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VOCATIONAL HIGHER SECONDARY

TEACHERS SOURCE BOOK


Government of Kerala
Department of Education
SCERT - 2005-06
STATE COUNCIL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH AND TRAINING
Vidyabhavan, Poojappura, Thiruvananthapuram-12
COMPUTER SCIENCE
FIRST YEAR
Prepared by:
State Council of Educational Research & Training (SCERT)
Vidyabhavan, Poojappura, Thiruvananthapuram -12
Kerala
E-mail:scertkerala@asianetindia.com
Type setting by:
SCERT Computer Lab.

Government of Kerala
Education Department
2005
PREFACE
Dear Teachers,
Computer Science is concerned with the gathering, manipulation,
classification, storage and retrival of knowledge. Understanding Computer
Science, is necessary because of its power and influence in modern society.
Learning of Computer Science should be activity based, process oriented,
student-centred, environmental based and life oriented. The approach to
learning is based on five domains of science: Knowledge domain, process
domain, application and connection domain, domain of attitudes and values
and creativity domain. But we know that most of the present vocational
higher secondary teachers are not familiar with this paradigm. Hence for
the first time we are introducing sourcebooks for all the subjects in the
vocational higher secondary curriculum.
This source book for computer science aims to provide guidelines to
the teachers of our state to change their pedagogy from the conventional
content-based approach to the process oriented approach.
The source book has three parts: Part I gives you the general
approach to the teaching - learning process of computer science.
Part II of the book details the activities that can be carried out to attain the
curriculum objectives. Part III contains the sample questions of each unit.
We welcome suggestions for improvement as well as constructive
criticism from practising teachers on the content and approach of this source
book.
With regards,
Thiruvananthapuram Dr. E. Valsala Kumar
Director
SCERT, Kerala
25.11.2005
Part I
I General Approach................................................................... 06
II. Subject Approach.................................................................... 20
II Strategies of Teaching and Learning........................................ 28
III Curriculum Objectives ............................................................ 34
IV Syllabus and Contents ............................................................. 38
V Planning................................................................................... 50
VI Evaluation............................................................................... 56
Part II
1 Principles of Data processing.................................................. 73
2 Data Representation................................................................ 78
3 Computer system organisation................................................. 84
4 Principles of programming..................................................... 100
5 Programming in C++............................................................ 104
6 Computer Networks.............................................................. 130
7 Digital Electronics................................................................. 136
8 Linux ..................................................................................... 140
Part III
Sample Questions.................................................................. 147
CONTENTS
PART I
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Teachers Sourcebook VHSE
Introduction
The ultimate aim of education is human refinement. Education should enable the
learner to formulate a positive outlook towards life and to accept a stand which
suits the well being of the society and the individual as well.
The attitude and potential to to work has determined the destiny, progress and
cultural development of the human race. As we all are aware, the objective of
education to form a society and individuals having a positive work culture. The
educational process expected in and outside our formal schools should concentrate
upon inculcating concepts, abilities, attitudes and values in tune with these work
culture. Hence vocationalised education cannot be isolated from the main stream
of education. In anthor sence, every educational process should be vocationalised.
However, due to our inability to utilise the resources wisely, scarcity of job
oppurtunities is a severe issue of the present society. For overcoming this deep
crisis, emergent techinques have to be sorted out and appropriate researches have
tobe seriously carried out. It is in the sence that the content and methodology of
vocational Higher Secondary Education have to be approached.
The Vocational Higher Secondary course was envisaged as a part of the National
Policy on Education with the noble idea of securing a job along with education. The
relevance of Vocational education is very great in this age of un employment. This
education system, which ensures a job along with higher education, stands aloof
from other systems of education.
A learning enviornment which ensures vocational aptitude, vocational training, basic
life skills, competencies related to different subjects, appropriate values and attitudes
and existential readiness has to be provided here.
The curriculum should be one which recognises the specific personality of the learner
and should develop it in a desirable way. It should provide opportunity to imbibe
novel ideas to follow a ctritical approach and for learning through experiences.
The competency to transform ones own resources for the betterment of the society
and the individual is to be ensured in each individual. Training in the sense of
equality, democratic sense, enviornmental consiousness and devotion to the
constitution is an inseparable factor of the curriculum.
The need of a systematic curriculum is prevailing in vocational subjects. A
scientifically structured curriculum incorperating the unique features peculiarity
of Kerala ensuring the possibility of higher education and utilising the national and
international possibilities of employment is required.
GENERAL APPROACH
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The new curriculum should be capable of assimilating the life skills, scientific temper,
attitude of co-existence, leadership qualities and mental health to face the challenges
of life. It should be capable of strengthening the competencies imbibed by the learners
up to the tenth class.
A curriculum for selecting vocational areas according to the aptitude of the students,
learning it in depth, acquire general awareness in the basic areas and to secure jobs
has become the social need of the day. A learner centred, process oriented, need
based vocational curriculum is envisaged.
What is learning?
l Learning is construction of knowledge and so it is a live and continuous mental
process.
l Learning is a process of advancement through adding and correcting in the
light of comparing the new issue with the previously learned concepts.
l Learning takes place as a part of the effort to solve problems.
l Learning takes place by assimilating bits of knowledge into ones own cognitive
structure.
l Learning is not a linear process. It is a spiral process growing deeper and wider.
l Learning is an intellectual process rather than the mere memorisation of facts.
Learning is a conglomeration of a variety activities like problem analysis,
elucidation, critical thinking, rational thinking, finding out co-relations,
prediction, arriving at conclusions, applications, grouping for other possibilities
and extracting the crux. When opportunities are proviced for intellectual
processes learning will become effective and intellectual ability will get
strengthend.
The o r e t i c a l f o u nda t i o ns o f l e a r ni ng
Education is the best device that can be adopted for creation of a new society. It
should be democratic in content and process and should acknowledge the rights of
the learner. It should also provide opportunity for better citizenship training. The
concept of equality at all areas should get recognition in theory and practice.
There should be consious programme of action to develop nationality, humaness
and love and against the enchroachment of the sectarianism of caste and religion.
The learner should be able to take firm steps and deferred against the social crisis
like privatisation, liberalisation, globalisation etc and against all kinds of
dominations.
They should develop a discrimination to use the acquired learning as a
liberative weapon.
They should be able to view education and life with the perspective of social well
being.
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They should get opportunity to recognise that co-operation is better than competition
and that co-operation is the key to social life and culture.
A basic awareness of all the subjects needed for life essential for all students.
The remnants of perspectives formed in us during the colonial period still influence
our educational philosophy. The solution to the present day perplexities of the
society which approaches education on the basis of competitions and marketisation
is only a comprehensive view of life.
It is high time that education was recognised on the basis of the philosophy of human
education. The human approach to education has to reflect in its content, learning
process and outlook. The perspective of learning to be and learning to live together
as expressed by the UNESCO and the concepts of existentialist intelligence
intrapersonal and interpersonal intelligence.
The basis of new approaches on curriculum, teaching- learning process are derived
from the developments place in the east and west of the world.
When we begin to see the learner at the centre of the learning process, the teaching
process has to be changed timely. It is the result of the rapid growth and development
of Science and Technology and Pedagogy. If we want to undergo the changing
process, we have to imbibe the modern hypothesis regarding learner, they have;
Great curiosity
Good imagination
Numerous other qualities and interests
Independent individuality
Interest in free thinking and working in a fearless atmosphere.
Have interest in enquiring and questioning.
Ability to reach conclusions after logical thinking.
ability for manifest and establish freely the conclusions arrived at.
Interest for recognition in the society.
Determination to face the interference of society and make components which
is a part of social life.

When we consider the learning system, the domains to be stressed in education


according to the modern development becomes relevant.
The knowledge domain consists of
Facts
Ideas
Laws
The temporary conclusions and principles used presently by scientists.
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The learning is a process. The continuous procedures we undergo to reach a
particular goal is process. The skills which are parts of the process to analyse the
collected ideas and proofs and come to a conclusion is called process skills. Some
important process skills are,
the skills;
To observe
To collect data and record
To classify
To measure and prepare charts
To experiment
To predict
To recognise and control the variables
To raise questions
To generalise
To form a hypothesis and check.
To conclude
To communicate
To predict and infer
To use tools.

Observation is the process of acquiring knowledge through the senses. It is purely


objective oriented. Learning experiences which provide the opportunity to use all the
senses may beused.
The process of grouping is known as classifying. Starting from simplegroupings of
data, it can extend to thelevel of classification into minutesub-groups.
In addition to this, consider the skills related to creative domain also, they are skills:
To visualize
To connect facts and ideas in new ways
To findout new and uncommon uses of objects
To fantasize
To dream
To develop creative isolated thoughts

Creativity is an essential component of process and activities. The element


of creativity is involved in finding out problems, formation of hypothesis,
finding solutions to problems etc. Through activity oriented learning
experiences, opportunities to express creativity can be created.
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Again, the following factors consisting in the Attitudinal domain are also important
as;
Self confidence
Love for scientific knowledge
Attitude to know and value history
Respect human emotions
Decide with reasonable present problems
Take logical decisions ragarding personal values
Hypothesis is a temporary conclusion drawn using insight. Based on
knowledge and experiences relating to the problems the causes and
solutions can be guessed.
As regards the application domain the important factors are the ability to:
observe in daily life examples of ideas acquired.
take the help of scientific process to solve the problems of daily life.
choose a scientific life style
connect the ideas acquired with other subjects.
integrate the subjects with other subjects.
Some basic stands have to be taken on the new scientific knowledge about
intelligence learning and teaching. When such basic concepts are accepted changes
are required in the following factors.
l The vision, approach, structure and content of the curriculum.
l The vision, approach, structure and content of the textbooks.
l Role of the teacher and the learner.
l Learner atmosphere, learning materials and learning techniques.
Some scientific pespectives accepted by modern world in educational psychology
are given below.
Constructivism
This approach puts forward the concept that the learner constructs knowledge. New
knowledge is constructed when ideas are examined and practiced in new situations
relating them with the previously acquired knowledge and experience. That is
assimilated into the congnitive structure of ones knowledge. This method which
gives priority to critical thinking and proble solving provides opportunity for self
motivated learning.
Social Constructivism
Social constructivism is a sub section of constructivism. Knowledge is formed, spread
and imbibed and it becomes relevant in a social enviornment. Interactive learning ,
group learning, co-operative participatory learning, all these are concepts put
forward by social constructivism.
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The main propounders of constructivism are piaget, vygotsky and Bruner.
Discovery learning and interactive learning have prime importance. Learning takes
place as a part of the attempt for problem solving. The activities of a learner who
confronts cognitive disequilibrium in a learning situation when he tries to overcome
it is leades to the renewal of cognitive structure. It is through this process construction
of new knowledge and the assimilation of them that learning take place. Observation
and enquiry are unavoidable factors. The learner advances towards new areas of
acquisition of knowledge where he tries to compare his new findings with the existing
conceptions.
Learning is a live mental process. Rather than the ability for memorisation of facts
cognitive process has to be given emphasis. The process of problem analysis,
elucidation, critical thinking, rational thinking, finding out co-relation, prediction,
hypothesis formation, application, probing for other possibilities, extracting the crux
and other processes are of critical importance in learning.
Constructivism gives greater predominonce to co-operative learning. Social and
cultural factors influence learning. Sharing of knowledge and experience among
learners, collective enquiry, assessment and improvement, group activity and
collaborative learning, by sharing responsibilities with the objective of public activity,
provide opportunity for effective learning.
In learning internal motivation is more important than external motivation. The
learner should have interest and initiative in learning. Learning situation should be
capable of forming a sense of ownership in of the learner regarding the learning
process.
Learning is not a linear process. It progresses in a spiralled way advancing deeper
and wider.
Learner-his nature and features
The learners in standard XI has undergone a learner centered and process oriented
learning experience up to X standard. He is adequately competent to select vocational
subjects according to his aptitude and interest and to acquire higher education and
profession as he wishes. The aspirations about future life is framed in this particular
age foreseeing national and international job oppurtunities. Some of the peculiarities
of the learner at this stage are:
l Physical, intellectual an emotional planes are intensive changes during this age
and their reflections can be observed.
l Ability to enquire, discover and establish cause-effect relationship between
phenomena.
l Readiness to undertake challenges.
l Capacity to shoulder leadership roles.
l Attempt to interprest oneself.
l Susceptibility to different presseures.
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l Doubts, anxities and eagerness about sex.
l Longing for social recognition.
Needs of the learner
l To make acquaintance with a job through vocational education.
l To acquire more knowledge in the concerned area through higher education.
l To recognise and encourage the peculiar personality of the later adolescent
period.
l To enable him to defend against the unfavourable circumstances without any
help
Role of the Learner
Active participant in the learning process.
Acts as a researcher
Sharer of information
Sharer of responsibilities
Collects information
Takes leadership
Involves in group work
Acts as a co- participant
Observes his environment
Experiments and realises
Makes interpretations and draws inferences.

Role of the Teacher


The teacher should;
consider the Stress and strain of the teenagers
understand the socio- economic and cultural background of the students.
promote and motivate the students to construct knowledge.
arrange proper situations to interact in and outside of the classroom.
guide the students by explanations, demonstrations etc.
promote opportunity for co-operative learning and collaborative learning.
facilitate interpersonal and intra-personal interactions.
act as a democratic leader.
act as a problem solver
effectively guide the students for the selection and conduct of various continuous
evaluation elements.
continuously evaluate the progress of the learners.
gives scaffolding/support wherever necessary.
motivate for learning
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promote divergent thinking.
act as a democratic group leader.
act as a co-learner
gives variety of learning experiences.
be a constant student
facilitate for reference/data collection
have a clear under standing about the age, needs, peculiarities, abilities, nature,
aptitude etc. of the learner.
have the ability to motivate the learner in order to acquire and enrich their
knowledge.
be a guide to the learner in developing insights and creating responses on current
affairs.
be capable to lead the learner into a variety of learning methods and process
based on curricular objectives.
be a link between school and community.
be a good organiser, guide, friend, philosopher and co-learner.
have an inter disciplinary approach in learning activities.
be able to guide the learner in his/her career prospects based on his interest
aptitude and ability.
be impartial and democratic.
provide ample experiences to attain the basic values and objectives of the
curriculum.

New Concepts of Learning


1. Discovery Learning-
The teacher has to create a motivating atmosphere for the learner to discover concepts
and facts, instead of listening always. Creating occasion to progress towards
discovery is preferred. Instead of telling everything before and compelling to initiate
the models, situations are to be created to help the children act models as themselves.
2. Learning by discussion
That discussion leads to learning is Burner's theory. Here discussion is not opposing
each other. It is a sharing on the plane of ideas. New ideas are arrived at by seeking
explanations, by mutual giving and taking of ideas and by problem solving.
3. Problem solving and learning
Only when the learner feels that some thing is a problem to be solved that he takes
the responsibility of learning it. It is an inborn tendency to act to solve a problem
that causes cognitive disequilibrium in a particular area. It is also needed to have
confidence that one is capable of doing it. The problems are to be presented in
consideration of the ability and level of attainment of the learner.
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4. Collaborative learning
This is the learning in which the responsibilities are distributed among the members
of the group keeping common learning objectives. The common responsibility of
the group will be successful only if each member discharges his duties. All the
members will reach a stage of sharing the result of learning, equally through the
activity with mutual understanding. The teachers who arrange collaborative learning
will have to make clear the responsibilites to be discharged. This is possible through
the discussion with the learners. Collaborative learning will help to avoid the
situations of one person working for the whole group.
