
1249) and Shah


c
Abd
1196/Oct.,
(d. 1296). He was born at Rampur
was the father of Shah


l
Abd
Shah Abu Sa' fd,
6. Shah Abu Said
Faid ahBarl
1 114/1702
read Hadl t h with his father Sayf al -Dl n and his
uncl e Farrukh
during the reign of ' Alamglr
He was a distinguished
5. Khawaja
Further, Shaykh
p. 4;
A war if ,

pp. 88-90 ;
s. v. ^j[*J )
1250/Feb.,
Mazhar
al-'Azlz
1782, and read Hadl t h wi t h hi s uncl e
Siraj Ahmad and Shah Rafl
c

al -Ghani
a great -great -grandson
b. Safi 'hOadr
Shark Sahlh al-Bukhari:
and was buried
Shah (d. 1112).
Muhaddith
A'zam
Ma' sum
Hada'iq, pp. 471
Tadhkira-i-Kamilan-i-RZmpur,
-72 ; Tadkkira
Kandluwi,
'UlamU\

INDIAN TRADITIONIST
entrusted hi m wi t h the spiri -
tual training of ' Al amgi r.
b. Sayf ah
(1066-1114/1655-1702
and flourished
'(1C69-1119/1659-1707).
He di ed at Si rhi nd in
beside the grave of his
f at her .
work :
a com-
ment ary of the Sahlh of al -Bukhan.
ahMvjaddid
(1196-1250/1782-1835).
of Saif al-
al - Muj ad-
in Dhu M-
al-Dln al-Dihlawi (d.
al-Dihlawi (d. 1239).
He fi nal l y settled down at Del hi and succeeded his
preceptor Ghul am
Jan-i-Janan (d.
1835 on his ret urn
f r om the Haramayn and was buried in Del hi beside
t he J an- i - j anan.
p. 424; Ma' arif,
Ma'arif, Vol. XXII I No. 6, p. 443.
^jj-S
Muqaddima
pp. 3-6. Muhammad Zakariyya
Awjaz aUMasalik
Saharanpur,
Din al
1195).
f t Shark Muwatta'
1348 A.H.,
'All
Sirhind
i n the spiri tual hi erarchy found-
He died
Malik, ed
pp. 42-43*
S

145
1

i
)
2

3

t
4

loc, ci t .
*
.
p. 1 2 6 ;
1.
' Al l ml
Hi s
2. Al-Yani\
His Asamd
Al l a h a l - Tu r ki
Sh a ykh ' Abd
Shaykh


l
Abd
school of Muhaddithan
Section I I I .
ma r gi n of t he Sundn
t i ons on t he Sunan
{i) I njah
a l - Gha ni mi gr a t e d t o a l - Ma d i n a
t he Sihdh
hi s f at her t o t he TI a r a ma yn
Shah Ishfiq
t he SihCih
f ounder of t he Da r
Ma ul a na
Sha h ' Ab d a l - Gh a n T
al-Dihlawi
7. Shah 'Abd
146 I NDI A' S
Tirhatl
Sitta
pp. 83- 85 ; Hadliq.

CONT RI BUTI ON TO HADI T H L I T E R A T U R E
al-Ghani b. Abi Sa
l
id
(1235-1296/1819-1878)
wa s a t eacher i n Ha d i t h
Qasi m
a l - ' Ul u m
Sitta under hi s f at her on whose a u t ho r i t y
' Ab d a l - Gh a n i
a l - Di h l a wi . I n S2 m/ i 8 3 3 ,
and obt ai ned al-I jaza
f r om Sha ykh ' Abi d
(d. 1257)." Du r i n g t he Sepoy Mu t i n y ( 1272/ 1857) ,
wher e he t aught
Ha d i t h l i t er at ur e t o a c r o wd of pupi l s unt i l hi s deat h
i n Muh
work :
al-ljaja
of Ibn
of I b n Ma j a publ i s hed by t he
Pr e s s at Del hi .
Shaykh


{
Abd
( 1000- 1229/ 1592-1814
al-Haqq al-Muhaddith
(958-i O: >2/ l 551-' l 642
a l - Ha q q b. Sa yf al - Di n
a l - Bu kh a r i
of the Si
Muqaddima
p. 491 ; T adhhir a-i-<UI
Awjaz, p.
t r a ns mi t t e d t he m t o hi s pupi l s .
1
He
al so read a por t i on of t he Sah'ih
i r r am,
42 ; Ma'Irif,
fl
al - Nanut uwT
at DeobancL
of a l - Bu kh a r l
fi l -Si ndl
1 2 9 6 / De c ,
Shark I bn
Ma j a
al-Haqq
a l - Di h l a w i a l - Ha n a f l
hah Sitta have been preserved by Muhsin
in his aUYani
Vol. XXII ,
'l-J ant
am*,
%

al-Mujaddid
(d. 1297), t he f a mo us
He s t udi ed
wi t h
h e a c c o mp a n i e d
a l - Ma d a n l
1878.
Maja : annot a-
l i t hogr a phed on t he
al-Dihlawi and his
gap.
al-Dihlaw
b. Sa ' d
t races
hi s des cent f r o m Agha Mu h a mma d Tu r k ( d. 739) who
mi g r a t e d t o I n d i a f r o m Bukha r a a nd rose t o t he
r ank of Ami r duri ng t he s ucces si ve rei gns of


1

(Delhi. 1287 A.H.).
No. 0,
l
of
f or
' Ab d
3

i
)
Al a
1
al -
al-
pp.
847- 48 .
Abdu
r
l-Haqq
t

al-Sitta
990)
1

Di n
5. The duration of his study with 'Abd al -Wahhab had been near
1 Siddlq
Burhanpurl
under Shaykh 'Abd
(i) 903-85/1550-77,
The life
An author of several treatises on Sufi sm,
1

Khal j f (695-715), Qutb
(it)
Hasan, Tiqsar.
p. 14; JASB/ XXI I
pp. 183-84; Rieu,
(1926),'
pp. 43-44.
2. Banklpur Catalogue. Vol. VI . pp. 111-12 .

INDIAN TRADITI0N1ST
ai-Din
Allah (d. 928) Jed a saintly life which was followed by
his (
f c
Abd
Sayf
al -Dl n had a keen interest in I l adi t h l i t erat ure as his
possession of a copy of al -Dhahabl ' s
demonst rat ed.
1

of Shaykh


c
Abd
958/ j anuar y,
990-
1000-52/1592-1042. The t er mi nat i on of t he fi rst
peri od synchroni zed wi t h the compl et i on of his edu-
cation of Persian, Arabic, Juri sprudence
i n Del hi . His
ania settled in Del hi .
1
As to his study of Hadi t h
l i t erat ure duri ng the peri od, we have no record t hough
it may reasonably be believed
The second period (996-1000) he devoted
excl usi vel y t o t he st udy of Il adi t h
al -Wahhab
a famous di sciple and successor of 'Al l
(d. 975).
5
Havi ng obt ai ned fr o m his
Shaykh I jaza
de grace to his education i n Hadi t h,
3. This valuable MS. is in the possession of Shifa' al -Mulk
4. Akhbar,
about three years [Shaykh al-Islam,
Hablb
for the Sihah
al-Rahman
Sitta, 'Abd
Persian MSS
Ilidayat
of Dacca [Ma'arif,
(716-20)
al -IIaqq' s)
al-Kashif
al -IIaqq
1551) falls
10CO/1588-92
pri nci pal teachers duri ng the period
were hi s fat her Sayf al -Dl n and several other di st i n-
gui shed doctors i ncluding Fuqaha'
t ha t he
al -Mut t aql
al -Haqq
Husain,
Vol . XXXIII ,
Sharh-i-Bukhart,
Haki m
and
Tughlaq Shah (720-25). Hi s grandfat her Shaykh Sa' d
father Shaykh Sayf al-Dln
f t Rijttl
(b. Muharram,
under t hree unequal peri ods :
and (Hi)
and Maqulat
fro m the Transox-
became conver-
sant wi t h the subject i nasmuch as hi s fat her hi msel f
had been a Tradi t i oni s t of some reput at i on.
l i t erat ure at Makka
(d. 1010),
al -Mut t aqi
gave
This period
Autobiography of Maul
No. 2 (1934),
p. 242.
MS. Banklpur, No.
1208 (Persian MSS),
S 147
(d.
al-
Vol . I.
ana
p.'122] .
f ol . 261.
Lam*at,
ahSart/t
Tahaqat
Mirqat
Mawdu'at',
al-Hasana
AnwHr,
(d.
Shark aUBukkart
alMafat>h
1. Bada' fini,
of which a lithograph edition was brought out
by Newul
on the MS. copy of al -Fat t an
Q&diriyya
1003).
1
But on his return from al-I
was a turning-point
148 I N D I A ' S
Yafi' I. Aiir'at aljanan
( p.
Vs
lijaz,
Lucknow,
p. 113 - Hai g.
Majma
1,

in Delhi.
8

he was
qui t e a changed man preferri ng to anyt hi ng else the
soli t ary l i fe of a savant and even refusi ng
in the life of


c
Ab d
p. 167.
2. pp. H6-116pp.
He built up a big library con-
t ai ni ng among other works a rich collection of Hadi t h
l i t erature
4

al -Il aqq
3. Banklpur
170-171.
Cat. V. (2), p. 90.
4. Besides the Sihah Siita, the Mun atta of Malik, the Masnad of
Ahmad b. Hanbal and Hadith collections of al-Tabrani,
Daraqut nl
al-J3aihaqi, al-
and others, references of-the
his works :al-Nawawi,
following works are met wi t h in
Lahore, 1307 A. IT.,
Shark Sah
66"); Ibn Haj ar, Tabym
Muttaqi, Kanz al-'Ummal
al-'Ajab
k Muslim, (Ma Thabat a
al-Hayt haral,
pp. 18, 2b, 55) ;*
bi' 1 Su nn a ,
al-Sawa'iq
al-Marzi,
(ibid,
(ibid.,
al-Muhriqa
Shark Muslim (ibid.), p.
p, 7!) on Mawdu a t ; 'All al-
(ibid), p. 6, as al-J ami* al-Kabtr) ; Ibn llaj -ir
{ibid., p. 6). al-SakhawI,
p. 8) ; al-' Iraqi,
al-Ma'qasid
Ibn al-Athir,
Tanz.h al-Shart'a
J ami' al-Vsul
(ibid., p. 9) on

C O N T R I B U T I O N TO H A D I T H L I T E R A T U R E
as
i t det ermi ned hi s future career as a Tradi t i oni s t and
aut hor of great st anding. It
to meet his
f or mer f r i end Fai di at Lahore despi t e t he l at t er' s
which he evidently procured from Arabia
while st udyi ng i n the Haramayn and from other places
as well. He employed calligraphers for the tran-
scription of rare works
Bihar al-
Kishore Press at Lucknow, tells us that the
p 18) and Shark J ami 'al-Usul
[ib. 1 Passim). al-Sihaya
(ib, p. 1*9);
(ib., p. 18), al -Ti bi ,
al-Ki rmani,
Shark Mishhat (ib,, p 18). Qadi
Anwar (ib ,
Shark al
p. i8) ; al-Tawrishti,
' Iyad, jilashariq
Shark al-MasUb
al-
h (p. 19) ; * Alt al-Qari,
(p. 20) : Ibn Hajari Shark Sluhhba (p. 28) ;
30) ; al-tlakim, / -
Ibn Sa' d,
Uu>tadrak (p. 32); al-Qastallani.
(p. 33); Ibn
i s i nt erest i ng t o not e t hat
prior to his taking to the study of Hadi t h literature
4
Abd
al-Athir, Usd
al-TIaqq
ahGhaba
(p. 68) ; Ibn l l aj ar,
I t
bath
had some fascination for court -l i fe inas-
much as he was for some t i me the compani on, in
Fat ehpur,
(p.
al-Bart
shad
of Faidi and Mirza Nizam al-Din
on al-Hadlth.
45) ;
{Ashi
Ahmad
deep
and repeated requests.
2
The t hi r d or the last period
was one of compilation and giving instruction parti-
cularly in Hadith literature at his Khdnqah-i-
An inscript ion
al a/ .
1913, vol. I , p. 11) etc
(ib.
Bukhari
.
Muqaddimat
267-68
al
taqlm
Athar al-Sanadid
2. Tuzak~i-J ahangtr'%
1. Al-FattanI,
Mustaqhih
al - Fl r uzabcl dl ' s
[published]?
(i) Al-Tariq
compi l at i ons on I l adl t h
Ta s a wwu f ,
Shaykh ' Abd
i n t he Ha wd - i - Sh a ms I
c op y of t he ma n us c r i pt h a d been t r a ns c r i be d i n 1019/
1610
v,
Majma* Bihar


a

3. Ahhbar,
(London, 1909) p. 16.
(Newul
coll ecti on of a ut he nt i c Tr a d i t i o ns
r el at i ng t o the life,
Sifr al-Saada
al-Qaxclm
f o r t he use of Sh a ykh
f i
pp. 167-72
autobi ography, p. 290 srq ; Rada'ui'i,
Kishore,
' Ab d
vol. I
f

409-12
; ' Abd al - Hami d
pp. 113-17*=
a l - Ha q q
Lahuri , / ad
Haig,
pp. 341-42;
shah N'dma
a l - Mu h a d
(Hiblo.
; Khax.na,
Subhnt,
Indica,
-
di t h al - Di hl awi .
1
It was dur i ng this period t hat he
was at the hei ght
ls67),
Vol. I , p,
p. 51; Ma'thar
of his f a me as a Muhaddith
(Cawnpur,
164 ; lth'df.
pp. 200-01; Hadaiq. pp.
s v


4
Abd
pp, 303-04 ; Sayyid Ahmad Khan,
al-l;Jaqq
1904) p 63 ; T.


I
L
T
lama',
al-T)ihta**I
v

b. Saif al-Din
pp. 109-10; Nuzha,
al-Dihlavu ; (Jasim
ed Calcutta ; Ma'arjf,
Nagurl, Shark
; Elli ot, Vol . VI , p. 175 ; JKASfl.
Vol. XXII ,
of I slam, Vol
No. 4, pp*.
1, p. 39 ; Rieu.
fctorey. Vol. 11,

INDIAN TFADITIONISTS
as wel l
as a per sonage of gr eat s a nc t i t y s o mu c h s o
t hat even t he Emp e r o r Shah Jahan f el t ca l l ed u p o n t o
p a y h o ma g e t o h i m a n d s e e k h i s b e n e d i c t i o n o n t h e
eve of his departure f r om Del hi to Kashmi r in 1028/
1619.*
i n t he t o mb whi ch he had hi m -
self bui l t .
al - I I a qq
Hi s t o r y a n d Bi ogr aphy* of whi ch 13 have
been not i ced by Br o c ke l ma nn.
6

l i t e r a t u r e
Shark al-Sirat
Thi s is a Pe r s i an c o mme n t a r y of
al so
charact er, pract i ces and mo r a l
t e a c h i n gs o f t h e Pr o p h e t Mu h a mma d ( o n h i m b e peace
and blessings of Al l ah) . Th e c omme nt a r y whi ch was
c o mpl e t e d a t De l h i o n J u ma d a
1314),
XXI I (1926) ; pp. 43-44 ; I lticv.
p. 194.
4. JRASB. XXI I (1010),
5. Sup. i , p. 603.
6. For
He di ed a t De l h i i n 1052/ 1642
Vol. I, p. 14a ; JSankipur
MSS. copi es. Banki pur, XIV ,
2667 ; Ri eu.
a n d was bur i ed
al - Di hl awi was a prol i f i c
aut hor p r odu c i n g over a hundr ed books on Ha dl t h,
He r e i s a l i st of hi s
al-Mus-
known as al-Sirat
I 24, 1 0 1 6 / Se p t e mb e r
Vol. Ill ,
Cat. i, p. 490 ;
pp 43-60
No. 1186; India Office, No.
Vol . 1, pp. 14-16
149
1

:
,
p.
651.
.
.
Lam'clt
1. JRASB,
begins wi t h a Muqaddima divided i nto two
par t s of whi c h t he f i r st has been devot ed t o a short b u t
ver y usef ul discourse on Istalahat
March,
Li ke the Sharh
Fe br ua r y, 1611,
1029/ 1620
4
.
a l - Ha qq
al-Masdblh
(ii) Ashi
li
at
Zahi r i t e
wi t h a Muqaddima
150 INDIAS
Bankipur
p. 47 No. 11; Fihrist-i-\lusanniJtn-i*Dihlt
t

As our Muhaddi t h put s i t , t he reason f or
t he sl ow progress in t he c ompi l a t i on of t he Ashi
a l - Muha ddi t h
published in five
aJ-Lajnut
( i nt r oduct i on) ,
'at
f i
Cat.. XIV .
di vi ded i nto t wo
par t s of whi ch t he f i r st t reat s of t he sci ence of Tr adi t i on s
a n d a ut hent i c c ol l e c t i ons a nd t he second, of t he
Im&ms
2. For MSS.
pp. 46-47; Kieu,
of the Madhdhib
l oc. ci t .
p. 83. Et he.
copies. Bankipore,
Arba.
XIV,
No. 2654; Rieu. Vol. I.
1103-94; Asat fyya,
3. Ashi"at
t

pp. 52*63 .

CONTRIBUTION TO HADITH
1607, was publ i shed f r o m Lu c k n o w i n 1885.
The comment at or
has t r ansl at ed t he Ar a b i c t ext s wi t h necessary expl an-
at i ons her e and t her e. Th e v a l u e of t he c o mme n t a r y
has been enhanced by t he a d d i t i o n t o i t o f a go o d
numbe r of genui ne Ahadi t h
t hat he was. Th e sources f r o m whi ch our
Muha ddi t h
al-Mishfolt,
a nd compendi ous Per si an
vol ume s
Ki s hor e Pr es s at Luc know in 1913-15*.
al -l>ihl a\vi
mi ddl e of 1019/ 1610
3

wa s
t hat he st art ed wr i t i n g down t wo Comme nt a r i e s of t he
Mishkat s i mul t aneousl y, t he one i n persi an as r ef er r ed
t o above and t he ot her i n Ar abi c, ent i t i ed
(q v. ) which was taken up on Dhu' MTi j j a ,
and f i ni shed on RabY
Sifr a]-Sadda,
al-Hadlth
ed. Newul Kishoi,
pp. 14-15
4. Fihrist-i-Musannifin,
Vol. 1,
loc. cit.
p. I
5. Ashi
1
' at , loc*
LITERATURE
It opens
whi c h had ei t her been
o mi t t e d or r ej ect ed as weak by al - Fl r uz abadl ,
der i ves hi s i nf o r ma t i o n s have been gi ven
i n t h e p r e f a c e
1
.
a popular
c o mme nt a r y of t he Mishkat
by Ne wu
Sha ykh
began t he wor k i n t he
and compl et ed it at De l h i b y
al-Lam'dt
13, 1019/
i , 24, 1025/
the Ashi"at
or t he
pp. 3 sq ;
Vol. I,
; Bankipur Cat. XIV
cit. ; Bankipur Cat. V (2), p. 90.
l
' Ab d
ah
,
Lam'ati
301-02
1. JRASB,
on the Ruwat
732; Da r a l - ' Ul u m ,
(iv) Al-Ikmiil
editions of the Mishkat al-Masablh
has been publ i s hed i n t he be gi nni ng
whi ch is i dent i cal
short er i n bul k t han t he Asht W,
& 603) . In
Masnblh
(Hi) Lam
L
ai
t he A$hi
li
at,
a l - Na wa wi
al - Shaf i ' l ,
Te c h n i q u e o f t h e Sc i e nc e o f Tr a d i t i o n , a nd t he s e c ond,
t o t he aut hors of t he Sihah
loc.
f t
cit.
2. The Arabic Muqaddima
Asma
1

t he f or me r c ont a i n i ng
80, 000 l i nes whi l e t he l at t er 130, 00c
1

( Hf t nkf pur
al-Tangth
and Ibn
al - D&r aqut nl ,
Sitta
f l
with an Urdu commentary has been
published at Calcutta in 1927 by Qasim Naguri
Muqaddimat
under the title of Shark
al-Dihlawi and recently in 1357 A.H. a lithograph edition

INDIAN TRADITIONISTS
and ni ne ot her
doctors of Hadl t h, viz. , Mal i k, Ahmad b.
al - Bai h3q] ,
al - j awzJ .
t he aut hor has r epr oduced i n Per si an t he
ent i r e t ext of t he Mishkat
Shorh
Nos. 361-62, As af l yya
t hi s Ar a b i c Co mme n t a r y of t he
Mishkat, the discussions on t heologi cal and j ur i di cal
p r o b l e ms h a ve b e e n mo r e e l a b o r a t e t h a n t hose i n t he
Asht


{
at
l i nes. Th i s i s
bec aus e of t he f a c t t ha t mu c h of t he space of t he
Asht \it
wi t h that of the Ash'i
of t he I n d i a n
and wi t h whi ch
ever y s t udent of Ha dl t h l i t er at ur e i s pr e t t y f a mi l i a r *.
al-Bijal
Pes hawar
3
) : a bi ogr aphi cal wor k
ment ioned in the Mishkat al-Masfibih.
It was compi l ed after the compl et i on of the Lam
l
aL
Th e ma i n body of t he wor k whi c h has been ar r anged
of the Muqaddima together with copious marginal notes in Arabic entitled
3. Vide Catalogue, p. 01.
al-Hawashi al-Sa'di was brought out in Calcutta by Muhammad 'Amim
al-ihsan, a teacher of Madrasa-i-'AlIya. The Persian Muqaddima i.e. of
Kazi n
has been t a ken up by i t s Per si an t r a ns l a t i on
of the ori gi nal Arabi c t ext .
( Bf l nkl pur,
the Ashi' 'at, has been published at Jawnpur
TI anbal ,
al - ' Abdi ,
In t he ma i n body of
pi ecemeal and el uci dat ed
t he Tr a d i t i o n s a nd t he quest i ons h a vi n g b e a r i n g o n
Madhahib Arba
Mishkat ah
Nos. 83,
al t hough t he f act r emai ns t hat t he Lain
The Muqaddima of the
No.
in 1305,18S7
151
.
at is


i,
at
%

.
{vi)
I NDI A' S
1. BSnUpurCat.
whi l e t he ma r t yr d o m of I ma m Hus ai n
vi z. , Sahlh,
[published. ]:
Md
Mishhat.
(v) Jclmi
1

beginning wi t h I ma m
al phabet i cal l y i s preceded by short l i fe-sket ches
of t he f our KhulafiV
C ON T R I B U T I ON TO HAD I T H
XII . pp 60-70.
bob
8. For MSS,
2. JRASB, No. 4.
cl ai ms t he
maj or por t i on of t he space devot ed t o t he mo n t h o f
Mu^a r r a m.
Hasan,
thabata
of t he Mishkat
In t hi s book, t he a ut hor
al-Barakat
liasliidln
copies, see BSokJpur.
On t he whol e, t hi s t reat i se i s a suppl ement
t o one of t he Per si an books of t he aut hor whi ch deal t
wi t h t he cont r over s i es bet ween t he Tr a di t i oni s t s and
t he Saf t s
Da
bi
one or t wo Ahfidlth
Muniakhab
a nd t he
wi ves
a nd t he descendant s of t he
Pr ophet . Th e al -
phabet i cal ser i es begi n wi t h Ab u M- Laham
If
V (2), No, 404;
and Mawlu
i

l-Sunna
and ends
i n Yasi r a. The r e i s al so an appendi x (Tadhyll) c om-
pri si ng of t he not i ces of several emi nent
ji
deal i ng with
pr ayer s, f ast i ng and ot her rel i gi ous observances con-
nect ed wi t h each
Ayyam
of t he t wel ve mont hs of t he year ,
t hei r da ys and ni ght s. He has, i n t hi s book, consi -
der ed ever y r i t e t hat has been sanct i oned by genui ne
Ahadl t h

L I T E R A T U R E
Tr a di t i oni s t s
Mal i k and ending wi t h al
Ta h a wi .
Shark ah
sel ect ed f r om ever y
and t hen made
a schol ar l y di scussi on i n Persi an on t he subst ance of
t he rest . It s bul k was 32, 000 l i nes. *
alSana
a col l ect i on of Tr adi t i ons of al l cat egor i es,
t o be val i d and t he r i t es whi ch have not be en
s o sanct i oned, have been r ej ect ed as i nva l i d. Th e
bi ogr aphi cal sket ch of t he Pr ophet cl ai ms t h e ma j o r
port i on of t he space devot ed t o t he mo n t h of Kabl
1

i n r espect of t he r i t es t o be obser ved i n each
mont h of t he year t oget her wi t h hi s own ver di ct as t o
t hei r val i di t y or ot herwi se. Th e Ma thabata was
publ i shed i n Cal cut t a i n 1253/1837 a nd a t La hor e i n
1307/1889.
Rampur,
-
1

*
I ,
*
i
i, Nos.
918-20 .
we
{viii)
1. JRASB, No. 21.
it must be sai d t o ' Ab d
a cent ur y before ' Abd
t he pi oneer of Hadi t h l e a r n i n g
ai-iiadith.
AMai -Haqqas
(x) Dhikr
No . 2 658 ; AS B
(ix) Dastur
Tarjumal
(vii) Al'AhddUh
2. JRASB. No. 22.
al Ha q q ' s
i n I n d i a
5
a
Hadith.
A

I jazat
No . 1004) : a Pe r s i a n t r e a t i s e
Faid
al-Ahadith
al-Arbain
3. Ethe, loc.
al-Hadith
cit.
f i
h


y
l-Qad]m wa

INDIAN TRADITIONIST
fi Abwab
Din : a t reat i se of 40
al-Arba
t r ansl at i on of f or t y Ahadi i h
t he ki ngs and emperors.
2

al-Nnr
on t he
Pr ophet ' s dr es s bas ed on Tr a d i t i o n s . It i s i d e n t i c a l
wi t h the t i t l e of t he t r act
not i ced i n t he Be r l i n Ca t a l o gu e .
a transmitter of
is s t a t ed t hat Sh a i kh
st at ement
whi ch has, t o our mi n d , no basis.
6
The t r ut h i s t hat
a l - Ha di t h
al - I I a qq ,
have al r eady not i ced i n t he
cr edi t t hat i t was h i s
l i f e - l ong devot i on t o t he cause of t he Sci ence t hat it
became so popul ar i n Nor t he r n I nd i a . Thi s was not
al l . He was r esponsi bl e f or t he pr oduc t i on of a Jong
l i ne of Tr adi t i oni s t s who handed on t he t or ch of t he
Sunna
c ont r i but e d
7
.
Tw o gr oups of MuhaddithUn
t he s emi nar y of


c
Ab d
4. JRASB. No. 7.


T

1
_
5. Ma'arif,
7-
' Ah d
-
a l - Ha q q
loc. cit.; Yad-i-Ayyam,
6. Cf.
st yl ed
ai - MupadcI i t h
Yad-i-Ayyam,
p. 29.


%
Ulum
Risala
aJ - Di hl awl
had been i nt r oduced all
f r om gener at i on t o gener at i on. Und oub t e d l y
t hi s was by i t sel f a gr and achi evement t o whi ch hi s
ol der cont e mpor a r y Sha ykh Ah ma d al - Si r hi ndi
pp. 29-30.
7. Supra,
dar
al-
Tr a di t i o n s about r el i gi ous l ear n-
in : a Pe r s i a n
concer ni ng admoni t i ons t o
( Et he, I ndi a Of f i ce,
Adab-i-Libas
was
over I nd i a at
by Tr adi t i oni s t s wh o m
f or e goi ng pages. Bu t
al so
were t ur ned out f ro m
a l - Ha qq : t he one compr i s i ng t h e
pp. 140 seq
S 153
i ng.
1

8

least
.
I,
Sahih
Ghur i
Mu' i zz
2. Ma'arif, loc.
1. Subhat,
a Pe r s i a n c o mme n t a r y of a l - Ti r mi dhi ' s
(i t ) Shark Shama'il
publ i shed in fi ve
(i ) Taysir
59) a ppoi nt e d hi m Qadl
Nu r al - f l aq q
(1014/ 1605),
( 570- 602/ l i
al - Dl n
Tawarikh,
Sha ykh ' Ab d
Nu r a l - Ha q q wa s a f a mo u s
An accompl i shed Tr adi t i oni s t ,
al-Muhaddith
1. Shaykh
GROUP A. TRADITIONISTS OF TH E HOUSE OF
'A13D
me mbe r s of hi s hous e a nd t he
154 I N D I A ' S
pur,
p. 53 ; Ma'thar,
al-Nabi
al-Qarl
was sai d t o have wor ked al l t hr ough hi s
l i f e f or t he cause of 111- l l :
of whi ch a par t has bc;en
a gener al
al - I I aqq
Nur
p.
h
p. 989 ; T.'
201 : IJada'tq.-p.
'Vlama\ p. 346; Ma'arif,
418 ; Khazina, Vol.
Elliot. Vol. VI , p. 182
Vol. XXII ,

C O N T R I B U T I O N TO H A D I T H
ot he r , h i s o wn di s c i pl es
t oget her wi t h t he di sci pl es of t he Tr a di t i oni s l s of his
hous e.
AL-HAOQ
al-Haqq
al-Dihla\ci
j ur i s t and hi s t or i an,
di sci pl e of hi s own f at he r
and t ho
hi st or y of Indi a
b. Sam commonl y known as Muhammad
75-120(; ),
i ncor por at ed by
El l i o t i nt o the sixth vol ume of his History
l i t er at ur e. In r ecogni t i on
of hi s s chol ar s hi p I i mp- r o r
of Akba r abad which office he
l ong held wi t h credi t. " li e
at t he age of ni net y.
1

Hi s wo r ks :
ft Shark Sahjh
vol umes by the ' Al awi
Lucknow, 1305/ 1887.
2

( Ra mp u r ,
Shama'il
Office Catalogue,
; Rieu,
No. 4, p. 258 268 ;
Not. 1195-99
cit. For its MSS. copies,
Persian MSS , Vol. 1, p. 2L'4
b, \Abd
al-Bukhdri,
No. 290 ; Bankipur
; Ethe.
L I T E R A T U R E
al-Haqq al-Mashriq
( 983- 1073/ 1575- 1662)
aut hor of the Zubdat
c o mme n c i n g fro m
t o t he accessi on of J aha ngi r ,
of I ndia.
Shah Jahan ( 1037- 69/ 1628-
died at Del hi in 1073/1662
a
c o mp e n d i o u s Per s i an c o mme n t a r y of a l - Hukh a n ' s
Pr e s s ,
No. 194),
Catalogue. XIV , p. 54.
see Ethe, No. 2659 ; Banki -
.
]
.
al-
al -
Nab l .
I ndi a
.
Sharfy
al- Di n
fro m
also Nuzha,
1. The statement of 'Abd
ci sm based on t he ( Jur ' an
(i t ) Shark


l
Ayn
No. 1007).
Sahlh' Musi
upon the Sahlh
c o mpl e t e d
read t he m wi t h h?s
Allah b. Nur Allah b. Nur al-Haqq
2. Al-Hafiz
vi ,
Ma'arif,
tin
s. v. Shaykh al-Tslam
al-Muqtadir
and al-I
aVlhn
"Abd
such the ascription of the Manba'
Vol. XXI I No. A, pp. 268-69]
(Banklpiir,
I adi t h.
( Banki pur ,
mistake
XIV , p. 62 also
.
2. Bankipur
that Fakhr al-DIn
Catalogue, XIV .

