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MESB333 - ENGINEERING MEASUREMENT AND LAB

EXP3TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT
SEMESTER 1, 2014/2015
SECTION 02B
GROUP 05

GROUP MEMBERS ID
MANIMUGILAN SUBRAMANIAM ME090187
MOGANA THEEBAN KARUNAKARAN ME090188
JEEVA RAJAKUMARAN ME090162
JEGANRAJ RAVINTHARAN ME090164
JAYASHARMAN SUBRAMANIAM ME090161
ALREWAISHED AHMED ABDULSALAM ME089687
AUTHOR:
MANIMUGILAN SUBRAMANIAM (ME090187)
LAB INSTRUCTOR:DR.SHAHIDA BEGUM





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SUMMARY AND ABSTRACT
Experiment 3- Temperature measurement
This experiment consists of 3 parts:

Part 1 Time constant

This experiment is regarding measuring temperature using different kind of measuring devices
such as resistance thermometer , thermistor ,The Vapor Pressure Manometer, The Bi-Metal
Thermometer .Results obtained from this devices are compared with mercury thermometer. As
time increases, temperature also increases. After a certain amount of time, the temperature
becomes constant.

Part 2 - Temperature Measurement Using Type K thermocouple

Purpose of this experiment is to investigate relation between voltage output and temperature.
Experiment is conducted using Thermocouple and Thermistors. The summary of the experiment
is as the temperature increases, the voltage also increases.

Part 3 Humidity

In this experiment humidity also one of the factor that changes the result of this experiment.
When the thermometer bulb is dry, the humidity reading is high. When the thermometer bulb is
wet, the humidity reading is low.












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EXPERIMENT 1: TIME CONSTANT
OBJECTIVE
To study the relational the time constant of different type of temperature measuring
devices with reference to mercury filled thermometer.
To comprehendthe concept of resistance thermometer (or RTD) and thermistor using the
PT100 and NTC probes
To understand the relationship between resistance and temperature, and main difference
between resistance thermometer and thermistor.

THEORY
Temperature is a measure of hotness. Together with a measure of thermal mass of a body it
gives an indication of the total thermodynamics energy that body contains. There are many
scales for the comparison of temperatures, the most important is with their corresponding values
for melting ice and boiling water (which are common reference temperatures) being given in the
table below.

Scale Melting Ice Boiling Water
Celsius(or Centigrade) 0
0
C 100
0
C
Fahrenheit 32
0
F 212
0
F
Kelvin (Absolute Scale) 273 K 373 K

In this experiment you will be familiarized with the following temperature measurement
devices:

a) Resistance thermometer (TYPE K)
b) Thermistor (NTC)















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The Liquid Filled Thermometer

This type of thermometer depends on the expansion of a liquid associated with an increase in
temperature. The most common type is the mercury-in-glass thermo meter. This thermometer
consists of a capillary tube with a bulbous end. On heating, the mercury expands relative to the
glass container and a column is pushed along the bore of the tube. A scale along the tube,
calibrated in units of temperature, gives a direct reading of temperature. The mercury-in-glass
thermometer is an accurate device but is very fragile and care should be exercised in use. The
mercury may be replaced by other fluids according to the application. For example, alcohol is
cheaper and may be used at lower temperatures than mercury. A mercury-in-glass thermometer
is supplied with the Temperature Measurement Bench due to its stable and accurate performance.
For accurate measurement of temperature using a liquid filled thermo meter, it is important that
the thermometer is immersed into the medium being measured by the correct amount. The depth
of immersion is usually stated on the stem of the thermo meter and defines the condition under
which calibration is maintained. The immersion depth may be partial or total and is independent
of filling or range.
The Vapor Pressure Manometer

This consists of a metal bulb partially filled with fluid, which is connected to the sensing element
of a Bourdon gauge. The space above the fluid is filled with vapor of the fluid, the pressure of
which is display on the Bourdon gauge. The gauge is calibrated directly in units of temperature
corresponding to the equivalent, pressure of the vapor but calibration is far from linear due to the
pressure increasing more and more rapidly as the temperature increases. For this reason, the
vapor pressure thermometer is suitable only for operation over short ranges of temperature and
suffers from lack of sensitivity at low readings. In service, the range should be selected so that
the gauge remains within operational limits with the normal operating point at approximately
two thirds of fullscale reading. Vapor pressure thermometers offer the advantage of remote
reading. The thermometer may be ordered with a metal capillary tube connecting the bulb to the
gauge, permitting remote operation over distances up to sixty meters. Correct orientation of the
bulb and gauge should be preserved f or ac- curate results.