5. Co-operative learning
This is the learning in which the learners help one another. Those who have more
knowledge, experience and competency, will help others. By this exchange of
resources the learners develop a plane of social system in learning also. As there
are no high ups and low ones according to status among the learners they can ask
the fellow students doubts and for helps without any hesitation or in hesitation
Care should be taken not to lead this seeking of help to mechanical copying. It
should be on the basis of actual needs. So even while encouraging this exchange of
ideas among the members of the group cautions acceptance is to be observed as a
convention. There should be an understanding that satisfactory responses should
come from each member and that the achievement of the group will be assessed on
the basis of the achievement of all the members
6 Zone of Proximal Development
Vygotsky observes that these is a stage of achievement where a learner can reach by
himself and another higher zone where he can reach with the help of his teachers
and peers and elders. Even though some can fulfil the learning activity by themselves
there is the possibility of a higher excellence. If appropriate help is forth covering
every learner can better himself.
7 Scaffolding
It is natural that the learner may not be able to complete his work if he does not get
support at the proper time. The learner may require the help of the teacher in several
learning activities. Here helping means to make the learner complete the activity
taking responsibility by himself. The teacher has to keep in mind the objective of
enabling the learner to take the responsibility and to make it successful.
8 Learning: a live mental process
Learning is a cognitive process, only a teacher who has an awareness as to what the
cognitive process is alone can arrange learning situations to the learner to involve in
it. Learning can be made effectively and intellectual sharpness can be improved by
giving opportunity for the cognitive processes like reminding, recognising
compromising , co- relating, comparing, guessing, summarising and so on. How is
cognitive process considered in language learning? Take guessing and prediction
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for example.
l Guessing the meaning from the context.
l Guessing the content from the heading.
l Predicting the end of the story.
l Guessing the incident, story from the picture.
l Guessing the facts from indications.
l and other such activities can be given the following activities can be given for
the cognitive process of summarisation.
l Preparation of blue print.
l Preparation of list.
l Preparation of flow chart.
l Epitomising in one word.
l Giving titles and so on.
l Symbols, performance of characters indications, lines of a poem, tables, pictures,
concepts, actions, body language and such things can be given for interpretation.
Process based language given for interpretation. Process based language learning
has to give prime importance to the cognitive process.
9 Internal motivation
Internal motivation is given more importance than external motivation. The teacher
has to arouse the internal motivation of the learner, A person internally motivated
like this alone can immerse in learning and own its responsibility. How motivating
is each of the activities is to be assessed.
10 Multiple intelligence
The Theory of Multiple Intelligence put forward by Howard Gardener has created a
turning point in the field of education. The National curriculum document has
recommended that the curriculum is to be designed taking into consideration of
this theory.
Main factors of the intellect :
1. Verbal/linguistic Intelligence -
Ability to read and write, making linguistic creations , ability to lecture competence
effective a communication , all these come under this . This can be developed by
engaging in language games and by teaching others.
2. Logical /mathematical Intelligence
Thinking rationally with causes and effect relation and finding out patterns and
relations come under this area, finding out relations and explaining things sequential
and arithmetical calculations are capable of developing this area of intelligence.
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3. Visual /spatial Intelligence
In those who are able to visualise models and bringing what is in the imagination
into visual form and in philosophers, designers and sculptors this area of intelligence
is developed. The activities like modelling using clay and pulp, making of art
equipments, sculpture, and giving illustrations to stories can help the development
of this ability.
4 Bodily Kinaesthetic Intelligence
The activities using body language come under this. This area of intelligence is
more developed in dancers and actors who are able to express ideas through body
movements and in experts in sports, gymnastics etc.
5 Musical Intelligence
This is an area of intelligence which is highly developed in those who are able to
recognise the different elements of music in musicians and in those who can here
and enjoy songs. Playing musical instruments, initiating the songs of musicians,
listening silently to the rhythms and activities like this are capable of developing
this area of intelligence.
6 Interpersonal Intelligence
Those in whom this area of intelligence is developed show qualities of leadership
and behave with others in a noble manner. They are capable of understanding the
thought of others and carrying on activities like discussion successfully.
7 Intrapersonal Intelligence
This is the ability to understand oneself. These people can recognise their own
abilities and disabilities. Writing diaries truthfully and in an analysing way and
assessing the ideas and activities of others will help developing this areas of
intelligence
8 Naturalistic Intelligence
A great interest in the flora and fauna of the nature, love towards fellow beings
interest in spiritual and natural factors will be capable of developing this area.
9. Existential Intelligence
The ability to see and distinguish ours own existence as a part of the universe, ability
to distinguish the meaning and meaninglessness of life, the ability to realise the
ultimate nature of mental and physical existences, all these are the peculiarities of
this faculty of intelligence.
Emotional Intelligence
The concept of emotional intelligence put forward by Daniel Golman was used in
framing the new curriculum. The fact that ones Emotional Quotient (E.Q) is the
greatest factor affecting success in life is now widely accepted. The teacher who
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aims to focus on improving the emotional intelligence of students need to concentrate
on the following.
i) Ability to take decisions
Rather than imposing decision on students while planning and executing activities,
the students may be allowed to take part in the decision making process. Taking
decisions through open discussion in the class, inviting students suggestions on
common problems etc. are habits to be cultivated.
ii) Ability to reach consensus
l When different opinions, ideas and positions arise the students may be given
the responsibility to reach a consensus.
l Imaging what would be the course of action in some situtations, allowing to
intervene in a healthy way in problems between individuals.
iii) Problem solving
l Developing the idea that there is reason and solution to any problem.
l Training in finding reasons for problems.
l Suggesting solutions through individual or group efforts.
l Discussing social problems.
l Analysing the shortcomings in methods to solve problems.
Whether plastic can be banned within school premises can be given as a problem.
Group discussion will provide reasons and solutions. Problems which can influence
classroom learning and for which the learner can actively contribute solutions need
to be posed.
l Self criticism, evaluation
l Ability to face problem-situation in life
l Thinking what one would do if placed in the situation of others, how one would
respond to certain experiences of others - All these foster the growth of emotional
intelligence.
iv) Life skills
Life skills need to be given a prominent place in education. W.H.O. has listed ten
skills required for success in life.
l Self awareness
l Empathy
l Inter personal relations
l Communication
l Critical thinking
l Creative thinking
l Decision making
l Problem solving
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l Copying with emotion
l Copying with stress
The new curriculum addresses these areas.
Knowing the characteristics of the learner, role of the teacher and how to use the
teachers handbook help the teacher to plan and effectively implement learning
activities.
Objectives of the Vocational Higher Secondary Curriculum.
l To facilitate higher education while giving opportunity to enter in the field of
employment.
l To develop enviornmental awareness, sense of national integration, tolerence
and human values so as to ensure social and cultural improvement.
l To enable the learner to find on his own employment.
l To inculcate mental courage in the learner to face unfavourable situations.
l To make human resource development possible.
l To enable the learner to understand social problems and to react appropriately.
l To develop the learner to identify and develop his own competencies.
l To develop vocational aptitude, work culture and attitude in the learner so as to
provide useful products and services to the society.
l To create an awarenss about mental and physical health.
l To acquire awareness about different job areas and to provide backgrounds for
acquiring higher level training in subjects of interest.
l To develop possibilities of higher education by creating awareness about
common entrance examinations.
l To provide situation for the encouragement of creative thinking and organising
training programmes in each area, creative abilities and to develop artistic talents.
Nature of Approach
The learning device is to be organised in the selected vocational subjects in such a
way that adequate practical experience should be given, making use of the modern
technology. The development in each area on the basis of information technology is
to be brought to the learner. The work experience in the respective fields(OJT, Field
trip, Production/ Service ..... training, Survey, Workshop, Exhibition, Youth festival,
Physical fitness etc.) are to be adjusted suitable to the learning and evalution process.
The participation and leadership of the students in planning and execution is to be
ensured through this kind of activities. Social service is to be made a part of the
course.
Approach towards Vocational Higher Secondary Education
The learning methodology has to be organised so as the learning provide adequate
practical thinking on the opted vocational subject utilising the new technology. The
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development of information technology should be made available in each sector.
Work experience, OJT, Field trip production, Service cum training centre, Survey,
Workshops, Exhibitions, Youth festivals, Physical fitness etc should be systematised
well appropriate to learning and evaluation. Learner participation should be ensured
in the planning and implementation of these activities. Social service should be a
part of the course. If a learner has to change his school, he should be provided an
oppurtunity to continue his studies in the new school. While considering criteria
for admission to higher courses, grades of vocational subjects should also be given
due weightage. In tune with the changes in the Vocational Higher Secondary
Education changes should be ensured in the field of higher education.
The teachers have to take special care in arranging learning activities for the
development of all the faculties of intelligence.
Learning activities and learning atmosphere.
A proper learning atmosphere is essential for the betterment of learning activities.
They are:
l Proper physical environment
l Healthy mental atmosphere
l Suitable social atmosphere
l Active participation of PTA, Local bodies and SRG
l Reference materials and visual media equipments.
l Academic monitoring
l School Resource Group (SRG)
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SUBJECT APPROACH
The main objective of Vocation Higher Secondary Education is to make a self reliance
society who are capable of being self employed as well as to obtain higher studies.
As you know, Information Technology (IT) has been made a compulsory subject in
high school classes and it has been included as one of the subjects for the SSLC examination.
It is the only subject which has practical examination.
So the students who have previous knowledge in working on computers. They have
undergone various learner centred activities like assignments, project, lab work, seminar
etc. for the learning of IT. So the teaching in Vocahonal Higher Secondary classes also
should utilise such learner centred and process oriented methods which suit the constructive
paradigm.
What is a Constructivist Paradigm?
The method of teaching in which students are told everything, activities are
explained and teachers teach the children everything, is very familiar and convenient for
the teachers. But we have seen over the years that this cannot take all students to new
heights of learning. Students will reach the higher levels of learning only if teachers follow
an approach of continuous learning, planning the learning activities and sharing knowledge
with the students as co-learner, co-researcher and facilitator.
What teachers should do is to arrange the facilities for the children to acquire
knowledge by themselves and develop their creativity by involving in learning activities
out of interest.
On the approach to education, NCERT observes that we need a shift from the
traditional learning atmosphere to a climate of values that encourages exploration, problem
solving and decision making and from the prescriptive classroom teaching to participatory,
decentralised interactive group learning.
We have to follow a method in Computer Science that would make this possible. The
contents of Computer Science in Std XI is fixed in such a way that this method is unavoidable.
The discussions in the class room take place with the active participation of students. They
learn through individual work, co-operative group work, interaction with different materials
and find solutions themselves for the problems posed to them. They evaluate themselves
and directly apply the learned skills in new and challenging situations. This process helps
the students to create knowledge by themselves upto their optimal level. The teachers have
to give only scaffolding to go upto their ZPD (Zone of Proximal Development).
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Modern teaching philosophy respects teachers who give students a curriculum that
stimulates thinking, freedom to select study methods and an opportunity to develop their
own perspectives. They give more importance to the process than to the content. The above
detailed approach is that of constructivism. Computer Science also has to be approached
on the basis of this pedagogy. The constructivist pedagogy promotes various processes
like:
1. Discovery learning 2. Inquiry learning
3. Co-operative learning 4. Collaborative learning
5. Interactive learning 6. Problem based learning
7. Activity-oriented learning 8. Project based learning
The above processes help teachers to make teaching learner-centred, locally specific
and life-related. Possibilities for using the above techniques according to learning situation
have to be tried out in the classroom. A set of such activities are given in the concerned
chapters of this Source Book.
What are the changes needed in the role and approach of teachers and
students?
If the activities envisaged in the curriculum have to take place in the class room,
teachers should take up the following roles as and when needed:
An assistant who sympathetically solves the problems of students.
A friend who simplifies learning activities.
A group leader who shows by example the democratic methods.
A co-learner who actively participates in learning activities.
Every teacher who wishes to behave well with children and to earn their love and respect
should examine whether they are constantly playing the above roles.
What has been said here is about the attitude and approach the teachers should have
towards their students. Now let us think about the policy and approach, teachers should
have towards teaching and learning. Obviously, such policy and approach are to be
transformed into learning activities. Good teachers
Pay more attention to how their students learn, in addition to what they learn.
Find learning also as a process.
Give importance to learning to learn, self-learning and the construction of knowledge.
Give prominence to learning instead of instructions.
Accept the personality and initiative of the students and promote them.
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Consider students to have will power and motivation.
Encourage their natural inquisitiveness and desire to explore.
Recognise the ways of thought, attitudes and mental makeup of students and accept
them.
In addition to these, the new curriculum visions the responsibilities of teachers as
follows:
Diagnose the learning activities and provide suitable experiences or remediations.
Plan and provide challenging situations.
Continuously evaluate the progress of learners.
Promote divergent thinking.
Facilitate inter-personal and intra-personal interactions.
The new approach, also visions the learner in a new perspective. In the learner
centered activity oriented pedagogy, the learner :
Activley participates in the learning process.
Acts as a researcher.
Shares information.
Shares responsibilities.
Collects information.
Leads a group.
Interacts in a group.
Works as a co-participant.
Observes environment.
Experiments.
Interprets and makes inferences.
In short, teachers provide sufficient opportunities for the students to think, guess,
tryout, experiment, devise alternative ways, check, correct mistakes and produce outputs
or arrive at conclusions.
Computer Science is a suitable subject to make use of all these teaching-learning
strategies. This approach is helpful for meeting the objectives defined by UNICEF as the
four pillars of education, namely, learning to know, learning to do, learning to live together
and learning to be. Also remember that the NCERT has given a directive that the curriculum
should stand on the three pillars of relevance, equity and excellence
*
.
In the background of this approach, let us examine how the learning methods
mentioned in the beginning can be implemented in Computer Science.
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Inquiry and Discovery Learning
In inquiry and discovery learning, students learn as per the descriptions in the textbook
and instructions/guidence of the teacher, finding out facts by themselves through various
activities and comparing his/her own findings with others or those in the Internet. Discussing
with another student about some features that he/she discovered, and the ways he/she used
or the logic used while preparing a program, can also be considered as discoveries. While
finding out each source of knowledge, the confidence and authenticity of the student
develops.
Co-operative Learning
The maximum possibility for co-operative learning exists in group learning activities.
A group using the same computer/tools or doing project activities together will help in
cooperative learning. The student gets convinced about his/her own abilities and inabilities
and to appreciate others, and to improve himself/herself. Co-operative and collective
learning become possible and the students experience their advantages through sharing of
experiences, seminars, projects and other group activities.
Interactive Learning
Shy students who withdraw into themselves in the classroom can be seen to take part
with confidence in quiz and group discussions in Computer Science classes, especially
when working in small groups. Discussion stimulates logical thinking, inquisitiveness and
recognition. When a member of a group suggests an action, other members of the group
are stimulated to look for a better or more logical way. Each student accepts the challenge
to re-examine his/her own rationality by presenting different points of view and debating
with others. Discussion need not necessarily be oral. It could be through leaflets, posters,
reports, email, chatting and mail groups or through publications. IT thus provides opportunity
for different kinds of interactions.
Activity Oriented Learning
Knowledge leads to activity and activity leads to new knowledge. This is a
complementary process. Learning becomes practical, target-oriented and adaptable to
different environments only when we learn through activities. Product or result, is a natural
consequence of any activity. Therefore, the learning process of Computer Science is activity
oriented and product based. Through laboratory work, students acquire skills like ability
to develop programs and debug source code; to achieve speed and precision; and to acquire
values like co-operation, sharing mentality, self correction and mutual help. They acquire
a number of life skills through doing projects, seminars, assignments and practicals. Out of
these activities, project itself gives opportunity for a number of subsidiary activities.