INDIAN TRADI TI ONI ST
al-Samad
(d.
He was t he gr eat - gr eat - gr ands o n of Sh a yk h Nu r
al - Haqq
1
and r ecei ved i ns t r uct i ons in t he Si
his f a t he r Sha ykh Al uhi bb
gr a ndf a t h e r
his f at her' s
of Musl i m ent i t l ed
( Banki par ,
In
says t hat hi s f at her wr ot e it
and could not i i nd t i me to revi se it and that he r evi sed
t he c o mme nt a r y and i mp r o ve d upon i t by ma k i n g
sui t abl e addi t i ons and al t er at i ons . In
of the Martha*
pi l at i ons
al -Haqq a l - Muha ddi t h
No. 1390).
Th i s i s a Per si an c o mme n t a r y of Mu h a mma d b.
' Ut hmi l n
Th e Co m -
me nt a t or s a ys i n t he pr ef ace t hat t he Ar a b i c o r i gi n a l
of the


l
Ayn
Shaykh Nur al-Haqq.
was a son of
Shark-i-Buhhari
in the light of the
pp. 61-62 with necessary iterations
al - I j al khi ' s
is not correct as it is clear from a genealogy
genealogy given above, n. 1.
3. Al-Balkhi
al-llm
was


l
Ayn
bei ng ver y difficult and not accessi -
bl e t o Per s i an s t ude nt s , he wr ot e t he present c o mme n -
t ar y wi t h the hel p of al - Ghazal l ' s
given by Shaykh aMslam b. Fakhr
an Indian scholar (Loth. op. cit., p. 190 cf. Hajj
I hya
al-1'In (q. v. )
Fakhr al-Din
ci rc.
Al l ah who, in
Nu r al - I J a t j q.
Per s i an
Martha
1,

No. 1207;
the pr ef ace of t hi s
t owar ds t he end
al^llm,
a/ - 7/ ; ; i . ,
3

'Uliim
in the preface of
(MS. Bankipur, No. 1208,
b. Fakhr al-Din al-Dihlawl and as
Khalifa. IV , p. 282). For copies of his *Ayn
al-'I lm
al- J l tn,
680-2
b. Muhibb
1150)
his t urn,
Fa khr
c o i mn e n i a i y
al-'I lm
ASP,.
work, Fa kh r al - Di n
of his life
t hi s rcs. ccnsion
Fa kh r al-I)Tn ut i l i zed the c< ITI-
of hi s gr eat - gr eat - gr andf at he r Sha ykh ' Ab d
al - Di hl awl .
a work on ascet i -
al-Dl
fol. 27a (sic.
to Nur al-Haqq is a further
see Loth. Nos.
; Bankipur, No. 1353 (Arabic Hand-list, Vol. 1).
S
155
.
hah Sifta
fl
2

n
his
)
1. Cf.
(foil.
al-Qari
(*)
{Hi)
went y
1 5 6
6. Banklpur, XIV , p. (52;
Banklpur MS-
1-29, Ba nkl pu r MS. ) I
unde r the t i t l e of Sharh~i-Shaykh
me n t a r y of al - Bukhar l ' s
Sharh-i-SahJh
Shah Wal l
( 1131- 61/ 1715- 18)
Ha d i t h
al - Dl n and had Ijdza
He was a f a mous pupi l of hi s f at her al - Haf i z
( d. ci r c.
i. Shaykh al-Idam
Sharh-i-Hisn
Bdbs
The n a me s of the t r a ns mi t t i n g
Ha d l t h
has i n t r o d u c e d t he passages f r o m t he Our
of whi ch the


l
Ayn
I N D I A ' S C O S T R I B U T I O S
si ala hat-ah
Ha sin,
&n
MS copy of the work,
Ma'arif. Vol. XXII .
No. 1390.
Sahlh
for the Sihah
Sahaba
under t he abbr evi at i ons o f J
al-'Ilm

T O H A D I T H
itself was a s el ect i on,
a n d aJ-
and
t oget he r
and a Khatima
a Pe r s i a n c o mme n t a r y
of al - J az ar i '
b. Hafiz
1180)
Fa k h r
Siita
works f r om the latt er.
4
He flourished in
Sh a h j a h a n a b a d
when t he i nvas i on of Na d i r Sh a h
t ook pl ace.
5
Sha ykh al - I s l am
Al l ah a l - Di h l a wl
Hi s wor ks :
al-BukhifrJ,
publ i shed at Lucknow
i n 1305/ 1887 on the ma r gi n of Nur a l - Ha q q ' s
al-Islam
Th e c o mme n t a t o r has di s cus s ed i n t he pr ef ac e
Hadith or the
Te c h n i q u e o f t h e Sc i e n c e o f Tr a d i t i o n , t he soundness
and ot her wi s e of the Ruwat^
2. For contents of the work, see Banklpur Cat. XVI ,
see Banklpur Nos.
3. Hadaiq, p. 4 6 8
.
4. Vide his Shark Bukhatt
Vol. VI , l o c .
(MS Banklpur) foil.
cit. : Hada'iq l oc , c i t .
5. Banklpur, Cat., XIV , pp. 62 63 ; Ma'arif,
26b
f

L I T E R A T U R E
fi e
r e s pe c t i ve l y.
wi t h
t he wor ks i n wh i c h t he Tr a d i t i o n s occur have been
me n t i on e d .
1
The work is di vi ded i nt o a Muqaddtma,
Fakhr al-Dl
and ot her
dur i ng t he r ei gn of Mu h a mma d Sh; l h
was a c o nt e mpo r a r y of
(d. 1173)
a Pe r s i a n com-
Taysjr
a shor t l i f e-sket ch of al
pp. 68-69
27a; Nuzka,
Vol. XXI I , No. 4, p.
No. 4, p. 269. For
1208-09.
?
s
n
.
.
*
-
.
269.
Ho,
' Abd
Sal fi m
Hum
(Hi)
Mawta
' Abd al-
2. Hada'tq.
He l ear nt t he sci ence of Tr a d i t i o n f r o m his own
f at he r , Sha ykh a l - I s l a m and abl y car r i ed on t he c u l t u r e
and cul t i va t i o n of Ha d l t h
Muslim ffol.
Ha di t h ,

INDIAN TRADITIONIST
I ma m al - Bukhdr l ,
his Sahlh)
its tarajim
- <5JJIAJJI
In compi l i ng
lized, a mo n q
18) , Ibn
I Taqq' s
1 seq.) and
(it) Risdla Kashf
'Ala
Risdla Tard al-Aichdm
dm.
4. Saldm
al-Rdmfiuri
Al l ah, a cont emporar y of Si r aj
Si rhi ndi (d. 1220) and ' Abd
a ppe a r s t o be t he l a s t l umi na r y of t he hous e
al - I I aqq
Ra mp u r
l ear ni ng, t he pr oud heri t age
of hi s f or ef at her s, as his f o l l o wi n g wor ks show. He
di ed
1. Hada'iq,
p. 468 ;
al-abwJ b,
OJbc - J I
Ha j a r ' s
at RampQr
Tadhkira-i-<UI ama\p.
Ta liqfit and ot her rel e-
vant poi nt s. Fur t he r , he has t r aced t her ei n hi s o wn
Sanad
J *J l J L *
Fath
Co mme n t a r i e s
al-Ghiia
al - ' Azi z
i n J u ma d a
74; Ma'arif,
4, p. 2 6 9 ;
its pl ace a mo n ?
up to Sha ykh ' Abd al - Haqq
^^I ^Jbs JUu i
his work, Shaykh al - I sl am
ot her works, a l - Na wa wi ' s
al-Bdri
on the Mishkdt
Nur al - I J aqq' s
Ammd
'atiAthar
Allah b. Shaykh al-I slam
a l - Di hl a wl
al - Di hl awi .
and b e c a me f a mo u s as Muhaddith
II , 1229/ 1814
Tadhhira-i-Kamilan^-Rampur,
(foil.
Jul ^
t he occasi on t hat l e d hi m t o compi l e
the c ompi l a t i ons on al
26-27) t hus :
o^'jl
has ut i -
Shark Sahih
(fol.
(foil.
Taysir al-Q&r
Lazima
l
J
Ahyd
al-I m&m
al-Muhaddith
(d. 1229/ 1814)
Ahmad al-
(d. 1235),
of Sh a yk h
He moved f r om Del hi to
i-Rdmpuri.
or 1233/
p. 468.
Vol. XXI I
p. 159.
S 157
-
*
27),
h
li 7-
\
al-
1

.
1818.
2

al
(7)
2. Banklpur. Catalogue V. part I. pp. 8-9.
1. The Banklpur MS. is incomplete ending in a portion of Kitab
al-Haqq
5. Shaykh
{iv) Risala f i
Tarjuma
(it) Tarjuma-i'Farsi
Di hl awl
Ya ' q ub
I n d i a n Tr a di t i oni s t
aut hor says i n t he Muqaddima
No . 127 Tr a di t i ons ) .
1
It i s an Ar abi c c o mme nt a r y o f
the Muwatta
1

(i) Al-Muhalla
158 I N D I A ' S
Haj j
3. Ma'arif.
Top cit.. Vol. V (1), p. 8]
a l - La hu r l
wh i c h opens wi t h a
short life-sketch of a l - I ma m
of I ma m
December, 1942,
The State Library of Rampur
Mal i k ( I.
has a
4. Banklpur, V. (1), p. 9.
complete MS. of the Muhalla Tadhkira
179) devoted chi efl y
to j uri di cal problems {mastfil-i'fiqhjyya)
Kami I an 4-Rampur,
Library of Tonk
p. 159). The
al-'Ulum
possesses a complete work whereas
Mad rasa at Saharanpur
the Library of Mazahir

C O N T R I B U T I O N TO H A D I T H
bi Asrar al-Muwatta
and the
di ff erences t hereof a mon g t he Madhahib Arba\*
Mal i k and a cri t i cal
es t i ma t i on of t he Muwatta
1
, t hat he wr ot e t he present
wor k i n order t o s uppl y t he l ong-f el t
c omme nt a r y of t he Muwatta
1

Sh irk not bei ng e xt ant her e, and t hat till
di d c o mme n t
i n 1215/ 1800.
4
I t appear s t ha t t he a u t h o r h a d n o
access t o t he c o mme n t a r i e s on t he Muwatta*
(d. 1093/
(d. 1176)
8

Sahlh
i-Farsi
Usul al-Hadlth,
a l - Ha dl t h
Sayf Allah b. Niir
al-Bukharl
Sayf Al l a h, a grandson of Sha ykh Nfcr
was equa l l y ver sat i l e i n J ur i s pr udence a nd Tr a d i t i o n .
Muqaddima Awjaz
has only the second half of the work
ft. Infra, p. 165.
7. HadZ'iq,
al-Masaltk.
L I T E R A T U R E
( Bankl pi i r
Th e
need f o r a
i n t hi s count r y, Zu r q a n f s
his t i me no
on t hi s i mpo r t a n t
Hadi t h work.
8
The Muhalla was compi l ed at RSmp u r
b y
and Shah Wal l Allah al-
wri t t en in Indi a before h i m.
al-Bukharu
Shamail al-Nabi
a treatise on Usul
in Ar a bi c .
Allah b. Nut
al-Dihlawi
a l - Ha q q
p. 33).
pp. 421-22.
6. Infra, p. 177.
.
7

.
l oc . cit,
1.
mirl
bandi
Nuzha,
(d. 1057) and in al -Tasawwuf
In al -Hadi t h
3. JB#6#
and completed his education of Hadl t h
j oined the School of Shaykh 'Abd
1026), a pupi l of Ibn
Kashmi r f r om Baba
He fi rst Jearnt
2. Khawaja Hayclar
Haqq al -Dihlawi.
Hadl th,
(d. 1052) of Kashmir,
2
Mu'ln
1. Khawaja Khawand Mu'in
GROUP B. DISCIPLES OF <ABD
J091/ 1680
entitled Ashraf
He prepared a comment ar y on the Shama'il
VI , s.v. Sayf Allah al-Bukban
Dawtld
literature.
The Governor of Kashmi r repeat edl y offered hi m the
office of Qadl
al -Haqq
ITaj ar aJ -Hayt haml .
4

al -Hadl t h
Patlu
al -TafsIr
AL-HAQQ
during
al-Wasail
.
2. For Khawand Mahmud,
aUMishkatl
b. Flruz
and al -Fi qh
the rei^n
f l
3. Khazina,
see Tarihh-i-Kashmir,
Vol. I , p. 643 ; Hada' iq,
220; Ma'arif, p. 269.
4. Tar\kk'i-Kashm\r
t

6. Ibid,
pp. 103-04.
Mupmnifln)
p. 143 ; Hada'iq, pp. 408-09; Asrar al-Abrar,

INDIAN TRADITIONIST
al-Nab
Shark al-Shama'il
of ' Alamglr
1659-1707).
HIS DESCENDANTS
AND OF
al-Din (d. 1085/
A son of Khawaj a Khawand Mahmud al -Naqsh-
al-Din studied al-
under Shaykh 'Abd
He flourished in the 11th century
and di ed in Kashmi r i n 1085/1674.
al-Kashmir
(d. 1057/1647).
in his nat i ve provi nce
Jawahir Nath al -Kashml rl
Then he
at Del hi
but he refused t o accept i t preferri ng, as
he di d, the l i fe of a saint to anyt hi ng else. He di ed
i n Kashmi r i n 1057/1647.
al-Kashmir
(d. 1097/J
he was a pupi l of Haydar al -Kash-
of Khawan
p. 138.
quot ed in Ma'arif, p. 269 ;
(MS. Dar al.
421;
in
(1069-1119/
Tadhkira-i-'Ulama"
Tadhkira-i-'Ulama',
S
159
l
1

'
1674) .
al-
8

i
(d.
*
t
i
685)
d
p.
p. 54.
4. Jmf>.
2. HadU'iq,
1. TUrtkh-i-Kashmlr.
Mubarak al-Husayni
5. MirSayyid
He was a pupil of a son of Khaw&ja
4. Shaykh ^InCLyat
al-Masablh.
MahmQd
GtMttw,
Tadhkira
p. 436; Tadhkira-i-'Ulam?,
i~'Ulama\
p. 176;
al-Wasitl
Mubarak Bilgrami
Haydar and
a famous teacher of Kashmir. He taught
Allah Shftl-i-Kashmirl
(d. 1052). He was called Miskhdti
XXII , tfo. 6. p. 333.
3. JRASB,
HadWiq,
al-Bilgramf,
of al-Bukharl
the Sahih
because
he had committed to memory the entire Mishkdt
belonged to the ancient family of the Wasit I
who
He was the author of the Asretr
settled since 611/1217
Sayyi ds
on the biography of the Mashaikh
at Bilgram
8


160 INDIA'S CONTRIBUTION TO HADITH LITERATURE
of Kashmir, a MS.
copy of which is in the library of Dar al -Musannifln
(d. 1185/
as many as thirty-six times from begin-
ni ng t o end and di ed in Sha' ban,
(1033-1115/1624-
in the district of
Hardoi in the United Provinces,
4
was a pupil of
Shaykh Nur al-Haqq b. ' Abd
p. 60; Ma'arif.'p.
pp. 423-24;
p. 162; Ma'arif,
Vol. XXII,
Vol. VIJI,
al-Haqq al-DihlawI.
While a student at Delhi he resided in the home of his
teacher and thus came into an inti mate contact wi t h
him. In 1064/1654, he obtained a Sanad from N&r
al-Haqq and since then he worked indefatiguably for
the spread of Hadith learning at Bilgram until he died
in Raol' I , Ii i 5 / Jul y ,
at Azamgarh
1125/1713
1703. He was born in Sha' ban,
1033/May,
Khazlna.
1936,
al-Abrar,
in the Uni ted Provinces. He died at
Kashmir in 1097/1685.
at the age
of sixty-eight.
1624. For his deep erudition in the
Vol. I,
p. 119 n. 1.
1

1713).
8

1703).
270.
Vol.
p. 23$.
&
3. Hay at i-Jalil
*Abd
Qutb
Ibid, n. 123.
7. Ibid , pp. 146, 160-61
4. On his detailed biography, vide Maqbul
2. Ma'arif al-'AwUrif,
1. Ma'thir
al-Rij&U
al-Jalil b. Ahmad al-Husayni
6. Mir 'Abd
The School of Mubarak at Bilgram produced,
among others, two noted scholars of Hadl t h , viz.,
Sayyids Muhammad Fayd
*Abd
.
8. He was Bakhshi and Waqa'-i-Nigar
Hayat-i-Jalil,
Ahmad Samdanf's
aUKirVm,
Bilgraml,
al -Wasiti
al-Jalil
b. Sadiq al -Bi l graml and
p. 94 ;
al-
first in Gujarat and then in
Vols.
I, p. 144, n. 124; Ma'arif,
TsUlamU',
who was the maternal grandfather of our Azad
al -Bil graml , was a man of great culture and learning.
He read al -Hadl t h
zamlndar
al-Bilgraml. The first, a hereditary
I-II
Mir
Bhakkar and Swnistan under Awrangzlb
(Allahabad, 1929)
Sa' d
with Mir
of Bi l gram, made a Persian translation of
the Shamatl
(1069-1119)
.
5. He died at Ahmadabad while a teacher in the Madrasa of Nur
Mubarak and also with
al-Nabi
al-DIn at Ahmadabad'
Allah (d. 1119),
5
Mir
and the Hisn
Bilgram and Ghulam
Tufayl (d. 1151) of
*Abd al-Jalll
Naqshband (d. 1126)
6

was a Muhaddith
of Lucknow.
well-versed in Asmli
1

and committed to memory a good number
of Ahadlth along with their imctd?

INDIAN TRADITIONIST
Science of Tradit i on, Mir
al-Muhaddithin.
Hasin}
al-J alil al-Bilgrami
His love
for Hadlt h works may be gauged from the fact
that even on relinquishing his office of Bakhshi
and Waqa'i -Nigar
Vol. XXII ,
p. 174; Hayat
s.v. ^J ^a^.
Vol. I, p. 149.
(q.v. infra, p. 169).Ibid,
and the later
^yoa- ^jj^*
Mubarak earned the title of
He died
in 1130/1716.
3

(1071-1138/1660
(Paymaster and News-writer)
8
at
No. 5, p. 270.
and JU-**J|
Vol. I, p. 143,
Mughal Emperors from 1130/1708 to 1126/1714 Ibid, p. 230 teq
S
161
1

-
1725).
4

i-Jalil, Vol.
j^Pj+*
n. 129.
n 121.
.
6.
Mi r
Subhat,
1. Ibid., p. 248
Azad Bil grami
al -Wahhab
at al -Madl na
Bukharl' s
father, set out in 1151-1738 for al-Hijaz
receiving sanad
Nuh al -Husaynl
25th of Safar,
Born at Maydanpura, a locality in Bilgram,
7. Mir
in Rabl
1

him I jdza
copy of al -Bukhan' s
months with a view to compari ng
Bhakkar in 1126/1714,
162 imiA
9
S
161-64;
.
and
Sahlh
al
SjhJh
autobiography, pp. 118-23 ; Ma'thar, autobiography, pp.
2. Ibid ,
al -Tant awi
WasitI
1116/May,
Sarw-i-AeUd,
pp. 167 69.
biography,
autobiography,
3. Ibid.,
p. 303;
pur.
T.
pp. 123-26 ; HadU'iq,
pp. 118-23 ; Khizana-i''Amira,
pp. 172-73 .
auto-
4. Ibid., pp. 271-72. Notices of his biography will also
Hadi'iq, p. 437 ; Ma'thar a I -Kir
t . 'Ulama.

CONTRIBUTION TO HADITH LITERATURE
he stopped on his way home
with all his retinue at Nawshahar in Sind,
and correcting the
which he had already t r an-
scribed at Bhakkar. Hi s teacher Mir
in the form of a pamphl et which the latter
preserved in his library.
3
*Abd
I , 1138/October,
Azad Bilgrctmi
on the
1704,
al -Hanafi
in al-Hadlth
and stayed
there for two years in the course of whi ch he read al-
with Shaykh Hayat al-Sindl
some other Il adi t h
(d. 1157) at Makka. Shaykh
Hayat granted him I jaza
is a famous author of history,
biography and criticism of Persian poetry.
6

pp. 108-09
am, pp. 257-77 ; S arw-i
Wam3\
pp. 445-46 : Ma'arif, pp. 270-71
be found i n
; Ma'arif,
; I thaf,
pp. 154-56 ; Rieu, Persian Cat..
Vol. Ill ,
Azad,
al-]alil
Ghulam
al-Bilgraml,
from his mat ernal
for the Sihah
p. 253 a.v.;
Vol. XXII , No. 6,
Cat., Vol. Ill ,
Vol. I, p 373a ; Bankl-
pp. 252-53;
'All
Sitta.
for six long
Mubarak gave
died at Delhi
1725/
(1116-1200/1704-85)
Azad b.
after
grand-
(d. 1163)
works with 'Abd
Azad
died at Awrangabad in 1200/1785 at the age of ei ght y-
four.
5

The fol -
lowing: works of his will reveal to us hi s at t ai nment s as
a Traditionist
p. 270 ; Rieu.
p. 963 ; JRASB,
Muslim Review, Calcutta, 1926, No. 2. pp. 25-36.
6. Brockelmann, Suppl.
.
Persian
p. 119. n. 5.
I, p. 601 *
12th
(Hi)
min
(ii)
based

INDIAN TRADITIONISTS
(i) Daw*
ment ary of t he
on Qastallani ' s
Hasan Khan notices the work in his I thctf
Shamamat
Sayyid al-Bashar.
work all
Subhat al-Marjan
[published at Bombay i n 1303 A. H. ] The i nt roduct i on
of this book dwells on al -Hadl t h
Qur' an
(iv) Sanad al-Sa'ada
[published at Bombay]: on the excellences of Ahl-i-
Bayt. In this Persian treatise, the aut hor has shown
f r om Ahadlth
Section I V. Traditionists who Flourished from
the Middle of the 11th
Century A.H
1. Muhammad Siddiq b. Sharif (d. circ.
He was a Muhaddi t h of the eleventh century
A. H . He di ed aft er the year 1032/1623 when he
compl et ed his Shark al-Zawajir.
entitled Nujum
1. Pp. 56, 107 ; Subhat, p. 122.
al-Dilri
I rshad
al^Anbar
Shark Sahlh
al-Sari.
fi ma
al-Mishkftt
al-Bukhari:
Sahih al-Bukhclrt
Nawwab
warada f t
fi Husn
His biographical
notices are not available. Muhan mad Siddi q is the
aut hor of a comment ar y of the MishkQt
(BankJpur,
2. Brockelmana,
up
loc. cit;
a com-
to KiUlb-al-Zakat
Siddiq
al-Nubalft\
'l-Hind
The aut hor collects in this
the Tradi t i ons of the Prophet referri ng t o
fi Athar Hindustan:
and t he verses of t he
as have beari ngs on Indi a.
Khatimat-al-SadaL
and t he sayi ngs of some emi nent saints
that the end of the descendant s of the Prophet will be
good and t hat t hei r ent ry i nt o Paradise is pret t y sure.
to the Middle of the
104C/1630)
al-Masabih
No. 363 Tradi-
t i on) i n whi ch theol ogi cal quest i ons have been el uci dat
Asaflyya,
9. JRASB,
163
l

I ndi a.
2

3

.
-
Nos. 863, 867, 859.
p. 127 ,
Ja' far
Nabl
ed
8. For Maq^ud-i-'Alam.
2. Nuxha,
1. A MS. copy of the Nujum
Bukharl
b. Jalal b. Muhammad al-Husaynl
3. Sayyid
Shamtfil
He flourished in the first half
(d. circ.
2. Shaykh
164 INDIA' S
Eng.
al-
tr. by Nawlb
see Supplement to the Mir'at-i-Ahmadi,
Vol. VI. s.v. Husayn
of Dar al-'Ulum
al-Mishkat
better known as Badr-uAlam,
J ctfar
of the 11th
Husain
'All and Seddon (Baroda, 1924),
is available in the library
the World,
1

' t he
centuiy
al-Husayni
at Lucknow. Cf. Mm' at
Moon of
A. H . and compiled commentaries on the Sham&il
was a descendant of the famous sai nt of
Uchh, Makhdum-i-Jahanlyan,
in Persian, of which the one called Sharh
Sayyid Jalal al -BukharJ
was written for Prince Sallm
(d. 785). His father, Sayyi d Jalal Maqsud-i-
4
Alam
b. Akbar
(b. 976 d. 1037) and the other called Nazm
(d. 1059) who held a Mansab
for Prince Murad b. Akbar (b. 978 d. 1007). Haki m
\Abd
of six thousand horses
under Emperor Jahangir (1014-37/1605-28), was an
eminent scholar of Islamic learning.
3
Ja' far
al -Hayy
at Aljmadabad
was born
Nadawi
on Sha' ban 12, 1023/September, 1614.
He read wi t h his father and became an accomplished
scholar and a specialist -in al -Hadl t h and Tafslr.

