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You are on page 1of 10

Reading Problems

4-1 4-4 4-32, 4-36, 4-87, 4-246

5-2 5-4, 5.7

6-1 6-13 6-122, 6-127, 6-130

Denitions

SYSTEM:

any specied collection of matter under study.

all systems possess properties like mass, energy, entropy, volume, pressure, tempera-

ture, etc.

WORK & HEAT TRANSFER:

thermodynamics deals with these properties of matter as a system interacts with its

surroundings through work and heat transfer

work and heat transfer are NOT properties they are the forms that energy takes to

cross the system boundary

1

First Law of Thermodynamics

Control Mass (Closed System)

CONSERVATION OF ENERGY:

the energy content of an isolated system is constant

energy entering energy leaving = change of energy within the system

Example: A Gas Compressor

Performing a 1st law energy balance:

_

_

Initial

Energy

E

1

_

_

+

_

Energy gain W

12

Energy loss Q

12

_

=

_

_

Final

Energy

E

2

_

_

E

1

+W

12

Q

12

= E

2

2

Control Volume Analysis (Open System)

CONSERVATION OF MASS:

_

_

rate of increase

of mass within

the CV

_

_

=

_

_

net rate of

mass flow

IN

_

_

net rate of

mass flow

OUT

_

_

d

dt

(m

CV

) = m

IN

m

OUT

where:

m

CV

=

_

V

dV

m

IN

= ( v

A)

IN

m

OUT

= ( v

A)

OUT

with v

= average velocity

3

CONSERVATION OF ENERGY:

The 1st law states:

E

CV

(t) + Q+ W

shaft

+ (E

IN

E

OUT

)+

(W

IN

W

OUT

) = E

CV

(t + t) (1)

where:

E

IN

= e

IN

m

IN

E

OUT

= e

OUT

m

OUT

W = ow work

e =

E

m

= u

..

internal

+

(v

)

2

2

. .

kinetic

+ gz

..

potential

4

Second Law of Thermodynamics

Fundamentals

1. Like mass and energy, every system has entropy.

Entropy is a measure of the degree of microscopic disorder and represents our uncertainty

about the microscopic state.

2. Unlike mass and energy, entropy can be produced but it can never be destroyed. That is, the

entropy of a system plus its surroundings (i.e. an isolated system) can never decrease (2nd

law).

P

m

= m

2

m

1

= 0 (conservation of mass)

P

E

= E

2

E

1

= 0 (conservation of energy) 1st law

P

S

= S

2

S

1

0 2nd law

The second law states:

(S)

system

+ (S)

surr.

0

where final initial

Example: A freezing process

5

3. Reference: In a prefect crystal of a pure substance at T = 0 K, the molecules are com-

pletely motionless and are stacked precisely in accordance with the crystal structure. Since

entropy is a measure of microscopic disorder, then in this case S = 0. That is, there is no

uncertainty about the microscopic state.

4. Relationship to Work: For a given system, an increase in the microscopic disorder (that is

an increase in entropy) results in a loss of ability to do useful work.

5. Heat: Energy transfer as heat takes place as work at the microscopic level but in a random,

disorganized way. This type of energy transfer carries with it some chaos and thus results in

entropy ow in or out of the system.

6. Work: Energy transfer by work is microscopically organized and therefore entropy-free.

Example: Slow adiabatic compression of a gas

A process 1 2 is said to be reversible if the reverse process 2 1 restores the system

to its original state without leaving any change in either the system or its surroundings.

idealization where S

2

= S

1

P

S

= 0

T

2

> T

1

increased microscopic disorder

V

2

< V

1

reduced uncertainty about the whereabouts of molecules

Reversible

. .

P

S

=0

+ Adiabatic Process

. .

Q=0

Isentropic Process

. .

S

1

=S

2

The 2nd law states:

P

S

= (S)

system

+ (S)

surr

0

6

where:

> 0 irreversible (real world)

= 0 reversible (frictionless, perfectly elastic, inviscid uid)

But does:

Isentropic Process Reversible + Adiabatic

NOT ALWAYS - the entropy increase of a substance during a process as a result of irre-

versibilities may be offset by a decrease in entropy as a result of heat losses.

General Derivation of Gibbs Equation

From a 1st law energy balance when KE and PE are neglected

Energy Input = Energy Output + Increase in Energy Storage

dQ

..

amount

= dW + dU

..

differential

(1)

We know that the differential form of entropy is

dS =

dQ

T

(2) dW = PdV (3)

Combining Eqs. 1, 2 and 3

dS =

dU

T

+

PdV

T

ds =

du

T

+

Pdv

T

. .

per unit mass

7

Second Law Analysis for a Control Mass

control mass is uniformly at T

TER

at all times

control mass has a xed size (V = constant)

From Gibbs equation

T

TER

dS = dU +P dV

0

From the 1st law

dU = dQ

Therefore for a reversible process

dS =

dQ

T

TER

We integrate to give

S

2

S

1

=

Q

12

T

TER

and for a non-reversible process

dS =

dQ

T

TER

+dP

S

We integrate to give

S

2

S

1

=

Q

12

T

TER

+P

S

12

8

Second Law Analysis for a Control Volume

where:

FR - uid reservoir

TER - thermal energy reservoir

MER - mechanical energy reservoir

9

For the isolated system

(S)

sys

+ (S)

sur

= P

S

12

0

S

CV

s

A

m

A

12

+s

B

m

B

12

Q

A

12

T

A

TER

+

Q

B

12

T

B

TER

= P

S

12

or as a rate equation

_

dS

dt

_

CV

=

_

_

s m+

Q

T

TER

_

_

IN

_

_

s m+

Q

T

TER

_

_

OUT

+

P

S

This can be thought of as

accumulation = IN OUT +generation

10

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