The Bi-Metal Thermometer

Expansion of solids may be used to measure temperature but direct measurement is impractical
due to the very small movements involved. However, if two thin metal strips, having different
coefficients of linear expression, are mechanically fastened together, the result is a strip which
bends significantly when heated. This combination is called a Bi-metal strip and the sensitivity
may be increased by coiling the strip into a spiral. One end of the strip is fixed to the case and a
pointer is attached to the other end. Linear scale may be obtained by suitable choice of metals.
This type of thermometer is very robust and has many applications throughout industry where
accuracy of measurement is not important.The bi- metal thermometer supplied with the bench is
mounted on the back-board and gives a direct reading of ambient air temperature.




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Resistance Thermometer

The resistance of a material changes with temperature. Resistance thermometer uses this
relationship in measuring the temperature. If high accuracy is required, the material used in
resistance thermometer is platinum. Nickel is used in general operation and monitoring. Copper
is also suitable but only in a restricted temperature range of approximately 250, because copper
tends to corrode more severely when subjected to oxidation. Figure 3.1 shows the resistance
change of the metals as a function of the temperature T. They have a positive temperature
coefficient . For the purpose of comparison a resistance characteristic of a thermistor (NTC)
was added, which runs much more non-linearly, and in contrast to the metals, demonstrates a
negative coefficient .For small temperature ranges we may assume that linear relationships exist
between resistance and temperature. From figure 3.2 one can deduce the temperature-dependent
resistance ratio R (T) caused by the resistance change R is:

() = + (1)
The rise of this function is = / .
= (2)
= +
() = +
= (1 + / )
= 1 +

(3)















Figure 3.1

From Figure 3.1 we can see that for large measurement ranges no linear relationship between
resistance R and temperature T can be assumed. In this case we must take into consideration,
apart from the linear temperature coefficient 1 , also the square temperature coefficients 2, and
for very large temperature changes T also the cubic temperature coefficients 3, and if
necessary the biquadratic value 4.
=

+
1

1
+
2

2
+ . .

) (4)




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Thermal Response

The thermal response of a thermo meter to changes in temperature is probably the most
important characteristic to consider when selecting instrument at ion f or a particular application.
A thermo meter may be extremely accurate and stable in performance but totally unsuitable f or
use in a dynamic situation, due to a time lag between system temperature and thermometer
reading. The diagram below shows typical response curves for a thermometer when step changes
in temperature are applied. The response of the thermo meter is defined by the time ta ken f or
the temperature reading to change by 63.2% of the step change. For any thermometer, this time
will be a constant value irrespective of step change and is defined as the "time constant" f or the
thermometer. The time constant and response profile f or a thermometer will change if the
system is modified. For example, the speed of response of a thermometer will be slowed down if
it is protected from the system being measured by a thermo meter. The response will also be
affected by the thermal contact between the thermometer and pocket, fluid filling of the pocket
resulting in a reduction in time constant.