CONTRIBUTI ON TO HADI T H LI TERATUR E
at some l engt h.
1

al-Harawi
J045/1635).
al-Shama'il
who personally read these two
books spoke highly of them.
Badr-i-Ala
(1023-1085/1614-75).
He
used to copy out the manuscripts himself, and was a
quick copyist, so much so that in fifty-four hours he
would complete the whole of the Qur'an.
if aU'\AwUrif
al-HarawI.
pp. 43-44
He refused
a Governorshi p offered by the Emperor Jahangir him
,
al-
al-
2

m
-
s.v.
'
.
Al-Faid
self.
1. Ibid. p. 44 ; Taihhira-i-'UlamU\
Shaykh Ya' qub,
5. Shaykh
His wor k
Born at Ahmadabad on Rabf
Badr-vAlamWl-M
4. Abu'l'Majd
(it) Rawtlat
al-Tdrl
He di ed on Dhu' l -Hi j j a
2. Ibid.
surnamed Abu YGsuf,
Yafqub
:
Zinat al-Nukat
1637, Mahbub-i -' Al am
I 30, 1047/July,
11/1637-99)
Mahbub-i^Alam
al-Shah
ft
9, 1085/ March,
f i
3. Supp.
al-Bannctni
Shark al-Mishkctt:
(the Beloved of the World)
read wi t h his father, Ja' f ar
Shark Sahih
Radawl
Mir'at'i-Ahmadt,
Badr-i -' Al am
al-Bukhctr
; Nuzha,
and some
ot her di st i ngui shed Professors of Guj arat . Besi des hi s
works on al -Hadl t h noted below, he compi led t wo
commentaries of the Qur' an,

INDIAN TRADITIONIST
1675 and
was buri ed at Ahmadabad by t he si de of hi s fat her.
1

Hi s works
i
(Asafi yya I, No. 433-4, Tradi t i ons) : an Arabi c com-
ment ar y on t he Sahi h of al -Bukharl
: Thi s work consisted of as
many as t went y-four volumes of which the first dealt
wi t h memoirs of the saints and the last four, wi t h
Tradi t i oni st s and comment at ors of t he Qur'an.
b. J a'fa
.
one in Arabi c and the
ot her i n Persi an. The l at t er was uni que i n t hi s t hat i t
had been based on Tradi t i ons, handed down by the
Ahl-i-Bayt.
The aut hor
embodied in t hi s comment ary t he vi ews of t he pri nci pal
School s of Juri sprudence/
al-Lahur
(d. 1098/1687).
was born
pp. 44-46 ; Yad~i-AyyUtn,
pp. 214-15.
4. Ma'arif
He died at Ahmadabad in J umada
p. 61 s.v. Md.
al-'AwUrif.
1111/November,
vol. VI , s.v. Md. b. Ja'far al-KujrSti
s,v. - *&J I
c
^ \ T.
i n t wo vol umes.
1699.
3

; T. 'UlamW
'Ulama';
S 16 $
:
*
r
II ,
i
p. 216.
p. 210.
4.
{Hi)
i a
Nuzha,
3. He was
2. These
1. Nuzha,
Shark Mishkdt
i-Rashidiyya,
Jawnpurl
Oudh. Na' l m
down at Badl '
t he ret i nue of Sal ar
Hi s grandfat her Shaykh Plr
al-Awadi
6. Mawldncl
Kittib
Hi) Al-MtSlim
Al-Khayr
(1069-1119).
and educated at
166 I NDI A' S C O N T R I B U T I O N TO H A D I T H
Muntakhab
(d.
Na im

L I T E R A T U R E
Lahore. An accompl i shed Tradi t i oni s t
and philosopher, Abu Yusuf was a professor in
Madrasa-i -Shahj ahani yya
Hi s official dut ies apart, Abu Yusuf used
to deliver lectures on di fferent aspects of Musl i m
learning. He
His works
al-J ari
fi Shark Sahih Muslim.
al-Musaffa
b. Md. Fayd al-Siddiq
al-J awnpur
(d. 1120/1708)
came t o Oudh i n
Mas ' ud
3

Sara'
was a pupil of ' Abd
1083), the famous aut hor of the Man&%ira-
lived over a century and died at Jawnpur
i n Safar, 1120/1708
His wor k
al-Masabih
Vol. VI ; Rizq
his Nuzha
works have been referred to by 'Abd
a sister's son to Sultan Mahmud
Vol . VI , s. v.
in Del hi and subsequently
accepted the office of the Mlr-i-'Adil
Allah, aUUJ q
at-Tawankh,
under Shah Jahan
(1037-69) and was elevated to the position of the
Nazir-i-Mahakim
fi Shark Sahih
or Baddu Saral,
al-Mubln
al-Hayy
and Ma'arif
of Ghazmn
Vol. Il l ,
during the reign of Awrangzib
di ed i n Del hi i n 1098/1687.
1

aUBukhar
fi Shark al-Muwaatt
and hi s fat her who set t l ed
had been Mufti
al -Rashfd
: The work was
compi l ed aft er t he eyesi ght of the aut hor had become
defective.
4

; Mir'tt-i-'Alam
Nadawl
al-'Awarif
(Haig, tr
p. 46, n. 6).
:
i
\
i
i
.
al-
.
:
.
in
.
Na'Jm b. Fay$ .
Ahl
(iv)
[Hi)
Fikar,
Fikar
INDIAN TRADII
7. Shaykh
al-Hanafi
He was a native of Nasrpur in Sind and Jived in
the first half of the 12th century. He prepared an
elaborate comment ary on Ibn
called I nt'dn
a MS. copy of which is in the library of the late
Mawlana ' Abd
Lucknow.
8. Shaykh Yahyd
(i 080-114-4/ 1669-1731)
A disciple of his uncle Shaykh Afdal
Rahman Uahabadi
Jumada
His works
(i) Vanat al-Qari
Bukhfiri,
Bukhan' s
(it) Arba'in
Tadhkirat
Ma'khadh
al-Bayt
[v) Sharh Hadlth
(vi) Tarjuma
1. Nuzha,
3. Ma'ZrifalsAwUrif,
4. Nuzha,
al -Hayy
al-Ptiq&d
Muhammad Akram
al-Sindi
al-Nazar
al -Lakhnawi
b. AmJ n
(d. 1124), Yahya was popul arl y
known as Khub Al l ah Ilahabadi.
fi Shcth
Vol. VI ,
b.
f i
SindX


k
Abd
(d. circ.
Ha
Tawdlh
at Firing!
al^Abbdsl
He was a scholar of
varied learning and a good Tradi t ionist . li e
f i Sharh Thulathiyydt
al-Sahabat
Wa%cCif
s.v. Muhammad Akram b. 'Abd
.
2. Sarw-i-Azad,
a
ah Rahma
1130/1717).
jar's Nukhbat al-
Nukhbat al-
Mahal,
al-llahabad
b. 'Ab
died in
I, 1144/1731.
2

al
an elaborate Arabic comment ary on al
Thulathiyyat
al-Ashab
wa
(in Arabic).
al-Nabi.
1-Rahman
pp 210-212.
Vol. VI .
IONISTS 167
n
'
1

i
.
d
:
-
-
?
.
.
1

al-
s.v. O ^ & J
c
>
Ma
1.
(ii)
Qurrat
mayn,
then
166
Sarwi-AzZd,
Risala-i-Najatlya
al-Ain
Khan (d. 1151)*
The Madrasa of Fakhir at Allahabad had possessed
a copy of the Sahl h
but on his way he fell il l and di ed at Burhanpur
on the 11th Dhul -Hi j j a
on boat vi a ' Azi mabad
f r om 1156/1743 to 1158/1745. Back at Allahabad
in 1159/1746,
Hayat al -Si ndl
studied Hadi th
plume [takhallus)
Fakhir, a son of Shah Yahya al-IIahabadl,
INDIA' S CONTRIBUTION
No. 5.
1038),
dar


l
A
' d.
pp. 212-18 ; Itha
qaHd-i-I iadithlya
f
(pu

TO HADI T H LI TERATUR
9. Shah Muhammad Fakhir al-I lahabftd
(1120-64/1708-50).
was a
well-known poet who wrote poems with his nom-de-
ZU'vc.
literature at al -Mndlna
1163)
he reached Hooghl y
(Patna) and Murshidabad and
embarked on a ship bound for the Hi j az. But due t o a
catastrophe in the Bay of Bengal, the vessel touched
early in 1161/1748
of that year. Fakhir had been
intimate with Shah Wal l
was a fellow-student of Azad al -Bilgrami
1

of Muslim from which Ruh
made a reproduction which last is, now,
preserved i n t he l ibrary of Habl bganj .
His works on Hadi th :
ft I thbftt
b-
Iished and to be had in the family library of
Mawlana 'Abd
p. 339 ; Nawshahrawl,
Vol. I, pp. 334-40;
2. MU'thir,
Tiqsar,
pp. 287
t he port of Chi t tagong
All ah al-Baql
3. Ma'arif,
He was also
where after
staying for three or four mont hs, Fakhir returned home.
In Sha' ban,
Allah al -Di hl awi
Rafi*
of Dl naj par,
Vol . XXIII,
4. Ithaf.
a Muhaddith
wi t h Shaykh
first in the year 1150/1737
i n t he fol l owi ng year
1164/1750, he again started for the Hara-
(d. 1172)
al -Aml n
al-Yadain.
Bengal).
Thi s Persian treatise was composed at Islamabad
(Chittagong) during his short stay there in 1161/1748,
Tarajim.i-'Ulamci^-i-Hadith-i.Hind
No. 2 ; pp. 01-2
p. 406.
E
l
and
a nd
and
.
'
m
*
It
(Delhi.
p. 115.
.
khas
c
Abd
(in)
1. Ibid, pp. 84, 406.
Nawwab Ikram
was a pupi l of Mahbub-i -' Al am
Nur al -Di n
17. M
1722-23.
Dihlawi
of Ashiat
Inheri tance (Mawarith).
Geomet ry, Ar i t hmet i c, UstarJab
highl y l earned not only
al -Rashl d
al-Hanafi
70. Mawlctncl
(iv) Mathnawi
Na%m
enunci ates the doctrines of the Sunnis
awl and Nut
(q. v. ) ; he also
acquired the Science f r om Makkl

INDIAN TRADITIONIST
from the view-
poi nt of Apostoli c Tradi t i ons.
1


{
I barat-i-Sifr
dar TaWlf
Amin al-Dln b.
al-J awnpnri(
Bor n and educated at Jawnpur under Arshad b .
al - J awnpun,
in Tr adi t i on but also
and the La w of
He made a synopsis, Mulakh-
al-Lamd'at
(d. 1052).
His death-date has not come down t o us.
4

al-Dln b. Salih
(1063-1155/1653-1742)
was an emi nent t eacher and a prol i fi c
aut hor of Ahmadabad. He i s credit ed to have compi led
as many as 150 books chiefl y commentaries and
annotations (shuruh wa hawashi).
Tradi t i oni st s on
the occasion of his pi l gri mage to the Har ama yn in
1143/1730. Hi s Madrasa at Ahmadabad known as
the HidZyat
a l - Dl n , a Sadr of Guj arat wi t h a huge
sum of rupees one lac and t went y-f our thousand, had
2. Ibid.
of Shaykh
Bakhsh
3. Ibid.
4 . Nuzha,
Mahmud
Ami n
'Abd
which was housed i n a pal at i al
const ruct i on bui l t for hi m i n 1111/1699
vol. VI ;


L
llm
al-Safada.
2

liadith
aVUmarl
1072-1145/1661-1732).
al -Dl n was a teacher
al -Haqq
He l i ved as late as the year 1135/
al-Ahmadabad
In al -Hadi th
by hi s di sci pl e
Ganj-i-Arshadi
S 169
?
in
al-
l
.
he
.
'Aq&id
12.
Nilt
3. Ma'arif
1. YUd-i-Ayyatn,
"I brat-Nama!
Ahl
fat her who was '
1705. Our author Mi rza
his father, Rust am, later on Mu' t ami d
was born at Jalalabad (now i n Afghanistan) on Fr i day
21, Jumada
Md . b. Rus t a m
Mirza
al-Qdri
di ed at Ahmadabad
170 I NDI A' S
aU'AwUrif,
2. Ibid,
p. 33.
al-Sunna
a man of great erudi t i on. ' At the
age of fifteen he wrote his Risala
I, 1098/ApriI,
b. Qubbad
Shark Sahih
on Monday, 9th Sha' ban,
s.v. - ^>1>
pp. 61-62 ;
and with this work he was
i nt roduced t o Awrangzib i n 1115/1703 by Ruh
Nuzha,
M
4. For MSS. copies of Tarlkh-i-Mukammadi,
All ah
Khan and received from the Emperor a Mansab
vol. Ill ,
623.
5. Rieu, loc.
Ethe,
of six
hundred. Besides his compi l at i ons on Hadi t h
cit., Bankipur, l oc. cit.; Buhar,

CONTRI BUTI ON TO HADI T H L I T E R A T U R E
been a great educational i nst i t ut i on.
1
Nur al-Din
1155/
Sept., 1742, at the age of ni net y-one and was buri ed
within the premises of his Madrasa.
His work:
al-Bukhar
Muhammad b. Rustam al-Badakhsh
(1098-1195/1687-1781).
al-Harithi
1687. Hi s grandfather,
Qubbad Beg, who had received from Awrangzib the title
of Diyanat Khan,
Khan, ser ved
under Awrangzi b and fel l i n t he Deccan wars in 1117/
Muhammad read wi t h his
Radd al-Bid'a
not ed
below, Mi rza Muhammad i s t he aut hor of t wo val uabl e
historical works, viz.,
He died after the year 1190/1776
when he compl et ed his Tdrikh-i-Mufyammadi
vol. VI ;
p. 895a and a MSS. copy of 'I brat-Nama,
3889-90 ; Rieu
vol. VI , s.v. Md. b. Rustam al-Badakhshi;
vol. II , p. 245 ; Nuzha,
Hada'iq,
died at Delhi in 1083/1672,
Tdrikh-i-Muhammadi
pp. 443-44;
pp. 247-48 ; Ma'arif, vol. XXI I No. 5, p. 341;
Banklpur.
Storey,
T. *Ulama
al -3adakhshl
While
wa
and
Supplement, Mir'at
pp. 56-58.
vol. VII, No.
vol. II , p, 141;
Brockelmann, Sup. I, p. 600.
2


u
i
?
;
Ahmadl,
Ahl
{Hi)
Ansab.
(ii)
(*)
1. For detailed description of the contents,
was a nat i ve of Jul l andhar
Awhad al -Di n
73. Mirza J an al-Biraki (d. circ.
al-Rashidin
(iv) TuJ tfat
Husain Al l
al-Bayt
Nuzul
It was written at Delhi in Rabl '
Dar al - ' Ul um,
Tarajim
di vi ded i nt o chapt ers. It was taken up in Ramadan,
1123/1711
virtues and
Miftah
Buhar vol. II , pp. 245-60.
i n t he Punj ab. He was a
Tradi t i oni st of t he el event h cent ury.
1

Mlrza
( Ra mpur
al-MuJ iibbin
Khan al -Husaynl
al-Athar,
al-Abrar
Deoband copy, see Burhan,
al-Huj}a%
excellences of Ahl-i-Bayl,
al-Naja
fl

INDIAN TRADITIONIST
Hi s works
ft Manaqib
the descendant s
of the Prophet, chi efl y based on Tradi t i ons t oget her
wi t h a short account of t hei r births and deaths. The
book i s di vi ded i nt o fi ve parts which are again sub-
and was finished on the 17th Muharram,
1124/1712 at Lahor e.
1

(Buhar
ed. Delhi,
1940, p. 378), a two-volume biographical work on the
eminent Tradi t i oni st s (Huffaz)
I , 1146/
August, 1733.
bi ma
a collection of Ahadith
al -BarhuwI.
Manaqib al-Khulafa*
No. 668): on the virtues and
excel lences of the Four Ort hodox Cal i phs.
4

1100)
Jan al-Biraki al -Jal andhari
Not hi ng more
about hi m i s avai l abl e.
2. For detailed description ibid, pp. 285-88.
arranged alphabet i cal l y
and is based primarily on al -Sam' anl ' s
Sahfya
3. Nut ha, loc. cit.
al-'Aba:
Nos.
Kitab
min
giving
correct est i mat e of t he descendants of t he Prophet .
The treat ise was composed for the Amir
4. Brockelmann,
on the
252-3 ;
al-
Manaqib
al -Umara
5. /*A5/,p.
S 171
for
2

3

,
loc. cit.
173.
I zcllat
Nazm
1. Banklpur Catalogue, vol. XV , pp. 94-95
Qutb al-Din
al-Fasftdat
He learnt Hadi t h in the Har amayn under Shaykh
Yahya b. Salih
Sayyid 'Alirn
XV . No. 1033):
al-Durar
2. Tadhkira-i-'Ulama/
al -Rahl m
Abu


c
Abd
a comprehensi ve
3. Hada'iq,
p. 147.
al -' Umarl
al-'Azlz
al -Hanafi
Ahmad b. 'Abd

17 2 INDIA'S
His work:
wa
Arabi c work on t he
Prophet's l i fe, miracles, prerogatives and distinct i ve
merits as described
pleted on the 2nd Dhul-llijj-i,
Allah Jalai idharl
J awahir.
14. Muhammad Siddlq
al-Makkl
of whom the latter grant ed him I jaza
in 1170/1756. Muhammad Si ddl q was born in 1128/
1716 and died i n 1193/1779
Masj i d-i -WazIrkhan
His work :
ft Shark Mandqib
comment ar y of Dawl at abadf s
Section V. Shah Wall
MulidadithunXl
Shah Wall
known as Shah Wall
al-DihlawI,
pp. 461-62; T. 'UlatnZ,
popularly
CONTRIBUTION TO HADITH
'l-Marjan
in Ahadith.
1091/ December,
(d. 1202) translated the
work into Persi an under the t i de
ahLahurl
and Abu' I-Hasan
at Lahore where his father,
who was a native of Ka'jul,
al-Sddat,
Allah ahDihlawi
Allah, the celebrated Indian
Tradi t ionist ,
p. 194; Nuzha,
LITERATURE
(Banklpur, Vol.
The work was com-
1680.
1

of Nathr ah
(1128-93/1716-79)
al-Sindi
at al -Madi na
had been Imam of the
a
Manaqib ahSadat (q.v.
supra, 65) with criticism.
3

Allah and his School of
146-1283/1734-1866)
(1114-76/1703-62)
traces his descent f r om Cal i ph ' Uma
vol. VI , s . v

2

.
.
.
.
r
.
.
Al l ah!
hel d
MishkM
Makki
Masdbih
Bukhdri
i
1. Shah 'Abd al-'AzIz
dur i ng the year 1159/ 1746,
al-Masablh,
Sihah Sitta?
f o un d e d b y hi s f a t he r , wh i c h , a s numbe r of s t ude nt s
gr e w r a p i d l y, wa s s ubs equent l y r e mo ve d t o a spaci ous
bui l di ng
and '
al - Makki .
1

the Muwjlta'
and the Hisn
mont hs , s t ud yi n g the Sihrib
t o t he Ha r a ma y n
the Fatawx-i-'Alamglri.
f at her Wb d
wi t h Af dal
ShamdHl
c ompl e t e d t h e hi ghe s t Ma d r a s a
Awr angzl b,
a l - Fa r uq.
A.H.),pp. 22-30.
2. Musaffa
the Muwatta\
Uma r

Hasln

INDIAN TRADITIONIST
Bo r n at De l h i on Wednes da y, Sha wwa l
14, 1 1 H/ Fe b . ,
Shah Wal l
cour s e o f t h e d a y wh e n
he r eached t he ape of fi ft een. As r e ga r ds hi s s t ud y of
TTadlth,
al-Nabl

al - Si yal kut l
a l - Ra h i m
In 1143/1730,
a n d s t a ye d t her e for
Sitta,
unde r Abu Tahi r b.
of Mal i k u nd e r Wa f d
Al so he read wi t h Ta j al - Dl n
b. Ahmad al - Makki .
2

opened a Ha d l t h
gi ven f or t he pur pos e by Emp e r o r Mu h a mma d
Shah (1131-61/ 1719-48). He r e he l e c t ur e d ' o n
the Musnad
etc., for a qua r t e r of a c e n t u r y.
Th e me t h o d of h i s i mp a r t i n g i ns t r uc t i ons was t hat he
wo u l d f i rst ma ke hi s st udent s read out t hei r d a i l y
l essons f o r t he ms el ves a n d t h e n h e wo u l d d i s c o u r s e
upon t h e m. In the l ect ur es of the Sahih
Khawaj a Aml n
had been one of the qarisf
al-DihlawI,
Sharh-i-Muwatta*

Ibrahi m a ! - Kur di

al - Shaf i ' l
(<1.
1703f our
Al l a h began hi s educat i on at t he
age of f i ve, l ear nt t he Qur ' a n
he r ead in Indi a the Mishkdt al-Masdbth,
1146)
( d . 1131) , one
lie
a ] - Ma d a n l
He ret urned
t o De l h i on Fr i d a y , Ra j a h 14, 1 1 4 6 / De c .
al-D&rimi.
'Ujala-i-Nafi'a
(Faruql
I, p. 22.
3. Banklpur
year s bef or e t he d e a t h of
by hear t whe n s e ven
the
and a port i on of the Sahih
and his own
of t he edi t or s of
pr oc e ede d
f o u r t e e n
the Mishkat al-
(d. 1145) a n d
Al l ah al - Mal i k
al - Qal ' i
1733,
cl ass i n Ma d r a s a - i - Ra h l mi y y a
t he
the
al-Bukhctri
Wal l
or r e ade r s , and
(Lahore, 1302
Press, Delhi, 1293 A.H.) vol.
Cat., V (1), p.
S 173
a n d
al -
l
*
al-
a n d
22.
4. Ibid.
badi,
c
Abd
Musajfa
1. Ibid.
cent to the Khun I
1176/July
and others have come down to us.
2
Shah
Suratl,
Phu!a,
surnamed Ba i h a q J
Shah Sahib, the names of
al-AzIz
I mSn s
Shafi' ite
cul arl y those existing between the Hanafi t e
and Musawwcl,
In presenting the mastfil-i-fighlyya,
Muhammad Ilahabadl,
174 I NDI A' S
Wal l
'1- Waq
f
,
(Jadi
2. Nawshahrawl,
Darwaza, his grave along with those
of hi s fami l y members exists to this day.
3
Hi s works
on Hadi t h:
Rafi'
Khawaj i
schools. Wit h that end in view, he would
analyze all those Masa'ili'fiqhlyya
Shah Sahib's
Vol. I, p 15.
emphasizi ng over
their points of agreement only, without gi vi ng prefer-
ence to one school over t he ot her a
3. Alojuz* aULa\%f (autobiography) with Eng. tr. by M. Hidayat
Husain. JRASB (1912). pp. 161-75 ; Y3ni* al-J anl,
pp. 447-48
pp. 113-38:
; I thaf,
Hada'iq,
p. 448 ; Abjad, pp. 912 seq ; T,
250-52; Nuzha, VI , s.v. Shah Wall
'Ulamtf-uHind, pp.
op. cit. pp. 4-48 ;
Allah al-DihlawI
Allah Number
Ma'arif.
; Nawshahrawl,
Gudharawl,
vol. XXII . No. 5, pp. 341-43 ; al-Furq5n
(
Wal l
(Bareilly, 1941) 2nd ed.
Walt
pp 177-79, 230-38, 401-10 ; Ism a II

CONTRI BUTI ON TO HADI T H L I T E R A T U R E
one of the sami'Un,
as he did in his
main endeavour
had been not to accentuate but to mi ni mi z e the
differences existing
and t he
process that not
only helped to broaden the vision and outlook of the
young l earners but al so
and the systems they sponsored.
Of his distinguished pupils, his eldest son Shah
excepted, who
Thana
1

Muhamma d


1

Ami'n YVall
a' - Dl n
Allah died on the 29th of Muharram ,
1762, in D-*lhi

{i) Hujjatu'llah
Tarajim-i-Vlama'-i-Hadith-i-Hind
(Cawnpur,
Allah (Delhi, nd); Mukhtar Ahmad, Kh3ndan-i-'Ati*i
n. d.) pp. 1-26 ; 'Ubaid Allah SindhI,
D. i, p. 43 n. i;
Hi xb
in the Madhahib-i-Arba\
i ncul cat ed i n them a spi ri t of
respect and largci-hearted
read Hadi t h
AliahT,
MuradabadT,
where at Mahandl yan,
gX-Bdligha
(Delhi,
(Lahore, 1942), p. 13,
Encv. of I slam,
BanklpUr
listeners.
1

parti-
t olerat ion for all the four
with the
Allah Panl pat I
Khayr al-Dl n
Muhammad llaha
adja-
: a work of encyclo-
paedic character, dealing wi t h Islamic j urisprudence,
1038),
vol. I, pp, 1012 ; Storey, vol. I. pp. 2Q-22
Cat., V (i),
Ashiq
-
:
pp. 5-6 .
Jamal
Imam
(J>UJI jg-tf)
1. Hujjatu'llUh
mitted by 'Al l
Hi) Arba'in:
Khan of Bhopal.
4
Its Egypt i an
of Nawwab
Among the Shah Sahib's cont ri but i ons, the
Hujjatulldh
Dawud and al -Nasa' i
Malik and into the second,
copious quotations from the Qur'Sn
last but
2. Ibid,
al-Baligha
b. Ab i
Siddiq
al-B&ligha
and Ahadlih.
not the least asrar al-Din,
Tali b
pp. 106-07.
Hasan, our Indian SuyutI,
A
chapter of t he work has been devoted to the discus-
sions of the tabaqit,
the philosophical
expositions of the rites and rituals of Islam,

INDIAN TRADITIONIST
t heol ogy, physics, met aphysi cs, domest ic economy
political economy (i^^J I
t he most
i mport ant part of the science of Tr adi t i on
1
and the
quintessence of the science of epistemology,
the gradations of the books on
Traditions into the first rank of which Shah Sahib has,
along with the Sahlhan,
the Sunans
and the JSmi
1

shall always stand out as a
monumental work which the Muslim India has ever
produced and whi ch won for her appl ause and admi ra-
tion fro m the rest of the Isl amdom.
this
book is unique in its kind, the like of which none of
the ' Ul ama '
produce for t he l ast
The work was first lithographed at the Siddiql
Press, BareiJly,
edition was
published in 1322-23/1904-05 from al -Mat ba'
Khai nyya ,
a selection of forty Ahadlth
and handed down to the
posterit y t hrough his descendants. Its UrdQ
lation with marginal notes by Khurram \Ali
(Cairo,
3. I thaf.p.
of ' Arab and 'Aja m
^. LuJI
71.
) and the
wi t h
included the Muwatta?
of Abu
of al -Ti rmi dh l
In the opinion
has ever been able to
t wel ve hundred years.
3

in 1285/1868 at the i nst ance of Munshi
at al-
Cai ro. The work has al so been translated
i nt o Ur d u by some Indian scholars.
trans-
trans-
Bal har
1322 A.H.), 1,
4. MukhtSr
S 175
of
onl y.
2

l
p. 3 .
Ahmad, op. cit., p, 18.
[v)
al-Amln
Arbcfln
(tit)
1. Taskhtr,
the Shah Sahi b before 1160/1747
Al-Fadl
: a collection of forty sayings t hat Shah Sahi b
and his Shuytikh
pp. 2-3. Thanks to the courtesy of Mr. (now Dr.) Saghlr

176 LVDIA'S
(d. 1271) was subsequently rendered i nt o a met ri cal
comment ary by Had!
under the title of TaskhJr
from t he Mus t af a!
Watkiqat
accompani ed by an Urdu interlinery t rans-
l at ion. The same work wi t h a Pushto met ri cal para-
phrase by


l
Ab d
from Delhi in 1303/1890.
(iv) Al-Durr
received direct from the Prophet in
dreams. It was published from Delhi in 1890, with
an
al-Mubin
al-Nabl al-Amln
handed down by t he groups
t he ShafWt e,
the Ahl -i -Bayt ,
or the Tradi t i oni st s of the East ern Provinces, the
poet -Tradi t i oni st s and other groups of i nt erest i n t he
science. Thi s very rare t reat i se was appended t o the
end of the second vol ume of al -Bukhan' s
scribed by Shaykh Muhammad Ilahabadi,
and i s preser ved i n
the Oriental Public Li brar y at Banklpur.
5

[vi)
account of his own Shuyukh
Hasan of Dacca University, I could avail of the Taskhtr.
Al-Irshad
2. JRAS
3. Ibid.
B
M
ila
4. This trc
al -Hall m
al-Thamln
Urdu translation by Zahlr
fVl-Musalsal
the Malikite,
Muhimmctt
Z. Ahmad (Ma'arif, pp.
f l
426-27).
al-Akhira
Kakakhel
Mubashsharat
al-Din
min
of Huffaz,
and the Hanbal i t e
Sahi h t r a n-
al-Isnad:
0. Banklpur Cat. V (1).
'Al l

CONTRIBUTION TO HADITH LITERATURE
of Lucknow i n 1270/1853
which latter was published
Press, Del hi , in 1283/1866.
1

commonl y called Chihil
Hadith : a Persian comment ar y of al -Nawawi ' s
was published
al-Nabl
Ahmad.
Hadith
:
4
a collection of Hadl t h-i -Musal sa
the Hanafi t e,
jurists,
the Spanish Traditionists, the Mashdriqa
a pupi l of
an
and of those through
whom Hadi t h had been t ransmi t t ed to them f r om the
No, 134 ,also pp. 23-24
*
3
l
m
42 5
noticed
,
1751
[viii)
[vii)
1. JRAS
Musawwa Sharh Muwatta


1

whi ch l at ter has been considered by the Shah Sahi b
as well as Imam al - Shaf i
4
I
those of the Hanaf i t e
t o?2t her
[ix) Musaffa Sharh Muwatta'
1
:
Hyderabad, for t he second t i me i n 1357/1938 and also
appended as muqaddima
Bukhan' s
exposition of the tatyamat
Shark Tarcfjim
Tarajim al-Bukhari:
Tarajim
B
2. Ibid.
3. Nashriyat-i-'Iltniyya
: written in 1164
discussions of masa
1

and the Shafi ' i te
Abwab al-Bukhari : an
t . t? s
/
or Cat. Dl'irat
il-i-fiqhiyya
al-abwab,

INDIAN TRADITIONIST
Prophet. It was l i t hographed wi t h Shah Sahi b' s
al-Bukhari
a brief notice of the
scope and met hod of al -Bukharl ' s
headl i nes
to the Sahlh al-Bukhari,
lithographed in the Asahh aI-Mat abi \
a concise two-
vol ume Persian comment ary of the Muwatta'
with its meani ng where necessary and has
stated, wi t hout gi vi ng preference to any school, the
view-points of the Madhahi b-i -Araba
4
,
here and there. The
commentary opens wi t h a muqaddima
(d. 204) as the pr emi er
authentic work on Hadi t h second only t o t he Our ' an.
and lithographed on the margin of Musaffa (q.v.)
publ i shed from the Faruql Press, Delhi, in 1293/1876.
Thi s is something like a Ta'liqat,
408 No


1

al-Ma'arif
of al-
(q.v.) in Delhi, 1307/1889.
1

SahiJi
Sahlh printed by the Da' i rat al -Ma' ari f,
Del hi , in
of
Imam Malik (d. 179) published first from the Faruql
Press, Del hi , in 1293/1876. Shah Sahib has i n t hi s
book given a Persian reproduct ion of every Hadi t h
part icul arl y
schools, wi t h
of t went y-t wo
pages devoted to Imam Mal i k and his Muwatta
1

margi nal notes in
Arabic on the Muwatta
1
of Malik, dealing primarily
(Hyderabad. 1363)
4. Musaffa
S 177
"
1

1940.
3

4

* "
Wal l
Kabl r
bandi
wa
{xii)
[xi)
Allahi
1. The statement of Dr. Z. Ahmad (Ma'arif,
Dihlawl.
al -Awl l ya' .
3

He was t ent h i n descent from Shaykh Jal al
al-Mujaddidi
1. Qctdi
TRADITIONISTS
I bn
MaktUbdt
Athdr
in Shawwal ,
Faruql
Musawwa
p. 420)
al -Dl n
al-Ma%harl
Than^
Taimlyya
met
1179/April,
point.
2. FurqSn.
In Hadith he was a pupil of Shah
p. 419, No. 30.
Allah and in mysticism of Mlrza Mazhar

178 I NDI A' S
with the opinions of the IJanafi t e
schools. Its bulk is about one-eighth of the Musaffd
and as such is not as comprehensi ve as the Musajfa.
A note at the end of the Musaffft,
Press, tells us t hat the Shah Sahib compi l ed
t his work towards the lat t er part of his l i fe but due to
his pressing literary preoccupations could not find t i me
t o revi se i t s fi rst draft and that the book was subse-
quently edited by his pupil, Khawaja Amln
1766,
t he demi se of t he Shah Sahi b.
al'Muhaddithin
Munaqib-i-I mftm
in Persian published with an Urdu
translation by Sayyid


4
Abd
Literary Society, Del hi .
BELONGING
SHAH WAL1 ALLA H AL-DIHLAW
Allah al-Panipati
(circ.
Jan-i-
Janan (d. ] 105). As a mark of his deep erudi t ion in
Hadi t h l i t erature he was designated BaihaqI
His Tafsir-i-Ma%hari,
is more comprehensive (jami')
that the
3. For him see, 'UthmanI,
Sytat al-Aq\ab (Newul
al-Kauf
or the BaihaqI of his time by Shah *Abd
than the Musaffa
Kishore,
TO TH E
1913),
CONTRI BUTI O N TO HADI T H L I T E R AT U R E
and the Shafi'ite
published at the
Wal l
four years after
(MS. Asaflyya)
al-Bukh&ri
of Nadhl rl yya
SCHOOL
al-Naqsh-
1145-1225/1732-
' 1-Waqt
al-'Azfz
which embodi es
is beside the
Lucknow,
pp. 197 seq.
1

.
2

O F
I
1810).
al-
Sharlt
'Ashiq
(ii)
Ibn
1. Ithaf,
1176/1762
his teens, ' Abd
rest of
aUMuwattaJ
Fultl.
Shah


l
Abd
al -' Ul u m
i s in possession
DaraqutnT
Haki m,
Maja,
f or Musl i m , *
wa H'Rashad
Hadl t h
numerous Ahadt t h,
UlamU*.
i3
pp. 240-41
by Shams al-Dln
l i t erat ure.
1

His work on Hadl t h :
(i) Al-Lubnb
p. 38 ;
; Tiqsar,
al -Sabhi
p. 113, Had&iq,
(d, 942)
dealing chi efl y wi t h the Prophet's noble qualities,
business

INDIAN TRADITI0N1ST
demonstrates his wi de survey over
(Bankl pur,
transactions and the manner of his l i vi n g
t oget her wi t h a col l ect i on of his prayers, command-
ments, decisions, etc. It has been stated in the
preface that Qadi
for Abu Dawud, u*
for Malik,
for al -Tabram,
and so on.
a

of Mawl ana Faruq of Madrasa Jami
c

at Cawnpur .
al-'Aziz
(1159-1239/1746-1823).
He recei ved hi s earl y educat i on wi t h t wo emi nent
disciples of his father, namel y, Khawaj a Amln
Then he entered t he seminary of hi s
father and t horoughl y read the Mastibih,
a port i on of the Sahihttn
t he Sihah
al-' AzIz
on his father' s demise, he succeeded hi m as
a Professor of his Madrasa and taught pri mar i l y the
Sciences of al -Qur' an
Ma'arif, vol. XXIII.
pp. 465-68
Tha na
1
Al l ah wrote the present wor k
at the suggestion of his preceptor Mazhar
op. cit. pp. 206 seq.
Jan-i-Janan.
He used the fol l owi n g abbrevi ati ons for t he aut hori t i es
referred to in his al-Lubab,
2. Blnklpur
XV , No. 1039) : an
abridgement of the third vol ume of the Subul
viz.,
for al -Nasa' i,
for al-Shafi' l,
Sitta. In 1174/1760,"
and al -Hadl t h
; Tadhkira-%-
Cat., XV,
^
^
No. 6,
al-Hudfi
for al -Bukhan,
for
for al
for al-DarmJ,
An autograph copy of al-Lubab
b. Wall Allah al-Dihlawi
the Musawwafi
and the
while still i n
compl et ed his education. In
f or a per i od wel l
pp. 444 seq ; Nawshahrawl,
pp. 102-03
3. Ma'arif,
S 179
f
-
k for
3

and
.
loc
v
ci t
No
1. Tadhhira-i-'Ulatna.
9

9. Khurram
7. Shah Rauf
6. H
5. Hasan 'All
1. Shah Raft'
p. 122; Abjad,
' AH Balharl
usain Ahmad (1201-75)
5, p. 346 ; vol. LIII,
p. 914?
pp. 49 seq
Ma'arif,
,
2. Nawshahrl, pp. 65-66.
3. Ibid. pp. 69-112.
4. Ibid. pp. 113-115.
5. Hada'iq, p. 4&1 .
6. tadhkira-i-'Ulama
1
p.
7. Ibid. p. 50 51.

