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Transmission Media
The transmission medium is the physical path by which a message
travels from sender to receiver.
Computers and telecommunication devices use signals to represent
data.
These signals are transmitted from a device to another in the form of
electromagnetic energy.
Eamples of Electromagnetic energy include power! radio waves!
infrared light! visible light! ultraviolet light! and " and gamma rays.
#ll these electromagnetic signals constitute the electromagnetic
spectrum
Transmission Media
Guided Media
Twisted Pair
Co axial Cable
Optical Fibre Cable
Unguided Media
Radio waves Transmission
Microwave Transmission
Infrared Transmission
Laser Transmission
Satellite Transmission
Transmission Process
!I"#" M#"I$ !I"#" M#"I$
Guided media, which are those that provide a conduit from one Guided media, which are those that provide a conduit from one
device to another, include twisted-pair cable, coaxial cable, and fiber- device to another, include twisted-pair cable, coaxial cable, and fiber-
optic cable. optic cable.
TRANSMISSION IMPAIRMENT TRANSMISSION IMPAIRMENT
$ignals travel through transmission media! which are not perfect. The $ignals travel through transmission media! which are not perfect. The
imperfection causes signal impairment. This means that the signal at imperfection causes signal impairment. This means that the signal at
the beginning of the medium is not the same as the signal at the end of the beginning of the medium is not the same as the signal at the end of
the medium. %hat is sent is not what is received. Three causes of the medium. %hat is sent is not what is received. Three causes of
impairment are impairment are
attenuation! attenuation!
distortion! and distortion! and
noise. noise.
$ttenuation
&eans loss of energy '( wea)er signal
%hen a signal travels through a medium it loses energy overcoming
the resistance of the medium
#mplifiers are used to compensate for this loss of energy by
amplifying the signal.
Measurement of $ttenuation
To show the loss or gain of energy the unit *decibel+ is used.
,oss is measured in d- . /0ower output in d-m10ower input in d-m2
3ote that 4d- loss means 506 of the power is loss
d- . 70log
70
0
8
10
7
0
7
' input signal
0
8
' output signal
The attenuation is measured in d-1)m
0ower is measured in d-m . 70 ,og70 /0ower output in m%17m%2
"istortion
&eans that the signal changes its form or shape
9istortion occurs in composite signals
Each fre:uency component has its own propagation speed traveling
through a medium.
The different components therefore arrive with different delays at the
receiver.
That means that the signals have different phases at the receiver than
they did at the source.
%oise
There are different types of noise
Thermal ' random noise of electrons in the wire creates an etra
signal
;nduced ' from motors and appliances! devices act are transmitter
antenna and medium as receiving antenna.
Crosstal) ' same as above but between two wires.
;mpulse ' $pi)es that result from power lines! lighning! etc.
Signal to %oise Ratio &S%R'
To measure the :uality of a system the $3< is often used. ;t indicates
the strength of the signal wrt the noise power in the system.
;t is the ratio between two powers.
;t is usually given in d- and referred to as $3<
d-.
Twisted 0air #rchitecture
Twisted 0air #pplications
&ost commonly used medium
Telep(one networ)
Between house and local exchange (subscibe loo!"
*it(in buildings
To !i#ate banch exchange (PB$"
=or local area networ)s /,#32
70&bps or 700&bps
Twisted Pair + Pros and Cons
$dvantages
,ess epensive
Easy to wor) with
"isadvantages
,ow data rate
$hort range
Twisted Pair &TP' C(aracteristics
$nalog transmission
#mplifiers every 5)m to >)m
"igital transmission
?se either analog or digital signals
repeater every 8)m or 4)m
TP is Limited
9istance
-andwidth
9ata rate
Susceptible to interference and noise
#as, coupling of electromagnetic fields
!ns(ielded and S(ielded TP
!ns(ielded Twisted Pair &!TP'
@rdinary telephone wire
,ess epensive
%ea) immunity against noise and interference
$uffers from eternal E& interference
S(ielded Twisted Pair &STP'
#n etra metallic sheath on each pair
<elatively more epensive
0rovide better performance than ?T0
;ncreased 9ata rate
;ncreased -andwidth
T,pes of Twisted Pair
The Electronic ;ndustries #ssociation /E;#2 has developed standards to
grade ?T0.