Continuous evaluation strengthens activity based learning.
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Activity based learning continuously increases experiences and inquiry. When each
new practical experience is added to earlier experiences, new understanding and knowledge
are created. A properly planned learning activity:
Ensures the participation of all students
Guides the students to think actively and develop logical conclusions.
Provides opportunities for self co-opeative and/or collabarative works.
Uses and develops mental abilities of the students.
Creates interest for self-learning and self-evaluation and peer-evaluation.
Provides opportunities for various interactions with peers, learning-materials and
teachers.
Provides chances for any student to succeed and to proceed up to his maximum level.
Provides chances for teacher to support, guide and enrich the students.
Raises challenges for enquiry, discovery and further learning.
The teachers success lies in designing such learning activities and giving them to
the students. This sourcebook will be really helpful to you in this regard.
Collaborative Learning
Another method based on constructivist theory is collaborative learning. When all
students together, or in small groups, carry out activities, they are able to solve problems
and meaningfully complete learning better than when they do it individually. This finding
is the basic principle of collaborative learning. Computer Science is a subject that gives
ample possibilities for this kind of learning. This is a method that emphasises group thinking
and collective knowledge. This requires changes in the roles of students and teachers and
in how they interact.
In a class, where collaborative learning takes place
teachers and students mutually exchange knowledge.
teachers share some authority and responsibility with the learners.
teachers act as links between students and learning.
students will be divided into mixed groups.
The teachers role in collaborative learning is as follows:
Facilitates the activities of each child (facilitating).
Shows necessary models (modelling).
Gives training in certain areas (coaching).
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Students also have some responsibilities in collaborative learning. A student in a
collaborative class,
decides own learning target at each stage.
takes up the responsibility for own study and completes it in a time-bound manner.
evaluates own learning. At the same time, evaluates the performance of the group also.
improves own learning, helps others.
In short it recognises the intrinsic talents of the learner; emphasises the thinking
process; gives importance and opportunity for mutual interaction; accepts the role of society
and culture in personality development; gives importance to discussion in learning; gives
opportunity for self assessment and mutual assessment; encourages self learning. The teacher
only prepares a scaffolding for learning. The rest has to be built up by students themselves.
The teacher acts as an intermediary of learning. She/He finds experiences that are most
suitable for learning and prepares them. She/He accepts the learners grasping power, self
determination ability and learning strategies.
Multiple Intelligence
The modern studies on intelligence are especially relevent to computer education.
The traditional view is that intelligence is hereditary and does not change. Because of this
some students are considered to be deficient in logical thinking, mathematical operations
and analytical skills and it is believed that such students cannot perform well in computer
related subjects.
Modern theories however consider that given suitable environments, through
continued efforts, students can improve the intelligence relating to the specific area.
According to the theory of Howard Gardner, human intelligence has different components
and all these components are present in all individuals in different proportions. Some
components may be more prominent in some individuals.
Components of Intelligence
1. Verbal/linguistic intelligence
The abilities for reading, writing, verbal production, speaking and lecturing and
communicating effectively belong to this type. This type of intelligence can be developed
through activities such as teaching, seminar presenting, report writing etc.
2. Logical/mathematical intelligence
Abilities like logical thinking and finding out patterns and relations belong to this
component. This type of intelligence is developed through finding correspondences, ordered
explanations and mathematical operations.
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3. Visual/spatial intelligence
People with prominently visual/spatial intelligence will be able to design models and
execute ideas they have. Architects, designers and sculptors will be strong in this type of
intelligence. Model building, making of art materials, digital painting and drawing, using and
developing graphical software, developing presentations with animation will help this component
development.
4. Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence
This is related to the ability to move various parts of the body. Dancers, actors, sports
people and gymnasts who can more the body aesthetically and express emotions through body
movement belong to this category. Activities involving dance, aerobics, sports and games help
the development of this type of intelligence. In computer education, typing skill, mouse movement
skills etc. will be more in those who have this kind of intelligence.
5. Musical Intelligence
It is belived that this type of intelligence is highly developed in people with the ability to
distinguish the different elements in music, performing musicians, people who can humtunes
and those who can appreciate music. Playing musical instruments, singing along with others,
keeping rhythm etc. are activities that help the development of this component.
6. Interpersonal Intelligence
People who demonstrate leadership qualities and are able to interact in a positive
way with others will have a better developed interpersonal intelligence. They can understand
the thinking of others intelligence. They can understand the thinking of others and can
successfully involve in negotiation activities. Role play and group activities can be used to
cultivate this intelligence.
7. Intra Personal Intelligence
This is essentially the ability to understand oneself. Such people will have the ability
to understand their abilities and shortcomings. Analytical diary writing, assessment of ideas
and activities of others and assignments can help the growth of this factor.
8. Naturalistic Intelligence
This is characterised by deep interest in nature and the flora and fauna, love for
fellow beings, interest in spiritual and naturalistic phenomena. This component can be
strengthened through nature study and enjoying the beauty of nature.
Gardner speaks about another dimension of intelligence - existential intelligence.
But this has not been elaborated sufficiently. The teachers may ensure that learning activities
that cater to all the components of intelligence are provided to the students.
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Emotional Intelligence and EQ
Recent researchers say that there is evident of having another area of intelligence
and it is the emotional intelligence. Mr. Daniel Goleman and some others have developed
devices for measuring the emotional intelligence. The emotional quotient (EQ) is more
relevant than the IQ in the process of learning and development.
The fact that ones Emotional Quotient (E.Q) is the greatest factor affecting success
in life is now widely accepted. The teacher who aims at improving the emotional intelligence
of students need to concentrate on the following.
i) Ability to take decisions
Rather than imposing decision on students while planning and executing activities,
the students may be allowed to take part in the decision making process. Taking decisions
through open discussion in the class, inviting students' suggestions on common problems
etc. are habits to be cultivated.
ii) Ability to reach consensus
When different opinions, ideas and positions arise the students may be given the
responsibility to reach a consensus. Imagining what would be the course of action in some
situtations, allowing to intervene in a healthy way in problems between individuals will
help the students to reach consensus.
iii) Ability to solve problems
Teacher should make the students aware of the fact that any problem will have a
solution. Students are to be given chances for:
finding reasons for problems.
suggesting solutions through individual or group efforts.
discussing social problems.
analysing the shortcomings in methods to solve problems.
Let us consider, for example, the following cases:
Whether the Information technology enhances or worsen the human abilities?
Is it necessary to learn and promote freesoftware?
Students should be given opportunity for group discussion and debate over these
issues and let them come out with their own views and take decisions. This kind of
discussions will help the children to experience:
self criticism and self evaluation
problematic situations in life
what one would do if placed in the situation of others
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how one would respond to certain experiences of others etc.
All these foster the growth of emotional intelligence.
Improving Life Skills
Life skills need to be given a prominent place in education. W.H.O. has listed ten
skills required for success in life. They are:
Self awareness Empathy
Inter personal relations Communication
Critical thinking Creative thinking
Decision making Problem solving
Coping with emotion Coping with stress
The new curriculum addresses these areas.
General Aims of Learning Computer Science
1. To obtain job in the field of IT related and IT enabled services.
2. To undergo higher education
3. To develop skills for self learning, continuous learning and communicating the ideas and concepts
in the field of computer science.
4. To create interest among learners to study about computer science and undertake small learning
projects for programming and research.
5. To acquire self employment
6. To develop skills for applying the knowledge of computer for learning other subjects and
solving the problems of daily life.
4. To develop skills for learning in a domestic knowledge based, exploitation free, digital world
by participating in various learning activities in a co-operative, collective and creative way.
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TEACHING
AND LEARNING STRATEGIES
Learning Computer Science in the classroom takes place through activities like reading
individually and in groups, discussion, debate, quiz, seminars, preparing notes, observation
and program writing. Preparation for practical work also should take place in the classroom.
Preparation notes for laboratory work, programs and data are some of the things that have
to be developed in the classroom before the practical work in the laboratory.
Among these, individual activities such as assignment and self-check questions given
in the textbook could be done at home. But they have to be discussed in the classroom.
The students should also record such assignments in the notebook. The teacher should
give clear instructions as to what are the activities to be done at home and how they could
be done.
On the Job Training (OJT) and field visit have to be conducted and the report should
be prepared by the studens. The teacher should give clear instruction to prepare reports.
Observation Book
The student who comes to the computer laboratory to do practical work should be
clear about the work he/she intends to do. He/She should also know the steps for doing the
job using a computer, the software to be used, how it has to be operated, what the product
should be, what should be its specifications, and so on. If the student has an observation
book with him/her in which these things are clearly written down, then the work in the
computer laboratory will be very easy so that laboratory time can be effectively utilised.
The desired product will be correctly created. Corrections and modifications made in the
programs/procedure/steps are to be recorded after obtaining the correct output. If possible,
sample output(s) can be noted down.
Preparation for the laboratory work may be made at home or in the school. The
students may be instructed to compare the notes they have prepared with those prepared
by others and to rectify the defects if any. It will be possible to prepare the notes if the
students just read the textbook carefully. Such notes will be helpful to try out later what
they have learned now. These observation notes are records to be considered forcontinuous
evaluation.
How to conduct classroom discussions
Discussion is the most commonly used medium for communication. This is a very
good activity that can be used in the learning process. Effective discussion will stimulate
the intelligence of the child. It will make the absorption of knowledge easier. Discussion is
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neither merely asking questions and answering nor explanations given by teachers.
Classroom discussions will become effective only if it is systematically organised. The
following points are to be considered while conducting a discussion.
There should be a problem or a question or a topic that requires clarification or
a decision.
If possible, the topic of discussion should be informed in advance. Then the
students get an opportunity to think about it and study.
Information about those who are interested in taking part in the discussion
should be collected and everyone should be given an opportunity. This is not
possible for discussions that are planned there itself. Then either each person
can be given a chance, or those who express a desire at that time to take part
can be given an opportunity. Those who keep quiet also should be brought
forward by asking them to give their opinion or according to their turn.
If many people are participating in the discussion, strategies can be used to
make effective use of the available time.
When everyone has to speak, speak briefly. Limit may be specified for time,
number of points, or sentences. Write down the important points that are
mentioned in the discussion. Repetition of the same points are to be discouraged.
Through this, methods of expressing ideas briefly, clearly and precisely may
be familiarised. More than one round of discussion can be had if there is time.
It is good to have a chairperson to control the discussion.
Allow only one person to talk at a time and others should listen carefully. Some
children may feel like responding during this time. But they should wait till
they get their turn. They should participate in the discussion when they get an
opportunity. Only good listeners can react properly.
One or two people can be given responsibility to write down the opinions
(prepare the minutes) that are raised during the discussion. Decisions and
understandings arrived at in the discussion should be noted down. The
chairperson should put his/her signature. Some of these things are in the nature
of official discussions. Classroom discussions need not be that formal. Still,
activities may be such that all procedures are familiarised.
Students should be trained to stick to the timing themselves.
Very different opinions may arise in the discussion. Responses should be healthy
and in a democratic spirit. Opposition or support should be only to the opinion
expressed and not to the person who expressed it. The discussion should be taken
forward through mutual respect.
Debate
Debate is a hot and interesting learning activity. A debate can be organised only on
a topic on which there is difference of opinion. Therefore a topic suitable for debate has to
be found.
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Debate can be on relevant topic that is different and interesting to the students and
relevant to society. Students with different opinions have to be identified for the discussion.
Those who have similar opinion should join together to form a side. Those who hold the
opposite view will form the other side. It would be good to write down the topic of the
debate on the black board in advance. There should also be a person to control the debate.
Children should be given opportunity to absorb the ideas obtained from discussions
and debates, develop the ideas through reading and study, and to express them through
writing or other means. Only the opinions expressed in the discussions and debates need
to be paid attention.
How to organise a quiz in the classroom
Quiz is an activity that is very much helpful for self-learning. Students should be
instructed to read and classify the ideas, technical terms, methods of activity, definitions,
different procedures, etc. discussed in the textbook. This can be given as an assignement
to be done at home. Quiz can be conducted in different ways as follows:
Team Quiz
Divide the class into two equal teams. The teams may be named A and B, or one and
two. The points they receive can be marked on the black board in two columns. Points may
be given in different ways. For instance, a member from Team A asks a question aloud and
a member of Team B is specified to answer the question. If he/she fails, this can be continued
up to four other members. When all the five fail, anyone from Team B may answer. If no
one from Team B answers the question, then the author of the question will have to give
the answer and 5+ marks will be added to Team A (5 marks for defeating five students). If
no one from Team B answers the question, then Team A gets one more plus (Total 6+
marks) . If the first student answers correctly, then Team A gets no points. If the answer
given by the student of Teacm A who asked the question is not correct, then also Team A
gets no points. The next question is asked by Team B by which they can get their marks.
Team quiz can be conducted in another way also. Here, when a student asks a question,
it is the teacher who identifies the student who has to give the answer. Therefore the teacher
will control the quiz. In the other case, all questions will be directed towards the weaker
children in the opposite team. This will spoil the interest in the quiz.
It may also be stipulated that only the children sitting next to the student who was
first asked can be given subsequent chances to answer the question. Then also the above
problem arises. That has to be avoided. The method and rules of conducting the quiz can
be devised in consultation with the students.
Group Quiz
Divide the class into convenient groups. A group can consist of students sitting on
one or two benches. Let group A ask a question and group B thinks and answers the
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question. In group quiz, marks go to the group that answers the question. If group B gives
the correct answer they get 10 marks. Otherwise the question goes to group C. If group C
gives the answer, then they get 8 marks. Like this the question can be passed to the
subsequent groups and marks are given accordingly. Now group B gets its chance to ask
the question and the above process can be continued.
Queue Quiz
Queue quiz is another form of team quiz. The students sit as two teams and the
students in each team are numbered sequentially. The first student in Team A has to ask a
question to the first student in Team B. If the student does not answer, then the others also
can be asked in sequence. The team that asked the question will get marks according to the
number of students in the other team who did not answer. Subsequently, the first student
from Team B asks a question to the first student of Team A. This can be continued by each
student of a team asking a question to the corresponding student of the other team. Thus
everyone gets a chance to ask a question and to answer. Quiz can be arranged in many
ways like this. If discipline and interest are maintained, quiz is a very good activity for
learning.
Reverse Quiz
This is the exact opposite of a quiz. Here the opposite group has to say what the
questioner has in mind. Students are divided into teams or groups. The first group together
thinks of the name of a software, a technical term, an activity or some such thing. The
opposite team/group has to find out what it is through a maximum of ten questions. They
can ask only questions that can be answered with yes or no. If they succeed, then they
get ten points, as in the case of group quiz. If they do not answer, then the next group can
ask four more questions and find the answer, and they get four points. Otherwise, the next
group gets the chance to find the answer through three more questions. If they succeed,
they get three points, and so on. This is a game that develops the thinking and analytical
skills of all the students.