180 INDIA'S CONTRIBUTION TO HADITH LITERATURE
over sixty years.
1
That he contributed materially
towards the diffusion and dissemination of Hadlt h
literature in India is borne out by his numerous pupiJs
who started the teaching of Hadlth at different centres
of India as shown below :
al-Din
younger brother of Shah ' Abd al-'AzJz
2. Shah Muhammad Isma'll
at Delhi.
3

3. Shah Muhammad Makhsus
4. Muft i Sadr al-Din
al-Muhaddith
Lucknow.
6

at Malihabad
Ahmad al -Moj addidl
Bhupal.
8. Shah Fadl -i -Rahman
1315) at Muradabad.
(d. 127J),
10

translator of aJ-Saghani's
No. 5, pp. 345-46
vol. XXI I
8. Ibid., pp. 66-67 ; Tadhkita-i-Kamilan-i-Rampiir,
9. Tadhkir-i-'UlamU,
; Nawshahrawl,
pp. 162-63.
al-Dihlawi (d. 1249),
Shahid (1193-1246)
Allah (d. 1273) at
al-Dihlawi (1204-1258) at
al-LakhnawI
near
Lucknow.
(d. 1249)
Ganj Muradabadl
the Urdu
Mashdriq
op. cit.
47.
pp. 143-47.
10. Ibid., pp. 66-7
a
at
Del hi .
8

Delhi.
4

Delhi.
5

at
at
"
(d.
9

al -
.
(ii)
(t)
1. Completed in 1249/1833 and lithographed repeatedly at Cawnpore
on Usul
''UjalcC-i-Nafia:
al-BaghawI
of Imam Malik and ending with al-Masfibih
Bustan
15. Salamat AUah
14. Karm
Hasan Khan, (120-157)
13. Awlad
12. Shah Zahur al -Haqq
11. Muhammad Shakur al -Ja' fari
10. Shah Abu Sa' l d
Anwar ent i t led Tuhfat
in 1917. 1925 and 1928.
al -Hadi th
al-Muhaddithin
al-Badavvni
AUah
Husai n,
al - OaJ andan
Machl ishahar
(1211-1300) at
(d. 1250) at Rampur
the Arba' i n
al-Akhydr
l

2. Supra,
[publ i shed]
9
:
al -Muhaddi t h
t he fat her of Nawwab
by Shah Wal l
and of
p. 175.
3. Supra, p. 145.
4. Tadkkira-i-'Vlanta\
6. Ma'arif,
p. 192.
vol. XXIII.

INDIAN TRADITION!STS
near Lucknow.
Al l ah
a

and
near A' zamgarh.
Sharif near Patna.
5

at Phulvvar
Siddl
at Qannuj .
(d. 1258) at
at Cawnpur.
8

Hi s works:
a popular
and i nformat i ve Persian treatise dealing wi t h i mpor-
tant works on al -Hadi t h
by
together wi t h short biographical sketches
of their aut hors.
a very useful Persian treatise
lithographed at Lahore in 1302
A.H . and Delhi in 1212 A.H .
6. Nawshahrawl,
No. 5, pp. 363-64
pp. 269 seq.
7. Tadhkira-i-'UlamW, p. 172
8. Ibid., pp. 77-80.
at Balhar
beginning with the Muwatta
1

9. Lithographed at Delhi in 1898 and subsequently.
181
Del hi .
3

4

t
l
q
6

Delhi.
7

.
.
In
182
1. Ibid., p. 178 ;
Over and above Shah Ishaq, Mazhar al-NanutQwi
4. Ma%har
Ahl-i -Hadith.
Nadhl r
of Mawlana
al -Nanut uwI and Ahmad 'All
Mul j addi thun
Nawshahrawl
his Tarajim
On t he death of Shah ' Abd al-'Azlz
3. Shah I shclg
I NDI A' S
-i-
l
U lama'
pp. 346-47
read the Science of Tr adi t i on wi t h Rashid
al -Saharanpurl
.
2. Nawshahrawl, pp. 119-20. 'Ubaid
al-DihlawI
al -Din
1942) pp
Allih
121 seq. ;
SindhI,
(d. 1249) and Muf t i Sadr al-Din
Awjaz
a l
aUMasZlik,
Di hl awl

CONTRI BUTI ON T O HADITH
b. Afdal
'(1192-1262/1778-1846).
in 1239/1823,
the professorship of his Madrasa devol ved on the
shoulders of his famous pupi l and grandson Shah
Ishaq who then abl y carried on the teaching of
al -Hadl th
- i - Hadlth - *
records the names of as many as 41
f r om di fferent parts of Indi a who were
pupils of Shah Ishaq
2
. Of them MawlanSs
were t he
pioneers of the Hadl t h learning at the Semi nary
of SaharanpGr
Qasim
Husai n founded the School of Muhaddi t hun
A notice of the above Tradi t i oni st s
out st andi ng as they are seems to be in pl ace here.
al-Nanittuwi
(d. 1273). He was the first Mudarri s, teacher and
Muhaddi t h of Mazahir al - ' Ul um
Ma'arif, vol. XXII , No. 6, p. 347 ; vol. LIII , No. 5.
3. Both Dar al -' Ul um,
vol . i . Muqaddima.
at Saharanpur.
4
The
Sha'ykh al -Hi nd Mawlana Ma^imGd
Fiqar ' All
Deoband, and Mazahir
Hixb
pQr,
for a period of 20 years. In
; Shah


c
Abd
al -Deobandi
(Lahore,
were founded in 1283/1866.
al-Faruqi
1259/1843, he
mi grat ed t o Makka where he di ed i n Raj ab
al -Ghani
al -Nanut uwI, the founder of the
famous Dar al -' Ul um
Hasan b. Dha' l -
(1268-1339),
pp 46*46.
4. Awjaz al-Mas3Uk, vol. i,
LiTERATtm
al-Dihlaw
1262/ June
- Hi nd,
Mazhar
was the teacher
at Deoband
3
; Mawl ana Sayyi d
(d. 1302/1884-5).
a former Hect or of
al - ' Ul um, Sahl r an-
p. 43 ; Ma' arif. vol . LIII, No. 5,
t
i
1846.
1

o f
p. 362.
INDIAN
3. Hada'iq,
1. Vide Sanad-i-Hadith
6. Shah


{
Abd
Del hi in J328
of al -Ti rmi dhi
hi m a useful Hawashi
and matn
which gives in a nutshell all that is required for a
st udent to understand the sanad
Ment i on in this connection may be made of his
f ami l i ar Ta%qat
collaborator the Mat ba' -i -Ahmadl ,
f r om al -Hi j az,
al -Hadl th
Del hi , Ahmad 'All
On receiving Sanad-i-Hadith
al'Saharanpuri
5. Ahmad 'Alt
Dar al -' Ul um
A. H . On the outbreak of the Mut i n y
of 1857, Mawl ana Ahmad 'All
(text) of the Sahih.
2


TRADITIONIST
of Deoband and the Shaykh of the
present Rector Mawlana Husain Ahmad al -Madanl ,
was a pupi l of Mawl ana Mazhar.
b. Lutf
(d. 1297/1880) '
from Shah Ishaq
performed Haj j and furt her st udi ed
wi t h Tradi t i oni st s of t he Har amayn.
he started under his own edi torship and
wi t h his distinguished pupil Mawlana Qasim
a lithograph press,
at Del hi which for quite a number of years did com-
mendable services towards the spread of Hadl t h
l i t erat ure i n t his country by publi shing st andard works.
(glosses) on the Sahih of al -Bukhari
(chain of authorities)
Further, he leaves
(marginal notes) on the J ami
1

lithographed at the Muj t aba-i -Press
dissolved his press, left
Del hi and went over to his native place Saharanpur
and subsequently became a Professor of Hadl t h in the
then newl y-founded Madrasa Mazahir a l -
4
UJ u m a
al-Ghani al
See above p. 146.
2. Ma'Srif.
of the Dar al-'Ulum,
p . 4 9 3 ;
Allah al-Ansar
Back
as his
behind
post which he abl y fi l led up unt il he died in 1297/1880.
Mujaddidl
(1235-1296/1819-79
Deoband
Awjaz,
S 183
1

i
at
a t
3

)
i
,
loc. ext .
vol. I, p. 45.
184
1. Hada'iq.
al-Masclbih
Born at Balthawa.in the district of Monghyr
9. Miycln
He read the Darsiyyat,
7. Qasim b. Asad b.
in
Bihar, Mlyan
the usual courses of
Arabic and Persian, with his uncle Mamluk 'All,
Sahib had his lessons in the Mishkat
the
first teacher of the Madrasa founded by the East India
Company at Delhi , and Hadith
and the exegesis of a portion of the Qur'an
al-Ghanl
with Shah *Abd
under Shah Muhammad Husain at Sadiqpur near
Patna. In 1243/1827, he "proceeded "to
al-Muj addidl.
joined the Hadit h class of Shah Ishaq
Delhi and
After acting for some time as
teacher of the aforesaid Madrasa, he joined the
Ahmadi Press at Delhi and worked with his teacher
Ahmad 'All in editing and annotating Hadit h works
unti l the Sepoy Mut i ny broke out in 1857. In 1277/
1860,
Haj l
he performed Haj j and became a disciple of
Imdad Allah (d."
In 1283/1866,
1317) then domiciled at Makka.
Imdad
at the instance of his preceptor Haj l
Allah and his teacher Shah 'Abd
Mawlana
al-Ghani,
Qasim

I NDI A' S C O N T R I B U T I O N T O HADITH
Ghulam
(1246-97/1830-80)
founded at Deoband an Arabic
Madrasa which shortly came to be known as Dar
al-' Ulum.
Sahib Sayyid Nadhir jHusain
al-bihlawi
from whom on
his passing the highest examination in Hadit h litera-
ture, he received a Sanad*
pp. 491-93 ; Hizb,
2. A copy of the San
Here the Shaykh al-Hind
Mahmud
Mawlana
Hasan, Fakhr al-Hasan al-Ganguhl, Ahmad
Husain al-Amruhl read Hadit h with Mawlana Qasim.
He died on Wednesday, the 4th Rabl*
p. 186, note 1;
LITERATURE
Shah al-NanUtuw
I, 1297/February,
1880 and was buried at Nanuta.
1

al-Bih3r
(1220-1320/1805-1902)
in 1258/1842. Then he
Ma'arif,
ad has been produced by Nawshahrawl
i
.
i
.
132)
loc. cit.
(op. cit.
1. Published in 1323 A.H. from Delhi.
TH E FOUNDATION OF THE DAR AL-'ULUM
biography, al-Hayat
started at Masjid-i-Awrangabadl
2.

INDIAN TRADITIONISTS
in Del hi a Madrasa
which was subsequently removed to a building at
Fatak-i-Habash Khan where the instit ution together
with a library called after the Mfyan
DEOBAND AND TH E MAZAHIR AL-'ULUM
SAHARANPUR
In chapter V, we have dwelt upon the Indian
Published in four volumes from Delhi in 1346-03 A.H
Nadhiriyya
Library exists to this day.
Like Shah


c
Abd al-'Aziz al-Dihlawi, Mtyan Sahib
taught Pladith lit erature for a period close upon sixty
years. Hi s fame as a Muhaddith spread throughout
Islamdom ; ardent students from Afghanistan, Bukhara,
Samarqand, al-Hijaz and even from far off Sudan
came to Del hi to read Hadlth
*
bctd al-Mamat, a list of 500
Traditionists who were pupils of the Miyan Sahib has
been preserved for us. Haiiz Ibrahim al-Arawl,
founder of Madrasa-i-Ahmadlyya
al-Haqq
the
at Ara, Shams
at Di yanuwl al-' Azl mabadi,
of the 'Awn
t he famous aut hor
al-Mc?bud f% Shark Abl Ddwud,
1

'Abd
Hafiz
al-Mannan of the Punjab, Nawwab Wahi d
al-Zaman of Hyderabad, 'Abd al-'AzIz al-Rahlmabadl
of Bihar, Hafiz


c
Abd
'Abd
Allah al -GhazIpurl
al -Rahman al-MubarakpQri
(d. 1322) and
of the Tuhfat
(d. 1353), the author
al-Ahwftdhi ft Shark Jdm? al-Tirmidhi*
Traditionists who dedicated their lives for the spread
of Hadlth learning and who sent out hundreds of their
own pupils all over Indiabelonged to the school of
the Miyan Sahib.
A centenarian, Mi yan Sahib died at Del hi on
Sunday, 10th Raj ab, 1320/October
3. Nawshahrawl,
Sahib as the
with hi m. In his
13, 1902, and was
buried at the cemetery of Shl dl pura.
pp. 132 seq
185
3

AT
AT
.
.
.
186
1. Encyclopedia
Traditionists belonging, among others, to the Schools
of Ahmad al-Sirhindl
INDIA' S CONTRIBUTION
of Islam,
(1000-1296),


c
Abd
vol. IV,
al-Dihlawi (1000-1229) and Shah Wal l
al-Haqq
Allah al-Dihlawi
(1145-1233). The School of ' Abd al-Haqq flourished
in Delhi until the close of the twelfth century A.II.,
when it was shifted to Rampur with Salam
al-Muhaddith
Allah
al -Rampurl as its head. The seat of
the School of Ahmad al -Sirhindl was at Sirhir.d in the
Punjab which was subjected to Sikh vandalism since
1124/1710.
1
In consequence this School too sought
refuge in 1177/1762

TO HADITH LI TERATURE
at Rampur.
2
Here, thanks to the
royal munificence of the then rulers of the Rampur State,
the Traditionists of the Schools of al-Sirhindl and
' Abd al-Haqq al -Di hl awi were able to work unham-
pered for the cause of Hadit h literature unt i l the
twenties of the thirteenth century when, with the death
of Salam
2, Supra*
p. 421.
Allah, the School of ' Abd al-Haqq came to
a close, while Shah 'Abu Sa'ld al-Mujaddidl (d. 1250),
the head of the other School, migrated to Delhi and
became a disciple of Shah


4
Abd al-'AzIz al-Dihlawi.
The School of al -Sirhindl thus became merged in t hat
of Shah Wall Allah. Shah 'Abd al-Ghanl b. Abi
Sa'ld al -Muj addi dl , the teacher of Mawlana Qasim
al-Nanutuwl, the founder of the Dar al-Ulum at
Deoband, was the most outstanding member of this
combined School of Muhaddithun. So, the Dar
al -' Ul um is as much a product of the School of Shah
Wall Allah as of al -Sirhindi. In fact, it embodies the
spirits of both. The Mazahir al -' Ul um at Saharanpur,
on the other hand, owed its growth to Mawlana
Mazhar al -Nanutuwl, a pupil of Shah Ishaq al -Di hl awi .
Since their foundation, these two Madrasas have been
under learned doctors providing, among other Islamic
sciences, higher studies in Hadi t h literature in India
and have been drawing students not only from Indian
p. 143 ,
and Shah Wal l
Thus the centuries-old practice of sailing for the
Haramayn on the part of Indian students, to specialize
in Hadl t h literature, has naturally been discontinued.
And the Dar al-'Ulum and the Mazahir al -
4
Ul um,

INDIAN f RADITIONlST
provinces but also f rom other parts of Islamdom.
t he
two great institutions in this country, stand out to-day
as the living monuments of the Mujaddid-i-Alf-i-ThanI
Allah al-Dihlawl
S
.

INDIAN TRADITIONISTS

PAR T II
OUTSIDE INDIA

1. Al-Baladhurl,
RO M the second century onwards we meet at the
seats of Isl ami c l earni ng part i cul arl y in the eastern
provinces of the Caliphate Tradi t ionist s and scholars
of outstanding reputation who, as has been ment i oned
in Asmi?
p. 373*-Murgotten,
al-Rijal*
tribe from Sind (Lisan
pp. 105 seq. al -Zutt-the
were Indians i n descent. When
and how they or their forefathers mi grat ed
Jat . a
at-'Arab,
gotten, p. 109. AghanI,
s.v. al-Zutt); Baladhuri,
p. 281, Sababija
Vol. XIV ,
p. 375Mur-
; cf. Tabarl.
p. 46. has Sayatija ; Ibn

CHAPTER I
EARL Y INDIA N RUWAT
to Isl ami c
countries and embraced Islam excites our curiosit y.
The biographical literature responsible for this
interesting reference does not give us any detail
whatsoever. For t unat el y, however, we possess some
historical evidences on the conversion of certain tribes
of Si nd to Isl am, who afterwards settled down in
al-' Iraq.
Section I
(a) Tribesmen of Sind I slamized
Pri or t o Islam a cont ingent of the Indi an soldiers
recruited f r om the formi dabl e Jats (al -Zutt), the
Sayabi j a and the Asawira served in the Persian army.
1

Vol. I, p. 1961 (Leiden).
The Sayabija may be identified with the Sameja
of the Begl ar Nama,
which was again a branch of the Sodhas. While Asawira was probably
identical with Wairsa, the chief clan among the Sodhas (Elliot,
p. 531). Sly ah, the leader of the Asawira (Baladhurl,
Vol. I,
p. 373) was probably
SItah or Sly ah = black, a designation signifying ' Black Indian.' It would
be noticed that even up to the ti me of the 'Abbasid al-Mahdl
775-89),
We have al so a few isolated accounts of the
Indi an war-prisoners being taken to Musl i m l ands at
di fferent t i mes of the earl y Arab expeditions to Indi a.
These are some of the fact s that throw added l i ght on
the scant i nfor mat i on supplied by our Asma?
(158-69-
the Sayabija and the Asawira
al-Rijal
lived and worked together (Tabar
.
Athlr, Vol. II ,
i
.
' They
edas Egypt ,
Hawmah
pl ied t her ei n".
and a number of other tribes f r om that province,
accompanied by t hei r fami l i es, t hei r chi l dren and their
buffaloes, '
this statement. A?ain
Sassanide empi re was l ai d low
Vol. IX , p. 327), an undoubted sign of attachment i nherent
among themselves. Thi s fact supplements our identification, namely,
that both the Asawira and the Sayabija belonged to the one and the
same tribe, the Sodhas of Sind. Also cf. Ma'arif,
p. 328. According to Gabriel Ferrand {Ency.
Vol. XII I No. 5,
the Sayabija
of Islam, Vol. IV , p. 201),
India,
were the descendants of the ancient Sumatran emigrants to
then to ' Iraq and the Persian Gulf.
1. Baladhurl, p. 373
Lubab,
Murgotten, pp. 106*107. Al-SuyutI (Lubb al-
p. 15) mistakes Asawira as batn
Evidently *ba\n*
(sub-tribe) of t he Banu Tami m.
Al-Sam'anI
is here an error for 'halif
(fol.
(ally) as in al-Baladhurl.
37 b) has a lacuna for this word. Later on, the Asawira
became allies of the Banu Sa'd. while the Jats and the Sayabi j a affi l i at ed

192 INDIA' S CONTRIBUTION TO HADITH
When duri ng the caliphate of ' Umar
before the onrush
the Arabs, these Indians, t aking stock of the situation,
went over to the victors and embraced Isl am. They
established themselves in and around al -Basra
at al -Basra called after t he Asawira f ur t her
2

after the conquest of Si nd by
Muhammad b. al -Qasi m
were brought t o al -Haj j aj
in the lower parts of Kaskar
1
,
possessed themselves in al -Bat lha
There the canal Zut t became famous
after the tribe.
5
A part of tha
or ' t he
[b) War
Fr om the start of their Indi an expeditions, the
Arabs carried wi t h them numerous captives who
[ Continued ]
themselves with the Banu Hanthala (Baladhurl, p. 374-Murgotten,
p. 107).
2. Baladhurl, p. 373 mMurgotten,
3. Le Strange, p. 42.
4. Baladhurl, p. 375 m
' s o me
tribe, however, appears
to have been shifted to KhuzistSn
di st ri ct of t he Zut t
1

Murgotten, p. 109.
5. YS' qut, Vol. II , p. 930.
LITERATURE
the mi ght y
and
became allies of the Banu Ta mi m.
1
Nahr al-As2Lwira
strengthens
of the Zut t of as-Sind
who Set t l ed
the district of Wasi t.
3

and mul t i -
and settled at
where on t he river
Tab stood a populous vil lage called al -Zut t
prisoners
6. Le Strange, p. 244
t hem
.
*
p. 106.
,
1. Tabari,
subsequently became converts to Islam and settled in
Musl i m countries. In 23/743,
pp. 2706-7 (Leiden),
' Umar,
duri ng the caliphate of
2. Raverty,
See above,
the Arabs for the first t i me came in confli ct
wi t h the Indians on the bank of the Indus.
1

1888), p. 668.
Notes
p. 8.
3. Baladurl,
on Afghanistan and part of Baluchistan
Indians became discomfited;
The
4. Abu'l
432Murgotten,
Vast booty was
captured, i ncl udi ng many elephants, and a great
number of captives were taken'
p. 16.
p. 210 *
5. Balidhurl,
Qasim
Muhallab
by the Arabs.
2

b.
6. Tabari,
p. 433-Murgotten,
Firishta,
Abl-Sufra
7. ton
Vol. III . pp. 476-77
TUftkh^Hind
launched an attack on the
frontiers of Indi a in 44/6G4,
3

.
al-'Jmld,
(Cawnpur, 1874).
and carri ed wi t h hi m a
host of 12,000 war prisoners some of whom, we are
t ol d, admi t ted themselves to t he f ai t h of Isl am/ In
about 57/676, al-Mundhir
Shadharat,
Qusdar
b. Jarud al-'Abdl conquered
(north-eastern part of modern Baluchistan)
and took many captives.
5
Dur i ng the next three
decades and a half preceding the conquest of Sind in
93/711, Indi an frontiers suffered sporadic raids by the
Arabs which evidently brought them many captives.
Agai n, early in 160/776, al-Mahdi (158-69/775-85) sent
a naval squadron to Indi a which attacked Barbad
(modern Bharbhut) on the Guj arat coast, and had a
successful combat wi t h the Indians. The prisoners of
war taken over to Muhammad b. Sulayman,
al-Basra,
wall of
included the princess of Barbad.
6
That by
the time of the next caliph al-Hadi

EARLY INDIAN RUWA
(169-70/785-6) the
Indian slaves drawn from war prisoners were scattered
throughout the Caliphate is apparent f r om an edict
said to have been issued by the Caliph to punish, for a
grievous offence committed by one of them, the slaves
en masse wherever they were found in his dominion.
In consequence, the price of the Indi an slaves f el l
down appreciably.
7
In the course of the f ourt h
(London,
Vol. I ,
Vol. I. p.
T 193
p. 211.
272 .
1 9 4
1. Ansab,
These Indian neo-Muslims
The Jats and their compatriots formed the
fighting elements of Islam and became a valuable
addition to the Musl i m army. Caliph Mu'awlya
century, Khurasan was flooded with i mport ed Indi an
slaves. For, already before 362 A. H . (972 A.D.),
fol. 693a; Le
a
Abu Ja' far
Strange, p. 422. The famous Hanafite
concentrated them against the Romans in Syria,
while 'Abd
quarter in Balkh
alBahtyya,
j uri st ,
al-Hinduwanl
Antaklya
al-Malik
where they usually alighted came to
be known as Hinduwfin.
1

'All
p. 73).
died i n 362 972-73.
'removed
Ibn
2. Kfaoda
(Lakhnawl,
and its environs.'
3

a part of the Zutt
Butlan,
(Pat na,
to
Bakhsh and Margoliouth,
Dur i ng the caliphate of
the well-known
physician of the early fifth century A.H . (X I A.D.),
1937), pp. 99.
the Jats and the Sayabija
writ ing about the art of purchasing of slaves, states:
" The
3. Ba lad hurl,
137.
p. 376Murgotten,
were pro-'Alid
4. Baladhurl,
pp. 110-111.
in al -
Ma'rifat al-AskSb
loc. cit., Ibn
Basra. Their valour and fidelity appeared to have
been proved as evidenced by the fact that a body of
the Jats were on sentry duties of the Bait al-Mftl i n
(Hyderabad. 1336)
'Abd al-Barr,
al-Basra
2nd ed..
KitUb
in the turmoil of the civil war during the
time of 'All.
4

al-lsti'yab

INDIA'S CONTRI BUTI ON TO HADI T H L I T E R A T U R E
(Indian) men are good house-managers and
experts in fine handicrafts but they are apt to die from
apoplexy at an early age. They are mostly brought
from Kandahar. The women of Sind are noted for
slim waist and long hair."
2

(c) Indian tribesmen in Muslim Army.
As many as four thousand soldiers from
the Asawira and the Sayabija strengthened the naval
squadron we have just menti oned.
constituted by the
Jats, the Asawira and the Sayabija l i vi ng in small
communities, maintained their racial integrity for
al-Fawa'id
The Renaissance oj
Vol . I , pp. 121-22
Islam
f i
,
1. Baladhuri,
Conversion to Islam and the association wi t h the
Arabs brought about a change of outlook among these
Indian tribes. We have it from the Futuh
p. 376Murgotten,
that the leader of the guards of the Bait al-Mal
p. 110.
in
2. Ibid., pp. 276 seq.Hitti,
al-Basra, Abu Salima,
122-23 .
3. Hitti, The History of the Arabs, pp. 241 seq.
pp. 435 seq;
habits (salih)
1
a
the Jat, was a man of pious
4. Ibn Sa'd (fabaqat,
fact that testifies to their transfor-
mation already at work. Now on they were not all
for fighting career. They betook themselves to
cultural activities and became elevated intellectually
and spiritually. Al-'IrSq
Vol. VIII,
was in her rising splendour
when the first Indi an tribes settled there. Ear l y in
the caliphate of ' Umar
part I, pp. 5-8) notices 150
arose al-Basra and al-Kufa
Companions of the Prophet who migrated to al-Basra.
which became the t wo metropolises of the Eastern
Caliphate.
2
These two cities soon became seats of
government as also of learning and culture.
3

5. Ma'arif,

EARLY INDIAN RUWAT
some time before they i denti fi ed themselves wi t h the
general body of the Musl i ms; while the Indi an slaves
referred to above remained scattered throughout
Arabia and the neighbouring Musl i m lands and
became merged with the Muslims almost immediately.
Section II
(a) Cultural activities of the tribesmen
al-Buld&n
Since
their foundation, the Companions of the Prophet came
down to settle there,
4
and opened classes for instruc-
tions in theology which attracted students f r om far
and near.
5
Now, these Indian Mawdli
Muir,
Vol. XLVII,
(clients) saw
before their eyes the growing activities for l ear ni ng i n
which they participated with success. It is refreshing
to note that as in the sphere of fighting so also in
The Caliphate, pp.
No. 6 (June, 1941) pp.
195
*
414-15 .
pp. 324 seq.), then his being a J
1. Ibid., Vol. XIII(5). p. 330. If it is a fact that bis grandfather
I I I . 'Abbas
II . AbQ
cult ural attainments, the Indi an neo-Muslims
Znta (J^^J)
*Isa
at is not unreasonable inasmuch
b. ' Abd
al-Uswari
second to none.
I. The great Imam Abu Hanl fa
as Kabul
Allah al -Sindi
(d. circ.
(80-150/699-767),
125) who belong-
e d t o a family of the Asawira of al -Basra was a R&wi
(transmitter of al-Hadlth)
Tahiti.
of high repute.
2
He was a

196 I NDI A' S CONTRI BUTI ON TO HADI T H L I T E R A T U R E
were
the celebrated founder of the Hanafit e
He narrated Hadi t h from t he celebrated
Abu Sa' i d
al-Antakl was
probabl y a descendant of t he Jat s or t he Sayabij a who
were removed to Antaklya in the caliphate of Mu'awlya
was originally from Kabul (ttrikh
had been the parent country of the Jats (Cunningham, Archaological
al -Khudrl (d. 74),
4
Abd
and also
and