Category 7. The basic twisted'pair cabling used in telephone
systems. This level of :uality is fine for voice but inade:uate for
data transmission.
Category 8. This category is suitable for voice and data
transmission of up to 8&bps.
Category 4.This category is suitable for data transmission of up to
70 &bps. ;t is now the standard cable for most telephone systems.
Category 4. This category is suitable for data transmission of up to
80 &bps.
Category 5. This category is suitable for data transmission of up to
700 &bps.
!TP Categories
Cat -
up to 7>&AB
Coice grade found in most offices
Twist length of D.5 cm to 70 cm
Cat .
up to 700&AB
Commonly pre'installed in new office buildings
Twist length 0.> cm to 0.85 cm
Coaxial Cable
# type of wire that consists of a centre wire surrounded by insulation and
then a grounded shield of braided wire. The shield minimiBes electrical
and radio fre:uency interference.
Coaial cabling is the primary type of cabling used by the cable television
industry and is also widely used for computer networ)s.#lthough more
epensive than standard telephone wire! it is much less susceptible to
interference and can carry much more data.
Coaxial Cable $pplications
Television &T/' signals distribution
Ariel to TV
Cable TV
Long distance telep(one transmission
Can carry !,!!! voice calls simultaneously
"eing replaced by fiber optic
S(ort distance computer s,stems lin)s
#ocal area networ$s %#A&'
(etropolitan area networ$ %(A&'
Coaxial Cable C(aracteristics
$nalog
#mplifiers every few )m
Closer if higher fre:uency
?p to 500&AB
"igital
<epeater every 7)m
Closer for higher data rates
Problem
;nter'modulation noise
Thermal noise
01ISTORIC$L P#RS#P#CTI/#2&3'
3456E @ptical telegraph was devised by Claude Chappe.
37768 #leander Frahem -ell invented the 0A@T@0A@3E.
3596:sE @ptical guides with reflective coating to carry visible light.
35;68;nvention of *,#$E<+'The first maGor brea) through in fiber optic
technology. ?nguided /non fiber2 communication systems were
developed after laser discovery.
35;; Onwards8 "evelopment of optical fibers by companies li)e
Corning Flass /very high loss2.
I% 3546! ,ow loss fiber was developed and @=C system became
practical. ;t was operated at wave'length around 880 nm and at
attenuation of 7db1)m.
3ow fibers with losses of only a fraction of 7 db1)m are available
/0.75'0.45 db1)m2.
OPTIC$L FI<#R CO%C#PT=T>P#
7.&ain Gob of optical fibre is to guide light waves with a minimum
attenuation.
8.@ptical fibers are composed of fine threads of glass in layers. The fine
threads are of silica glass mi with some dopant material.
4.Two main layers are )nown as core /central! of 8 to 50?m' =
cladding&outer@.6to3A.?m'
4.Core is having 7 6 more <.;. than Cladding
5.;t transmits the @ptical waves /,ight2 through it at the speed of 814 of
speed of light in vacuum observing the total internal reflection principle.
$"/$%T$#S OF OPTIC$L FI<#RS
1ig( information carr,ing capacit,8
# valid comparison would be on the basis of cost per meter per
telephone channel! rather than Gust cost per meter.
Resource plentiful8
The basic materials are either silicon dioide for glass fibers or
transparent plastic which are plentiful
Less attenuation8
# typical fibre attenuation is 0.4 d-1)m. %hereas a coaial cable /<F'
791?2 will attenuate a 700'&B signal by 88.> d-1)m.
reater safet,8
@ptic fibers glass1plastic! are insulators. 3o electric current flows
through them. F<E#TE< $#=ETH #39 ;&&?3E T@ E&; I <=;!