For example, let us imagine that the quiz is based on the Unit 3 - 'Computer System
Organisation'. The first group thought of a hardware name. How will the opposite group
find this out? They can do it through ask questions like:
1 Is it a hardware? (Ans: Yes)
2 Does it belong to I/O devices? (Ans: Yes)
3 Is it an input device? (Ans: Yes)
4 Is it a commonly used device? (Ans: No)
5 Whether it is used in evaluatioin process? (Ans: Yes)
6 Does it relate with examination process? (Ans: Yes)
(Now the group has obtained the answer as Optical Mark Reader (OMR))
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For the special attention of the teacher while conducting a quiz
Any quiz could become a very competitive game. There could be arguments and
noise. Therefore announce the rules well in advance. Instruct them to maintain sportsman
spirit along with team spirit. The teacher may have to tactically intervene to ensure that the
same team does not always find success. Only then can quiz be regularly conducted. What
is important is whether everyone in the class is listening to and understanding the questions
and answers, since this is a learning activity. The teacher should explain the questions and
answers, as needed, and decide on points of argument. Only if the topic for the quiz (the
relevant portion from the textbook) is decided in advance can the students come prepared
with the necessary questions. The objective of the quiz is, naturally, to promote self learning
in the students. The competitive nature of the quiz maintains the interest of the children;
and also their team spirit. Even though this has a competitive nature, it is helpful also for
collaborative and co-operative learning.
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CURRICULUM OBJECTIVES
Unit I Principles of Data Processing
1. To identify data, processing and information through discussion and make
information from data.
2. To identify the components of data processing through discussion and prepare an
assignment.
3. To understand Electronic data processing and Manual dataprocessing through
discussion, demonstration and list the advantages of Electronic data processing over
Manual data processing.
4. To identify the role of computer in data processing through discussion and prepare
a brief note.
5. To identify the characteristics of computer through discussion and list the
characteristics of computer.
Unit II Data Representation
1. To familiarise different number system through discussion and illustrations.
2. To acquire the ability to perform various operations in number system through
discussion and familarise conversion of numbers from one system to another through
assignment.
3. To acquire the ability to perform binary operations using 1s and 2s compliment
through problem solving.
4. To understand MSB and LSB of decimal number and representation of signed
numbers through assignments.
5. To familiarise various character representation codes through discussion and list
the character representation through illustrations.
Unit III Computer System Organization
1. To identify various types of computers through discussion and observation.
2. To understand computer as a system through discussion, observation and
demonstration and prepare notes.
3. To identify and familiarise various input/output devices through discussion and
demonstration.
4. To understand various types of memory used in computer through discussion and
observation.
5. To understand hardware, software and firmware through discussio.
6. To classify the types of software through discussion and prepare a list.
7. To get a awareness of multimedia and related field through discussions and
demonstration.
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8. To understand digital page setting using pagemaker through discussion,
demonstration and presentation.
9. To familiarise graphics, animation using photoshop through discussion,
demonstration and presentation.
Unit IV Principles of Programming
1. To understand various phases of programming through discussion, listing and
problem solving.
2. To get an awareness about legal implications in using software through discussion
and debate.
Unit V Programming in C++
1. To understand the basics of C++ language through discussions and illustrations;
and list the steps involved in creating and running a simple program.
2. To familiarise different data types in C++ by collecting and classifying data from
real life situations; prepare a detailed list showing C++ data types and their features.
3. To understand C++ operators through reading and discussion and prepare a
categorised list of operators.
4. Identify the logic requiring in problem solving and familiarise various control
structures in C++ by using real life problems and their solutions; prepare flow charts
for various control structures.
5. To develop C++ programme to solve various problems through discussion and
practicals.
6. To understand I/O functions through discussion, observation etc. and develop
programs using them.
7. To understand various techniques to improve the readability of source code and
write programme using proper indentation and naming conversions.
8. To familiarise the concept of arrays and its operations through illustrations and
discussion and develop programmes stating the advantages of arrays.
9. To understand the concepts of stacks and queues and their operations with the help
of real life examples; and develop algorithms.
10. To familiarise the significance of functions through discussion and note down the
advantages of using functions and develop programmes.
11. To familiarise different types of functions and prepare a classification table for the
pre defined functions.
12. To understand the significance of user defined functions and different methods of
function calls through illustrations.
Unit VI Computer Networks
1. To acquaint the terminologies used in computer networks through discussions and
observation.
2. To identify various types of computer network through discussion, observation and
demonstration.
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3. To know the concept of various network topologies through discussion and
demonstration.
4. To understand the reference models in computer networks through discussion.
5. To discuss the concept of Internet and various types of connectivity through
demonstration and practices; list the merits and demerits of each.
Unit VII Digital Electronics
1. To understand the terminologies related with Boolean algebra, Basic Postulates,
Basic theories, de Morgans theorem and Truth tables through discussions and
problem solving.
2. To introduce basic logic gates; OR, AND, NOT and advance logic gates, NAND,
NOR, OR and XNOR and the truth tabels through discussion demonstration and
assignments.
3. To study the application of logic gates through discussion and demonstration.
4. To get an awareness of Microprocessor and familiarise the 8085 Microprocessor,
block diagram and description of each block through discussion.
Unit VIII Linux
1. To understand various operating system through discussion and demonstration.
2. To familiarise free software through discussion.
3. To understand the installation procedure of Linux through demonstration.
4. To famliarise the KDE desk top through demonstration, observation & practice.
5. To surf the web through demonstration & practice.
6. To understand Linux Office suite through discussion, demonstration & Practice.
7. To familiarise multimedia in Linux through demonstration & practice.
8. To acquire shell concept through discussion & demonstration.
9. To understand the extension of Linux system through discussion & demonstration.
Why frequent updation of Syllabus
The Computer Science syllabus in Vocational Higher Secondary has been designed
in a manner that familiarises the students with the rapid progress in the field of Information
Technolgoy and the changes that may take place in the coming years. Students come out
from VHSE should not become be wildered by the widespread of Information Technology.
They should keep abreast of developments. They should be able to select suitable fields
for study or employment/training. The curriculum is helpful for this. This has to be modified
periodically. Only then will contemporary information and skills become available to the
new students reaching on Vocational Higher Secondary School.
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UNIT WISE HOUR DISTRIBUTION
THEORY
Unit No. Name of Unit No.of hours
1 Principles of Data Processing 5
2 Data Representation 8
3 Computer System Organisations 27
4 Principles of Programming 6
5 Programming in C++ 40
6 Computer Networks 14
7 Digital Electronics 20
8 Linux 20
Total Hours 140
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SYLLABUS
Unit 1 Principles of Data Processing [5 hrs]
1. 1 Data, Processing Information - 1hr
1. 2 Components of data processing - 1hr
1. 3 Types of data processing - 2 hrs
1. 4 Characteristics of computers - 1 hr
Unit 2 Data Representation [8 hrs]
2. 1 Various Numbers systems - 1 hr
2. 2 Number conversion - 3 hrs
2. 3 Binary Arithmetic - 2 hrs
2. 4 Complement of a Number - 1 hr
2. 5 Character codes - 1 hr.
Unit 3 Computer System Organisation [27 hrs]
3. 1 Types of Computers - 1 hr
3. 2 Organisation of Computer System - 2 hrs
3. 3 Input/Output devices - 2 hrs
3. 4 Memory Unit - 2 hrs
3. 5 Hardware & Software - 1 hr
3. 6 Types of software - 2 hrs
3. 7 Multimedia - DTP (Pagemaker) - 7 hrs
3. 8 Photoshop - 10 hrs
Unit 4 Principles of Programming [6 hrs]
4. 1 Phases in Programming - 4 hrs
4. 2 Legal Implication in the use of software - 2 hrs
Unit 5 Programming in C++ [40 hrs]
5. 1 Introduction to C++ - 3 hrs
5. 2 Operators and Expressions - 3 hrs
5. 3 I/O functions - 4 hrs
5. 4 Control Statements - 10 hrs
5. 5 Arrays & Structure - 10 hrs
5. 6 Functions - 10 hrs
Unit 6 Computer Networks [14 hrs]
6. 1 Introduction to Computer Network - 1 hr
6. 2 Types of Networks - 3 hrs
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6. 3 Network Topologies - 3 hrs
6. 4 Reference Models - 5 hrs
6. 5 Internet - 2 hrs
Unit 7 Digital Electronics [20 hrs]
7. 1 Boolean Algebra - 4 hrs
7. 2 Logic Gates - 8 hrs
7. 3 Microprocessor - 8 hrs
Unit 8 Linux [20 hrs]
8. 1 Introduction to Linux - 1 hr
8. 2 Installing Linux - 2 hrs
8. 3 Exploring the KDE desktop - 2 hrs
8. 4 Surfing the web - 2 hrs
8. 5 Linux file structure - 3 hrs
8. 6 Handling files - 2 hrs
8. 7 Linux Office Suite - 2 hrs
8. 8 Linux Shell - 2 hrs
8. 9 Scripting for the shell - 2 hrs
8.10 Extending Linux System - 2 hrs
Specific Objectives
Unit 1 Principles of Data Processing [5 hrs]
1. 1 Data, Processing, Information
1.1.1. Definition of Data and Information
1.1.2 Need of Information
1.1.3 Qualities of Information
1. 2 Components of data processing
1.2.1 Input, Process and Output
1. 3 Types of data processing
1.3.1 Manual Data Processing
1.3.2 Electronic Data Processing
1. 4 Characteristics of computers
Unit 2 Data Representation [8 hrs]
2. 1 Various Numbers systems
2.1.1 Number System Decimal, Binary, Octal, Hexadecimal
2. 2 Number conversion
2.2.1 Decimal to Binary and vice versa
2.2.2 Decimal to Octal and vice versa
2.2.3 Decimal to Hexadecimal and vice versa
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2. 3 Binary Arithmetic
2.3.1 Binary Addition and Subtraction
2.3.2 MSB and LSB of Decimal Number Representation of
Signed Number
2. 4 Complement of a Number
2.4.1 1s Complement and 2s Complement
2. 5 Character codes
2.5.1 BCD, ASCII, EBCDIC
Unit 3 Computer System Organisation [27 hrs]
3. 1 Types of Computers
3.1.1 Analog, Hybrid, Digital-Mini, Micro, Mainframe, Super
Computer
3. 2 Organisation of Computer System
3.2.1 Block diagram of computer system
3.2.2 Functional unit of a computer
Input Unit, Output Unit, CPU, Memory Unit, Brief
Description of Each Unit
3. 3 Input/Output devices
3.3.1 Input Devices - Keyboard, Mouse, OCR, OMR, MICR,
Scanners, Digital Camera, Microphone, Joystick, Trackball,
Light Pen
3.3.2 Output devices - VDU, CRT, LCD, PLASMA
Printers - Impact Printer [Line Printer, Dotmatrix Printer]
Non Impact Printers [Laster Printer, Inkjet Printer, Flexi
Printer]
Plotters
I/O Devices - Floppies, Hard Disks, Optical Disks, CD, VCD,
DVD
3. 4 Memory Unit
3.4.1 Primary Memory & Secondary Memory
3.4.2 RAM, DRAM, SDRAM, ROM, PROM, EPROM, EEPROM
3.4.3 Floppy, Hardware, CD, DVD
3. 5 Hardware & Software
3.5.1 Hardware & Firm ware
3.5.2 Software
3. 6 Types of software
3.6.1 System Software - Operating System, Language Processors
Assembler, Interpreter, Compiler)
3.6.2 Application Software - (GUI Packages, Word Processors,
Electronic Spreadsheets, Presentation and Graphics,
Database Packages, DTP Packages
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Utilities Text Editor, Backup Utility, Compression Utility,
Disk Defragmenter, Virus Scanner
3. 7 Multimedia - DTP Packages
3.7.1 Introduction to DTP
3.7.2 Introduction to Pagemaker
3.7.3 Document Planning - Page Layout, Margin, Header, Footer,
Fonts, Styling.
3.7.4 Uses of File, Edit, Page, Frame, Font, Graphics and Option
menu
3.7.5 Preparation of Table Contents, Index, Generation of
Stylesheets, Usage of Widthtable, Add/Remove fonts.
3. 8 Photoshop
3.8.1 Getting started with photoshop
3.8.2 Working with Images and Colours
3.8.3 Making Selection
3.8.4 Painting & Editing Tools
3.8.5 Layers
3.8.6 Type
3.8.7 Filters
Unit 4 Principles of Programming
4. 1 Phases in Programming
4.1.1 Problem Identification
4.1.2 Algorithm and Flow charts
4.1.3 Implementation of Algorithm through a language,
traslators, debugger
Execution and Documentation, Testing, Certification
4. 2 Legal Implication in the use of software - Licensing, and Copyright,
Piracy, Free software.
Unit 5 Programming in C++
5. 1 Introduction to C++
5.1.1 Character set
5.1.2 Basic Data Types
5.1.3 Tokens
5.1.4 Structure of C++ Program
5.1.5 Use of I/O operators
5.1.6 Use of IDE compiler to demonstrate basic commands of
editing, compilation, linking and execution.
5. 2 Operators and Expression
5.2.1 Arithmetic (+, , *, /, %), Unary + and , Increment and
Decrement, Relational Operators (<, <=, >, >=, = =, !=),
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Logical Operators ( ||, &&, ! ), Conditional Operator;
Precedence of Operators
5.2.2 Expressions - Type Conversions Implicit & Explicit
Methods; C++ Short hands; Assignment Statement; Variable
initialization; Type Compatibility.
5. 3 I/O functions
5.3.1 Header file iostream.h; Stream functions get( ), getline(),
put( ), write( );
Header file stdio.h; Console functions getchar( ), getc(
), gets(), putchar( ), putc( ), puts( ).
5. 4 Control Statements
5.4.1 Conditional Statements if statement, if-else, if-else-if
ladder, switch statement; Nested switch; default statement;
break and continue statement
5.4.2 Loop Statements for, while, do-while; Nested Control
Structures
5.4.3 Jump Statements goto, break, continue, exit function.
5. 5 Arrays & Structure
5.5.1 Concepts of Data Structures
Basic data structures - Arrays, Stacks, Queues; Concepts
of arrays - One dimensional and Two dimensional arrays
(Declaration, Initialization, Reading ); Ope rations on 1D
arrays (Both algorithms and programs) - Traversal,
Searching (Binary and Linear), Insertion, Deletion, Sorting
(Selection and Bubble), Merging (Simple and Sorted);
Operations on 2D arrays (Both algorithms and programs) -
Matrix arithmetic (Addition, Subtraction & Multiplication);
Implementation of string using array; String manipulation
such as reversing a string, counting vowels, consonants,
special characters from a string.
5. 6 Functions
5.6.1 Defining a function;
5.6.2 Types of Functions; Predifined Functions - Character
functions { isalnum( ), isalpha( ), isdigit( ), islower( ),
isupper( ), tolower( ), toupper( )}, String Manipulating
functions {strcpy( ), strcat( ), strlen( ), strcmp( )},
Mathematical Functions {abs( ), sqrt( ), pow( ), exp( ), log(
), sin( ), cos( )},
Miscellaneous Functions {setw( ), getch( ), clrscr( ); Use
of endl.}, Header Files - ctype.h, string.h, math.h, conio.h,
iomanip.h;
User defined functions; Function prototype; Invoking a
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function; Passing arguments to a function; Specifying
argument data types; Default arguments; Call by Value;
Call by Reference; Returning values from a function;
Calling functions with arrays; Recursive functions
Unit 6 Computer Networks
6. 1 Introduction to Computer Network
Need for Networks; Definition and Advantages of
Networks; Terminologies used Nodes, Server, Protocol
6. 2 Types of Networks LAN, MAN, WAN, Wireless Network.
6. 3 Network Topologies -Bus, Star, Ring, Tree, Mesh, Graph;
Internet and Intranet
6. 4 Reference Models-OSI Reference Model, TCP/IP Reference
Model
6. 5 I nt er net - H/W and S/W requirements for Internet
Connection; Types of Connectivity ISDN, Dial Up;
Browsing; Email Use, Advantages & Disadvantages.