4
Abd
f r om Rufai*
al-Malik.
5

Allah b. ' Umar(d. 74)
b. Mi hran
Hi s nisba
surnamed Abu 'l -'Allya
al-Antakl supports the
hypothesis. 'Abbas
(d. 93); while Thabit al -Bunam
studied Hadi t h literature under
al -Hayt ham
of India (Simla, 1871), Vol. II,
and 'Asirn
b. Jamil (d. 213) of Antaklya, Muhammad
b. Musal ama
pp. 54-55)
Survey
(d. 127), Qatada(d. 117)
al-Ahwal
(d. 221) of Makka, Sa'id
or at least he was an Indian for
(d. 143) transmitted Hadi t h on
the authority of Abu ' Isa
Khurasan, Muhammad b.
culturally Kabul formed a part of India (Watters,
al-Uswan.
3

b. Mansur of
Kat hl r
p. 123 ; Vol. II, p. 264).
have been produced i n t he Sahify
(d. 216) of al -Yaman
and Muslim b.
2. SuyutI,
His* Ahadlth
Al-Adab
Ibrahim (d. 222) and 'All
Lubb al-LubUb,
192, n. 1.
3. Ibn Hajar,
School, is
believed to have derived his descent f r om the Jats of
of Muslim a nd
al-Mufrad
al-Madlnl
Vol . I, p. 15;
4. KhulUsa,
AnsSb, fol. 375, cf.
Taqrib
p. 893
al-' Iraq.
by al-Bukharl.
(d. 234) of al-Basra. He was a reliable guarantor.
Baghdad, Vol . XIII,
Yuan Chwang, Vol.
above, p.
at-Tahdhib,
ft See above, p.
1

4

I,
p , 432.
.
194 .
b.
EAfcLV
3. Taqrib,
2. Khuttsa,
1. Tahdhtb,
War prisoners other than those ransomed were
treated as slaves whose manumission was reckoned as
an act of high merit. The Prophet is reported to have
said, "
IV . Aba 'l -Sindl
Al-Nasa'l
c f . pp. 4 ft 190.
They (the slaves) are your bret hren;
al-Wasiti
(d. 303), Abu 'Awana (d. 310) and other
Traditionists acquired Hadlth
4. See above, p. 192.
(d. circa 165).
it on the authority of ' Abbas.
1

f r om and t ransmi t t ed
6. MixSn,
Dhakwan surnamed Abu M-Sindf,
Suhail
6.
Vol. I, p. 482; LisUn,

INDIAN RUWA
in the Sunan
His Ahadlth
belonged pro-
bably to a family of the Jats who, after being separated
f r om their compatriots in al-Batlha,
(6) Cultural activities of the War-prisoners
Al l ah
subjects them under you. One whose brother is under
his subjection should feed hi m that which he himself
eats, and clothe him with that which he himself wears.
He should not impose upon him a task that which is
beyond his power. If he is to do that he should be
helped in."
6

Vol. V, p. 119.
p. 160.
Vide Muslim, al-Sahth;
Vol. Ill ,
settled down at
Wasit.
4
Hence is his nisba al-Wasitl. Abu 'l-Sindl
made himself famous as teacher of Hushaim (d. 181)
and Yazld b. Harun (d. 206) of Wasi t
pp. 124-25
But as a
Tradit i onist he was charged wi t h falsehood and his
traditions were rejected. Ibn
al-Bukhari,
.
J Utni'
Hi bban, however,
notices hi m in his Kitctb
mUSahth;
Hanbal, ml Musnad; Abu DawSd,
are found
of al - NasaV
al-Thiq&t
Ahmad b.
Sunan, s.v.
Sahl
al-Bab fl haqq
He died possibly in t he
second half of the third century A.H.
3

under t he name of
b. Dhakwan.
5

In adherence to this and other Apostolic
precepts, the Muslims generally meted out to the slaves
kind and brotherly treatment. They were given ample
to eat and wear, and were hardly called upon to
al-MamlOk
T 197
*
.
.
mawla

198 I NDI A' S CONT RI B UT I O N TO HADI T H L I T E R A T U R E
undertake physical labour beyond their capacity. But
what constituted the brightest chapter in the Muslim
treatment to the slaves was the facilities the former
provided for the development of the faculties of the
latter. For a master, to educate his slave was his
prime concern. Apart from humanitarian stand-point,
to educate a slave had its economic value. For, the
price of the slaves was usually determined by their
accomplishments
It stands to reason, therefore, t hat the slaves
recruited from the Indian war prisoners too enjoyed
all the privileges thrown open to their class as a whole
1. He is said to have been a war-prisoner from Kabul (Nawawt,
and the more the accomplishment
the higher the bargain. Therefore, side by side with
freemen, the bondmen also were trained up in reading
and writing and in arts and crafts. Education was not
denied even to a female slave [jariya). Now whatever
might have been the motivereligious or economi cit
undoubtedly contributed to the amelioration of the
conditions of the slaves. Given opportunity, the slaves
proved their worth and often enough excelled freemen.
For a bondman to become a savant was but a common
feature in the early Islam. The illustrious Nafi*
p. 689).
(d. 117)
1
and ' Ikrima
2. He was
seq.
of Ibn
3. The isnad
(d. 104),
2
both famous as the
' Umar
consisting of Malik, Nan'
Silsila tu
and Ibn
and Ibn 'Umar
'l-Dhahab
'Abbas, respectively,
were great authorities on Apostolic Traditions.
3
The
celebrated al-Hasan
or golden chain [Ibn Hajar,
pore,
al-Basn
1344 A.H.) p- 32, n2)
(d. 110) was a tnawla
Makhal
4. He was a Mawla
.
(d. 118), the jurist and Traditionist of Syr i a,
was a mawla*
of Zaid b. Thabit
'Abd
(d. 54) Nawawt,
a Barbar
Allah b. Mubarak, the master-
from al-Maghrib
is called
Nukhbat
5. He was a war-prisoner from Kabul
ahFikar
traditionist, was again a mawl&.
(Mauritania). Ibid,,
(Cawn-
6. Ibid., pp. 366 seq
;
4

6

ft
pp. 431
p. 209).
{Nawawt, p. 677).
.
(L^ * J^^*).
320 l
that al-Awza' I belonged to
settled there) was a village (40
p. 239. According to others,
Vide Nawawl.
2. For correct reading of this name,
af -Awza
4
],
1

Of t he descendants of pri soners of war f rom I ndi a ,
' Abd
1. Al-Awzz'i
l earni ng
al -Si ndl ,
and that comi ng
a family of Indian war-prisoners
adjacent to Bab al-Farad
3. Hi s ni sba
see Nawawl, op. cit. p. 382.
al - Rahman
Is in Damas-
cus where *Abd al-Rahman migrated and was accordingly
Awza'I, i.e., a native of Awza' (Nawawl,
Yaqut Mu' jam
p. 383; Ansab, fol.
al-Buidan,
53b. cf .
Vol . I , p. 403). Now the latter view appears to
be cogent. For, al-Awza' I was born and brought up at Ba' lbik and his

EARLY INDIAN RUWA
as they di d f rom I ndi a, t he home of
an anci ent ci vi l i zat i on, t hey were nat ural l y predi sposed
to qui ckl y pi ck up I s l ami c l earni ng whi ch desti ny
pl aced bef ore t hem. As a mat t er of f act , a number of
the descendants of I ndi an capti ves di sti ngui shed
themsel ves as savant s and schol ars, a mani f est testi -
mony to the cul t ural acti vi ti es di spl ayed by these
I ndi an neo - Mus l i ms .
a chari tabl e i nsti tuti on establ i shed by some
Indi an mawall
where Tradi t i oni s t s of note woul d hol d di s-
courses on t he s ubj ect .
1

(88-157/ 706-73)
b. *Amr
at t ai ned i mmort al name. Bo r n at Ba' l bi k
al-Awza' I has given occasion for different i nt erpreta-
pp. 382-83
Awza' (so called because the tribe Awza
connection wi t h Awza' was established onl y after his migration there.
migrated to Awza' and became famous as al-Awza'I (Tahdhib,
and t hat he
Apparently, therefore, ' Abd al -Rahman was associated with the village
Awza* and not wit h the tribe of t hat name,
tions. A section of the scholars including Ibn
HamdanI
Sa'd (d. 230/844) holds that
it is derived from Awza*,
and as such hi s bei ng a
or Himi yarJ
statement of Abu Zur' a
loc.
the sub-tribe of the Hamdan
is beside the point. The myst ery shroudi ng his
cit). The
is wei ght y. For,
(Tabaqat,
origin has, however, been unknotted by the Traditionist Abu Zur' a al -
he was the native of the same
cityDamascuswhere
b. Yuhmi d,
2

Vol. VII ,
Part II , p. 185) or of the Himiyar, or from awza'
; Ibn Haj ar ,
Dimishql
al-Awza'I had flourished
Al r e ady i n 240/ 854 i n t he Khan
i n Baghdad, was a srat of Hadi t h-
wel l known as
signifying diverse tribes
Tahdhib, Vol . VI
(d. 281. For him see Tahdhib, Vol . VI , p. 236) who says
about
knowledge of al-Awza'I.
thus expected
T 19 9
,
'
.
called
2 .
1. Ibn
'Umdat
200
Khallikan, WafayUt
have corroborated Abu Zur'a.
al-QUvi.
Hyderabad, Vol. I, p. 108 (sic)l vXi.*J\
for this reason,
A great Tradit i onist and an accomplished jurist
(FaqTh)
Al-Awza'l
in 88/706, al-Awza'l,
aUKamUl,
Nawawi, pp. 382 seq
(Egypt, 1310 A.H.) Vol. I,
See also SafI
the Traditionist and
al-Awza'l
ledge {rihla
undertook journey in quest of know-
by his mother.
poor and
An sab, fol.
al-J inlin,
53b;
; Dhahabf, Tadhhirat
p. 275;
(Egypt, 1322 A.H.). p. 197.
That al-Awza'I
was eloquently spoken of by his
contemporary scholars. In Hadith
f t talab
orphan, was brought up
name
Ibn Hajar
al-HuffSt,
was an Indian in descent is, further, borne out by the
Muhammad b. Shihab al -Zuhrl
he was a pupi l of
al-I lm).
Before he was in his teens, al-Awza'l
Vol. I, p. 3 3 3 :
Tahdhib,
Vol . I, pp. 168 seq ;
of his grandfather Yuhmid which was probably equivalent to, or
He proceeded to al-
precociously acquired erudition in the sciences of al -
Vol. VI.
contracted from, Brahmada
Basra wi t h a view to studying under the celebrated
al-Hasan
Qur'an,
been captured,
or Brahmananda. Yuhmid appears to have
al -Basrl
Traditi on and rhet oric, and, at his thirteenth,
he was called upon to decide legal issues (fatwd).
by the Arabs in their expedition to India during the
Al-Awza'l
Awza'
came down to Damascus and settled at

I NDI A' S CONTRI BUTI ON T O HADI T H LITERATURE
in the suberb of the city. Here he spent the
best years of his life. Later, at an advanced age, he
moved to Bayrut where in the bath he died on
Sunday, the 28th Safar, 157/773 as a frontier-guard
(tnurltbit).
(d. 110) but, to his disappointment,
the savant had died fort y days before his arri val.
There he met Muhammad b. Slrln
(d. 124), Nafi
1

historian al*DhahabI
^
ed. Egypt, Vol. I, p. 465 (sic) uXifcJl
ud-Din's
Caliphate of 'Umar
Shadhartt,
pp. 238 seq ; Ylfi'I,
Tadhhita.
*U>1
He maintained himself by his penman-
(d. 110) at his
death-bed.
(d. 117)
\ Tadhhita,
and al-'AIn
**~)
Khulct&a
(vide supra, p. 193)
Vol. I, p. 242.
p. 169.
ship.
1

8

ed.
i
3
Tahdhib
.
Mir< at
1. Nawawi,
During his life-time,
and other distinguished Tabtun^
EARLY INtUAN
pp. 383-84 ; Ibn
al-Awz&'i
Followers.
1

Ha
2. Ibn Hajar, Muqaddimat
jar, pp. 338-39.
was a star of the
first magnitude in the firmament of Hadith literature.
4

He was
pioneer in the collection and codification of Hadi t h in
Syria.
2
The fact that several of his Shuyukh?
p. 4.
al-Fath aUBar'i
3. Viz. Qatada,
An accredited authority on Sunn
and t he
Traditionists of the eminence of Malik (d. 179), Suf yan
Zuhrl
a
4. Eney.
and Yahya
of Syria, he offered
the decision of 7,000 or 8,000 legal points extempore.
5

al-Thawrl,
5.
of I slUm,
He also compiled two works in Fiqh, namely, Kitdb
Shu' ba
Sunna f l
Vol. I, p. 524.
7 Fiqh and Kitctb
and 'Abd
Nawawl. p. 384 ; Ibn Hajar,
al-Mastfil
Allah b. al -Mubarak
p. 242.
ft
6. Ibn al-Nadlm.
7 Fiqh.
6

Fihrist '.p. 318.
As
a matter of fact, his accomplishments in religious
and legal matters, his piety and asceti ci sm
7

7. He has been included among the early ascetics (Ibn al-Nadlm,
him to the rank of an ImQm^
elevated
p. 280) .
8. Tadhkira,
and his school flourished
in Syria and Spain during his life-time and after.*
p. 172;
"
9. Ibid.
The salient feature of his system ",
10. MaqdisI,
Shafi
c
l,
says Imam al-
Ahsan
(MS. BSnklpur,
al-TaqUtim,
"consisted
pp. 27 ; Dhahabi,
in a happy synthesis of Traditions
and his wonderfully sharp legal acumen.
1 , 9

Tabaqat
middle of the fourth century, Awztfyiat
Up t o t he
was a l i vi ng
order in Damascus;
1 0
there was provision for i mparting
lessons on, and publishing Fatwil
his Madhhab.
i n accordance wi t h,

RUWA
read
Hadith literature with him, throws light on the great
mastery he had in the science
His school, however, was gradually
eclipsed by the growing popularity of the Hanafite
and t he Mali kite systems, and does not seem to have
survived later than the fifth century A. H .
(Egypt, 1374 A.H.) Vol. I,
b. Abi Kathlr
Ibn Hajar p. 242
Patna) fol.
ahHuffoi
T 201
.
al~
.
.
194*96* '
was a native of Sind' (Khatlb,
4. Says Abu Nu' ai m
1. Tadhkira,
Soon Abu Ma'shar purchased his freedom and
curved out a halqa
A contemporary and a fellow-student of al -Awza'i,
2. Najih


l
Abd
AI-Mansur
Al-Awza'l
202 I NDI A' S
Tarihh
b JO*U> jJ u** (^ |
cf . AnsSb,
Baghdad, Vol. XIII .
) *
2. Ibid.,
pp. 170-71
(study-circle) of his own in al-
Naj i h 'Abd
al-Rahman
(136-158/753-74) held al-Awza'l
had the courage of conviction. He
denounced in no unequivocal terms aJ-Saffa,
loc. ci t,
3. Ibn
p. 172.
1322 A.H.) Vol.
; al-Duiabl.
p. 458). Also
Sanadia
al -' Imad
Madl na where he lectured
al -Rahman
al-Sindi
'Abbasid
the first
KUSb
Kitab
Fiqh.
ahAnsUb,
II . p. 120; Yaqut,
al Kuna
(Shadharat,
on Hadit h, Maghazl
al-Sindi,
3
surnamed
Caliph (132-6/750-3),
Mixa-n,
Mu'jam,
wa'l Asma'
and

CONTRI BUTI O N TO HADI T H L I T E R A T U R E
for his lust of Umayyad
i n high
esteem and listened to his lectures with attention and
respect.
(d. 170/786)
Abu
Ma'shar, was originally a native of Sind.
4
Kidnapped
in boyhood, he was sold into the hands of a certain
woman of the Banu Makhzum
Amongst his devpted pupils who transmitted
Vol . I , p. 419) misreads al-Sindi as al-
Abu Ma'shar
pp. 77 ; Tadhkira. Vol.
Vol. Ill ,
(Hyderabad,
in al-Madina. Dur i ng
his serfdom, Abu Ma'shar sat at the feet of the distin-
guished Tabiun of al-Madina, viz. Nafi'
Muhammad b. Ka' ab
(d. 117),
al-Qurazl
b. al -Munkadir (d.
(d. 108), Muhammad
130), Sa'ld al-Muqbarl
Hisham
p. 166 ; al-MaqdisI,
I, p. 216:
(d. i25) and
b. ' Ur wa
reading t hat has been followed by Ahmad Sa' id
Tahdhlb.
Vol. II , p. 228, Ma'arif,
(d. 146), and acquired proficiency in
Hadi t h and Maghdzi,
in his
Ghulaman~i>Islam
Vol. X, p. 419;
Vol. XXII .
particularly in the latter on which
he was reckoned
(Delhi, 1940), p. 360. For correct and popular reading,
No, (4). pp. 261-52.
6. Kkapb,
vide An sab
t
fol.
blood, and incurred his wrath. The Caliph was, how-
ever, later, pleased with his uprightness.
1

as an aut hori t y.
5

314b ; Taqnb,
p. 457.
1

.
p. 370.
w w
1. Ibid.;
As a Rawi
There, in the 'Abbasid
Already by the middle of the second century, his
reputation as a scholar had been established. For, al-
Hadit h on his aut horit y, mentioned may be made of
his son Muhammad (d.
Mahdl
Tahdhib,
of Hadi t h, Aba Ma'shar has been criti-
cally judged by Yahya b. Mu'in,
court , Abu Ma
c
shar
(158-69/774-85), on the occasion of his visit to
Makka in 160/776, made a present of 1,000 dinars to
Abu Ma' shar
2. Kha\tb
t

pp. 419-20.
al-Bukhan,
Ahmad b. Ilanbal,
was a
prominent figure among the learned.
3
He died in
Kamadan,
p. 468.
Musl i m, Abu Dawud, al -Nasa' i
170/786. Hi s funeral service was led by
Caliph Harun al -Rashld
3. Ency.
and others.
The maj ority are of opinion that Maghazi
of I slUm,
favourite subj ect;
was his
4. Ansab,
Vol. I, p. 100.
i n Hadit h, he coul d not fare wel l .
5
Whi l e a few i ncl udi ng Ahmad b. Hanbal and Ab u
Zur' a
l oc . c i t .
5. Tahdhi

EARL Y INDIAN RUWA
Laith b. Sa' d,
222), Sufyan al-Thawrl,
in recognition of his scholarship. Further,
the Caliph invited him to reside in Baghdad i mparti ng
instructions to the princes. Thus he bade adieu to
al-Madma
himself.
4
With a bulky figure
of grey-white complexion, Abu Ma'shar
Abu Matshar
(d. 281) regard hi m as f ai r l y trustworthy. "I
have not seen," says his pupil Hushaim, "one like h i m
or more intelligent than he."
7

6, loc. cit.
6. Tadhhira,
Hushaim, Waki'
and left
was a
st ammer er ;
But al l the views have
been very well summed up by al-Tirmidhi
loc. cit,
7. Tahdhib,?.
and Waqidl.
for Baghdad in 161 A.H.
he pronounced Muhammad b. Ka' ab
as a Transmitter of Hadith
when he
m
T 203
al-
1

*
as
Qa' ab .
.
.
says:
2. Khaftb,
An erstwhile Indian Mawla,
The Ahadlth
Abu Ma'shar
&
p. 4 6 0 ;
Aba Ma'shar
noticed by Ibn
was the author of Kitdb
J*'
3. Ibn Sa'd,
Tahdhtb, l oc.
achieved
great success in life. He was one of the early Islamic
scholars who was intimately associated with the growth
of Arab historiography and oral transmission of Hadlth.
al-Nadlm,
7

"
c i t ;
Vol. V. p. 309.
It is significant that by his own elevation he raised the
status of his house;
which survives only in
fragments numerous of which have been preserved by
al - Waqi dl
subjected to criticism.
1 1 1

memory
4. Ibid., Tahdhtb.
and his son and grandsons handed
on the torch of knowledge for the hundred years to come.
The l egacy of Abu Ma' shar,
and Ib n Sa' d
old age Abu Ma'shar
has been
6. Tahdhtb, p.
in their works. Al-Tabarl
As a matter of fact, in his
421.

204 INDIA'S CONTRIBUTION TO HADITH LI TERATURE
was a doomed man, his brain
being deranged and memory confused.
1
To add to
this, he had to deal with a vast mass of Tradi t i ons.
3
No wonder, then, that he should have failed to cont r ol
them effectively. Though he was declared Dotlf,
al-Magha%u
has
taken from him information on Biblical history and on
the l ife of the Prophet and especially chronological
statements, these latter going down to the very year of
his death.
8

transmitt ed on his authorit y are
recorded in the four Sunans
than a passing notice.
therefore, calls for more
1. Ibid., p.
Taqrib,
6. Tadhhira,
a
weak authority,
4
nevertheless, his Tradi t i ons were
received and recorded by his pupils.
5

loc. cit.
7. Fihrist, p. 136.
3. Encyclopaedia of I slam, Vol. I, p. 100.
9.
AI-NasS'l,
Taqrib, p. 3 7 2 ;
how-
ever, accepted hi m as guaranteed {Hujjaf)
Tahdhtb, p. 3 1 9
*
?
421.
p. 372.
Khattb, etc.
.
1. Hitti,
A scholar-son of a scholar-father.
Muhammad was
the custodian of the latter's
Founded in 148/765 by al -Mansur
A son of Abu Ma' shar,
3. Muhammad b. Abl
learning. Students and
would-be Traditionists and Historiographers came to
Baghdad to study under hi m. Abu *Isa
Baghdad, the 'Abbasid
(136-58/753-74),
al-Madlna
Muhammad was born in
(d. 279), Abu Hatim
al-Tirmidhi
capital, soon became a cynosure
of glory and power and splendour.
1
As an intellectual
centre, it was up to the time of al -Rashld
i n 148/765. In his boyhood he attended the
lectures of the celebrated Ion Abl
al -Razl
(170-93/
786-808), an infant, and was no match for al-Madlna,
al-Kufa
Dhi'b (d.
(d. 288) and al -Tabarl
(d. 277), Ibn
or al-Basra.
Abl
(d. 310)
al -Dunya
were among

EARLY INDIAN RUWA
Ma'shar
(148-247/765-861)
159). In
al-Madlna he could not, however, live long. For,
while yet a youngster, he accompanied his father to
Baghdad in 161/777. Muhammad, therefore, could
not receive instructions f rom other scholars of
al-Madina
Nor did migrate thither many
scholars of fame. This was probably the reason why
save his father no distinguished scholar has been men-
tioned amongst Muhammad' s teachers. The want of
a good tutor was, however, compensated by Abu
Ma'shar
his pupils
who need no introduction to the students of Islamic
history and Traditions. His two sons, al-Husain
Th$ History of th$
Dawud, Aba Ya'la al-Mawsill,
who personally took up the charge of his son's
Ya' qub
and
instructions. Soon Muhammad acquired erudition in
Hadlth
b. Musa
al-Balkhl
and Magh&zi
%

(d. 240) and Muhammad b. al-Laith
Jawharl
al-
4rabs,
al-Sind
particularly Malik b. Anas (d. 179).
the pet subjects of his father.
(d. 242) also studied under hi m. For his
p. 901 wq
T
205
t
.
.
1. Vide
2. Khapb,
fat her. Ahma d b. Kamil,
grandfat her, Abu Ma' shar,
He t ransmi t t ed the Kitab al-Maghazi
pupi l of Wakl \
b. Kabl' a
Among his teachers he ment ions his fat her
Muhammad, Waki *
4. Al-Husain b. Muhammad b. Abi
al-Thiqat.
and has been referred to by Ibn
Muhammad i s a t rust wort hy guarantor of Hadi t h
monument al Uni versal Hi st ory, al -Tabarl
206 I NDI A' S
Vol . I l l ,
437 ; Taqrib,
b. al-Jarrah
He accumulated the Ahadlth
p . 340.
(d.
3. KhutUsa, p. 309.

CONTRI BUTI ON TO HADI T H L I T E R A T U R E
deri ved
through his teacher Muhammad vast wealth of material
from Abu Ma' shar.
HibbSLn
received t i me
t o t i me from hi s fat her in several books whi ch were
ut i l i zed by scholars duri ng his l i fe-t i me. He di ed i n
247/861 at the ripe age of 99 leaving two fairly educated
sonsal -Husain
(d. 275/88*)
Ma'shar
197)and
(d. 199). He was known as Sahib Waki\
Al - Husai n mai nt ai ned, t o some
ext ent, t he reputat ion of hi s house by i mpart ing l essons
in Hadi t h. Unfortunatel y, he was not found worthy
for transmission of Hadi t h.
were not accept ed.
Al -Husai n t ransferred hi s resi dence from Baghdad
t o Khurasan where he di ed on Monday, t he 21st Raj ab,
275/888/
. Dawud b. Muhammad (d. ca. 280/893).
of his
on the aut hori t y of hi s
the Qadi
supra, p. 204.
pp. 329 scq ;
4. Khatrt,
and Dawud. The J ami of al-
Tirmi dhl
Vo V.VIII,
Ansab, f oi . 3 1 4 b ; Tahdhib.
p. 91; MizUn,
i n hi s Ki t ab
preserves hi s Tradi t i ons.
3

al-Sind
Muhammad
Hence his t radi t i ons
of Baghdad,
st udied under hi m. Dawud does not, however, seem
Vol. IX ,
Vol. I, p. 266.
1

i
.
a
1. Ibid. p.
Khalaf b. Salim
7. Khalaf 6. Sdlim
Ahmad b. Kdmil,
AI-Qasim,
6. Al-Qasim
396.
2. Khatlb, vol. XIII,
of al-Muhaliba,
3

al-Sindl
al-Sindi
al-Shafi'l
Qfidl
who seems to be the last
b. ah
1

8. Muhallab
p. 436 ; Ansab,
Mukharriml
al-Mukharriml,
and Abu \Amr
of Baghdad, Abu Bakr
the house of Abu Ma'shar,
l umi nar y of
Abbas al-Ma'sharl
b. Abl Sufra
fol. 537a.
al-Muhaliba (Al-Mubarrad,
(d. 82) and his descendants are styled as
a mawlct
b. al-Sammak
was at once a Traditionist,
Kamil,
Lahore, February, 1934.)
was Indian in origin.
4
His nisba al-
Hadlt h on the aut hority of al -Qasi m.
t ransmi tt ed
Jurist and an ascetic. Ho
4. Vide supra, pp. 26-28.
was due to his residence at al-Mukharrim,
place on Friday, the 2nd Shawwal ,
Hi s death took
of Abu Ma'shar
was the son of the daughter
6. Le Strange, pp. 31, 33.
and became famous as al -Ma' shan.
6. Khatlb,
He studied under Abu'l-Walld
Vol. VIII,
al-TayalisI (d. 277),
Musaddad (d. 228) and other scholars. Khatlb al-
Baghdadl (d. 463/1070) states that al-Oilsim

EARLY INDIAN RUWAT
to have taken a prominent part in cult ural activities.
His death date is not known.
1

(d. 278/892).
occupied
a high place i n Hadl t h, Tasawwuf and Fi qh and t hat
in spite of his age he was as sound as ever. Indeed,
he was a fairly reliable Transmi t t er of Hadl t h. Says
al-Daraqutni
278/January, 892.
al-Mukharrim
(162-231/778-845).
a famous quarter of Baghdad,
5
where he died on the
23rd Ramadan, 231/845.
6

quoted in Oriental College Magazine,
pp. 328 seq ; Tthdhlb.
(d. 385):


4

Vol . Il l ,
There is nothing against
p. 152; MUan,
207
hi m.
1

a

l
Vol. I, p. 310.
I*
Khalaf
Khatlb,
(6) I J amza
(3) Al-Nasa'l
(2) Ya^u b
(1) Yahya b. Mu'ln
was a brilliant Talib
al-Kinani
al-Mukharrimi
(d. 303): Abu Muhammad Khalaf
steadfast (o
b. Abl
(d. 233): Tr ut hf u l (Jj o*) ;
al^llm*
VS).
i n

208 INDIA'S CONTRIBUTION TO HADITH LITERATURE
student of
Hadith literature for the acquisition of which he
ransacked all the treasures of al-Hijaz,
The following is the summary of judgment passed
on Khalaf as a Traditionist by eminent critics :
another place he says, "There
Shayba (d. 262): Reliable and
is reliable (
m
&
(4) Ahmad b. Hanbal (d. 241): His fidelity cannot
be doubted.
(5) Ibn Hi bban (d. 354): One of the consummate
masters in the science of Tradition (o^&J
rank of the Traditionists.
: Most reliable f r om the
. Ibid.
al-Sham
al-
4
lraq. A pretty long list of his Shuyukh,
and
inhabiting
different Muslim countries, gives us some idea of what
painstaking labour Khalaf underwent on that account :
viz , Hushaim (d. 183) and Yazld
al-Wasit; Ibn
b. Harun (d. 206) of
' Ul ayya (d. 193), Yahya b. Sa' ld
Qattan (d. 198) and Muhammad b. Ja' far
(d. "l93) of al -Basra;
al-
Ghandar
Ma'an b.