Figure 3.2











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APPARATUS











A = Type K thermocouple O = Thermistor temperature meter
B = Pt-100 thermocouple P =Mercury filled thermometer
C = mV meter Q = Spirit filled thermometer
D = Mains switch 240VAC
E = EL CB/ MCB
F = Heater switch
G = Blower switch and speed controller
H = Pt-100 temperature meter
I = Type K temperature meter
J = Bi-metallic thermometer
K =Vapor compression thermometer
L = Vacuum flask
M =Hot water pot
N =Whirling psychrometer



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PROCEDURE
1. The 3 pin plug was plugged to 220VAC main power supply. The power supply was
switched ON.
2. The MCB/ELCB was switched ON.
3. The main power supply for the apparatus was switch ON.
4. Water was poured into the hot water pot. The water level must at least half of the pot.
5. The small cap (on top the hot water pot) was removed from the hot water pot.
6. The desirable temperature measuring device was chosen and place it into the hot water
pot. Mercury Filled Thermometer will be the reference temperature point.
7. The initial temperature reading was state down and recorded it into the table.
8. The water heater turned ON (ensure the hot water pot is turn ON as well).
9. For every 2 minute interval, the temperature reading was recorded into the table.
10. Step 9 is repeated until the water boil.

Repeat the experiment with different type of temperature measuring devices

Note: To discharge the hot water from the pot, request assistant from lab technician

DATA AND RESULTS


Temperature (C)
Time (min) Mecury
Type
Bi-
Metallic
Digital Pt 100 Type K Vapour Pressure
0 26 28 24.9 25.5 21.5 31
2 28 30 31.5 26.0 24.5 31
4 37 32 37.6 31.8 32.2 34
6 50 38 50.1 42.8 44.1 42
8 64 50 62.1 55.7 58.9 55
10 78 62.5 78.7 69.8 73.0 70
12 91 80 91.8 85.8 87.3 86
14 102 98 99.9 99.6 99.4 104

Table1. Temperature measurements result



8




0
20
40
60
80
100
120
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
Graph of Temperature against Time for Mercury
Type
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
Graph of Temperature against Time for
Bi-Metallic



9




0
20
40
60
80
100
120
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
Graph of Temperature against Time for Digital
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
Graph of Temperature against Time for Pt 100



10






0
20
40
60
80
100
120
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
Graph of Temperature against Time for Type K
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
Graph of Temperature against time for Vapor
Pressure



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Sample Calculation:-
For Mercury Type
Time constant = Temperature maximum x 0.632

= 102 x 0.632

= 64.464 C @ 8.2 min







For Bi-Metallic
Time constant = Temperature maximum x 0.632

= 98 x 0.632

= 61.936 C @ 9.82 min




0
20
40
60
80
100
120
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
Graph of Temperature against Time for Mercury
Type



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For Bi-Metallic
Time constant = Temperature maximum x 0.632

= 99.9 x 0.632

= 63.1368 C @ 7.83 min

0
20
40
60
80
100
120
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
Graph of Temperature against Time for
Bi-Metallic
Y-Values



13


For Pt-100
Time constant = Temperature maximum x 0.632

= 99.6 x 0.632

= 62.95 C @ 9.15 min

0
20
40
60
80
100
120
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
Graph of Temperature against Time for Digital



14


For Type K
Time constant = Temperature maximum x 0.632

= 99.4 x 0.632

= 62.82 C @ 8.61 min

0
20
40
60
80
100
120
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
Graph of Temperature against Time for Pt 100



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For Vapor Pressure
Time constant = Temperature maximum x 0.632

= 104 x 0.632

= 65.728 C @ 9.21 min

0
20
40
60
80
100
120
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
Graph of Temperature against Time for Type K



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DISCUSSION

1. Based on the graphs above, it is clear that temperature reading increases when the
time increases. This is because when the time increases, the temperature of water
increases. Once the temperature reaches the boiling point of water, the temperature
will get constant while the time keep increasing. It remains constant because thats
the boiling point of water and water will be evaporated into steam after this
temperature.
2. Based on the time constant calculation of each type of temperature measurement
device, thermistor has the smallest time constant.








