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The state

- we could understand various alternatives of the word “state”, according to the context
- latin ->status republicae->stato= forms of government, one of the possible state

Hannah ARENDT still uses „the state‟ in this form of government
->political unity of the people
->the state is there to stay
MACHIAVELLI -> nation state
- the state could also be related to historical boundaries that continue to exist no matter the form
of government
- we define the state by saying what it is not:
->the state is NOT a civil society(organized and permanent institutions:economy,
educational system, church, under the cohersive force of politics)
=>non-governmental organization

The STATE: = the hole fixed political system, the set up of authoritative and legitimative power
growths by which we managed finally to control, order and organize ourselves.
->a certain set of roles

The Social Contract:=>relationship between the state and society
- in order for a society to be defended from various threats it first needs to sign a contract, a pact
with the state => approach of 17-18 century.

WEBER:=>relationship between power and society
- the stronger a state is, the more institutions of the society it can control
- mechanical solidarity ->transform a mechanical solidarity to an organic solidarity
Weber linked the STATE to NATIONALITY:
=> “the state is the fruit of nationalization”
=> “a political enterprise with a constitutional character”
- in order to be national, they have to be in the using of …

LOCKE:=>the inequality in the society
HOBBES:=>by division and labor
John HALL / John IKENBERRY:=>a tridimensional approach according to the definition of the
- a set of institutions that are managed by the state‟s personnel and the state‟s most important
institution, are the means of violence and cohersion
->all these institutions are physically based at the center of the geographically territory, which
they actually name
- the state has to lock inwards and outwards a society
- monopolizing a territory->common political country and culture shared by all institutions (we
don‟t deal with a single civil culture)
- the objectives of a state are to reach the fullness of the state

Criteria used to study the evolution of the state (the state genesis)
-> patriarchal theories
-> we do have a pyramid type of structure
-> created a state in order to present their respect towards some criteria defining the state, due to
continuity for instance.
- the realist theories= one race conquers another inferior one=>the state is initiated
- the violence theory= due to a strong minority that conquers a weak majority
- the economic view= the state has appeared at a certain point of the economic
- the historical, oriental approach= the leaders were sent by the gods, their power was
absolute, the hole surface of the state belonged to the leader; he gave
parts of it to the priests and to the members of the royal court, but
also to the peasants, because he needed economical approach.
- there were 10 000 people in a city-state , ¼ of the population of a normal city state

Modern state:

The Church:
->one important institution that fought between the true (king) and the spiritual power.
->purpose of the spiritual power
- 2 types of social groups:
- the state uses the development
- they needed a specialized bureaucracy=> Bourgeoisie – trade = flood of taxes
- decreased church importance
- we can also talk about the great discoveries of the new territories
->important element in the strengthening of the state
->they were interested in the resources
->the state starts to become richer and richer
LOCKE:=>the executive supremacy should be granted to the parliament
-distinction between the king and the Parliament, which should be entitled to remove the king if
he is a tyrant or does not accomplish his royal right and duties.

Liberal state:
- characterized by the will of law, popular representation
- the state should have a minimal implication in the cultural aspects
- the modern state is marked by the consolidation of new relations in the economical field, also
of the enlightenment ,..

The Wellfare state:
- still democratic but totally opposed to what we have just described
- characterized by the intervention in various parts of the society
- guaranteeing health benefits and unemployment benefits

The Totalitarian state:
- the absolute entity to which everything and everybody should be related
- the reality is given by the state
- the hole society gives itself up to the state
- any private character=nullified
- all the decisions are taken by the leader alone
- any stranger, any outsider should be considered an enemy of the state
- everything is owned and controlled by the state
Racism=important aspect of communism
Difference from and of communism and Nazism:
=>the way they relate themselves to the French revolution

The Democratic state:
- separating power
- rule of law
- the supreme law= the constitution
- public law and a moral person -> the state places itself on the judiciary power that sometimes
lets at its basics
- the state exercises an unconditional power over society
- the state does not actually have to obey any external will
- a state cannot intervene into the interior of another state

LIPHART: -“Consociatonalism”->term brought above by this author =accommodation and
toleration regarding the ethnic minorities
- tells us how a state can cope up with these
- accommodation and acceptance characterizes it
- formula that can be taken in order to deal with natural minorities
- they might have various different rights
- should adopt an attendance of decentralization (a certain degree of decentralization)
->the assimilation of these minorities
- we do have minorities with a strong nationalism
->awareness of the solution that can provide a separate type of life

Association between Politics and Society:
-> health
-> education
-> (un)employment – minimal wage
-> income redistribution
-> quality of life
-> economy
-> environment problems/pollution – crime, drugs, etc

3 types of State Organization:
1. Social Darwinist State
----------> P ----------------> S
: - unregulated and unplanned public economy
- unplanned government
- society is not regulated by the state
- crisis oriented, highly problematic
- low state effectiveness and legitimacy
- the policies that are adopted by the state are useless; strong class elites
P: - weak state
- ~ public services
- ~ protection
- ~ probleming
: - expensive healthiness
- lower level of educational system
- structural unemployment
- economy=highly volatile
- higher crime rate, drug use, pollution
- decrease housing: strong economic class elites
- the elites provide themselves from the public and private policies

2. The Totalitarian State:
- rigid control over society=>difficult for it to grow and to deal with different problems
- a stratified society and polity
- dealing with party elites and on the other hand with non-elites
P: - public life dominates the private one
- few protection from the state
- overlay managed society and state
: - political education system
- rigid control over society
- hard to grow and deal with political and social problems
- stratified society and polity
- national economical system (income, education)
↑ gaining of drugs, crime rate
↓ losing in housing

3. Ideal Democratic State