4
Isa
al -Madlna;
(d.
'Abd
198) of
al-Razzaq (d. 211) of al -Yaman;
Abu Bakr b. 'Ayyash (d. 193), Abu Numai r
Muhammad b. ' Abd Allah al -Zubairl
(d. 199),
b. Dakln
(d. 203) and Fadl
(d. 219) of al -Kufa and Ya*qub
208) and Sa'd
b. Ibrahi m (d.
b. Ibrahi m (d. 201)
He is more steadfast than Musuddad
(d. 228) or al-Humaidl
of Baghdad.
1

i s nothing wrong with
hi m on r ecor d/
(d. 219).
'
).
I
*
loc. cit; T*hdhtb, loc. cit.
Raj a \
1 Ibn Sa'd.
In his native province Khurasan, Raja'
As a matter of fact, Khalaf was one of the erudite
I luft&z
the SunUn
vol. VII, part II,
of Baghdad.
1
His halqa

EARLY INDIAN RUWAT
was a resort of
Traditionists and scholars who attended his lectures
and copied Ahadlth from hi m.
2
Of his pupils
4
UthmSn
Khalaf compiled a Musnad
8. Raja'
a Traditionist of the early third century of
Hijra, was the son of an Indian maxvlft
in Hadith
1. Tmdhhtra.
of al-Nasal
Tahdhib, Vol. I l l ,
al-Dariml
took lessons
from the celebrated 'Abd
p. 92. Several of his Ahadlth
(Khulasa.
(d.* 280), Ya'qub b. Abi Shayba (d. 261),
Ahmad b. Abi
Allah b. al-
Mubarak (d. 181)
p. 90).
3. Kkaiib l oc .
Khayt hama
of the Banu
Hanzala as would be evidenced from his nisba
of Marw. The greater part of his
educational career was, however, spent at al-Kufa
cit.; Tahdhib l oc .
4
(d. 278),
al-Marwazi
Hanzali. He settled down at Isfara'yin,
where he studied under the eminent Traditionists like
Ibn Sa'd, loc. cit.
al-
Ibn Idrl s (d. 192),
6.
Ahmad b. 'Al l
(d. 298), 'Abbas al -Darl
on Apostolic Tradi -
a northern
district of Nishapur and became famous as al-
Abu Bakr b. ' Ayyash
Khatlb
tions
4

b.
(d.
(d. 271) and Isma'il
which is not, however, extant. On the equality
of the Companions of the Prophet, he collected a
number of Ahadith
al-Sindi
Isfara'yinl
193), Hafs
b. Ghiyath (d. 194) and Sufyan b. ' Uayna
; Tahdhib.
pp. 267 W;
An sib, fol. 314a, 314b
b. Harith (d. 253) were noted Traditionists.
3

but he di d not transmit them.
5

(d. 221/837)
accordi ngl y.
(d. 198).
f

p. 59 (sic) >U?
La Strange, p. 991.
Tmqrtb,
209
'
*
Mia* ^Ul ^
are in
cit.
-
p. W
1. 1.0. his son and grandson
Muhammad, surnamed Aba 'Abd
9. Muhammad
b. Musa al-Razi
Equipped with a fair share of knowledge in Hadith
son of Raj a'
Allah, was the
b. Raja
1

(d. 231) received Hadit h f r om hi m.
His grandson Muhammad b. Muhammad b. Raj a'
literature, Raj a
1

al-Sindi.
al-Sindt
al-Sindl(d.
retired to his home at Isfara' yin
Of his early education we
know but very little. Apparently after attaining some
knowledge of Hadith
(d. circ.
al-Dunya
286), Abu Hatim
where, first of all, he introduced the learning into his
own fami l y which was destined to produce two other
noted Traditionists of the t hird century.
1
Soon his
house became an object of Rihla
Balkh
f t
under his father, he went to
al-Sa'igh
al -Razl
talab
where at Bar j umi n, he read wi t h Makki
(d. 281) and j a' far
(d. 277), Ibn
al-'Ilm,
Abi
b. Muhammad b. Shakir
and
many an ardent student of Hadi t h literature clustered
round this son of an Indian mawlfi.
(d. 289) read Hadith with him.
2
During hi s life-ti me Raj a'

210 I NDI A' S C O N T R I B U T I O N TO H A D I T H L I T E R A T U R E
Among his
contemporary Traditionists, the celebrated Ahmad b.
Hanbal (d.
was a pillar of Hadi t h
literature ;
3
he took a prominent part in its oral trans-
mission. A stainless and reliable Rctwl
246/860)
b.
Ibrahim (d. 215). On finishing his studies, he made a
pilgrimage to Makka and availed himself of the
opportunity to gather Traditions f r om Makkan
scholars. In the course of his homeward j ourney, he
halted in Baghdad for some ti me and lectured on
2. Tahdhib,
4. Ibid
apart, Raj a'
was a master of Arabic diction. " I have not seen,"
says Bikr b. Khalaf, "
241), Bi kr b. Khalaf (d. 241) and*Ibrahi
a better eloquent speaker than
he." He died in Shawwal, 221/837
m
/
l oc. ci t.
,
1. Khatlb.
A distinguished scion of the house of Raj a
1

10. Muhammad b. Muhammad b.
At Isfara'yin
Hadlth, Meanwhile, Abu Bakr b.
Vol. V,
Sindi,
al-

EARLY INDIAN RUWA
(d. 281), the Hdfi^
Abl
Muhammad devoted himself to
cultural activities. He maintained the reputation of
the halqa
RajcP
(206-286 A.H.).
Muhammad was born in 206 A. H . His deep
erudition in Apostolic Traditions, his fidelity, and
critical insight and above all his insatiable thirst for
knowledge made him an outstanding Traditionist of
the third century of the Hij ra . The brief biographical
note about him given by Dhahabi
2. Ibid.
pp. 276-77
Huffa%
in his Tadhkirat
is well
al-
worth being reproduced. "Muhammad
b. Muhammad b. Raj a' b. al-Sindl, the Hafiz
ImSLm^ surnamed Abu Bakr of Isfara'yin*
and
was the
celebrated author of a Mustakhraj of the Sahih
Musli m.
5
He studied (Hadlth) under Ishaq
of
b. Rahway
(d. 238), Ahmad b. Hanbal (d.
M-Dunya
which had grown under his father. Of his
pupils, most conspicuous were Abu Bakr Ibrahim b.
*Ali
241), 'All
(d. 231), 'Abd
formerly a student of his father and
Ahmad b. Bishr al-Murthidi
al-Dhuhll
al-Madanl
Allah b. Numair
received Hadlt h from
hi m a
and his own son Muhammad. He was
in the habit of carefully noting the Traditions received
from his Shuyukh
(d. 199), Aba Bakr b.
Abl
fact that shows what an eminent position he
held in the domain of the science.
and transmitting them accordingly.
He died probably about the middle of the third
century. The date is not known.
al-Sind
Shayba (d. 235) and the like. He made an
extensive tour (in quest of Hadlth). While Abu
3. The work does not seem to be extant.
T 211
2

i
; Ansab, fol. 314b.
230 l .
(d. circ.
11.
INDIA' S
2. An
Hamadan
Sahl, a freed man of the Banu Dhuhl,
(d. circ.
12. Sahl
Al-Sindi who was otherwise famous as al-Dahaki,
that is, a native of Dahak, a village in Ray, was, as
the patronymic al-Sindi suggests, an Indian mawla.
1

Al-Sindi
'Awana
5.
sib, fol.
Ansab,
314b ;
fol. 235b
and Qazwln.
was a
scholar of Traditions. He narrated Hadith from
Zuhair b.
As an early Rawl
%

(d. 310), Abu Hami d
.
4. His lull name was'
Mu^wlya
al-Sindi transmitted Hadith on the
authority of Abu 'Uwa'is
b. Sal i h
al-Sharql,
bl
(d. 172),
of al-Zuhrl,
al-Asbahl
b. Hani,
Muhammad
Jarlr
Ibn
(d. 169),
4
a student
al-Akhram,
and also on the authority of several other
Traditionists of al-Madlna
Abu 'J-Nadr
and al-' Iraq.
and
others transmitted Hadit h on the authority of Abu
Bakr. Al -Haki m says, "

CONTRIBUTION TO HADI T H LI TERATUR E
Honest and steadfast, par
excellence, Abu Bakr was in the front rank among t he
Tradit i onists of his age,"
1
Abu Bakr's
b.


l
Abduwaih
215/830).
Among his
pupils mention has been made of Muhammad b.
Hammad
b. 'Abd-al-Rahman
225/839).
b. Hazim
'Amr
Tadhkir*.
'Amir al-Asbahi
Abd Allah
sphere of
activity did not confine itself merely to Isfara'yin
he was found narrating Ahadlth
as
Sharlk
b. Abd
in Makka where an
eager audience including Abu Hat i m
al-Tihrani
(d. 170),
b. Hazim
b. Rafi
1

Allah b. 'Uwa'ii
al-Madanl.
(d. 277) gat hered
round him to receive them. He died in 286/899 at
the age of eighty.
2

al-Dahak
(d. 271).
al-Sind
and others. He was a Qadi
(d. 237) and
b. Malik
6. AnsUbAoc.ci
i
5

i
of
l o c . ci t .
a.
KhulUsa, p. 178.
U
15.
1. Ibid., fol.
Ahmad was a disciple of Ya' qub
Al-Fath, surnamed Abu Nasr al-Sindi, was a
freed man of the family of al-Hakam
al-Daurql
b. Ibrahim

EARL Y INDIAN RUWA
Muljammad
13. Al-Fath
; he was at once
a Jurist, a Theologian and a Traditionist. In Fiqh
d Kalam,
14. Ahmad b. Sindi b. Farrukh
(d. 252) of Baghdad who was a shaykh
Jurj anl
Hubaish
He was a pupil of the celebrated Ahmad b. Hanbal
and also of ' Ubaid
2. Ibid.
.
he was a student of
c
Abu
al-Bukhan
Khatlb.
All
Vol.
al -Thaqaf
while he read Hadith with al -Husain
(d. 256) and Muslim (d.
4. Khatlb.
i
XIV,
b. Hammad
b. Sufyan (d. 203)
and others. In
262).
5

Allah b. Muhammad al-' Ayshi
Vol. IV,
6. Mizan,
of
al-Tehram
b.


l
Abd
what a high esteem Abu Nasr al-Sindi
was held
He resided
in Baghdad and was found lecturing on Hadith
literature in al-Basra
b. al-Sindi
Muhammad b. Mukhallad
5

s.v. Md.
p. 277.
p. 187; An sib
(271) were among
his pupils. Sahl
Allah al-Sind
by the men of his time may be judged from a
(d. circ.
where


c
Abd
(?) studied the subject with him. He sup-
ported himself with embroidery and became famous
as al-mutarriz,
al-Qatii
narrated Hadith
b. Mukhallad.
(?).
seems to have flourished in the ear
third century of Hij ra.
(d. ca. 275/888).
of admirers that followed him when walking
275/888).
Allah b.


4
Adi
the embroiderer.
4

(d. circ. 280/893).
from
6. Khatlb, Vol. VIII,
T
21 3
1

i
2
al -
him.
6

314b.
fol. 3Mb.
p. 282.
4 .
Asmti
1

2l 4
1. Ibid..
al-Rijdh
Ahmad, as the patronymic al-Sindl
17. Abu 'l-Fawaris
ghulant)
Al-Sindi
I N D I A ' S CONTRIBUTION TO HA>ITH
16. Al-Sindt
b. Abban surnamed
Ahmad b. Muhammad
b. Hasan b. al-Sindi
suggests, was
a great grandson of a certain Indian slave. He was
born i n Egypt in 244 A. H . and was probably connected
wi t h a soap manufact uri ng business which gave hi m
the nisba al-Sabunl.
Vol. IX , p. 234.
MizUn,
6. Ci. MizUn,
Ahmad enjoyed a long life of
one hundred and five years and died in Shawwal,
349 A.H.* Aljmad transmitted Hadith on the authority
of al-Muzanl (d. 264)
3
and Yfcnus b. 'Abd al-'Ala
(d. 264), both Traditionists of Egypt, and Muhammad
b. Hammad al -Tihram (d. 271).
4

in his liusn
Although al-Suyutl
al-Muhadira speaks very highly of him
as a respectable authority of Apostolic Traditions in
Egypt ,
6
but in the opinion of more critical scholars of
like
Abu Nasr was a
al-Dhahabi
slave, of KhaJaf b. Hisham
and Ibn
(d. 227), a scholar
of Baghdad. He had some interest in Hadith
Haj ar ,
a pupil of Yahya b. 'Abd
Ahmad was hardly trustworthy. For, firstly he was
responsible for giving circulation to a baseless ( J t t )
and was
al-Hamid
liadlt h
2. MlzUn.
al -Hi mmam
(d. 228), a Traditionist of al-Kufa.
from his shaykh,
Vol. I , p. 71; LisUn,
Muhndiraf't Akhbar Misr


4
Abd
Muhammad al-Tihrani
wa 'l-Qahira,
'All
ShadharUt,
al-Samad
al-Tashti
and,
secondly, he was found to have narrated in the
GhardHb
Vol. I , p. 296;
Vol. II , p. 380.
b.
received Hadlth from hi m. He died in
the month of Dhu '1-Hijja,
(244-349
of Malik a Hadlth
6
with istUld
SuyutI,
3. He was a famous disciple of Imam al-Shafi'i
Husn aU
LITERATURE
b. Abban (d. 281/894).
281/ 894.
A.H.).
consisting of
(Cairo, 1321 A.H ), Vol. 1,' p. 173;
(d. 204) (Shadharat
Vol. II , p. 1)
1

,
.
loc. c i t ; Lisan, J oe. cit.
Vol. I, p. 433.
1. Mizan.
NasruMlah,
19. Nasru-llah
Ahmad, surnamed Abu Bakr al-Haddad
al-Haddad
18. Ahmad b. Sindl
above, in the opinion of Ibn
al-'Abbas
b.
Vol. II , p. 19
blacksmith) settled at Qatl'ya
(the
2. Ibid., Vol.1, p. 433.
Baghdad.
4
His
ban!
3. Lisan,
JidSr,
Vol. I, p. 296.
4. Ansab,
a quarter in
Khatlb
foil. 124a, 314b. The name of the quarter is misprinted in
teachers in Hadi t h were Mus5 b.
(Vol. IV. p. 187), as Qatl'a
Harun, the Hafiz
5. Khatlb. Vol. IV, p. 187.
al-Muaddib
(d. 294), Muhammad b. al-'Abbas
(?) and al-Hasan b. 'Aluwiya
He was a reliable {thiqa)
al -Qat t an (?).
Daraqutnl
transmitter of Hadith.

EARL Y INDIAN RUWAT
b. al -Fadl
liar ( v ^ ) .
al-Mundhir,
b. al-Hasan
(d. 359/969).
(d. 385) admitted him as such. Among his
students, the famous was Abu Nu'aim
b. Ahmad b. al-Sindl
who was the grandson of a Sindi
slave purchased in Khurasan, became famous as I bn
al-Sindl. He narrated Hadith on the authority of
Abu 'l-Qasim
6. Yaqut
b. 'Awn
al-Isfahanl.
b. Sabnak (?). Ibn al-Sindl had the
privilege of being a shaykh
(Vol. II,
al-Tanuhi
A
saintly personage, Ahmad was reckoned as one whose
prayers were granted ( \ ^' vl ?*) .
of al-Khatlb
p. 37) misprints al-Sindl as al-Sayyidi.
and SawSda
Ibrahim al-Ansarl
The nisba
al-Baghdadi
(d. 463) who copied Ahadlth
corrrect reading, Ansab, loc.
of whom the first was a liar
1
and
the other,
2
a weak authority (-***).
He died in 359/969.
3

al-Sindl
from him and regarded
him aduq
cit, Khatlb,
To add to the
Ahmad was a
6. Bahr
refers to his Indian origin.
(d. 433/1041)
(truthful). He died in Dhu ' l -Qa' da,
433 A.H.
7

7. Khatlb, Vol. XIII , p. 302.
215
3

6

.
.
BanI Haddad .
For
loc. cit.
Karim
4
Abd
Abft
al-Hindi
2 i
A contemporary and probably a brother of Abu
Muhammad al -Hi ndi just noticed, Abti ' 1-Hasan

6 INDIA'S
20. Abu Muhammad Bakhtiydr
(d. 541/1149).
Abu Muhammad al -Hi ndi was a freedman
Abu Bakr Muhammad al-Sam' ani,
father of 'Abd
author of the Kitab
refers to his origin from India.
Abu Muhammad st udi ed Hadl t h under his master
Bakr who took hi m wi t h him for further educa-
tion in the subject to al-'Iraq,
Thus in Baghdad he acquired Hadl t h from Ja' far
Ahmad b. al-Husain
al-Salam
al -Rahman
Isfahan, from Muhammad b.
al-Sam' anl heard from him a few Tradi t i ons.
He died at Marw
21. Abu H'liasan
(d. 543/1151)
was
a Tradi t i oni st and an Ascetic {Sufi). He was a
freedman of Muhammad b. Isma'll
1. Ansab.
al -Ya' qubi, a Qafc
of Bushanj ,
8
and became famous as a teacher of 'Abd
al -Karl m al-Sam'anl. Li ke Abti
Hindl,
Muhammad al-
Aba 'l-Hasan travelled wi t h his master in
Muslim lands hearing Hadlth from noted Traditionists,
viz., al-Sharlf Abu Nasr Muhammad, Abu ' l -Fawari s
Muliammad b. 'All
al-Karlm
al-Ansab.
b. Hamd
Bakhtlyar
and Ri zqu^l l ah
foil. 593a,
b. 'Abd
al -Sam' anl
His nisba
al-Hijaz
al-Sarraj,
al-Ansarl
b. al-Hasan
al -Haddad.
6. 'Abdullah
b. ' Abd
503b ; Ma'arif,
CONTRIBUTION TO HADITH
Allah
(466-510), the
(506-66), the
al-Hindi
and al -Sham.
Muhammad b.
and others; at Hamadan, from
al-Duwinl;
'Abd
in Safar, 541/1149.
al-Hind
al -Wahha
Vol. XXIV, No. 4,
LIT ERA TtJR E
b.
' Abd
at
al-
1

i
.
b
p. 249.
%. Le Strange, p. 411.
1. Ansab,
al-Taml ml
fol. 593 b;
'Abd
of Baghdad;


c
Al i
al-Malik
b. Ahmad b. All
b. 'AH
al-Sitri,
(b. Khalaf b. Shu'ba), the Hafiz
and Ahmad b. Muhammad al-
l
Abdi of al -Basra .

Besides, a number of contemporary Tradi t i oni st s of
Ispahan, al-Jabal

EARL Y INDIAN RUWA
and Khuzistan were also incl uded
among his teachers. Al-Sam
c
ani
Ma'arif,
states that he received
Hadith f r om hi m at (Jawshanj and Herat. He died
in 543 or 542/1151.
T 217
1

l oc cit.
A
1. The nisba
Radl al -Di nal -Hasan
AhHasan
S al-Saghani, by his unique contribution to Hadl t h
al-Saghani suggests that al-Hasan's
b. Muhammad b. al -Hasanb .
originally the natives of Saghanlyan,
forefathers were

(Le Strange,
a district town in the Transoxania
Haydar al-Qurashl al-' Umarl al-Hanafi, popularly
called al-Saghani, was born at Lahore on Thursday,
Safar 10," 577/July, 1181. He was first educated
under his father Muhammad, a scholar of distinction.
It is said that during his early years al -Saghani
2
earned

CHAPTER II
AL- SAGHAN 1 AN D HI S WORK S
literature, forms a class by himself, we have
thought it proper to devote one whole and independent
chapter to him.
Section I
HIS SHORT BIOGRAPHY.
al-Saghani
a reward of 1,000 dinars by commi t ti ng to memory
the Ghartfib
p. 440) from where they migrated to India.
2. *Abd al-Hayy
of Abu ' Ubaid al-Qasim b. al-Sallam
(d.240)a fact which speaks a volume about the
extraordinary memory he possessed. Whi l e scarcely
twenty-five, al-Saghani acquired a great proficiency
i n Hanafi t e Fi qh. Sultan Qutb al-Dln Aybak (602-7/
1205-10) then offered him the Qadlship of Lahore
which he, however, refused to accept, and left for
Ghaznln in pursuit of higher studies.
8
He subse-
quently travelled widely in al -*lraq
al-Lahuri
and al-Hijaz
Nadawi, Nuzha
Muhammad
(MS),
(577-650/1181-1252)
devoting
Vol . I, s.v. al-Hasan
al-Saghani.
b.
5.
1.
al-Dln
4. Nuzha,
2. Yaqut. Ma'jam
Shadharat,
his Tabaq&t-i-N&siri
(624-45/1227-47)
5

an office whi ch al-Saghani held for t went y l ong
years. He hastened back
hi msel f invested hi m wi t h a robe of honour.
Al -Saghani finall y settled down in Baghdad and
enj oyed patronage f r om the 'Abbasid
615/April,
al -Husrl
recei ved very warml y. Mere
For, in t hat year as he entered al -Yaman,
al-Saghanl
be ascertained. By 610/1213
al -Marghl nam
al-'IrSLq
AL-SAGHANI
loc.
1036).
aUHanaftyya
cit.; al-Qurashl,
al-Udaba\
(d. 618)
and Sa' l d
al-JuwUhir
ed. Dr. Ahmad Farid Rifa'I (Cairo,

AND HIS WORKS
himself assiduously to t he acqui rement of the sciences
of Tr adi t i o n and phi l ol ogy under distinguished pro-
fessors. The exact durat i on of his wanderjehr
where, in Baghdad, he read wi t h al -Nazzam
b. al -RazzSz
f r om whi ch dates the
begi nni ng of his career as a Tradi t i oni st in al-Hijaz,
became popular in the learned circles.
he was
at Aden he studied unt i l
he reached Makka in 613/1216 where he met the
famous Yaqut al -Hamawi
has been preserved for us.
3
On finishing his studies al -Saghani
1218 in Baghdad where a reusing
Cal iphs. In
617/1220 Cal i ph al -Nasir appointed hi m ambassador
for t he court of Delhi under Ut ut mi sh
to Baghdad in 624/1227
presumabl y on the death of al -Nasir and was again
appointed to the same post by Cal i ph al -Mustansir
in Sha' ban of t hat very year. The
fact that the hi st orian Mi nhaj al -Siraj
the arrival of the 'Abbasid
ambassador in Indi a in 625/1228, seems to furt her
Vol. p. 250.
Vol . I X , pp. 189-191. This shows that al-Saghani was quite
3. Shadharat, loc.
(Hyderabad,
al-Mudtyyafi
Al-QUrashl,
(d. 616),
1
cannot
(d. 626) for the last t i me .
8
Of his shayukh in Makka, the name of Burhan
arri ved in Safar,
reception
was accorded him. Caliph al-Nasir (577-623/1181-1226)
(607-33/1210-36)
4

records in
familiar with Yaqut al-Hamawi (d. 626).
TabsqZt
1332 A.H.). Vol. I, pp. 201-02
219
i n
cit.
*
loc. cit.
1. Tabaqat-i-Nasiri,
The remaining years
corroborate the above appointment.
1
Al-Saghani
p. 174; Ulughkhani op. cit..
o f his life al-Sagh3.nl
finally returned to Baghdad in 637/1239. It may
be that the chaotic and complicated
Vol. II , p. 698.
devoted
exclusively to compilation and teaching Hadlth

220 I NDI A' S CONTRI BUTI ON TO I I ADI T H L I T E R A T U R E
situation arising
at the Court out of the murder of Sultana Radiyya
and
philology. He always had a crowd of pupils to surround
hi m. The Traditionist Sharaf al-Din
It seems that there is something wrong either with the date 624 A. H.
as given by al-Qurashl, or wi th 625 A. H. as given by Minhaj
For al-Saghani
al-Sir'aj.
could not possibly have taken more than a month to
reach India from Baghdad overland (Ulughkhani, loc.
2. Cf. Cambridge History cf I ndia. Vol. Ill ,
3. Al-QurashJ, loc. cit. ; DhahabI, Tadhhirat al-Hufjaz
al-Saghanl. ; Muhammad b. Shakir aLKutbi.
Egypt, Vol. I, p. 133; Tash Kuprizada.
1328 A.H.), Vol. I , pp. 98-99;
cit.)
Miftah
pp. 60-61
al-Suvutl,
.
227-28;
s.v. al-Hasan
Bughyah
Azniqi, Madinat
Fuwat
al-'Ulnm
Asma.
al-Wafaya't,
al-Sa'ada
(Ms. Banklpuru),
al-Hanafiyya
ed.
(Hyderabad,
(Ms. Banklpur,
Qasim
(Cairo, 1326),
Qutlugha,
fol. 90b :
f
Ali
Vol. XI I , No. 763) foil.
Tahaqat al-I lanafiyya,
pp. 180-83;
pp.
al-Qarl
Abjad.
al -Di myat l
(d. 705), the shaykh of our al -Dhahabi
77b, 78a;
p. 17; Subhat,
pp. 525.
(d. 735), was one
of the pupils of al-Saghanl. He died at his residence at
Harlm
p. 29; Ma'athar
890; I thaf,
pp. 29-30;
al-Zahirl
p. 243; Lakhnawl.
Rahman 'All. T; 'Ulama
in Baghdad in Sha' ban,
Fawa'id,
Hada'iq;
XXI I No. 4 pp. 252-53;
650/October,
pp. 253-55; Ma'arif,
Vol . XX I V 4.'pp.
Sayyid Hasan Baranj.
Vol.
4-13.
1252. His body was removed to Makka according
to a testament of his and was interred therein.
3

As a tribute to his memory al -Di myat l says, "A
art. Imam Saghani
B.A., LL . B (Alig.)
by
; Buhar
devout professor seldom given to idle talks, al-Saghanl
was a great authority of Tradition, Philology and
Jurisprudence".
4
No greater
Cat., Vol. II", pp. 30-31;
Banklpur Cat. V 2. pp. 94-95
testimony to his wide
survey in Hadit h literature could have been adduced
than what he himself maintained in his al-'Abab,
; Idara-i-Ma'arif-Islamlyya.
the Session 1933 held at
have heard in Makka, India, al-Yaman
Proceedings of
Lahore, pp. 326-27
" I
; Ency.
a 1- Saghani.
' 4.
(634-37/1236-40) compelled the ambassador to leave
Delhi .
and Baghdad
of I slam s.v. al-Hasan
Al.Qurashi,
2

loc. cit.
2. Mi ft
Hadlth
4. Al-KhawJI,
3. Geschichte,
ah al-Sa'ada,
Hanbal i t e,
of the Isl ami c Shari ' a
l i t eratureIl m
The f our t h cent ury of the Ilijr a
Literature
Although
cognized
Al -Hasan
musalsal
AL-SAGHANI
Miftah al-Sunna
Vol . I , pp. 98-99;
i nt o four j uri di cal systems,
viz., the Hanafi t e, the Malikite,
al -Hadl t hwas
the bulk of these works is on Phi l ol ogy,
those dealing wi t h Hadl t h l i t erature are of special
si gnificance, purporti ng, as they do, to popularize the
genuine Ahadith
(Cairo, 1921),
evol ved;
4
whi l e, in
the course of the third century, I jtihctd,
p. 109; Guillaume,

AND HIS WORKS
t radi t i ons close upon four hundred which
is a record number.
1

b. Muhammad al -Saghani
aut hori t y on Hadl t h and Phi l ol ogy. He has
l eft for us t hi r t y-t wo works,
8

of the Prophet, whi ch since the
beginning of the f i f t h century had been gradual l y
f al l i ng into disuse and disrepute among the Musl i ms
part i cul arl y in the eastern provinces of the Cal iphat e.
To understand the state of al -Saghani ' s
Section I I
before ahSaghan
witnessed the
cul mi nat i on of the great epoch for the growt h and
development of Hadl t h. Then as a resul t of researches
on the part of the Talibii
par excellence,
of the Musl i m divines and doctors, was responsible
for the evol ut i on out of the Qur'an
the Shafi' ite
of whi ch the first three also recognize the
Ma'arif,
Vol. I,
Traditions of I slam (Oxford, 1924), p. 67 ; al -Khudri
al'I slamt
Beg. TcLrtkh
(Cairo, lt34), pp. 102-4


t
I lm
Tashn'
was a re-
of which as many
as nine have been not iced by Brockel mann.
3

cont emporar y
Had3t h l i t erat ure, a preambl e seems t o be cal l ed for.
the Science of Ha dl t h
and the Sunna
and the
Vol. XXIV , No. 1,
; Hitti, History of the Arabs, pp. 393-95,
221
t
1. 'Ali al-Qarl, loc. cit.
pp. 12-13 .
p. 360.
Faqlh,
I N D I A ' S
1. Kitab
Amlrate.
7

became responsible officials of their respective govern-
ment s as heads of t he depar t ment of La w and
Ecclesiastics. Thus the Shilfi'ite
Jurist) grew up from every Madhhab and
devoted themselves to i mpart i ng lessons and wr i t i ng
books on Fiqh?
Every Madhhab
in the eastern provinces of the Caliphate wi t h the
exception of Nishapur
The four schools (Madhahib)
and the Qiyas
locus standi
al-Khudrl,
aUFiqh ' Ala al-Madhahib al-Arba'
pp. 333. 337 ; Hitti, pp. 396-400.
2. MaqdisI, Ahsan
3. Ihid.,
al-Taqastm,
pp. 39, 124.
4. Ibid., p. 37.
5. Ibid., pp. 180.
6.
202.
For details see al-Khudri.