0
20
40
60
80
100
120
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
Graph of Temperature against Time for Vapor
Pressure



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CONCLUSION

Finally , we knew how to measure temperature using different measuring devices
alike resistance thermometer , thermistor ,The Vapor Pressure Manometer, The Bi-Metal
Thermometer. We found out that As time increases, temperature also increases.After a
certain amount of time, the temperature becomes constant. We also learned the concept
of resistance thermometer (RTD) and thermistorsPT 100 and PTC probes. The PTC
probes perform a negative coefficient of temperature; which means the voltage will
decrease when temperature increases and it is highly sensitivite. This is due to the
behavior of semiconductor as material of PTC probes. For this experiment, we conclude
that the PTC probe have higher sensitivity then PT 100 Resistance Thermometer.
Therefore, it is suitable to use PT 100 for household and outing temperature
measurement, whereas, the PTC probe is usually used for highly sensitive temperature
measurement, such as circuit protection, heating element and others.
















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EXPERIMENT 2: TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT
USING TYPE K THERMOCOUPLE
OBJECTIVE
To explore the working principle of Type K Thermocouple.
To explore the relation between voltage output and temperature
THEORY
Thermocouple

A thermocouple consists of two different metals that produce a voltage at the junction related to
a temperature difference. Thermocouples are a widely used as a temperature sensor for
measurement and control, and can also be used to convert heat into electric power. They are
inexpensive, are supplied fitted with standard connectors, and can measure a wide range of
temperatures. The main limitation is accuracy: system errors of less than one degree Celsius (C)
can be difficult to achieve. Any junction of dissimilar metals will produce an electric potential
related to temperature. Thermocouples for practical measurement of temperature are junctions of
specific alloys which have a predictable and repeatable relationship between temperature and
voltage. Different alloys are used for different temperature ranges. Properties such as resistance
to corrosion may also be important when choosing a type of thermocouple. Where the
measurement point is far from the measuring instrument, the intermediate connection can be
made by extension wires which are less costly than the materials used to make the sensor.

Thermistors
Thermistors consist of semi-conducting polycrystalline material. In the production of
temperature sensors copper dioxide (CuO2) is preferred. It demonstrates a sever (non-linear)
drop in resistance for an increase in temperature. It possesses a negative temperature coefficient,
which is the reason why these sensors are called NTC resistors.
Features of NTC and PTC thermistors
NTC sensors possess a high sensitivity, which is easily 10 times higher than that of metal
resistance thermometers. The non-linearity of NTCs and their broad manufacturers' tolerances
exclude them from use for precision instruments. In the temperature range between -60 and
+150 they are frequently used in the area of household appliances and medical technology
because of their high sensitivity and corresponding simple circuitry.PTCs behave in the same
manner below the threshold temperature. The resistance lies only somewhat higher than for
NTCs, because, due to the mixture of a ferroelectric material to the semiconductor material an
additional resistance of both components results (series connection). However, with increasing



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temperature a strong increase in resistance is observed within a narrow temperature range, which
is caused so rapidly by the sudden cancelling of a uniform orientation of all magnetic forces in
the ferroelectric material. Through thermal motion an amorphous crystal structure is produced,
which results in a considerable prolongation of the current paths, on which the electrons move
through the PTC. If this transition is completed, the resistance then drops again as the rise in
temperature continues. Thus the function R(T) of the PTC follows the characteristic of its
semiconductor components, supplemented by the characteristics of its ferroelectric components.
Temperature function and temperature coefficient of NTC thermometers
The resistance R(T) = RT of NTC materials can be described as a function of the temperature
using the following equation:
RT = Ae
/
(5)
The material constant B is given in Kelvin, e.g. B = 3800 K. The constant A gives the resistance
for infinitely high temperature. As the sensor cannot register this temperature, the constant A
cannot be used as a practical parameter. The requirements for practical application can be better
satisfied with the following dependency RT. For this the reference temperature To = 20 is
used, for which the resistance has its nominal value Ro. Due to the fact that in the above equation
only A is unknown, the equation is then solved for A, which is inserted into

:
() = =
/

=

/
(6)
Sub (6)into (5)
RT = Roe
B(1/T 1/To)
(7)

PROCEDURE
1. The 3pin plug is plugged to 220VAC powers supply. Switch ON the power supply.
2. The MCB/ELCB is switched ON.
3. The main power supply for the apparatus was Switch ON.
4. Tap water poured into the hot water. The water level must at least half of the pot.
5. The small cap (on top of the hot water pot) removed from the hot water pot.
6. Type K thermocoupleconnected (to port 1) and placed it into the hot water pot.
7. Ensure the selector switch is switches to 1.
8. The temperature meter voltage connected to output port to digital mV meter.
9. The values from Type K temperature meter and mV meter was recorded into table.
10. Turn ON the water heater (ensure the hot water pot is turn ON as well).
11. For every 5 C interval, the temperature reading and the voltage reading were recorded.
12. Step 11 is repeated until the water boiled.