Unit 7 Digital Electronics
7. 1 Boolean Algebra
7.1.1 Basic Postulates of Boolean algebra; Basic theorems of
Boolean algebra; De Morgans theorems; Principle of
Duality; Evaluation of Boolean expressions (using Truth
table and Algebraic method)
7. 2 Logic Gates
7.2.1 Basic Logic Operations OR, AND, NOT; Truth Tables
7.2.2 Basic Gates OR, AND, NOT
Advanced Gates NAND, NOR, XOR, XNOR
7.2.3 Implementation of Basic Logic Gates using NAND and
NOR Gates;
7.2.4 Application of Logic Gates Half adder, Full adder,
Encoder, Decoder (using Basic Logic Gates).
7. 3 Microprocessor
7.3.1 Functional Block Diagram of 8085
7.3.2 Brief description of each block
Unit 8 Linux [20 hrs]
8. 1 Introduction to Linux
8.1.1 What is Linux?
8.1.2 Choosing the Linux Distro
8.1.3 Evaluating Hardware Suitability
8.1.4 Making space for Linux
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8. 2 Installing Linux - 2 hrs
8.2.1 Preparing to install Linux
8.2.2 Choosing the right security level
8.2.3 Allocating the disk space
8.2.4 Creating drive partitions
8.2.5 Choosing the packages to install
8.2.6 Setting the root password
8.2.7 Creating a user account
8.2.8 Setting automatic login
8.2.9 Installing the Bootcoader
8. 3 Exploring the KDE desktop
8.3.1 Introducing the KDE Taskbar
8.3.2 Launching applications
8.3.3 Understanding virtual desktops
8.3.4 Installing a desktop theme
8.3.5 Changing the screen saver
8.3.6 Setting event sounds
8. 4 Surfing the web
8.4.1 Connecting to the internet
8.4.2 Web Browser
8.4.3 Setting up E-mail
8.4.4 Transfering files
8.4.5 Composing Webpages
8. 5 Linux file structure
8.5.1 The Linux directory tree
8.5.2 Standard sub directories
8.5.3 File Manager
8.5.4 Navigating from the command line
8.5.5 File system
8.5.6 Creating a new text file
8.5.7 Moving files around
8.5.8 Deleting files
8.5.9 Making shortcuts
8.5.10 Changing access permissions
8.5.11 Accessing files in windows
8.5.12 Compressing and extracting files
8. 6 Linux Office Suite
8.6.1 Introducing the open office suite
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8.6.2 Documents in open office writer
8.6.3 Exporting documents from open office
8.6.4 Spreadsheets in open office calc
8.6.5 Presentation in open office impress
8.6.6 Charts and Graphs in open office drow
8.6.7 Formulas in open office math
8. 7 Playing Sound and Video
8.7.1 Synthesizing sounds
8.7.2 Playing recorded sounds
8.7.3 Listening to music
8.7.4 Watching videos
8.7.5 Playing CDs
8.7.6 Burning CDs
8. 8 Linux Shell
8.8.1 What is the shell?
8.8.2 Understanding run levels
8.8.3 Editing with Vi
8.8.4 Switching between virtual consoles
8.8.5 Moving between shell applications
8.8.6 Viewing text files
8.8.7 Searching for a word
8.8.8 Printing from the shell
8. 9 Scripting for the shell
8.9.1 Using shell commands
8.9.2 Editing text streams
8.9.3 Substituting varriables
8.9.4 Creating shell scripts
8.9.5 Branching a script
8.9.6 Looping a script
8.9.7 Handling input values
8.10 Extending Linux System
8.10.1 Installing packages
8.10.2 Removing packages
8.10.3 Downloading packages
8.10.4 Installing downloads
8.10.5 Installing other desktops
8.10.6 Switching between desktops
8.10.7 Linux resources
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TERMWISE DISTRIBUTION
THEORY
First Term Hours Total (hrs)
Unit 1 5
Unit 2 8
Unit 3 27 40
Second Term
Unit 4 6
Unit 5 48
Unit 6 6 60
Third Term
Unit 7 20
Unit 8 20 40
Total 140
UNIT WISE HOUR DISTRIBUTION
PRACTICAL
Unit No. Name of Unit No.of hours
1 Practice on PC Softwares 90
2 Desk Top Publishing 80
3 C++ Programming 130
4 Practice on GNU 120
Total Hours 420
Practical Syllabus
Unit 1 Practice on PC Software Hours
1. 1 Windows OS 10
1. 2 Word Processing Package 30
1. 3 Spread Sheet Package 30
1. 4 Presentation Package 20
Unit 2 Desk Top Publishing
2. 1 Page Maker 30
2. 2 Photoshop 50
Unit 3 C++ Programming 130
Unit 4 4. 1 Practice on GNU 80
4. 2 Open Office 40
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Computer Science
Specified Syllabus
Unit 1 Practice on PC Software
1. 1 Windows OS
Control panel, Window control button, Menu, Internet explorer,
Getting your work done, Managing files, folders
1. 2 Word Processing Package
- Introduction to menus, sub menus and tools
- Creating a document, saving a document
- Adding headers and footers
- Inserting a table
- Spell check utility
- Printing a document
- Mail merge
1. 3 Spread Sheet Package
- Opening and saving a worksheet
- Spread sheet operations
- Editing the worksheet
- Printing a worksheet
- Formulas and Functions
- Charts, Macros
1. 4 Presentation Package
- Opening an existing presentation
- Creating a new presentation
- Saving and closing a presentation
- Using masters, Editing text
- Drawing objects, Rotating objects
- Adding headers and footers
Unit 2 Desk Top Publishing
2. 1 - Uses of foots, frames, page layouts, document planning - page
layout, Margin, Header, Footer, Fonts, Styling
- Use of a file, edit, page, frame, font graphics and optimum.
- Generation of stylesheets, preparation of table contents, index,
usage of width table, add/remove fonts
- Managing files, using the drawing tools
- Manupulating the objects
- Working with text
2. 2 - Get documents into photoshop
- Draw and paint
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- Create and manupulate path
- Make images pop with special effect
- Enhance your photograph
- Take it to the web
- Print your masterpiece
Unit 3 C++ Programming
- IDE demonstration
- Simple programs
- Programs using control structure
- Programs on arrays, structures
- Programs using functions
- Programs using string.h, math.h, ctype.h
Unit 4 Practice on GNU
4. 1 - Introducing the KDE Taskbar
- Changing the screen saver
- Setting event sounds
- Surfing the web
- Connecting to the internet
- Web browser, setting up e-mail
- Trnasfering files, composing web pages
- File structure
4. 2 - Open office package
- Documents using open office writer
- Exporting documents from open office, spread sheet using calc.
- Presentation using impress charts and graphs - using draw.
TERMWISE DISTRIBUTION
PRACTICAL
First Term Hours Total (hrs)
Unit 1.1 10
Unit 1.2 30
Unit 1.3 30
Unit 1.4 20
Unit 2.1 30 120
Second Term
Unit 2.2 50
Unit 3 130 180
Third Term
Unit 4.1 80
Unit 4.2 40 120
Total 420
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Computer Science
REFERENCE
1. Fundamentals of Computer - V.Rajaram (Tata Mac)
2. Computer Science + 1 - Sumitha Arrora (Dhandapani Publication)
3. Photoshop Ver 8 CS - Collins Smith (Dreamtech Press)
4. Programming in C++ - E. Balaguruswamy
5. Object Oriented Programming Concepts - PHEEEdition
6. Programming in C++ - Shrums Series
7. Computer Networks - Andrew TenneBhand
8. Linux in easy steps - M.Ke Mcgrath (Dream tech Press)
9. Adobe Pagemaker
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PLANNING
In the context of changing scenario in the field of education. The role of teacher as
well as the role of learner has changed. The emerging needs of education evolved the role
of teacher as a facilitator. The learning process has been learner centered and activity
oriented. Learning activities must enable the child to develop process domain and multiple
intelligence skill to its maximum extent. No matter whether these skills are attained inside
or outside the classroom. The teacher must be in mind that they are to be accomplished in
time. In order to achieve this the teacher must take necessary plans. The plan must be
structured as
Year plan, covering the entire activities for the whole year.
Term plan, covering the activties for the prescribed term.
Unit plan which has to be prepared just before each unit.
Day to day plan to provide activities for a day learning.
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52 52 52
Computer Science
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Computer Science
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Teachers Sourcebook VHSE
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56 56 56
Computer Science
EVALUATION
Evaluation helps to assess the rate of progress of the students in scholastic and non
scholoastic area and to recognise to what extent each student has achieved the specific
capabilities. These evaluation results are the basis on which the student, teachers, parents
and society can access the educational progress.
Written examination based on the textbook alone is not of much use. An evaluation
that comprehensively assess the abilities envisaged in the curriculum is what is required.
Therefore continous evaluation (CE), practical evaluation (PE), vocational competency
evaluation (VCE), Internship evaluation (IE) and Terminal evaluation (TE) are required in
computer science
The teachers have to make learning in computer science activity based, product based,
student centered and society bound.
Part II Vocational Subject - Computer Science
Evaluation of First year
CE TE PE IE Total Minimum
VT 20 80 - - 100 30%
VP - - 150 - 150 40%
VCE - - - 50 50 30%
No minimum for CE
Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation
It is through continous evaluation that the knowledge related fields and products are
evaluated. Through this every learning activity that takes place with an year can be subjected
to continous evaluation. Evaluation should be done not by the teachers alone. Students
can evaluate themselves. Classmates can evaluate one another. Activities in the classroom
like discussion, quiz, seminar, presentation, symposium, debate, data collection, preparation
of observation notes and preparation of reading notes should be evaluated by children
also, along with the teacher.
Evalutation activities for CE
Discussion
Presentation of ideas that are new, different and original (that gives clarity to the
topic of discussion)
Presenting ones own opinions in clear language
Waiting for ones turn and making use of it
58
Teachers Sourcebook VHSE
Listening carefully to what others say
Speaking with mutual respect in respectable and moderate language.
Quiz
Preparation of questions in the workbook ensuring quality and comprehensive
of the questions
Giving correct answers
Obeying rules
Notes
Comprehensiveness (inclusion of all important materials)
Clarity (clear language, clear writing)
Doing correctly according to instructions
Debate
Speaking relevantly without deviating from the topics
Presenting opinion with clarity in ideas
Presenting logical arguments in friendly language
Accepting agreeeable parts of opposite view points
Seminar
Seminar is a very effective self learning activity which helps to go deeper into the
different asepcts of a particular topic in the syllabus. The information collected from various
sources with the guidance of teacher are systematically organised and presented in the class
so that the information is shared among the student. The students from the audiance side can
raise doubts. A seminar paper or notes is prepared and submitted to the teacher for verification
and authentication.
Assignment
Assignment is an activity to achieve the curriculum objectives undertaken by the
students. It is a self learning cum evaluation activity and it should ensure that the work is
completed with in stipulated time according to the teachers direction. If same topic is give
to all the students, the involvement of the student should be assured using viva voce. If
different tasks are assigned the level of tasks should be uniform and evaluation indicators
should be specified in advance. If a student delivers more than one seminar the best is
taken for CE reporting
Class Test
The unit tests or quarterly examination are considered and the average marks obtained
by the students are converted into 20 scores. Those who are absent in a test may be given
a chance on his/her request, if it is found genuine.
Objectives for Class Test
test the concept of curriculum objective.
how far students achieving the fixed CO.
58 58 58
Computer Science
assess the participation of students in the class room activities.
to provide scafolding in areas of weakness
method of conducting classtest should be a learning activity.
use written text along with other teachniques
not for ranking but for identifying lackness
provide sufficient time and suitable method
record the scores in teaching manual
Project
A properly planned and systematically conducted activity can be in generally called a project.
Project is an activity of scientific inquiry, carried out as part of the learning process by students.
In computer science,a software development is regarded as a project and it is a process
oriented activity. It is a group activity through which a software for an application is
developed using a language or any other development tool.
The project begins with identifying the application area and the associated
problems.The data involved in the processing and the information to be attained are
recoginsed and procedure or steps are derived.
Once the group is formed, it is intimated to the teacher and initial planning is done in
consultation with the teacher. A project diary is to be maintained by each group.
After designing and testing the software, it should be verified by the teacher and preparation of
project report is begun. Each of the group member should have a copy of the report. While setting the
CE, the teacher may conduct a vivavoce to ensure the involvment of the student in this activity.
Structure of Project Report
1 Cover page (Project title, name of students, course and duration)
2 Certificate
3 Preface /abstract
4 Content
Introduction
Aims (objectives
Problem study/analysis
Development tools and facilities used
source code/procedure/steps
outputs
conclusion
4 Annexure (sample data, data sheet etc)
5 Bibliography
Project presentation
To get the project assessed and recognised it may be presented before an audience (class)
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Teachers Sourcebook VHSE
Evaluating the project
After the project has been presented in the class, teachers or students themselves
may evaluate the project. The norms for evaluating the project may be communicated to
the students in advance
Teachers role as a guide
The teacher should be ready to extend help and guidelines to conduct the project. At
least some teachers may have the limitation that they themseleves have no experience of
self learning methods like projects and semianrs. The teacher should make a sincere effort
to overcome this limitation. More reading and self reflection is needed in this regard.
The items to be considered for recording in continuous evluation (CE) are class test
(compulsory) and any other two activities given above.
When this CE is to be submitted for publishing the result, there are 3 CE items for
computer science, the total score is calculated out of 60, the total score is divided by 3 and
is fixed as CE score.
The table showing the CE items, their indicators, weightage and score is given below:
CE Items Evaluation Indicators Weightage Score
Data Collection 1 Content 4/3/2/1
2 Diversity 4/3/2/1
3 Uniqueness 4/3/2/1
4 Presentation and neatness 4/3/2/1 20
5 Time bound 4/3/2/1
Seminar 1 Ability to plan and organise 4/3/2/1
2 Skill in the collection of data 4/3/2/1
3 Awareness of the context 4/3/2/1
(Presentation of the paper, participation in discussion, 4/3/2/1
ability to substantiate the ideas and views
4 Ability to prepare the report 4/3/2/1
(sequence in the presentation of the concepts,
authenticity and clarity of ideas/views/concepts)
5 Quality of seminar document 4/3/2/1 20
Assignment 1 Awareness of the content 4/3/2/1
2 Comprehensiveness of the content 4/3/2/1
3 Systematic and sequential arrangement 4/3/2/1
4 Observation/suggestion/../judgement evaluation 4/3/2/1
5 Timely submission 4/3/2/1 20
Class test Average marks of all tests including Iterm and 20
II term (minimum three) converted into 20 score
60 60 60
Computer Science
CE Items Evaluation Indicators Weightage Score
Project 1 Ability to plan
(selection of the method for solution of the 4/3/2/1
problem. identifying suitable tools, planning the
various activities to be carried out in each stage.)
2 Ability to collect data
(Sufficiency and relevance of data, classification 4/3/2/1
and arrangements of data for analysis relaibility
and authenticity of the collected data)
3 Ability to analyse the data and procedure
( structuring of data and developing logic, 4/3/2/1
efficiency in using the langauge/tool, error detection
and correction of data).