&@;$T?<E I C@<@$$;@3
$"/$%T$#S OF OPTIC$L FI<#RS
Immunit, to Radio FreBuenc, Interference8
=ibers have ecellent reGection of radio'fre:uency interference /<=;2
caused by radio and television stations! radar! and other electronics
e:uipment.
Immunit, to #lectromagnetic Interference8
=ibers have ecellent reGection of electromagnetic interference /E&;
caused by natural phenomena such as lighting! spar)ing! etc2.
%o cross+tal)8
The optic wave within the fiber is trapped and does not lea)s out during
transmission to interfere with signals in other fibers.
1ig(er Securit,8
fibers offer higher degree of security and privacy
$"/$%T$#S OF OPTIC$L FI<#RS
Small siCe and lig(t weig(tE
typical optical cable has a fiber dia. of 785m! cable dia. 8.5 mm and
weight of > )g1)m in comparison a coaial cable /<F'791?2 has a outer
dia. @f 88.4 mm! and weight 7770 )g1)m.
Corrosion 8
Corrosion caused by water1chemicals is less severe for glass than for
copper.
Less temperature sensitiveE
Flass fibers can with stand etreme temperatures before deteriorating.
Temperatures up to 800 C leave glass fiber unaffected.
Optic review
Ra, T(eor,8
# number of optic phenomena are ade:uately eplained by
considering light as narrow rays.
The theory based on this approach is called geometrical optics.
T(ese ra,s obe, a few simple rules8
7. ;n a vacuum! rays travel at a velocity of c .470
8
m1s. ;n any other
medium! rays travel at a slower speed! given by
v . c1n n .refractive inde of the medium.
8. <ays travel straight paths! unless deflected by some change in medium.
4. ;f any power crosses the boundary! the transmitted ray direction is given
by $nellJs lawE
n7 sin Ki . n8 sin Kr
T1# OPTIC$L FI<R#
LI1T PROP$$TIO% I% FI<R#
LI1T PROP$$TIO% I% FI<R#
LI1T PROP$$TIO% I% FI<R#
LI1T PROP$$TIO% I% FI<R#
<$SIC FI<R# OPTIC COMM!%IC$TIO%S
# basic comm. $ystem consists of E a transmitter! a receiver! I a medium.
Optical Transmitters8
convert electrical signals to optical.
Optical Receivers8
convert optical signal to electrical.
T(e basic elements in transmitters8 Electronic interfaces!
Electronics processing circuitry! 9rive circuitry! light source! optical
interfaces! output sensing and stabiliBation! Temperature sensing and
control.
T(e basic elements in an optical receiver8 9etector! #mplifier!
9ecision circuits.
$ Lig(t Sources
OPTIC$L SO!RC#S
The device which actually converts electrical signals to its optical
e:uipment.
&ost common light sourcesE
lig(t+emitting diodes &L#"s' D
Lig(t $mplification b, Stimulated #mission of Radiation
&laser' diodesD
;t is particularly re:uired in lasers to maintain stable output power by
way of feedbac) mechanism.
,aser is very sensitive to temperature. @perating characteristics of a
semiconductor laser ' notably threshold! current! output power! and
wavelength change with temperature. Aence temperature sensing and
control is re:uired to maintain stable temperature.
9etectors
"#T#CTORS
The detectors used in fibre optic communications are semiconductor
photodiodes or photodetectors.
;t converts the received optical signal into electrical form.
Pin p(otodiode8 cheaper! less temperature sensitive! and
re:uires lower reverse bias voltage.
$avalanc(e p(otodiode &$P"'8 used where receiver is to
detect lower power!
S>ST#M "#SI%
Power budget8 for a lin) to be feasible.
$ource Transmitting 0ower ' /coupling ,oss to fibre L Connectors
,osses L =ibre ,oss L $plicing ,oss &aintenance &argin2

<eceiver $ensitivity
!nguided Media
0ropagation &ethods
<ands
!nguided Media
%ireless transmission waves