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DATA AND RESULTS
Type K
Time (min) Voltage(mV) Temp(
o
C)
0 -0.673 23.7
2 -0.575 26.2
4 -0.351 31.8
6 -0.124 37.6
8 0.080 42.6
10 0.303 48.2
12 0.535 53.9
14 0.740 59.0
16 0.945 63.8
18 1.140 68.7
20 1.314 72.9
22 1.465 76.6
24 1.570 79.1

Table 2.1 Type K experiment result










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0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Graph of Temperature,T vs time,t
y = 0.040x - 1.641
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
Graph of Voltage,V vs Temperature,T



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DISCUSSION

As we can see from the table and the graph obtained, we can see that the
temperature decrease when the voltage increases. This is due to the NTC probe possesses
a negative temperature coefficientand responded very similar to semiconductors. The
temperature affects the NTC can be explain by the semiconductor mechanism, the
resistance R(T) = R
T
of NTC materials can be describe as a function of the temperature
using the following equation: R
T
= Ae
B/T
, where A is an unknown and B is the material
constant.
For both cases, one of the graph is linear (Voltage against Temperature) and one is
not (Temperature against Time). Compare to the both experiment, two graphs should be
perform a linear graph function, but due to some error that occur, we found out that the
graph doesn`t perform a smooth linear line as we thought. This is due to the error occur at
the multimeter we measure, the meter reading of temperature, lack of experience in
measurement lab and most importantly is the liner graph is just a prediction, so, it doesn`t
perform an accurate function that we predict.
With these two experiment, we found out that, the NTC probe has a much more
higher sensitivity compare to PT 100 Resistance Thermometer. As we can see from the
graphs, a slight increase in temperature will cause a large decrease in voltage drop. This
is due to the behavior of the semiconductor as the material of NTC probes.

Sensitivity of thermocouple(mV/C) =
0.006
25.1
= 0.00024



CONCLUSION

We finally know how the type K Thermocouple works and we found out the
relationship between voltage output and temperature.We can see that the temperature
decrease when the voltage increases. This is due to the NTC probe possesses a negative
temperature coefficientand responded very similar to semiconductors.For both cases,
both graphs are not linear (Voltage against Temperature) and (Temperature against
Time). Compare to the both experiment, two graphs should perform a linear graph
function, but due to some error that occur, we found out that the graph doesn`t perform a
smooth linear line as we thought. We achieved our objective in this experiment.





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EXPERIMENT 3: HUMIDITY
OBJECTIVE
Understanding of whirling pyschorometer (hygrometer).
Understanding of wet and dry bulb thermometer.
Measurement of ambient humidity using dry and wet bulb.

THEORY
Humidity is the amount of water vapor in the air. Relative humidity is defined as the ratio of the
partial pressure of water vapor in a parcel of air to the saturated vapor pressure of water vapor at
a prescribed temperature. Humidity may also be expressed as specific humidity. Relative
humidity is an important metric used in forecasting weather. Humidity indicates the likelihood of
precipitation, dew, or fog. High humidity makes people feel hotter outside in the summer
because it reduces the effectiveness of sweating to cool the body by reducing the evaporation of
perspiration from the skin. This effect is calculated in a heat index table.

Hygrometers are instruments used for measuring humidity. A simple form of a hygrometer is
specifically known as a psychrometer and consists of two thermometers, one of which includes a
dry bulb and the other of which includes a bulb that is kept wet to measure wet-bulb temperature.
Modern electronic devices use temperature of condensation, changes in electrical resistance, and
changes in electrical capacitance to measure humidity changes. Hygrometers measure humidity
while psychrometers measure relative humidity in the air.