C O N T R I B U T I O N T O HADITH LITERATURE
of the I jmfi
1

(Legal Anal ogy).
1

were not evenly
distributed in the Sunnite World. In the fourth
century the distribution was as follows: The Malikites
were found i n al -Maghrib,
2

and parts of the Transoxani a
whi ch were Shafi' ite.
4

t hei r hol d al so over Egypt .
5

was a unit by itself, as it were.
For guidance of i ts fol lowers as al so for preservat ion of
its i ndi vi dual i t y, the study of Fi qh became essential.
Thus, a group of scholars known as FuqaJ tf?
In the course of t i me these Fuqaha,
School of Law was
adopted by the Ghaznawids and the Ayubi ds, the
Hanafi t e,
Thi s served as a great moment um for
the study and culture of Fi qh. It was, now, not
merel y an academic pursui t but a passport f or
government service. Fiqh,
7. Ibid, p. 342;
pp. 246-74.370-77
al-Madhihib al-Arba*,
8. Al-Ghazall,
.
Ihya'
pp. 26-27,
(Egypt,
Shah Wall
32, 37.
the Hanbal i t es
Besides, the Shafi' ites
therefore, opened up a
new avenue f or ambi t ious young men.
8

1322 A.H.). Vol. I, pp. 13,
Allah, a/-Jns5/(Delhi.
(Cairo,
(Consensus of the Community)
or Ashab
Hadi t h, in Syri a and Baghdad;
3
the Hanafi t es,
had
by the Turks, and the Malikites by the Spanish
How the
study of Fiqh was rapidly gaining in popularity would
1931), pp, 40-41;
p. 30.
16, 31;
1909), pp. 80-81
(sing.
.
1. Cf. Shadharat,
Fuqaha*
Interest for Hadlth, therefore, lessened or was restricted
to such Ahadlth
Nasiri yya
Baghdad, whi l e al -Mustansiri yya
was i nst i t ut ed in the famous Ni zaml yya
be evi dent from t he fact t hat i n t he t hi rd cent ury the
phraseology tafaqqaha
AL-SAGHANI
2. Renaissmnce
Vol. III .
and al -Sal ahl yya
provi ded for the
i nst ruct i ons i n al l t he four schools.
3
Egypt , t oo, di d
not lag behind in t hi s direct ion in so far as it had t o her
credi t al -Madrasat
^ala
of IslSm,
tion of Fiqh*
was scracely
masse,
pp. 190-91
not i ced;
S. Hitti, op. cit. pp. 410-11
in
the f our t h it was seen side by side wi t h t hat of
haddatha
l
an and by the fifth century the latter,
namel y, haddathalan was pract i cal l y overshadowed
by the for mer, namel y, tafaqqaha
l
ald.
1
That nat i on-
wi de zeal and enthusiasm for Hadl t h l earni ng,
Rihla f i Talab al-'Ilm,

AND HIS WORKS
began t o decrease
2
and instead
t he craze for higher knowl edge in Fi qh and al l t hat it
stood for increased. As a resul t, cent res for t he l earn-
i ng of Fiqh,
College of
al -Suyufi yya,
rose equal t o t he occasi on so far as the cul t ure
of the Science of Fi qh was concerned. Even the
Hanbal it es t hemsel ves st arted wr i t i ng down brochures
on Fiqh,
as were sui t ed for t he requi rement s of
a part icular Madhhab. But i n t hei r at t empt t o ut i l i ze
Ahadith
di d more harm t han good. For, t he cri t eri a
t o scrut i ni ze t he soundness of a Hadl t h coul d not have
al ways been mai nt ai ned wi t h the result t hat al most
every Hadl t h, sound or ot herwi se, t hat went t o support
t he vi ew-poi nt of a part i cul ar Imf i m^
4. Al-Madhahib
j uri sprudence, sprang up all
al-Salihlyya,
f or the st udy and cul t i va-
of course, based on the Qur' an
al-Arba*,
.
$.
over the
Musl i m Wor l d. Later, a Chair for t he Shafi ' i t e
al-
As a matter of fact, the Musl i ms, en
and t he Sunna.
9

t o subserve t hei r respective Madhahib,
was accept ed and
t hat j ust ifi cat ion was sought to be gi ven even f or we ak
Vol. I, pp. 27, 37
Al-Khudrl,
223
Fiqh
the
.
,
p. 274 ,
' a
1. Cf. at Marghlnam,
al -Hi ndl ,
4

Nastur al -Ruml ,
that they not onl y neglected the priceless Hadi t h
compi lat ions such as the Sahlhan
poi nt .
5
Thus, most of the Fuqaha'
surface of the earth with knowledge \
Qurashite
Fuqaha'
should contain Tradi t i ons of i ndi fferent aut hori t i es or
which were spurious.
1
But t he great est
piece of the Hanafi t e
A.H..
al-Hidaya, ed. Yusufi Press,
Vol. I . p. I36Ibn
Lucknow,
p. 144=p.
Hajar. aUDiraya
127 ; al-Hidaya, Vol. II,

224 INDIA'S CONTRIBUTION TO HADITH LITERATURE
ones. Thus, many a weak Hadi t h nat ural l y crept i nt o
F iqh literature. No wonder, t hen, that such a mas t er -
jurisprudence like al-Hidaya
disservice done
to Apostolic Tradi t i ons by t he Fuqaha
1
was t hat t hey
encouraged
of the t wo ri val schools, usuall y presided over
by a high government official, was very common.
To est abl ish t he superi ori t y of one school over that of
the other, bot h t he part i es put forward t hei r argument s,
but rules of decency and decorum could not always
be mai nt ai ned. As a mat t er of fact , i t was more oft en
t han not that a debate degenerated i nt o brawls and
mut ual recri mi nat i ons.
2
Dur i ng this t i me t radi t i ons
were coined right and left.
savant , meani ng al-Shafi

I,
are cases i n
remai ned so pre-
occupied with the formulation of their own madhahib
or the Sunan
Abu ' l -Dunya
or t he Qaramatans who legalized f abr i cat i on
(Delhi, 1350 A. H. ),
2. For details, see I hya,
p. 456 = p. 332;
i nt er -Madhhab ri val ry part i cul arl y bet ween
the Hanafi t es
Vol. I, pp. 31-33
*
.
3. For
century A.U .
more of these Traditions consult Tahir
al-Mawdu'at
e.g.,
theological
Abu Hanl f a
(Cairo, 1343 A.H.) pp. Il l
and the Shafi' ites.
debate, munazara,
is the light of thf?
al -Ashaj j
al-Hindi's
4. Ibid.,
1325
Towards the 5th
bet ween t he
That the so-called traditions,
nat i on, Umma' ,
will flood the
works
but also aided and abetted the ci rcul at i on of weak or
forged t radi ti ons, if they answered their purpose.
Accordi ngl y, in those days forces were let loose to
give ci rculation of forged traditions or coin equall y had
ones i n the persons of the so-called Mu^ammarin,
and Rat an
p. 124;
p. 459=*p.
Tadhkirat
pp. 107-08.
and
e.g.,
335.
seq.
1. Tahir
in our days Ahadith Mawdu
t
'a
as his aUMawdiiat
al-Jawzl' s
(d.597),
Suras of the Qur' an.
8

commentat ors also passed off in their Tafsirs
if it woul d tend to i mprove t he moral e of t he peopl e.
Thi s was not al l . To capture the i magi nat i on of the
audience the qassas,
al-Hindi.
is said to have i ncluded i nto it
some Hasan and Sahih
2. Cf. Tafsir al-Kashshaf

AL-SAGHANI
or the story-teller, interwove false
Ahadith in the course of their st ory-t el l i ng. Li kewi se
the Khanqas
many
i l l -founded sayi ngs as Tradi t ions wit h speci al reference
to the ext raordi nary merits at tached
Thus, like a mushroom, fabri-
cated Ahadi t h grew and mul t i pl i ed.
3
To counteract
this evi l tendency the Tradi t i oni st s like Ibn
al -Saghanl
al-Mawdu\lt
Ahadith.
4
In the face of the
ever-increasi ng influx of the fabri cated tradi ti ons of t he
day, i f Ib n al -Jawzi , out of his exuberance of the pro-
cess of purging, has i ncluded some genuine Tr adi t i ons
he cannot be much blamed. Wi t ha l things di d not
much improve. For al-SaghanT,
(fabricated t radi ti ons)
which are being narrated by the qassas
and fuqatsC
Sura.
3. Tahir al-Hindi, pp. 8 seq.
writ ing within fi ft y
years aft er Ibn al -Jawzi on the at t i t ude of the i nt el l i -
gentsia vis-a-vis
4. Ibid., pp. 3-4; Lucknawl,
Fath
or the hospices of the ascetics became
veri table hot-beds of fabri cat i on inasmuch as every
moral i zi ng sayi ng t hat woul d encourage t he i nmat es to
lead contemplat i ve lives, passed
ahKubra^
Hadi t h,
ahMughith,
pp. 6-8.
Fawa'id
for Hadi t h.
1

a comprehensive
col l ect ion of manufactured Ahadi th, wi l l always remain
a classic in this branch of the Science of Tradi t i on .
But he is accused as a rigorist {mutashaddid)
s t at es ,
4

in the assem-
blies as well as on the pulpits and by fuqaluV
and al-Baidawi
aUBaKiyya
t

ed. Lucknow,
p.
AND HIS WORKS
The
to the di fferent
al-Jawzi
and others took up the cudgels. Ibn
i nasmuch
There have multiplied
(jurists)
(saints) in the Madrasas and the Khanqas,
at the conclusion of every
30; Sakhawl,
Anwar Muhammadi
225
Press, p. 107.
1. Al-Saghanl, Risala
Next to Ibn
respectively. Thus they (Mawdu'at)
al-Lu'lu
f t
'al'Marsu',
'l-MawdnW
al-Jawi,
ed. Egypt*
(printed with Abu 'l-Mahasin's
al-Saghanl
2
applied himself
heart and soul to weed out Ahadith
2. Path al-Mugh\th
%

undated), pp. 1-2.
Mawdifa. He
was more systematic and his grasp of the problem more
thorough than his compeer Ibn al-Jawzi.
tises
3
on al-Mawduf&t
His trea-

226 INDIA'S CONTRIBUTION TO HADITH LITERATURE
are being handed
down to the posterity. Nothing but the sheer ignor-
ance of the knowledge of the Sunna can be accounted
for this state of things. As a matter of fact, Tradition-
ists are nowhere to be met with save and except in the
barren tract of Arabia. Forged traditions and so-
called sayings of the Prophet are being freely circulated
in books without paying any heed to their obj ectivity.
Because of the reput at i on of t he authors, these books
are well received by the posterity with the result that
the religion itself is now in j eopar dy
l
".
Section I I I .
His role as a Traditionist.
recount the topics
in which fabri-
cation was usually taken recourse
to. They are as
follows :
{i) Traditions relating to christening a person
after the name of Muhammad and Ahmad ; (it) Tra-
ditions relating to rice, melon, garlic, egg-plant and
onion, etc., [Hi)
3. MSS
p. 107.
Traditions relating to Naksh,
copies of the treatises are noticed in Lakhnawi's library at
FiringI
meta-
morphosis of as many as sixteen animals, viz.,
Mahal (cf. Fawa'd
No picture
could have been more vi vi d and realistic than the one
just portrayed by al -Saghanl
the
tortoise, the bear, the hyena, the lizard, etc., as stated
i n 6ome Taf sl r s;
al-Bahiyya,
speaking as he does f rom
his personal experience and authority.
(iv) Traditions relating to the merit
p. SO) and one in the library of
Nadwa, Lucknow ,
1. Risalaft
Al-Saghanl
number of Ahadith
Al-Saghani also makes a fai r collection of fal se
t radi t i ons.
5
The later researches have revealed that.
like the rigorist Ibn
NastQr
AI-Saghani
of the months, days and nights as ment i oned in the
Yawaqlt wa

AL-SAGHAN1 AND HIS WORKS
'1-MawagU;
is perhaps the first cri ti c who has par-
t i cul arl y emphasized on t he nat ure of t he wording and
t he meani ng of a Hadi t h to be at t ri but ed to the Pro-
phet apart f r om the usual conditions st ipul ated f or a
genuine Tr adi t i on.
2
He has, therefore, hel d that the
phrase qftla
al -Ruml ;
al-jawzl,
onl y t oo caut i ous.
was not rest satisfied merel y wi t h the
act of purgi ng the Apostoli c t radi t ions of fabricat ions.
He di d more. His greatest service for the cause of the
Science, however, lay in his endeavour to popularise
Ahftdith
'l-Mawdu'at,
2. Ibid.
t
pp. 10.11.
3. Tahir
al-Rasill
al-Hindl,
should in no circumstances be
associated wi t h a report other than a true Hadi t h.
3

He has al so
op. cit, p. 8.
4. kismla F t
drawn up a list of the master-fabricators,
namel y, Abu ' l -Dunya
al-Saghanl has taken a
7 Mawdu'Ut,
6.
(v) Tradi t i ons relating to
the meri t of the mont h of Haj ab
al -Ashaj j,
to be mawdu
1

Ibid., pp. 4, 12.
and [vi)
al -KharrSsh,
Bishr, Yaghnam, Yakhshaf on the
aut hori t y of Anas, Ratan al -Hindi
which are not actu-
al l y so.
6
The reason seems to be this that as the
atmosphere was surcharged
Sahifya
pp. 3-4,
9. Al-Fawa'id,
Tradi t i ons
rel at i ng to the meri t of the lamps, candle-sticks and
mats used in mosques.
1

J a' f ar
and others.
4
Hi s
books may, therefore, be regarded as an earliest
at t empt to enunciate the principles of Mawdrfat
wi t h fabrications, he was
among the Musl i ms. As he fel t t hat
i f, at the outset, he woul d present before the publ ic the
pp. 5, 9-10.
also p. 12.
p. 3 0
227
b.
.
.
Ma'na,
He
Hadlth
1. See Mashariq al-Anwar (Egypt, 1329 A.H.),
either with : (*)
sections. Each bdb
that are common to them both, by o
Sahabls
arbitrary.
The selection of Ahadith,
as they (Ahadith (Jawllyya)
those called Mutaba^t^
ference to those of Fi'liyya
has selected only the Ahddith
His Mashariq al-Anwar
al-Sihah
al-MaHhura
Sahihan or any other collection of authentic traditions,
they were not likely to be well
/
'
p. 4. The full title of
the work is Mashariq al-Anwar al-Nabuwiyya
Mustafawiyya
f t Sihah al-Akhbar
(H5jl
al-
Khalifa, Vol. V, p. 547). This Mashariq al-Anwar
should not be confused with the Mashariq al'AnwUr,
Ghara'ib, difficult words of the Muwatta*
a commentary of the
and the Sahihan,

228 I NDI A' S C O N T R I B U T I O N TO H A D I T H L I T E R A T U R E
received because of their
bulk, he prepared two of his earliest compendia on the
subject, namely, al-Misbah
and al-Shams
al-Ma'thura,
The Mashariq al-Anwar embodies into it 2,253
select Ahadith from the Sahihs of al-Bukhan and
Muslim, of which 327 belong to the former and 875 to
the latter, while the rest 1,051
Qawliyya
and Taqrirlyya
Shawahid and Riwayat
play a more vital
part in the formulation of the principles of the Sharfa.
therefore, has not been
As for the isnad
%

are mentioned. The Tradi ti ons of al -Bukhan
are represented by those of Muslim by f
.
The book is divided into twelve chapters,
which again are subdivided into one or more fasls,
has a group of Ahadith opening
grammatical regents (J-'jf),
(d. 644).
2. According to the commentator al-Kazuruni
(d. 758), the total
number of Ahadith contained in the Mashariq is 2,246 (Flaji
V, p. 547) as
Khalifa,
against 2,253,
Vol .
in the recently published edition of the work
under the auspices of Dar al-Funun
dlya,
al-Duja
al-Munira
which evoked a wide-spread
interest among his co-religionists. Thus encouraged,
he compiled his epitome of the Sahihan
at Quniya
edition Cairo,
min Sihah al-
min
which became
famous under the name of the Mashariq al-Anwar
are common to both.
2

in pre-
and also
bi 7-
only the name of the
and those
such as
by QadS
(vide Maktabat Mahmu-
1329 A.H.),
*
'Iyad
'Ala'
Jl 'cC I 'All


0
r
j l


C
ISI *U
1. Khurrum
disciple of Nizam al -Di n AwJiya'
wr i t t en at al -Must ansi rl yya
al -Di n
of the Sunan^
between
same


k
Amil
serves as a l ine
1
Awamil)
the Ahadlth
tenses, such as '^ 1
and so on, or with [ii)
AL-SAGHANI
'All
Mashariq (CawnpUr,
Balharl,
J ami\
a series of openi ng words
havi ng vari ous denomi nat i ons. In the sequel, every
bab provides for diverse topics of interest such as
principl es of the Shar i ' a, ethics, transactions, manu-
mi ssi on of slaves, j i had (holy war) etc. It

AND HIS WORKS
the words of the verbal
and so on. As regards
col l ect ed under t he one or t he ot her of t he
t hey have been arranged al phabet i cal l y. As
for the traditions collected according to tenses, they, too,
have been arranged al phabet i cal l y. Again, each fasl
of demarcat i on between the uses of the
with different forces, e.g.,
or or in combination wi t h different pronouns, e.g.,
is for t hi s
reason t hat an Indi an comment at or has compared i t to
a garden whose flowers resemble in col our but vary in
fragrance.
1
So it appears t hat al -Saghani
Musnad
Wi t h i n sevent y-five years of the author' s death,
the first comment ar y of the Mashariq al-Anwdr
Yahya b. ' Abd al-Latlf
i n Baghdad.
2
At about
the same t i me, Shams al - Di n al-Awadi
(d. 725), brought out
the second commentary of the book.
3
Si nce t hen many
comment ari es, compendi a and abri dgement s of the
Mashdriq
1917), p. 17.
Cr*
2. Hajl
as fU^ '
f ol l owed t he
above arrangements as against the st ereot yped
and Mu'jam
al-Qazwini
Tuhfat al-Akhyar,
Khalifa,
' dj *^ *
ones
works only
t o make hi s work at t ract i ve and i nt erest i ng. Furt her,
the above arrangement i s ot herwi se useful i n so far as
it may be regarded as a sort of catalogue of the
Sahihan.
Was
(d. 749), a
by scholars of the different Muslim countries
among whom several have been of Turki sh and I ndi an
nat i onal i t i es, saw t he l i ght of the day. As the years
Urdu tr. of the
Vol. V, p. 651.
3. Supra, p. 60.
229
m
by
ed.
1. Ibn Hajar, ahDura
Sahdba.
[Hi)
[i]
"6. Al-Jawahir,
2. Supra, pp. 76-77.
al-Kamina,
Al -Saghanf s
Al-Saghanl
(v) Kitab al-Du
l
afawa
(iv) Mukhtasar
(Khadlwl ya,
Durr
(it) Shark al-Bukharl,
the symbol s of Sahih,
Saghani
Kashf al-Hijab


l
an
Al -Saghanfs
of the Sunna
was theMashariq
have already not i ced.
2

taken and classes were hel d
rolled on, the Mash&riq
230 INDIA' S
Vol
3. Hajl
4. f
Khalifa s.v. Kashf al-Hijab 'an A hadith
Ssb Kupri,
al-Shihab.
op. cit. p. 99; Qurashi.

CONTRI BUTI ON TO HADI T H
al-Anwar
popul ar so t hat by t he 8t h cent ury j ourni es were under -
for i t s st udy.
1
The par t i t
pl ayed t owards t he propagat i on of Hadi t h l i t erat ure in
Nort hern Indi a duri ng t he pre-Renai ssance
Suffice it to say here that it
al-Anwar
i n the Fi qh-ri dden countries of Indi a a nd
Cent ral Asi a of t he day.
ot her works on Hadi t h
Ahadlth al-Shihab.
edited al-Qudit'isift.
da
1
]/and
a short comment ary of the
Sahlh al-Bukhdri.
al-Sihaba
Vol . V, 52): a col l ect i on of t he
places of the deaths of the Compani ons of the Prophet
arranged al phabet i cal l y.
5

al-Wafayat,
treatise.
H-Matrnkin,
as an edi t or of t he Sahl h al -Bukhan
name shal l always remai n i mmor t a -
lized as an edi tor of the t ext of al -Bukhari ' s
Vol . IV . p. 82.
5. Fihris aUKhad\w\yya
t

al'~Jawahir,
I, p. 202.
j\
s . v, Durar
mawdu
Maxvad?
Sahifa.
Vol. I, p. 202.
al-Sihaba;
LI TERATUR E
grew more and mp r e
peri od, we
which kept aloft the banner
AI-
454) Kitab al-Shihab with
against each
and arranged i t on the lines of the Mashariq al-
Wafayat al-
a general biographical
a book dealing
wi t h weak, rej ect ed Transmi t t ers of Hadi t h.
6

As
Tadhkirat
Hyderabad, p. 82.
;
Anwfir.
3

*

.
al-N awUdir,
W

1. A. Mingana, perhaps the first Orientalist
the transmission of t he t ext of t he Sahih
to write on the history of

aUBukhart. observes : Before t he

4th century, the t ext of al -Bukhari ' s
definitely fixed in the form in
Sahth was '
opinion of Mingana,
i n a fluid st at e and not
which we have it in our day. ' In the
there was little likelihood of the whole text of the

AL-SAGHANI AND HIS WORKS
a matter of fact, the edition of the Sahih current all
over Arabia, India, Persia and al -'lraq
master-mind and to nobody else's.
Saht h being extant in a syst emat ically writt en form at the time. Thanks
to the efforts of the Traditionists like al-Asili (d. 392), al-Qabisi (d. 403),
Abu Dharr (d. 434) and Abu Nu' aim (d. 466), in the course of the 4th and
the 5th centuries the text was well -nigh established. The process of system-
atizati on thus began continued until it was finally complet ed towards t he
early part of the 6th century by Abu ' 1-Waqt (d. 553) who might be called
the last true editor-transmitter of the text of the Sahih. But the Tradi-
tionists, namely, al-Sam' ani (d. 562), Ibn 'Asakir (d. 57*1),'al-Saghani
and Sharaf al-DIn
(d. 650)
al-Yunini (d. 701) also contributed materially in this
directi on in so far as they co-ordinated the early variants of the t ext and
handed them down in the form in which we see them in numerous MSS. of
t he Sahih. The mantles of these editors, however, fell on the shoulders
of al-Saghani and al-Yunini who gave the finishing t ouch to the t ext
exactly as we have it in respect of its form, order and phraseology.
The edition of the Sahih al -BukharX current in Arabia, India, Persia and
al-' Iraq are generally based on the t ext edited by al-Saghani, while
al -Yun&l ' s edition is popular in Morocco, Algeria, Kgypt and Syria. Vids
A
y
Mingana : An Import ant Manuscript of the Traditions of Buhhart
(Oxford, 1936), pp. 1-2, 14,16, 20,
we owe to his
26, 27, 29.
231
1

'Ala
1

'ALI
Section
al -Di n
(a)


l
Ali
AL-MUTTAQI &
'All
b. Qadikhan
b. Husam al-Din
al-Muttaqi
b. ' Abdal -Mal i k
al-Burhanpur
al -Mut t aqi al -Burhanpuri al -Madanl whose
ancestors l i ved at J awnpur ,
885/1481.
was born at Burhanpur in
Educat ed at hi s nat i ve t own under Shaykh
Baj i n and his son ' Abd
Husam
al -Haki m
al - Di n al-Muttfini,
and at Mul t an, under
t i me a Qadi
al -Mut t aqj was for some
of Burhanpur. In 941/1534, he was in
Guj arat whence, on account of Humayun' s invasion of
the t erri t ory, he left for t he Hi j az wi t h a part y of hi s
pupil s and settled down at Makka.
1

furt her education in al -Hadlth
Here he took
Muhammad al -Sakhawi ,
f r om Muhammad b.
and Ibn
Abu ' l -IIasan
Haj ar al-Makkl
al - Bakn (d. 952)

CHAPTER II I
I NDI A N TKADI TI ONI S T
(950-1257/1543-1841
I . 950-1000/1543-1591
HI S SCHOOL OF MU
(885-975/1481-1568).
(d. 974), and became an
authority on the subject. Hi s emi nence as a Muhaddi t h
may be judged f r om the fact that his teacher I b n
Haj ar al -Makki
1. Supra p. 109.
hi mself accepted his discipleship. A
man of great sanctity and learning,


4
Ali a l - Mut t a qi
commanded
respect not only f r om his contemporary
schol ars but al so from the Ot t oman Emperor Sul ayman I
(1520-55) and the Muzaffarshahl Sultan Mahmud II I
(1537-53) who granted stipends for the pupi l s of hi s
S
)
H ADD I T HUN
i
1

. ^
Afill:
[v)
4

(Hi) G hay
l
hAfal
Manhaj
al-J am
1

"
1. Ulttghkhinl,
Kanz aVU
(iv) Al-Mustadrak:
at al-'Ummal:
(it) I ktnal
al
J
U
al-J awdmi\
'Al-Muttaql
Madrasa.
Mmtjfrn,
<W-*X;
p.
pp. 316. 368; Ahhti&r
48; Ma'that
aLAkhylr,
mtnal fi Sunan al-Aqwal
In this work al-Muttaql has
the Ahadith of the above
p. 271):
Manhaj al-Ummal
(Rampur
mtnal ft
al-J am?
pp. 241 seq; Subkat
al-Kiram,
the Ghayat al-l)mtnal
xca'
arranged, according to the chapters of Fiqh, the Ahadith
two books have been collected into the Ghayat
(Khadiwiyya
Sunan
al-Saghir
l
TadHhira-i.'Ulama'.pp
pp. 192-84;
and ah Mustadrak have
Fi'llyya
al-Aqwal
and al-Ziydda
}W; '4%**
146-47
Khaxtna,
both been again embodied into the Kanz al-Ummal,
of the
No. 404 : KhadJwlyya,
wa
works designed to serve the purpose of on Encyclo
; I thZf
Vol I, pp .
9.
J am*
-
d-VlUm,
al-Nubal<l\
popular
i, p. 433). In
paedia of Hadith
#|,BoxhlnparI;
p. 885;
p. 826; Tiq&*
t

and encyclopaedic collection of Ahadith pub-
this work al-Muttaql has classified,
literatureand
ffaiB'if

INDIAN TRAD1TI0NIST5
He died at Makka in 975/1568.
evinced a keen interest for al-Suyfitl's
himself, to further
facilitate the study of the books, compiled the following
six works
chapters of Fiqh, the Aliadlth
according to the
a supplement to the Manhaj al-Vmtnal
Umtnal
al-J awami
1

lished in eight volumes by the Da'irat al-Ma'arif
Mi Sba' rfi l ,
Y*d~i*AyyZm,
*l.H*n*fi&m>
VL
- .
of the J amf al-Saghir
and al-Ziyada
pp. 35,44;
arranged alphabetically. A commentary
BanklpSr
i.v. 'All
on the Manhaj al^Ummal
Catalogue,
f ab ^ akubr*\ i.v.
4
AJI
by an anonymous author
aMIuttaql;
has been preserved in the Oriental Library at Bankl -
Press
at Hyderabad in 1312-13 A.H
M*'*rif,
2 3 3
1

:
pGr.
1

.
at-
.
\
.
.
1 i
*
1 '
L A W
MttttAO
Vol
Vol. XXI J
A *
l
p 1
1
1
J

l *
, 1

I -
,.y" .
V, W No. 4*
J* - A
I
1
- I . ft * .
J am*
1. Vide Catalogue, Vol. V,
Kahan wi t h Ma k h d u m
He was a nat i ve of Da r b i l a
1. Qadl
Fa t t a n i
(b) Hi s pupi l s: Amon g
Na wa wi ' s
( Br o c ke l ma n n ,
wi se s a yi n gs .
(4) Al-Manhaj
673) : a t r eat i se on Ahadi t h
( Bankl pur ,
(3) J axvami
pr oved t he cl ai m of M
al-J awami\
of a l - Ma h d i
cont ai ned i n a l - Su yut i ' s
( Lot h . No. 1031 II) :
(2) Al-Burhdn
avai l abl e i n t he l i br a r y
Ti r mi dhi ' s
(1) Shark Shamu'il
in the Banki pi i r
c o mme nt a r y on t hi s wor k i n f our vol umes ent i t l ed
Sullam
a b r i d ge me n t
I, p. 428 ; Ka r npur
[vi) MuntakhabKanzaVU
234 INDIA'S CONTRIBUTION TO HADITH
part II ,
ah
fl
mmal
' Abd al -' Azi z
''Abel
al - Mul t aql ' s
Misbfih
al-Tamm
X I I I , NOR. 9 , 6-8; Lot h . Ind.


l
l-Kalhn
mud a l - J a wn p u r i
In
t oge t he r
al - ' Ar f
a r e a r r a n ge me n t


l
Alamat
of D a r
Shamd'il
al-Nabl,
Li b r a r y.
1

In a ddi t i on t o t he above wor ks, aJ - Mut t at p
al-Anuulr
of the Kanz
No. 29 6 ; As nf i yya ,
( Kha di wj yyn,
pupi l s
ft
al - Abhar i .
al-Zulam
fi Tabwib
'l-Maxcai%
the pi ef ace,
a l - Wa r d T
Malidl
a l - ' Ul u m
al-Ntihi
by an a n o n ymo u s
iil-'UnujuiL
* *
xca
Ahhir

LI TERATUR E
Vol .
I, No. 676) : An
An ext ensi ve
a ut hor is a va i l a bl e
has
wr i t t e n t he f o l l o wi n g c omme nt a r y and treatises on
al - I I adi t h
a c o mme n t a r y on al -
of which a Ms. copy is
at Peshawar.
1

al-7<aman
of the Ahadl t h
o n t he account
wi t h addi t i onal mat eri al f r om the
the a ut hor has
as t he pro-
mi s e d Mes s i ah t o b e f a l s e
H-Hikam
Of f i ce No.
deal i ng wi t h ser mons and
al-Hikam
Sup. I, 519) : a c o mme n t a r y of al-

Ta hi r a l -
( d . 986) s el ec t ed Guj a r a t as t he s e at of hi s act i -
vit ies, whi l e the f ol l owi ng of his pupi l s, the Har amayn :
Allah 6. I brahim ahSind
(d. 955/ 1548).
i n Si nd and r ead at
In
2. Catalogue, p. 76,
Nos. 432-35.
:
*
.
.
*
i
No. 39 *
c
Ab d
li e
al oni j wdth
1. Ma'suml,
Alklh
in Dhu' l - Hi j j a ,
read TTadith wit h Ib n
Me was a nati ve of Dar bi l a
3. Shaykh
compi l ed a work on al-Muwduat
subj ect at Ahmackibftd
Taxcarikh,
Oadi r al - I i ada' uni ,
pi l t j ri i na^e
Indi a aloiiL!
l ect ured in IliLllth
Mut t aqi ,
On fi ni shi ng
2. Rahmat
a pupi l of al - Mut t aql wen !
al - Mat t aqi ,
discipl e of al - Mut t aql .
934/ 1527, he proceeded to Ahmadi l ba d
Tarikh-iSind,
edi t ed the Mishhlt
T la jar al - Makkj .
in S!nd


l
Abd
fo r some t i me, a^ai n
read Hadl i h
to Makka, and
with lln;?
l i t er at ur e .
Ra h ma t
his st udi os
Allah h.


l
Abd
and settled down in a] - Madi n a
where he di ed wi t hi n two years of his residence.
1
Hi s
t wo s ons , Rnhma t
The n he
In
Aiklh and