4 Ability to prepare the project report (Reflection 4/3/2/1
of the process skills communicability and
authenticity of the report)
5 Viva Voce 4/3/2/1
(Knowledge of the content and processes) 20
Debate/ 1. Attitude & Planning 4/3/2/1
Group 2. Awareness of the content 4/3/2/1
discussion 3. Concept & justification 4/3/2/1
4. Clarity and appraisal 4/3/2/1
5. Presentation 4/3/2/1 20
Terminal Evaluation (TE)
Terminal evaluation is conducted through written test. The written examination will
be conducted at the end of the academic year. The question paper will be uniform for all
vocational higher secondary schools in kerala. The syllabus is given in this source book.
Sample question are given in part III of this book. The following guidelines are to be kept
in mind while setting the questions for terminal evaluation
Guidelines for developing TE Question
1. Selection of the curriculum Objectives (COs) for assessment
The question should aim at a specific learning outcome/CO should be selected
from the list of COs which have been included in this source book.
The possibility of integrating multiple outcomes/ clustering of COs shall be
explored so as to give an adequate representation to the lists of COs. This
would also make the questions more relevant, meaning ful and challenging to
the students.
The questions should focus on assessing students higher order learning and
higher order thinking capabilities. They shouldnt focus on memorization of
isolated and discrete of knowledge elements.
Select the COs for which sufficient learning opportunities are provided with
through the text books, class room learning process and CE learning strategies.
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Teachers Sourcebook VHSE
So scan the entire set of materials before finalizing the selection of the outcome
to be assessed.
2. Developing the text of the assessment
The question should be in consonance with the approach of each subject
The question shouldnt violate the basic beliefs, assumptions and premises of
the curriculum. These are foundation stones on which the curriculum has been
built.
The question should provide scope for the application of innate thinking
capabilities of all learners (The list of the innate thinking capabilities has been
given the box given below). These are the elements to be assessed against each
question.
Both the process and product have to be assessed in each questions. Otherwise
assessing the real learning of learners will not be materialized.
According to the new curricular assumption and approaches, there can be definitely
more than one answer to some questions, This possibility shall be explored while
developing questions.
While selecting open ended type of questions, a balance shall be maintained
between the number of open ended question and other type of questions
The text should provide sufficient information for students to apply their thinking
capabilities
The questions should be realistic and natural to the students. Great care shall
be taken for not making the items contrived, unnatural and ambiguous for the
learners. But efforts shall be made to place the questions in challenging and
real life situation.
Analyse each questions in terms of scope for application of mental process/
thinking capabilities (before finalizing the questions). The questions shall be
designed in such a manner that the learner is challenged to apply majority of
thinking skills in the task so that acquisition of rich and well structured
knowledge taken place.
The language of questions shall be simple and clear an in consonance with the
reading/ comprehension level of students
The time required by learners for reading, thinking and writing responses shall
be taken into consideration while each questions is developed. The question
text should have the quality of permitting the learner to take more time for
communicating his/her knowledge and the process than spending more time on
reading and deliberation.
Each questions paper should include different types of questions/ variety of
assessment procedure so as to provide variety of assessment experiences to the
learners. But selection of the type of questions shall be done according to the
nature of the mental processes involved in the task. Then the test maker will
get enough flexibility to choose a particular text item.
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Computer Science
For avoid guessing, mixing of selection and supply text items and careful
designing of distracters shall be done.
Even if multiple choice questions are individual they should be used to test
higher order thinking than testing discrete and irrelevant information as for as
possible
The question shall not be based as possible isolated text. Sufficient text/ context/
information shall be included in the question text for encouraging the learner to
apply his/her thinking capabilities for constructing knowledge
Repeated use of textbook material shall be avoided while developing questions.
Even if the test used to elicit a higher order thinking processes and hot the same
questions given along with each lesson
When selecting out of textbook material for developing questions, the selection
has to be made on the basis of difficulty level and thematic similarity.
Great care shall be taken to avoid any amount of bias in questions and question
papers - political, social, gender, culture, occupational etc.
There should be close agreement between the COs, the nature and type of
learning experience provided in classrooms and assessment procedure used in
evaluation.
3 Scoring key
The scoring key should specific to each question in terms of content, mental
process involved and the elements for assessing and scoring the process and
the products.
The scoring shall be written in such a manner that it is concise, simple and
unambiguous.
It should provide clarity about the elements to be assessed in the context of the
particular question. The relationship between variables in a specific questions
shall be elaborates in the scoring key precisely.
Since the question address the issue of multilevel learning situation, the scoring
also should be developed in such a manner to assess the different levels of
responses
For assessing open ended questions, the scoring should provide enough direction
with regard to the number, type and nature of expected responses
While fixing scores each one of the elements of a question, the scores shall be
distributed in such a manner that it maintains balance between the task element
and the score.
Innate thinking capabilities
Detection of similarities and dissimilarities
Detection of cause effect relationships
Formulation of initial ideas / concepts
Categorization using concepts
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Teachers Sourcebook VHSE
Reasoning and drawing inferences from experience/text/speech
Applying knowledge and understanding in new situations
Storming and /or retrieving information into/from memory
Communication of knowledge/understanding through different media
Imagination, fantasy, translation and transformation of knowledge/
understanding
Evaluation of concepts, situations, products procedures etc based on norms
and reasoning.
Practical Evaluation
In practical evaluation, the ability of the students to use PageMaker, Photoshop and
to develop programs using C++ languages are to be examined
In practical evaluation of PageMaker and Photoshop, the ability of the learners to use
software PageMaker and Photoshop in various application areas is to be examined. Questions
are to be framed in such a way that it should evaluate the learners skills in using the tools/
facilities of the package to solve the problems in a given application area. The teacher/
examiner should prepare a bunch of question covering the syllabus and each students
should be given a question randomly to write steps/ procedure in using the software for
solving the problem contained in the questions. The steps and tools/facilities used are to be
verified and allow the students to do it in the computer, if these are found correct. Once the
student is completed the work, the teacher checks for its correctness and clarity of the
output and scores are awarded.
Sample questions
1 Preparation of neatly formatted timetable
2 Preparation of neatly formatted notice
3 Preparation of a content page of a textbooks
4 Give an image and perform the following
(i) rotate ii) resize (iii) crop (trim) (iv) add
border
5 Select a part of an image using
Marquee tools
Lasso tools
Magic wand tools
Add to an existing selection
Fill a selection with colour
6 Select an image file and perform painting strokes using
Air brush
Pain brush
Pencil tool
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Computer Science
7 Create different layers and perform the following
Show layers
Hide a layer
Deleting layers
Merging layers
Moving layers between images
In practical evaluation of C++ the ability of the students to develop programs using
C++ language is to be examined. Questions are to be framed in such a way that it should
evaluate the learners problem solving skills and the competency in using C++ language to
express his/her logic to solve the problem. The teacher/ examiner should prepare a bunch
of questions covering the syllabus and each students should be given a question randomly
to write program for solving the problem contained in the question. The written algorithm/
procedure and source code are to be examined and allow the students to do it in the computer,
if the source code depicts the correct logic. Once student is completed the program entry
and execution, the teacher/examiner checks for its correctness and scores are awarded.
Sample questions
1 Write a program to input a number and check whether it is prime or not
2 Write a program to find the roots of a quadratic equation
3 Write a program to find the factorial of a number
4 Write a program to display the Fibonacci series upto N terms
5 Write a program to input a line of text and count the number of vowels in it
6 Write a program to sort a set of N numbers in ascending /descending order
7 Write a program to search a given number in a set of number
8 Write a program to swap two numbers using functions
Call by value method
Call by reference method
9 Write a program to find the factorial of a number using recursive function
10 Write a program to add two matrix of given order.
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Teachers Sourcebook VHSE
Item Evaluation Indicators Weightage Score
1.PageMaker 1. Use of proper tools / facilities 7
2. Correctness of procedure 7
3. Accuracy of output 10
4. Viva voce 6 30
2. Photoshop 1. Use of proper tools facilities 7
2. Correctness of procedure 7
3. Accuracy of output 10
4. Viva voce 6 30
3. C++ 1. Preparation for the work 10
(Understanding the steps/procedure/
statements/algorithm)
2. Skills in using proper variables / 15
functions/ control statements
3. Accuracy in using syntax 15
4. Analysis of data and accuracy of output 20
5. Viva voce 15 75
4. Observation 1. Neatness/clarity 5
book 2. Timely submission 5
3. Completeness 5 15
General instruction to teachers about practical evaluation
1 The practical classes should be started in first year itself
2 A proper record of the programs done in the lab should be maintained in the
observation books
3 Separate observation book should be used for recording the first year and second
year works
4 Valuation of the observation book will be done continuously at the time of PE
Vocational Competency Evaluation (VCE)
Being a vocational course a system to judiciously evaluate required value addition
and consequent capacity building in computer science is highly essential. As the other
evaluation components like CE, PE and TE cannot assess the vocational competencies and
professional skills acquired by the students, an Internship Evaluation (IE) component has
been introduced to meet this requirement.
Internship Evaluation should be done based on the following components.
I. Reqularity and Punctuality
A regular presence and habit of time bound completion of task is a must for attaining
maximum efficiency.
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Computer Science
II. Value addition
Value addition can be evaluated through Field Visit. The experiences gained through
field visits increase the level of intrinsic motivation and positive attitude towards the
computer field and thereby increase his/her value as a skilled semi-professional.
III. Capacity building
Capacity building can be evaluated through Mini Project/OJT/Production cum Training
Centre (PTC). These components enable the students to practice the acquired skills in the
real situation and thereby increasing self confidence and promoting self reliance.
1. Regularity and Punctuality can be evaluated by 5 point grading system.
Rating Scale
1 2 3 4 5
1. Regularity Never Often Usually Most of the Always
regular regular regular time regular regular
2. punctuality Never Often Usually Most of the Always
punctual punctual punctual time punctual punctual
Regularity and Puntuality can be assessed by using attendance of the student and
time bound completion of tasks.
2. Indicators for field visit [4/3/2/1]
Attitude & readiness towards the task
Capacity for observation
Data collection
Application of ideas
Documentation/Recording [20 score]
3. Mini project [4/3/2/1]
Ability for planning
Ability for data collection
Ability to analyse the data and procedure
Presentation
Documentation [20 score]
4. OJT [4/3/2/1]
Involvment/participation
Skills in doing work/communication skills
Time bound action
Capacity for observation, analysis & innovation
Documentation, recording & display [20 score]
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Teachers Sourcebook VHSE
5. Production cum Training Centre (PTC) [4/3/2/1]
Mastery of vocational skills
Managerial capacity
Promoting self confidence
Innovative approach
Promoting self-reliance [20 score]
Internship Evaluation (IE)
No. Item Score
1 Regularity & Punctuality 10
2 Field visti 20
3 Mini project 20
OJT
PTC
Total 50
A minimum of 80% attendance is required for promotion to the second year. Those
who have storage of attendance should repeat first year. Those who have more than 80%
attendance but failed to achieve 30% of Internship Evaluation will be promoted to the
second year. He/She has to improve the component in which he/she performed poor.
Then he/she has to attain the minimum by improving the particular component to get eligible
for appearing second year public examination.
}
(any one)
68 68 68
Computer Science
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70
Teachers Sourcebook VHSE
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70 70 70
Computer Science
Part- III Optional Subjects
20 60 20
Physics
Chemistry
20 80
Mathematics
English
General Foundation Course
Part- II Vocational Subjects
Vocational Theory
Vocational Practical
Vocational Competency
Subject
Part- I
Score Obtained Positional
Grade
Grade in words
CE 20 TE
80
PE
150
IE
50
Total
CE- Continuous Evaluation, TE- Term End Evaluation, PE- Practical
Evaluation, IE- Internship Evaluation.
Grades A+ 90% and Above Outstanding A 80- 89% Excellent.
B+ 70 - 79% Very Good B 60- 69% Good
C+ 50 - 59% Above Average C 40- 49% Average
D+ 30 - 39% Marginal D 20- 29% Need improvement
E Below 20% Need improvement
SECRETARY
Marks Entered by
Marks checked by
Supdt/ T. O
Go v e r nme nt o f Ke r a l a
Bo a r d o f Vo c a t i o na l Hi ghe r Se c o nda r y Exa mi na t i o ns
Reg: No.
Thiruvananthapuram
Dated :
Sri./ Smt. is awarded
Scores/ grade as detailed below in the First Year Vocational Higher Secondary
Examination held in
Name of School : Admission No :
Name of Vocational Course :
Evaluation Sheet
72 72
Teachers Sourcebook VHSE
PART II
73 73 73
Computer Science
Introduction
Computers are significantly influencing our lives at a speed which we never expected.
There is no field where it has not entered today. In our day to day life we use the terms data
and information. We deal with different types of data and data are considered as the building
block of information. This unit gives an idea about data, information and data processing.
Although this is the first unit, special care must be given to explore the benefits of activity
oriented learning to construct knowledge and enhance the skills to face challenging situations
confidently. After learning this unit the students will be able to recognize computer as a tool
used in data processing.
Curriculum Objectives
To identify data, processing and information through discussion and prepare notes.
To identify the components of data processing through discussion and assignment
To understand electronic data processing and manual data processing through discussion,
demonstration and listing the advantages of electronic data processing over manual data
processing.
To identify the role of computer in data processing through discussion
To identify the characteristics of computer through discussion and listing
Syllabus
Definition of data , processing and information - need of information, qualities of information
- components of data processing- input, process , output - types of data processing - manual
data processing v/s electronic data processing - definition of computer - characteristics of
computer.
Pre- requisites
General idea about data and information
Basic concept of computer
Activities
1.2 Identify/check pre - requisites (30minutes)
Group discussion
List the terms related to computer
Students are divided in to 4 or 5 groups
PRINCIPLES OF DATA
PROCESSING
1
74 74
Teachers Sourcebook VHSE
Each groups is asked to present their findings and is noted on the board.
Teacher consolidate the terms based on characteristics and each category is given a name.
Hardware
Software
IT
Data processing
Students prepare a chart of terms related to computer
1.2 Identifying the terms data, information, processing (30minutes)
Group discussion
After group discussion , each group presents the idea about these terms
Teachers consolidates the points and shapes the definition of these terms (Refer text book)
Students are asked to write their name, age, sex., grade obtained in some subjects (without
giving any label or column heading) on the board.
The difficulties in getting information from these are discussed in groups and different
points are listed.
Invite solutions for the problem and introduce the concept of processing and then data
processing and shapes the definition with the help of students contribution
Assignment (Class) Prepare a table showing the details of 25 students such as Name, age,
date of birth, sex and grade obtained in some subjects in SSLC exam.
1.3 Need of information (15min)
Group Discussion
Students discuss in groups and distinct points are presented (Discussion based on the table
prepared by assignment in activity 1.2)
Teacher consolidates the various points
Use of information to others
Students should make notes individually.
1.4 Quality of information (15min)
Teacher makes some mistakes purposely in some of the entries in the table (for eg:-Instead
of M or F, write A in sex column, 31.02.2005 as DOB, H+ in grade column etc)
Quality of information is discussed in groups and presents the factors that affected the
quality.
Teacher consolidates the points in a chart
Reliable
Unambiguous
Timely
Recalling the relevance of quality of information
Students should make notes individually
75 75 75
Computer Science
1.5 Values of information (30min)
Discussion related to form utility as a value factor of information
List out the in intricacies when a consolidated grade list is given to each student to know the
individual performance . Also list the complexities when the class teacher is provided with
the individual progress reports of all students of a class.
The difficulties are discussed in groups and distinct points are listed. Hence the relevance
of form inconveying the information is illustrated.
Discussion related to Time utility as a value factor of information.
List out the difficulties when you submit an application for job through public service
commission with all relevant records after the last date.
Discuss the various responses and introduce time as a factor that determines the value of
information.