In a psychrometer, there are two thermometers, one with a dry bulb and the other with a wet
bulb. Evaporation from the wet bulb lowers the temperature, so that the wet-bulb thermometer
usually shows a lower temperature than that of the dry-bulb thermometer, which measures dry-
bulb temperature. When the air temperature is below freezing, however, the wet bulb is covered
with a thin coating of ice and yet may be warmer than the dry bulb. Relative humidity is
computed from the ambient temperature as shown by the dry-bulb thermometer and the
difference in temperatures as shown by the wet-bulb and dry-bulb thermometers. Relative
humidity can also be determined by locating the intersection of the wet- and dry-bulb
temperatures on a psychrometric chart. One device that uses the wet/dry bulb method is the sling
psychrometer, where the thermometers are attached to a handle or length of rope and spun
around in the air for a few minutes.

There is a definite analytical relationship between the dry-bulb, wet-bulb and dew-point
temperatures of a mixture and its humidity. A determination of any two of these temperatures
maybe used to calculate the humidity. The classic method used for humidity determination in
large open spaces is a measurement of the dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperature with sling
psychrometer. Both thermometers are rotated with a speed of about 5 m/s and the temperatures
are recorded. The vapor pressure of the mixture may then be calculated with Carriers equation:



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p = pgw [ ( p pgw ) ( TDB TWB ) / Kw TWB

p = actual vapor pressure
pgw = saturation pressure corresponding to wet-bulb temperature
p = total pressure of mixture
TDB = dry-bulb temperature, F or C
TWB = wet-bulb temperature, F or C
Kw = 2800 when T is in F
= 1537.8 when T is in C

PROCEDURE

Psychrometer

1. The whirling psychrometer was prepared. The water was filled into the whirling
psychrometer water container.
2. The water was allowed to wet the cloth of the wet-bulb thermometer after refilling the
whirling psychrometer.
3. The black handle was pulled of the whirling psychrometer so that it is perpendicularto the
dry and wet-bulb thermometer.
4. The initial reading was state down for the wet and dry bulb thermometer.
5. The whirling psychrometerrotated for about 1 minute and wait for the temperature to
stable.
6. The reading was taken for the wet and dry bulb thermometer and records it into the table.
7. From the chart given, the humidity of the ambient was determined(Note: You have to
calculate the depression of wet-bulb).

Humidity dail gauge

1. The gage placed at open space in the room.
2. The gage allowedreaching to constant reading for few minute.
3. The reading of the humidity dail gage was taken and recorded.
















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DATA AND RESULTS


Wet Bulb

Dry Bulb
Difference between
dry & wet bulb
Initial Reading (C) 24.0 26.0 2
Final Reading (C) 22.0 26.0 4
Humidity from
psychrometeric
Chart
70%
Humidity reading
from dail gage
77%

Table 3.1 Wet and Dry Bulb and Humidity Measurement

Sample calculation :-
Initial reading.
Difference between dry & wet bulb = dry bulb wet bulb
= 26.0 24.0
= 2















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DISCUSSION

1. We observe that the decreasing temperature of wet bulb is abaout 2 C, while
the dry bulb maintains with no changes of temperature.
2. The difference of wet bulb and dry bulb in initial reading is 2 C, while
different in final reading is 4 C.
3. The ambient humidity that was calculated is 71%.
4. The error occur during the experiment is the inconsistent rotation of the
hygrometer.



















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CONCLUSION

We learned how to use whirling psychrometer( hygrometer) with the concept of
wet and dry bulb meter. We measured ambient humidity using dry and wet bulb.
When the thermometer bulb is dry, the humidity reading is high. When the thermometer
bulb is wet, the humidity reading is low. The objective of this experiment is achieved.




REFERENCES
Measurement Lab manual(Experiment 3).
Experimental Method for Engineers, JP Holman, 7
th
Edition, Mc Graw-Hill
International Edition