INDIAN TRADI TI ONI STS
and became a
mi gr at e d
l l ani l d t h e
Tr adi t i oni st s .
Allah al-Sind
(d. 003,
at Makka under al-
Aiiah


r
J82/ J574,
l l c - a m
vi si t ed A^ra
the author of the Muntakhab
wit h hi m.
2

went to
Makka and died in Mnhar r am ,


(
)
f
_t f / Januar y,
whi ch, however,
has not come down to us/
Allah b. Sad Allah al-Sind
(d. 984/1577).
and mi grat e d
wit h his teacher al - Mut t aq l to Makka where he al so
He f i nal l y
settled down in al - Madi n a wi t h his namesake and
f el l ow-ci t i zen , Oady
984/ March , 1577.
ahMa&abih
2. Badii'unI,
p. 202;
p. 114- Hai g.
3. Ahhbar, pp. 2G4-65; Yad.i-Ayyam,
'Ab d
Akhhar
p. 1G8 .
Aliah
p. 30;
f or me r
where
wit h whose son Rahmat
Al l ah he became very i nt i mat e . He
al-Akhyar,
Tadhkira
102;
to the Hi j S
al so
repai red to al - Madi n a
he c a me to
who had been on a
'Ab d
Vic. next t aught
1585*
di ed at Makk a
with
copi ous annot at i on s t o pr ove t he super i or i t y of t he
p. 265.
*Ulama',
Prockel majm,
235
z
l
1585 )
and
al-
al-
the
i
p.
Sup I, p. 524 .
al-Nur
Sahlh
Section
'Al l
l
Ab d
al'S'dfir,
1. Akhbat
father ' Al a
of a l - Bu kh a n
He i nt r oduc ed i nt o Arabia the Sanad
a l - Ha n a f l
Ha r a m
The Indi an Tr adi t i oni st who long enj oyed the
pr i vi l ege of t eachi ng l l adl t h
(d. 1052) was a pupi l of


l
Ab d
Shaykh ' Ab d
Ha d i t h l ear ni ng at Ma k k a a n d
t ook char ge of hi s Ma d r a s a t h e
wr i t i ngs. Af t er a l - Mu t t a q f s
f a vo u r i t e pupi l s . li e
Ma ml u i n
a l - Mut t a q i
al - Wahhab b. Wal l
4. Shaykh
Ha n a f i t e
236 I NDI A' S
Hadaiq al-Hanaf tyya.
al-Akhyar.
al - Nahr aw: l l T
of Makka was Muf t i Outb al - Dl n Muhammad
b. ' Al a'
al - TIaqq
943/1536. In
pp. 264-65:
96? / l 556,
p. 388; Ma'siimi,
Tadkkira-i-'Ulama'.
p. 357.
p.
2. Akhbar, pp. 253 seq ; Ilada'Iq,
p. 139 ; Ma'arif, Vol. XXII ,
3. Supra, p. 147.
4. Brockelmann, Sup. I, p. 514.
5. So called because between Qutb al-Dln and al-Bukharl,

CONT RI BUTI O N TO HADI T H L I T E R A T U R E
Sc hool .
1

'Abd
Allah, the successor of
at Ma kka , was bor n at Sh a d i a b a d
he j oi ned t he
School of a l - Mu t t a q i and soon b e c a me
r e nde r e d a ye oma n ' s ser vi ce t o
hi s t eacher bv c op yi n g, c o mp a r i n g
death,


4
Abd
t h e n p r i n c i p a l seat of
served i t wi t h great
cr edi t unt i l hi s deat h i n 1001/1592.
a l - Muha ddi t h
al -Wahhab al - Mut t aqi .
3

I I
Mufti Qutb al-Dln al-Nahrawali (917-90/ 1511-82).
l i t er at ur e at t he sacred
al - Di n
al - Makki
al-'Ajam?
whi ch he had r ecei ved f ro m his
a l - Dl n al -Nahrawal i (d. 949),*
p. 204; Ulughkhanl,
102;
pp, 292 scq ;
transmitters of this sanad, are all non-Arabs
No. 4,
al-Wahhab al-Muttaqi
(d. 1001
one of hi s
and a r r a n gi n g hi s
al -Wahhab
al - Di hl awi
Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Oadl khan
who was ot her wi s e
an i mpo r t a n t aut hor of Ar abi c l i t er at ur e and hi st or y.
4

of the
a pupi l of
p. 638;
Tadkhira-u'WamW,
pp. 2G3-G4.
6. Vi d$ supra, p. 88
j \ 592).
*
the
.
.
Qutb
1102)
%
Abd
Muft i
Hi j az.
I l aqq
al-Nahrawali
1. Al-Nur
was his pupi l in al - Bukhar i ' s
f amous Ma di ni a n Tr adi t i oni s t
Amo n g t he Tr adi t i oni s t s who t r ans mi t t ed t he
Sahlh
Allah h. Mulla
praised f or its t r eat ment by


l
Ab d
it the Ahadi t h
si ve work on I l adl t h
Outb nl -Dl n
i nst i t ut i ons of Ma kka . He
(1520-55), obt ai ned Kh i l ' a ,
He travelled in Ei j ypt
Da yb a
4

a l - Sumba U
wi t h hi s f at her t o Makka
Bor n at Lahor e i n 017/ 1511,
Nur a l - Di n
al-Safir,
.
' 2. Vide Miftah
Shawkani,
pp. 383
of al - Bukhar l
Sad 'Allah
al -' Azi z
of the Silidh
r obe of honour f r o m h i m
and Tur key vi si t i ng the
f a mous s e a t s of l e a r ni ng. In 054/ 1538, he was r ec ei ved
i n audi ence by t he Ot t o ma n
( d. 914)
(d. 93.1), ' Abd
Out b al - Di n
al-Shir2Lzi,
al-Badr al-Tali',
aUSunna,
p. 57 ; al-Amain,
seq ; Shadharat, Vol.
Vol. II,
VIII, pp. 420 seq;
pp. 57-58 \
pp. 4-5 ; Qatf,
al-Yani\ p.

INDIAN TRADITIONISTS
and was himself a l i nk between
t he non- Ar ab and t he Ar a b t r ans mi t t er s of t hi s
sanad
mi gr a t e d
and st udi ed under ' Ab d
a l - Ka h ma n
a nd several ot her prof essors of t he
Emp e r o r Su l a yma n I
a n d
was appoi nt ed t he Supe r i nt endent of t he t heol ogi cal
next became t he Mu f t i o f
he hol y ci t y and di ed in 990/1582
Hi s work :
is the author of a comprehen-
l i t er at ure whi ch i ncorporat es i nt o
Sittao.
al - Kha wl i .
al-Lahur
(d. 1083/1672)
in Arabia on the aut hori t y of
Outb al - Di n, was ' Ab d
I br ahi m al - Kur d i
Sahih
Zaidan, Adah al-Lughat
pp. 135;
28 ; aUmdad.
3. I thafal~Akabir
t

p. 110.
al-'Arabtyya
Uhaf al-Akabir
y

(Cairo.
pp. 61
1913). Vol. Ill ,
seq;
Sarkis,
p. 309;
p. 1871 ; Huart, A History of Arabic Literature (London, 1903),
377-78; 'Abd al -Hayy,
pp. 61-62;
Al l ah an Indi an. He was born
at La hor e and di ed at a l - Ma di n a
Yad-i-Ayyam,
a>Imdad,
i n 1083/ 1672.
pp. 56-57; Nuzha,
p. 74 ; a]-Amam,
pp.
b. al-
work hi ghl y
Th e
Vol. IV , s. v.
pp. 4-5 ;
237
.
al-
2

i
.
( d
aJ-Yani', p. 33,
Sh i f a \
Ha dl
1. Al-Jabrati,
{it) Bah]at
the Sahlhan
(i) Al-Hawashi
al - Bai j i '
1138/ June,
Ahmad b.
the Sikilh
l i t er at ur e and his popul a r
the ci t y. Al - Si ndi
t he t he n f amous s chool of Ha di t h
Ma d i n a
I b r a h i m al - Kur dl
l i t erat ure f r om t wo Madi ni an Tr adi t i oni st s, namel y,
Sa yv i d Mu h a mma d al - Bar zanj i
Shu s t a r
o f Th a t h
a l - Ha n a f i
Abu' l - Tl as an
Abtfl-Hasan
238 INDIA'S
Si ndi ; 17am
Sarkis, Mu'jam
'Afa'ib al-Athar
Sitta,
al-Matba'at
al-Nubala\
(Cairo, 1322),
al-Na%ar
have been publ i shed wi t h the Eg yp t i a n
edi t i on of the wor ks and t hose on the Sunan
Sitta
1726 a nd was bur i ed
I l a nba l .
di spl ay all
Haivlshl,
(1025-1102). He
(1040-1103)
i n Persi a) and a l - Ma dl na.
near Kar achi ,
a l - Si ndl
Nur a l - Di n
ahSindl
f l
p. 21 ; al - Yani ' ,
Vol. III.
s.v. Abu ' l -Hasan
Shark Nukhbat
'aid
t hr ough
wa s e d u c a t e d
a l - Ma d a m
al-
p. 938 ;
'l-Kutub
(Cairc,
pp. 42-44 :
Silk al-Durar,
al-Sitta
2. Vide Fihrist,
Vol. IV , p. 60;
1928), pp. 1056-57; Qa\
Ma'anf.
f al-Thamar,
Vol . XXI I No. 5, p. 338 ,

CONTRIBUTION TO HADITH LI TERATURE
Section I I I
(d. 1138/ 1726).
Muhammad b. ' Abd- al -
who was a nat i ve
a t Tu s t a r ( mo d .
He t ook Tl adl t h
and
resi ded at al-
a n d wa s a ppoi nt ed Prof essor of t he Da r a l -
l ear ni ng of
was a recognized author of I l adl t h
ma r gi na l not es, on
his vas t s t udy of
t he Sci ence and a deep a nd c r i t i c a l i nsi ght i nt o t h e
j ur i di cal problems. Furt her, he was the i i rst Tr adi -
t i oni st to wri t e a c o mme n t a r y on the Musnad
He died on the 12th ShawwSl ,
i n t he gr a ve ya r d o f
at a l - Ma d i n a .
Hi s wo r ks :
:
Ma r g i n a l not es on t he Si x Ca noni c al Col l ec t i ons of
Ahadl t h.
al-Nasai,
wi t h the Indi an edi t i on.
al-Fika
Vol. I, p. 331 ; also preserved in the Rampur
Library (Catalogue, I I , 130). Cf. Hash/
pp. 622, 625,
State
aUunun. Vols.
627.
Th e manus cr i pt copi es of t he wor k are i n
the Khadl wi yya
II , 549, Vol. Ill,
J .
l i brar y of Egypt .
2
The I Jawashl
n
of
1


on
r
Sunna,
(Hi)
'Al l
Hi s
Si ddi q
{Hi)
p, 37.
2. Nuzha,
on MuJl a 'Al l
XI I A. H. ;
pp. 164-66;
Subhat
I thaf al-Nubald,
al-Marjan, p.

INDIAN TRADITIONISTS
( AS B No . 606/ 15 Ar a b i c MS S ) : a c o mme n t a r y on
Ib n
Shark Musnad Ahmad
c o mme n t a r y
as f i f t y juz\
Ha s a n Khan
t hei r r espect i ve books.
1

pupi l :
Shaykh Muhammad
Mu h a mma d Ha y a t
Ab u ' Ml a s a n
spent his l i f e i n t he services of l l adl t h
had al-I jaza
(d. 1134), I br ahi m
al -
c
Uj a i ml .
di st ri ct of l i ha kka r
1103/ 1750
Hi s wor ks
Tuhfat al-Mukibbln
al - NawawT
(it) Risala
Tuhfat al-Anclm:
(iv) Shark Arba
l
in
a l - ( Jan' s
a l - Ka l i m
1. AUHiUaft
pp. 403-04;
9r; Ma'that
Tadhkira-u'Ulama",
3. I thaf al-Nubala\
Abjad
t

Ha
and


4
Abel
al - Si ndi
f r om ' Abd
li e
I t
Ar b a ' un a
Dhikr Sihah
al-Kiram
t

p. S4?>;
pp. 186-87; al-Yani',
f t
Tiqsar,
l o c cit.
j ar ' s Nukhbat
b. Hanbal:
on t he
parts, has been
a!-
l
Az' i z
Hayat al-Sindi
s ucc eeded
as t he Prof essor of t he l ) ; l r
Al l ah b. Sal i m
al - Kur d l
was a nati ve of ' Adi l pur
in Si nd
( Rl nki pur ,
Bid
1

'l-Harawi:
Ha dl t ha n
Sitia, s.v,,
p. 224-
p. 43; Ma'irif,
4. Brockelmann, Supp.
at
Vol,
No. C,
al-Fikar
Thi s
Mumad whi ch consi st s of as ma n y
not i ced by Na wwa b
al - Khawl l
(d. 1163/1750)
hi s t eacher
a l - Shi f a '
l i t er at ur e. He
a l - Ba s n
(d. 1145) and Hus a i n
in the
and died at Ma d ma
V (2), No. 286;
Brock. Sup. I , 522): a c o mme n t a r y on the Arba'in
al-Ta'zla
a t r eat i se ref ut i ng taqlid.
a c o mme n t a r y
f i J a wa mi '
Mumad Ahmad; Miftah
XXI I
pp. 338-39.
I, pp. 622,
239
.
in

.
a n d
b.
in
:
.
z
.
.
*
/
al-
539.
Shuruh
Ta h i r
Sihfify SUta
dima
Al-Faid
II is
' Uma r
' Ur na r
1. Of. Loth, India Office, No. 131.
2. Nnzha,
gr a phe d
me n t a r y on the J ami
1

Shark


k
ala
b . I br ahi m a l - Ku r d i
and the Sunan
and Was
ITanaf l
Abu ' I - Ta yyi b
2. Shaykh
Bukha r l
Ha d i t h
de vot ed t o I st al ahat
and four Fa
al-Bukhtlri
al-Nahiiiv'i
appear s t o have f l our i s hed i n t he 1 1 t h c e n t u r y
of t he Tl i j r a .
mi gr a t e d
a l - Ma d a n j
b. Muhammad 'Arif
1. Vmar
sis.

240 INDIA'S CONTRIBUTION TO HADITH LI TERATURE
Section I V
al-Nahrawal
Taj khan a l - Na hr a wa l i
wa s a nat i ve of Na h r a wa l a
t o a l - Ma dl na
No not i ce of hi s bi ogr aphy is, however,
avai l abl e.
1

wor k:
ft Usiil
( Lot h, No. 131): The book has a Muqad-
The Muqaddima
al - Hadl t h
l i t er at ur e and t he Fas l s ,
At t he e nd of t he book, t her e i s a di scussi on on al-
and his Sahlh
Abu 1-Tayyib
Mu h a mma d b. ' Abd
al - Si ndi a l - Ma d a n l
a pupi l of Tl usai n
wor ks. He al s o r ead wi t h
a nd Mu h a mma d a l - Ka wk a n f .
He l i ved in the 12th century A. H.
2

Hi s wo r k:
J dmt
of Abu ' Isa
at t he Ni zami
- i-Arba
Vol . XI I . A. H.,
b. 'Al l
8
ahHadith
t o Usul
al - ' Uj ai mT
al-Tirmidhl:
a l - Ti r mi dhi
v., Abu '1-Tayyib
i n Gu j a r a t . He
a nd set t l ed t her e p e r ma n e n t l y.
wa Fah3ris
has be e n
or t he t e chni que of
a l - Ha di t h.
al-Sind
al - Qadi r
set t l ed down i n a l - Ma dl na
in the
an Ar abi c c om-
l i t ho-
Press, De l h i al ong wi t h t he
al-Sindi
l
.
i
al-

\
.
x. /.*.,
Jami'
' At f a t
al -Di n
Wasi t I
a*
1. Taj mU'Arus
end of
the Na wwa b
of Dar al - ' Ul um,
i n the Na wwa b Si ddi q Ha s a n
out si de. Sul t an ' Ab d
of Sh a ykh u n
Sa yyi d Mur t a da t aught I l adl t h
al - Gas sal ,
he went to Egvp t
Mur t a d a made a pi l gr i ma ge
al - Sur at l
Shah Wal l
educat i on i n I ndi a f r o m Fa khi r
Sa yyi ds of Hi l ^ri l m.
of t he Taj al-
aI-W2Lsiti
b. Mu h ' i mn r u l
Abu


l
l - Fai d
3. Sayyid
(Cairo,
Ams,
b. 'Ah-.l
o- ^r
1 1

al-Jabratl ,
1307), Vol . X, pp. 469-70
Na d wa
a l - l l a ml d
where his l ect ures were at t ended
by t he Pr of es s or s of t he J a mi
1

where he l i nal i y
t o t he Ha r a ma y n
(d. 1206). In
Al l ah al - Di hl aw i
a MI a h a b a d l
al - Bi l ^r a m i
al - Raz: : a(j
Mu h a mma d
I thaf
op. ci t. , Vol . I I , pp. 208-23; ' Abd
(autobiography) ;
1 (1774-89)
al-Nubala\
al -J Iayy,
1726-28;
'Ulatna".
Fi kri s,
p. 407; Taqsar,
pp. ;;98-413;
Maqbul
p. 221; Abjad,

INDIAN TRADITIONIST
Murtada aUBilgr<Zm
(1145-1205/ 1732-91)
Mur t a da b. Mu h a mma d
al - l j - i naf i
al - Zabl dl ,
bel onged to t he f a mi l y of t he
He t ook his enrl y
(d. 1164),
fd . 1 176) and
about 1160' 1747,
and
spent t he next f our or f i ve years at Zabi d s t ud yi n g t he
sciences of Tr a d i t i o n and Phi l ol ogy . In
set t l ed down at.
a quart er i n Cai r o and di ed of pl ague
in J205/ 1791.
l i t er at ur e at t he
'J-Azhar
of "Tur key
who had keen i nt erest i n I l a d l t h l i t er at ur e secured an
ljaza of the Hadith
Sect i on of t he Li b r a r y
at Lu c kn o w t r anscr i bed by
hi ms el f and am goi ng t o append it t o the
my thesis.
Hi s works :
Ahmad Samdani,
pp. 709-712;
f Wx?
Sarkis,
pp. 224-26 ;
al-Rahmat
2

op. cit., 1, 21, n. 30; Tadhhira-i-
Hada'iq,
*
fro m hi m . I ha ve

pp. 468-61 ; Lane, Lexicon (London, 1863).
p. XVI I I ;

Idara-i-Ma'aril-i-Islamiyya,
a i - Hus a yn l
t he cel ebr at ed aut hor
Kh a y r
youn g
1167/1753,
as well as b y
the Tr adi t i oni s t s of t he di f f er e n t part s of Kgvp t
mys el f f oun d a MS copy of t he above hi st ori c ljaza
Proceedings, Fi rst Session, 1935,
pp. 332 33.
S 24 1
l
.
1

and
.
Hi s
' Abi d
(viii)
(vii)
ahHajjdj
{Hi)
{it)
1. Al-Yani
1

di ed at al -Madi na in Habi
4

and was appoi nt ed b y
he ma r r i e d a d a u ght e r
Si nd on t he ba nk
al - Si ndl a l - Ma d a m
b. Ahmad 'Al l
4. Shaykh Muhammad
Musalsalat
AJ fiyat
(vi) Mujam
al-Mutwiltira
(v)


l
I qd
(iv) Tabslr
Ghayat
pri nt ed in Eg y p t
Bulghat
I J a na f i t e
in 1292 A. H. ) : a coll ecti on of Ah a d i t h
Madhhah
(i)


l
Uqild
Abl
al-Jani,
t he I ma m of a l - Ya ma n
b. Ya ' q ub
al-Lalt
al-I bti/ulj
al-Arih
Hanifa
al-J axvahir
s.v.
li
f i

242 I NDI A' S C O N T R I B U T I O N TO H A D I T H L I T E R A T U R E
al-Munifa
(pri nt ed in 2 vol s.
in support of t he
Sc h o o l of J u r i s p r u d e nc e
Musialah
in 1326 A. M. ) : a treatise on LJsuI
a l - Ha di t h
Muntafi
(Brock. , Sup. 1, 399).
al-Nuntabih
al-Muntathira
(ibid).
al-Mashtfikh
al-Sanad
(ibid).

l
Abid
( d. 1257/ 1841) .
a l - An s a n
was born at Si wa n, a vi l l age i n
of t he Indus. Educ a t e d at Zabl d,
of t he t he n mi n i s t e r of Sa n ' a
as hi s
ambas sador of Eg yp t . He t hen ha d a s oj ou r n t o h i s
nat i ve l and where af t er s t a yi ng f or a whi l e, he l ef t f or
al - Hi j az
I, 1257/ Apri l ,
wor ks :
p. 202; Hadn'tq,
'Abid
f i Hifz
and was appoi nt ed by t he Eg yp t i a n gover n-
me nt as t he chi ef of t he


4
U lama*
fi Usill
Athar
Ariinid
al-A
of a l - Ma di n a .
al-Ansari;
Adillat
at Al exandri a
al-Hab}b
Muslim
bi Tahrir al-Mushtabih
hadith
(ibid).
(ibid).
al-Sind
a l - Ha n a f l
He
1841.
1

Tadkhira-i-Vlam*',
p. 473.
.
.
(ibid).
i

Ib n I la
(Hi)
j ar' s Balugh
(iv) Shark Balugh al-Maram:
on Usul
Shark Taysir
cl assi fi ed t he Ahadi t h
i bi d, p. 424, No. 3) : In t his work,
(it) Muraitab Musnad al-lmam
t he c omme nt a t o r has ci t ed Ahadi t h
comment a r y on t he
Abi Hani
(i) Al-Maxcahib
al-I
our
l a d i t h
al-Usul
al-A'zam
Musnad of Abu I I ani f a ,
fa ( MS,
al-Lajifa
.
ila
Ma a r i f


c
ala
vol . L(6), p. 422,

INDIAN TRAD1TI0NIST
Musnad al-Imdm
No. 6) : a
wherei n
f r o m the s t andar d
wor ks t o suppor t t hose i n t he Musnad i t sel f
(MS. ,
aut hor has
of the Musnad accor di ng to the
chapt er s of Fi q h
Ahadith al-Rasul:
*
a comment ar y on
al-Martini.
1. Had'aiq,
S 243
.
.
1

l oc. cit.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Riycttl
Basatin
al-Mwjam
Shark
Tabagat
Hajl
Dawod
Chach
Dhakhjral
Madmat
al'Yamm
Nuzhat
Mubarak al-ArrajaM,
al-I nsha*
Muhammad Siddiq
Muhammad Siddiq
al-Salatjn
Shark Shatnail
*Ayn
al-Huffaz
al-Mishkatl,
Nama
al-Mnluk
al-'Ulnm
Mir'at-i-Asrar
al-Za'rab
M.B.,B.S.
al-Khawatir,
fi
Madarij
b. Nujnm
Kalimai aUSadiqin
al-Nabl
aUllm
(MS., Bankipor,
Asrar
Gharlb
Ma'arif
al-Akhbar
al-Mishkat
al-Abrar

(A) MANUSCRIPTS
al-'Awarif,
al- Hasan
MSS. in possession of Dr. 'Abd
of Lucknow.
al-Hadith
al-Ilahabadl,
(MS., Nadwa, Lucknow).
'Abd al-Rahma
(MS., Bankipor, No. 676).
Al-Azniql,
'All al-Hamadani
(MS., Bankipor).
(MS., Bankipor, No.
Anonymous, (MS., Dar al-Musannifln
A'zamgarh)
(MS., Dar al-Musannifm).
Al-Dhahab] No.
Fakhral-Din,
(MS., Bankipor, No.
al-Kashmir]
(MS., Bankipor,
No. 1182).
(MS., Bankipor, No. 2429).
Ibrahim al-2ubairl
(MS., Bankipor, No.
(MS., Bankipor, No.
(MS., Nadwa, under
Mahmod
(MS., Hablbganj)
(MS., Bankipor, No.
Ab d al- ay y
i ,
Abd Allah
n
ft
Chishtl,
,
al-'All ,
943).
,
.
,
al -
,
2419).
1353).
Ibn Fahd,
,
612).
202).
Sharif,
Gawan ,
Nawadir).
.
364) .
Tahf Qalb
Akhbar
ii anafiyy
Yad
Nuzhat
Miftah
Abd
(Matba'-i-TiirJkh,
al-Alif,
al-Akhyar
Padshah-Nama
Tarb al-Amtithil
a (ed. Yosufl
ai-Fawaid
i-Ayyam
al-Khawatir
al-Sunna
al-Ilasanl,
Anonymous, Zubdat
Anonymous, Tajalll-i-Nnr
Tahir al-Hindi,
Shihab al-Din
Shaykh al-Islam,
Al-Saghani,
248 INDIA' S CONTRI BUTI ON TO HADI T H
Risalaft
Lucknow).
Sharkal-Bukhcsrl
Sharaf al
al-Dawlatabadi
aUMughnl
Musannifin)
f i Mashcfhir-i-Jawnpur
Dar al-Musannifin)
ai-Maqamat
(B) PUBLISHED WORKS
(Cairo, 1921).
al-Khawll
(Hyderabad, 1350
Hakim,
or Tarlkh-i-GujarSt
Lucknow, undated).
al-Hayy
al-Lakhnawi
al-Bahlyya
Press, Lucknow,
(ed. Yusufi
Abd al-Hanrtd (Biblo.
al-Lahun
(Meerut,
alDihl awl
ed. with UrdQ
Hyderabad).
f i Dabt
Sadat,
'l-MawdWZt
(MS., Bankipar,
(MS. , Bankl par,
al-Rijal
fi Tarajitn
Indica,
LI TERATUR E
(MS. , Firingl Mahal,
No. 1190)
No. 1179)
(MS. , Dar al
(MS. ,
(MS. , Bankipor,
(ed.
al-
Press, Luck-
1867).
1277 A.H.)
.
.
,
-
.
,
No.
197).
Abd
al-'Az u
,
Abd al-Hay y
,
,
Abd al -Haq q
,
A.H. )
1895).
now).
t r
Ma'thir
Subahai
A'?am
Umdat
Fawa'id
Masabih
Ayni,
Amir
'All
Subh
Tar
al Niir
'Ahmad
al-Kirdm
al-Marjan
Shah, Khawaja,
al-Qan
al-Fu'dd,
Mirqat al-Mafatth
Haydar al-Ka-
Ahmad Sa'id
al-A'sha
Ghulaman-i-I slam
Ahmad Khan, Sayyid, Athar
Khan Tadhkita-i
junta i-T
Hindustan k\
al-Sdfir
Muntakhab
Ma Thabala
,
hi
Tarlkh-i-Kashmir
ft Shark Saklk
ed. Newul
Mashahlr-i-Kakuri,
al-Sanadid
- Kamilan-i
ar\kh-i-I bn
Qadlm
al-Tawar'ikh
'l-Sunna
ed. Asahh
- Rantpti r
K
I slaml
(Biblo.
hold

BIBLIOGRAPHY
(Lahore, 1307
Indica,
al-Bada'anl
Calcutta, 1869)
'Abd al-Qjdir (Baghdad, 1934).
al-'Aidarusl
Abu 'l-Hasanat Darsgahen
(A'zumgarh,
Husain, tin (Allah-
abad, 1901).
(Delhi,
(Cawnpur,

w

(Delhi, 1940)
Ahmad al-Qalqa- (ed. Egypt).
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Lucknow,
ft Shark Mishkat
(ed. Cairo, undated).
Hasan
al-Sanjan,
(Lucknow, 1894).
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The Preaching of I slam (London, 1935).
Badr al -Dl
al-Bukharl.
(ed. Egypt, 1308 A.H.).
(Lahore, 1303 A. H.).
Azad al-BilgrSml (Bombay, 1301 A.H.)
(Agra, 1310 A.H.).
Khizana-i-'Amir
$arw-i-Afa4
249
Ab d al-Qadi r
,
,
Nadaw] ,
A.H.).
.
Ahma d
m
Shawq,
Al i
1936).
1929).
1904)
shandl ,
,
korawi,
All al - Qar] ,
Arnold ,
n
1927.
al-
,
a
t

M\znn
Tajr'id Asma
Kitab
al-J atni'
Kit
Kitctb
Urdo
Bashlr
abVtid
A.H.)
Tadhkirat al-Huffaz
al-Sahaba
Archceological
Ancient Geography of I ndia, ed. S. N.
Majumdar
'AjtVib al-Hind
Muhammadan
A.H.).
Mujaddid's
al-Du'afa
al-Sahlh
Geschichte,
ah al-I lind,
Waqi'at-i'Mcimhikat-i-Bijapur
Futnh
tr. of the Zubdat
250 LVD/A'S
d
Conception of Tawh'.d
al-Saghlr
aLBuldan,
al-Maqamat
CONTRIBUTION TO HADITH LITERATUR
Anonymous
(Delhi,
undated).
Baladhurl, ed. De Goeje
(Leiden, 1866)
Ahmad,
(Agra, 1915).
Oriental Biographical Dictionary, ed. Asia-
tic Society of Bengal (Calcutta, 1881).
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(London, 1887).
Brockelmann, Supplement (Leiden, 1938).
Browne,
Literary History of Persia (London, 1931).
Bukhari (ed. Egypt ).
(Agra, 1323
Burhan Ahmad,
(Lahore,
Burnby, and J ewish Calendars (Lon-
don, 1901).
Buzarg b. Shahrlyar, (Leiden, 1886).
Cunningham,
(Patna, 1924).
Survey of I ndia (Simla, 1871)
Part II .
Dara Shikah,
Saf 'mat al-Awllyft
Dhahabi (Hyderabad, 1315
(ed. Hyderabad).
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Dinesh Chandra Sen,
History of Bengali Literature (Calcutta,
1911).
E
,
ft
Beale ,
Biram ,
,
,
.
1940).
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Kashf
Hajl
Ibn Bat (ft (a:
Mandu
Hadlqat
Khaz'nai
Ihya
Sharqi
Hadaiq
Faqlr
Kitab
DlyS'

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al-Din Barani, Tarikh-i-Flruzshaht,
Calcutta, 1862).
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1322 A.H.)
El l i ot & Dows on,
History of India (London,
Encyclopedia
Muhammad,
al-Hanaflyya
Press, Lucknow, 1886).
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Firishta,
T<:trlkh-i-Hind
Gazetteer of the Province of Sind (Bombay, 1919).
'Ulum
Ghulam Ahmad Khan, Urdu t r . of the Fawjid
Ghulam Sarwar,
Mufti
al-Asfiya
Press, Lueknow)
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Press, Lahore).
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(London, 1929)
Guillaume,
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APPENDIX
Murtada Bilgramfs
I of Turkey
(1774-89) transcribed from the MS. of an
Anthology by Nawvvab Siddiq
preserved in the Dar al-
c
Ulum
Lucknow.
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