Discussion related to Place utility as a value factor of information
List out the relevant responses when your class teacher takes the attendance with the
attendance register of another class?
Teacher introduce place as a factor that determines the value of information.
Discussion related to Usage utility as a value factor of information.
List out the responses if the rank list prepared for first year VHSE admission is not used in
the admission procedure
Introduce usage as a factor that determines the value of information.
Teacher consolidate the points
Form utility
Time utility
Place utility
Usage utility
and prepare short notes on the values of information
1.6 Types of Data processing (1hr)
Group Discussion, observation.
Prepare a table of 25 students showing the details name, age, sex, date of birth and grade
obtained in some subjects. Obtain a list of students according to correct age (ascending
order of DOB) and another list of male students having B+ grade in IT.
Discuss in groups the difficulties and limitations in the process and list the distinct points.
Listout Solutions (A tool such as calculator or computer or a method such as electronic data
processing is expected)
Conduct a comparative study on manual data processing and electronic data processing;
and prepare a chart to makes distinguish them.
7 Components of Data Processing (1hrs)
Discussion
Discussion in groups about processing and list out the components of data processing.
76 76
Teachers Sourcebook VHSE
Introduce the terms input, storage, process and output as the components of data processing
Students makes note on
input
storage
process
output
8 Discussion on computer and its characteristics (1hr)
Students discuss in groups, defines computer and its characteristics.
Different points are noted from each group
Teacher shapes the definition and list the characteristics
as
speed
accuracy
storage capacity
efficiency
reliability
diligence
No.IQ
Students can prepare notes and teacher verifies and evaluates
Reference
1 Computer fundamental - O level module -1, VK Jain, BPB publications
2 Computer fundamental - Raja Raman, Tata Mc grill publications
77 77 77
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78 78
Teachers Sourcebook VHSE
DATA REPRESENTATION
Introduction
As in the case of human life computer also deals with qualities. This chapter describes how
different number system are used in computers to represent data in various forms. Here learners
have to study various operations over these number system to know how data can be represented.
physically in a computer. Learners are able to acquire problem solving skills in this chapter.
The assignment work, which is the part of continuous evaluation comes under this chapter.
Curriculum Objectives
To understand different number systems through discussions, illustrations.
To Acquire the ability to perform various operations in number system through discussions
and to understand conversion number from one system to another assignments.
To acquire the ability to perform binary operations using 1s complement and 2s complement
To understand MSB and LSB of decimal numbers and representation of signed number
through assignments.
To understand various character representation codes being used in computers through
discussion and list the character representation.
Syllabus
Various number system - Decimal, binary, octal and hexadecimal, number conversion-
Decimal to binary and vice versa, decimal to octal and vice versa, decimal to hexadecimal and
vice versa. Binary arithmetic - Binary addition and substraction . MSB and LSB of decimal
number representation of signed number , components of a number - 1s complement and 2s
complement, character code. - BCD, ASCII and EBCDIC.
Pre Requisites
Decimal number system, Mathematical Operations on decimal numbers.
Concept of place value and base.
Activities
2.1To understand number system (30mts)
Class is divided into groups
Each group is given a task to list out various number systems, their base, positional value
and symbols used.
Each group prepares the list and presents the entire findings in a chart
2
79 79 79
Computer Science
Decimal
Binary
Octal
Hexadecimal
Conclusion of the discussion is that there are two voltage levels within a Computer and
hence the relevance of 0 and 1 are verified.
Students prepare notes
2.2 To understand place value concept of decimal number system (30mts)
A decimal number is given to the learner
Asked them to write the digits in its unit place, tens place and so on.
List the MSD and LSD
Rewrite the number in terms of the digits and corresponding place value.
(egs:-123=1x10
2
+ 2x10
1
+3x10
0
)
Consolidation : Place value concept of a decimal number is introduced here
Students can make notes.
2.3 To understand Number representation in various systems (15 min)
Discuss various number systems.
Represent the given numbers in the corresponding systems
(egs 1001
2
= 1x2
3
+0x2
2
+0x2
2
+1x2
0
)
Consolidation : Base of a number system is introduced here
Students make notes
2.4 Discussion conversion of binary to decimal (15min)
Discuss and list the rules for conversion
A binary number is given and learner convert it into decimal
Consolidation: Rules for conversion is introduced have
Class assignment can be given
Students prepare notes
2.5 Binary Number (15 min)
Game
A group of 5 members is selected as number representation group. Member from other
group suggest a number and accordingly, this group represent the binary equivalent (Standing
represents 1s place and sitting represent ) 0s place)
Decimal Fraction to binary (15 min)
2.6 Discussion
In case of fractional part of the decimal number, keep on multiplying by 2 and collect the
integer part of the product obtained. Finally read down (top to bottom)
Collect all integer part
80 80
Teachers Sourcebook VHSE
Class assignments can be given
Consolidation: Rules for converting decimal fraction to binary is introduced here.
Students prepare notes
Binary Fraction To Decimal Conversion (15min)
2.7 Discussion
As the activity 2.6 the decimal equivalent of 1001.1001 is 1x 2
3
+ 0 x 2
2
+ 0 x 2
1
+1 x 1
-1
+ 0 x 2
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+ 1 x 2
-3
Learners simplify such expressions and they get decimal equivalent of a binary number
Class assignments can be given
Consolidation: Rule for converting binary fraction to decimal is introduced here
Students can prepare note
Decimal to Octal Conversion (15 min)
2.8 Discussion
Same way as decimal to binary conversion
After discussion learner could findout, instead of division by 2, have need to use 8
Class assignments can be given
Consolidation: Rule for converting decimal to octal is introduced here
Students can prepare notes
Octal to Decimal Conversion (15min)
2.9 Discussion
As in the activity 2.4 they easily gets idea through discussion
Work-out questions of this type
Class assignments can be given
Consolidation: Rule for converting octal to decimal is introduced here.
Students prepare notes
Decimal to Hexadecimal conversion (15min)
2.10 Discussion
As in activity 2.8 learner are able to convert a decimal number to hexadecimal number
Difference is that, here base is 16 and letter A to F represent 10 to 15
Class assignments can be given
Consolidation: Rule for decimal to hexadecimal conversion is introduced.
Students prepare notes
Hexadecimal to Decimal conversion (30min)
2.11 Discussion
As a activity 2.4 learners easily gets idea through discussion
81 81 81
Computer Science
Workout questions of this type
Class assignments can be given
Consolidation: Rule for hexadecimal to Decimal conversion is introduced
Students can prepare notes
Binary to Octal & Hexa decimal conversion (30min)
2.12 Discussion
Learner must know that any octal digit can be represented by 3 bits and any hexa decimal
digit can be represented by 4 binary bits.
Learners list the grouping rules eg from right to left take 3 bits at a time to convert that
binary number to its equivalent octal number.
This process has to be continued till they reach the left most bit in the binary.
In the same way take the group of 4 bits from right to get the hexadecimal equivalent of
binary number.
Class assignments can be given
Consolidation : Rule for conversion from binary to octal and hexadecimal number is
introduced here
Students can prepare notes
Operations on Binary Number (2hrs)
2.13 Discussion
Discuss addition and subtraction of decimal numbers. They recall the case of 9+1 =10,
99+1 =100 etc
In the same way they list out the rules for adding and subtracting two binary bits
(0 +0 = 0,1 + 0 =1, 0 - 0 =0, 1-0=1 etc)
They extend this idea for binary addition with more than 1bit.
Class assignments can be given
Consolidation : Rules for binary operation is introduced.
Students prepare notes.
Sign And Magnitude Representation of Numbers (30min)
2.14 Discussion
Discuss MSB and LSB of decimal numbers
Discuss on how signed numbers can be represented in number
MSB is used to represent the sign of binary number (0 for positive numbers and 1for negative
numbers)
Class assignments can be given
Consolidation: Sign and magnitude representation of numbers is introduced.
Students can prepare notes.
82 82
Teachers Sourcebook VHSE
1s Compliment And 2s Compliment (30min)
2.15 Discussion
Through Discussion learners realise that addition is possible in the computer not substraction.
Substraction is possible with the concept of compliment
To substract a number from another number, find the 2s compliment of the substract (The
number to be substracted) and add it with the first number
Class assignments can be given.
Consolidation : 1s and 2s compliment is introduced.
Students can prepare notes
Binary representation of real number and character in memory (30min)
2.16 Discussion
Learners recall real numbers in number system.
After proper discussions they list Mantissa, exponent and their properties.
They also identify the need for representing character in computer
Consolidation : Binary representation of real number and character in memory is introduced.
Students prepare notes
BCD, ASCII, and EBCDIC CODES (30min)
2.17 Discussion
Identify the problem in representing characters within computer
Obtain the limitations in converting characters into binary number
Identify the number systems from which equivalent binary number can be formed.
Consolidation: Introduce the possibility of designing numeric codes for characters and BCD
codes is introduced.
Introduce the possibility of designing numeric codes for characters and ASCII code is
introduced.
Introduce the possibility of designing numeric codes for characters and EBCDIC is introduced.
Students prepare note
Reference Book
1 O level module , Computer fundamentals VK jain BPB publications
2 Textbook of XI
83 83 83
Computer Science
2
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84 84
Teachers Sourcebook VHSE
COMPUTER SYSTEM
ORGANISATION
Introduction
In this chapter various types of computers are introduced (Digital, Analog, Hybrid) Different
types of computer are presented through discussion and observations. The input/output and
memory devices are presented through observation and demonstrations. The learner is also
introduced to the different classification of software. The learner gets an awareness of multimedia
and related field. A general hands-on-practice on PageMaker and Photoshop is provided
Curriculum Objectives
To identify various types of computers through discussion and observation.
To understand computer as a system through discussion, observation and demonstration
and prepare notes.
To identify and familiarise various input/output devices through discussion and
demonstration.
To understand various types of memory used in computer through discussion and
observation.
To understand hardware, software and firmware through discussion.
To classify the types of software through discussion and prepare a list.
To get a awareness of multimedia and related field through discussions and demonstration.
To understand digital page setting using pagemaker through discussion, demonstration
and practising
To understand graphics, animation using Photoshop through discussion, demonstration
and practising.
Syllabus
Types of computer - Analog, hybrid, digital -mini, micro, mainframe super computer,
block organisation of a computer system, functional unit of a computer - Input unit, Output
unit, CPU, memory unit (Brief description of each unit) , Input devices- keyboard, mouse,
light pen, OCR, MICR, OMR, touch screen, joy stick, scanner, digital camera, microphone,
output devices- VDU, CRT, LCD, plasma, printer - Impact printer (Line printer, dot matrix),Non
-impact(laser printer, inkjet printer, flexi printer, plotters) I/O devices floppy disk hard disk-
optical disk - CD, VCD, DVD, primary memory and secondary memory RAM, DRAM, SDRAM,
ROM, PROM, EPROM, EEPROM,floppy, harddisk, CD DVD, Zip drive, harware and firmware,
software - Types of software -system software -operating system, language processors -
Assembler, interpreter, complier, Application software - packages -GUI , word processor,
3
85 85 85
Computer Science
electronic spread sheet, presentation and graphics, data base packages,DTP packages, utilities
-text editor, back up utility compression utility, DBQ, defragmentation, virus scanner, Multimedia
- DTP package, page layout, margin , header, footer, font, graphics and option menu, preparation
of table contentss indexs generation of style sheets, usage of width table add/remove fonts.
Photoshop - getting strated with photoshop, working with images and coloues, making
selections, painting and editing tools, layers, type, filters
Pre Requisites
Classification of computers
Functions of input/output, CPU and memory unit
Basic knowledge of the terms hardware, firmware and software.
General idea about common packages and utilities
Idea about DTP and its uses.
Activities
Types of Computers (1hr)
3.1 Discussion
Problems : Prepare a list of computers known to you
Learner prepare a list individually in their book according to their previous knowledge
Two or three learners present their list on the black board, which is supplemented by other
students and the teacher (as listed in the textbook)
Teacher guides the learners to broadly classify the list into Analog, hybrid and digital
Consolidation: The features of Analog, hybrid , digital Mini, micro, mainframes, super
computers are introduced.
Students can prepare notes
Computer As a System (2hrs)
3.4 Discussion
Problem: Prepare a list of real life systems and mention their elements
Students list the systems and its elements individually in their books in five minutes (human
system, solar system, school system)
Problem: What are the general features of all the systems mentioned
Guide the students through the functions of a system, requirements for a system to work,
who use the system etc.
Students write the features of the systems that they have listed in the book
Two or three students presents their systems in the class, other students add to the list if any.
Consolidation: The computer system is then introduced in comparison with the real life
system listed. The elements of the computer system (hardware, software and users) are
listed using a diagram
Learners prepare notes on their features.
86 86
Teachers Sourcebook VHSE
Various Input/ Output Devices (2hrs)
3.3 Observation
Different types of input devices should be displayed before the learners at this stage.
Consolidation: Various input/output devices are introduced
Learners prepare notes based on the observations
Types of Memory (30min)
3.4 Discussion
Problems: What is the need for different types of memory
Guide the discussion through the variations in speed of processor and memory cost etc
After a group work one or two groups present their answers and other groups supplement
to it
Consolidation: Primary and secondary memory is introduced
Students prepare notes on types of memory, their features and purpose.
Primary Memory (30min)
3.5 Discussion
In comparison with real life objects, teachers introduces the features and purpose of different
categories of primary memory (RAM, ROM, and CPU register) using explanatory diagrams.
Students prepare notes on the different classification of RAM, ROM and CPU registers.
Problems: Prepare a list of difference between RAM and ROM based on above discussions
Learners list them out individually in their books
Consolidation: RAM, ROM and CPU registers are introduced
Students can prepare notes
Secondary Memory (30min)
3.6 Discussion
Problem: Prepare a list of permanent storage devices that is known to you mention their
advantages (features) and limitations also.
Students list out the features of the secondary storage devices like magnetic disks ( harddisks,
floppy disk etc) and optical disks (CD, DVD etc) from their previous knowledge
Two or three students present their list in the class
Consolidation: Teacher consolidates it according to the textbook
Students read the relevant pages of the textbook in groups of five
Notes are prepared on the workings of these storage devices based on discussions
A number from each group explains the working of one device in the class. Other groups
present other devices.
Consolidation: Working of secondary memory is introduced
Learner prepare notes in their working
87 87 87
Computer Science
Secondary Memory (30min)
3.7 Observation
Damaged hard disk, floppy disk, CDs, DVDs etc should be displayed so that learners can
observe their structure and if possible , working
Consolidation: Structure of secondary memory is introduced
Learner can prepare notes based on observation
Types of Software (30min)
3.8 Discussion
Problem: Prepare a list of software known to you
Learner prepare a list individually in their book
Two or three learners present their list on the blackboard, which is supplemented by other
students and the teacher (as the list in textbook)
Teacher guides the learners to broadly classify the list into software and software that are
used to solve certain problems (application software) and two separate lists are prepared.
Consolidation: System software and application software are introduced.
Students prepare notes
Different types of system software (30min)
3.9 Group Discussion
Problems Using the list prepared in the above activity, classify the system based in their
use.
Students discuss in groups and distinct points are presented.
Consolidation: Operating system and language process are introduced.
Students prepare notes
Operating System (30min)
3.10 Discussion
Problem: List the features and limitations of the operating systems listed in the above activity.
One or two learner present their notes -other students suppliment it.
Consolidation: Features and functions of the operating system is introduced here
Students prepare notes
Language Processors (30min)
3.11 Brain storming
Problems: How does the basic language coding (commands like print, input etc) work,
(Basic commands are covered in the IT textbooks of high schools classes)
They also discuss chapter where they have learned that the internal representation of data
in binary form
88 88
Teachers Sourcebook VHSE
Invite solutions for the problems. The situation is compared with real life situations where
translators translate English language to chinese.So that a person knowing only that language
understands it. Introduce the concept of translation.
Learners are introduced to the terms computer language, High level language (commands
in BASIC) and low level language (Assembly and Machine language) and examples
provided.
The need for the conversion of HTML and Assembly language to machine language is
discussed language processors, the type of software that is used to do this conversion is
familiarised here.
Problem: List out the sequence of correcting errors and running a BASIC program in the
high school classes.
Through their previous knowledge in Basic language, learner recollect that the errors in the
lines of a Basic program were listed one line at a time. After correcting this only the next
line would be checked and so on. Only after correcting all errors the program could be run.
The learner have familiarises the working of interpreter and its features. Facilitator introduces
compiler, assembler and its working through discussion in comparison with interpreter.
Students prepare notes on interpreter, compilers and assemblers.
Problems: Difference between the working of compiler and interpreter.
Learners are divided into groups of five each and they discuss and list the differences
A group is selected at random and a presentation is made other groups suppliment their
ideas and the list is consolidated according to textbook
Consolidation : Compiler, interpreter and assembler is introduced
Learner can prepare notes
Categories of Application Software (30min)
3.12 Discussion
Problem: Classify the application software listed in activity 3.8 according to its purpose.
Guide the discussion into 3 categories ( Packages, utilities and customized software) and let
learners list out their features
Consolidation : Learner gets an awareness of packages utilities and customised software
Package, Utilities and Customised Software (30min)
3.13 Seminar
Various packages, utilities and customised
Software are given as seminar topics to different learners and following guidelines issued.
Software listed in the textbook should be presented based on its use, features working and
examples
General guidelines for seminar is prescribed in
Data packages and DTP packages are new to learners. Such topics should be discussed in
detail with the person taking seminar and before presentation teacher should supplement it if
necessary.
89 89 89
Computer Science
3.7 Multimedia - DTP Package (1hr)
Introduction to DTP, uses of DTP
Discussion and Demonstration
Students are divided into groups
They discuss the desk top publishing, use of DTP with previous experiences, from any
kinds of resources.
Each group presents their findings
Teacher consolidates the points with
DTP produced professional looking documents integrating text and graphics.
The end product is a photo ready master to be used for printing
Major DTP programs Aldus pagemaker, corel ventura, qurak express
Uses of DTP
Creating business letter and documents
Leaflets and brochures
Courseware, tutorials, seminar, literature
Poster, badges, newsletter, catalogues
Books magazines , advertising material and anything that requires attractive print out
Students should individually prepare notes
3.8 Pagemaker 7.0 (1hr)
Getting started with pagemaker 7.0
Demonstration and practical experience
Teacher demonstrate the pagemaker window in the lab
Students are asked to observe and prepare a list of components what they seen in the window
Finally the teacher consolidates and should contain the following points
Title bar
Control button (minimize, maximize, /restore, close)
Menubar
Control palette
Toolbox
Style/colour palette
Discuss the above components and identify the functions of each components
Students prepare notes on them
3.9 Components of a sample document (1hr)
Discussion
Each group discuss the components of a document and presents their listings
Teacher consolidates their findings and should contain the following points.
90 90
Teachers Sourcebook VHSE
Header Graphic Indentation
Pagenumber Bullet list Paragraph Specification
Drop cap Subheading Paragraph spacing
Students should prepare notes on them
3.10 Working with text (30min)
Discussion and practising
The following points are discussed
Entering the text
Moving text blocks
Removing text blocks
Importing text
Deleting text
Importing graphics
On the basis of the discussion students make note on them, and practice in lab
3.11 Formatting Text (30min)
Through discussion and practising
Following points are to be discussed
Changing the font size
Making text bold , Italiazing
Underlining, Aligning the text
Style sheets
Creating and Applying
Importing styles
Bullets and numbering
Teacher practising the above items in lab and instructed the students to prepare notes
3.12 Working with graphics and objects (1hr)
Through discussion and practice
Following points are to be discussed
Adding text to graphic
Placing the graphic
Wrapping text around a graphic
Importing, moving, resizing a graphic
Adding caption to graphic
Cropping a graphic
On the basis of discussion, students express their observation and teacher consolidates the
discussion and learners are asked to practice the above points in lab.
91 91 91
Computer Science
3.13 Managing and Printing a Publication (30min)
Through discussion and practice
Following points are to be covered
Page numbering
Page size
Margins
Table of contents
Managing books
Printing a publication
Teacher encourage and give necessary help to learners in discussion
Group presents their findings
Teacher consolidate the points considering the above facts
Students should practice the topics in lab and prepare notes.
3.14 Poster creation (sample) (30min)
Observation of a model poster
Teacher shows a model poster and a discussion conducts on the following points.
Page layout
Formatting
Communicating
Appearance
Students identify the features involved in the poster and prepare a list of common features
of any poster.
Students design a poster individually with the help of the following points
What are the content of poster?
How it can be arranged?
What alignments to be included?
How graphic is imported?
What colours can be used?
How bullets and numbering can be used.
3.15 Self Evaluation and peer evaluation (30min)
Work done by each student is observed by others.
3.16 Assignment (lab) (30min)
Following steps to take for a DTP assignment
Define clearly the final output required
Design the layout
Define pages, margin, text and graphics frames
Import text and place it in the defined page
92 92
Teachers Sourcebook VHSE
3.8 Photoshop
Introduction
Photoshop is an important tool for graphic designers who have to work with images. This
module depicts the basis of photoshop
Curriculum Objectives
To understand photoshop file and photoshop screen through demonstration and practices
To familiarise various methods available in photoshop for working on images through
demonstration and practice.
To understand selection tools and commands through demonstration and practice.
To understand painting and editing tools through demonstration and practices
To understand type through demonstration and practice
To understand the special effects on images through demonstration and practice.
Syllabus
Geting started with photoshop - opening an existing file, The photoshop program window,
creating a new file, saving files, reverting files, closing files. Working with images and colours
- Bitmap and vector images, Opening recently used files, image size, editing photographs,
editing images, colour modes, file formats, for ground and back ground colours , colour picker
palette, the eye - dropper tool, Swatches palette.
Making Selection - The selection tools, Grow and similar commands, moving a selection,
Editing selection Filling selection , Transforming selection, inverting selection.
Painting and Editing Tools - Painting tools, Drawing tools, editing tools toning tools,
eraser tools.
Layers - Layers Palette, creating a new layer, selecting layer, hiding/showing layers, deleting
layer, sorting layer, merging layers, linking layers adjustment layers, layer effects, transforming
layers.
Type - Creating type, changing the type settings, Point type, paragraph type, wrapping
type, styles, types layers, The type selection
Filters - The filters menu, artistic filters, blur filters, brush stroke, filters, Distort filters,
Noise filters, Pixelatte filters, render filters, sharpen filters sharpen filters, other filters
PHOTOSHOP
3.8
93 93 93
Computer Science
Activities
3.8.1 Getting with photoshop (1hr)
Teacher demonstrates the photoshop program and file and ask the students to write down
the tools in the tool box and file observation
Teacher should check the following points are noted down
Opening an existing file
creating a new file
Saving files
Reverting files
closing file
The components of the program window such as title bar, menu bar, image window
image title bar
Each student should practice the above points
3.8.2 Working with images and colours (2hrs)
Teacher demonstrates the various methods for working on images and ask the students to
write down the points of each methods.
Teacher should check the students noted down the following points
Bitmap
Vector images
opening recently used files
Image size
Editing photographs
Editing images
colour models
File formats
Foreground and back ground colour
Each student should practice the points
3.8.3 Making selection (2hrs)
Teacher demonstrates the selection tools and commands and ask the students to write down
tools
Teacher should consolidates the following points.
Marquee selection tools.
Lasso tools
Magic wand tools
Grow and similar commands
Moving a selection
Editing selection
94 94
Teachers Sourcebook VHSE
Filling selection
Transforming selection
Inverting selection
Each student should practice the above tools
3.8.4 Painting and editing (2hrs)
Teacher demonstrates painting and editing tools and ask the students to write down the
procedure of each tools.
Teacher should consolidates the following points
Paint brush tool
air brush tool
paint bucket tool
pencil tool
history brush tool
art history brush tool
Blur, sharpen, smudge, clone, stamp, and pattern stamp, Eraser.
Each student should practice the above tools
3.8.5 Layer (1hr)
Teacher demonstrates layer and layer palette and ask the students to write the points
Teacher should consolidates the following points
Creates a new layer
Show a layer
Hide a layer
sort layer
reposition layer
Merge two or more layer
Flatten all the layers in an image into one
Each student should practice the above image
3.8.6 Type (1hr)
Teacher demonstrates. Type and its tools and ask the students to write down the points.
Teacher should check the following points/tools are noted down by the students
Creating type - point type and paragraph type
Changing the type settings
Wrapping type
Styles
Type layers
Type selection
Each students should practice the above tools
95 95 95
Computer Science
3.8.7 Filter (1hr)
Teacher demonstrate how filters are used to add special effects to image and ask the students
to write down the procedure.
Teacher should check the following points/ tools are noted down by students
Filter menu
Artistic filters
Brush stroke filters
Distort filters
Noise filters
Pixelatte filters
Render filters
Sharpen filters
Other filters
Each student should practice the above tools
Reference
1 Comdex - Desktop Publishing Course Kit by Vikas Gupta dream tech press
2 Photoshop by Collin smith dramtech press.
96 96
Teachers Sourcebook VHSE
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100 100
Teachers Sourcebook VHSE
PRICNCIPLES OF PROGRAMMING
Introduction
Computer are useful in entertainment as well as find solutions for various problems. As we
know, computers are machines, having no IQ, proper instructions are given for solving a
problem. This unit deals with different phases in programming. Also students get an awareness
about the legal implications in using software. Assignments and debate for continuous evaluation
included in this unit.
Curriculum Objectives
To understand various phases of programming through discussion, demonstration and listing
To get an awareness about the legal implication in using software through seminars and
discussion
Syllabus
Principles of programming - Phases in programming, problem identification - Algorithm -
flowcharts - implementation of algorithm through a language - translation - debugging -
execution - documentation, testing, -certification. Legal implication in use of software -Licensing
and copyright, piracy, free software.
Pre Requisite
Knowledge about algorithm and flowchart
Activities
4.1Concept of programming (1hr)
Prepare a recipe for making an Omlet
Students are divided into groups and give guidelines for the discussions to get the recipe
(Ingredients, processing steps, product)
After discussion group leader presents the findings
Teacher consolidates the findings and also introduce the terms data, input, process, output
Students can make notes with the help of teacher.
4.2 Concept of Algorithm (1hr)
Discuss the term algorithm among the groups and also prepare an algorithm for the activity
mention in 4.1
Teacher consolidates the discussion
4
101 101 101
Computer Science
Teacher evaluation is conducted
Assignment on numerical problems
4.3 Flow chart symbol and their function (1hr)
Through discussion list the flowchart symbols and their uses that the students studied in
high school classes.
Teacher consolidates the listing
Assignment ( class) students are asked to draw the flowchart for the algorithm prepared in
activity 4.1
Teacher evaluates the assignment
4.4Coding, translation, debugging, execution, documentation, testing and certification (1hr)
Students discuss how an algorithm can be implemented in a computer
The facilitator can guide the students and give necessary steps to implement an algorithm,
The discussion should cover the point like coding, translation, debugging, execution,
documentation, testing and certification
After discussion the teacher consolidates the points as
the role of HLL for coding
translate it into machine language - compiler/interpreter
Debugging for error correction and detection
Execution and documentation is for readability and maintainability
Testing for accuracy
Students should make notes individually
4.5 Licensing copyrights, free software and software piracy (1 hr)
Through discussion list the idea about the terms licensing, copyright, free software and
software piracy
Teacher should give necessary help in the discussion
After discussion, the teacher consolidates the points and share additional information if
any.
Students should prepare notes individually
4.6 Supporting Activity (debate) (1 hr)
Free software v/s Licenced software
Teacher is the moderator
Students are grouped in two
Each group can express their idea
Active participation is to be encouraged
Moderator consolidates
Students are asked to prepare notes
102 102
Teachers Sourcebook VHSE
Reference
1 Textbook of XI
2 Computer Science +1 Sumita Arora
103 103 103
Computer Science
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104 104
Teachers Sourcebook VHSE
PROGRAMMING IN C++
Introduction
In the last unit we discussed about phases in programming and students have the idea in
programming through algorithms and flow charts. Here we are introducing C++, an object
oriented language (OOP) which is a powerful language for software development. This module
begins with the character set of C++ language then to the structure of C++ program. Towards
the end of the module learners should be familiarised to the program, development environment
and related activities prior to running a program. This can be done through discussions and
live demonstrations.
Curriculum Objectives
To understand the basis of C++ language through discussion and illustration, observation
distinguish and list the steps involved in creating and running a simple program
To understand different datatypes in C++ by collecting and classifying data from real life
situation, Prepare a detailed list showing C++ data types and their features.
Syllabus
Character set, Basic data types, Tokens, structure of C++ program, use of I/O operators,
Use of IDE compiler to demonstrate basic commands of editing compilation, linking and
execution.
Pre - Requisites
A general idea about formal languages
Different stages in programming
Basic skills for developing program logic through algorithm and flowchart.
Precise idea about different types of literals
Activities
Fundamentals of C++ Language (3hrs)
5.1.1 Discussion
Problem : List the preliminary steps in learning and programming on formal language like
Malayalam and English etc.
Discussion can be conducted and responses are noted
( alphabets, words, phrases, sentences, grammar etc)
5
105 105 105
Computer Science
Consolidation: Consolidates the points given above and terminology like character set,token
etc are introduced through the analogy.
Alphabet is a language to the character set in C++
Words formed by alphabets to the tokens in C++
Phrases and sentences to the expressions and statements
Grammer rules to the syntaxes in C++ language
students can prepare notes
Classification of Character set and Tokens
5.1.2 Discussion
How are alphabets in Malayalam or English classified
(Vowels and consonants are expected)
In the statement Arun is actively participating in discussion, identify the category to which
each word belongs
(Parts of speech are expected)
Teacher consolidates the points and classification of characters and tokens are explained
through analogies.
Consolidation: classification of character set and tokens are introduced here
Students prepare a list of characters and write notes on different tokens of C++
Data Types
5.1.3 Discussion
Problem: Prepare a biodata containing the details such as name,sex,age date of birth, address
( house name, number, place, post, district, pin) for admission
Discuss and classify the data based on some common features like formation, constitituents
etc
Consolidation: Consolidate the classification as integers, words, fractional number, single,
alphabets and data
Discussion is continued to list different types of literals in C++
Responses are noted on the board and the data collected in activity 5.1.3 are categorise
under these literals
Introduce the basic data types of C++ highlighting the facts that strings and data have no
type names and they will be named by the user
Write different types of data on the board and let the students identify the corresponding
type names
Consolidation: different data types in C++
The students prepare notes on basic data type of C++ and their features with examples
106 106
Teachers Sourcebook VHSE
Structure of C++ program
5.1.4 Discussion
Problems : Write a letter to invite your friend for birthday party and lost the part of the letter
Students write the letter individually and parts of the letters are identified in group discussions
and the distinct parts are presented by the groups
Consolidation : Consolidates the parts of the letter as follows
From and To
Situation
Punctuation
Body of the letter
Name and signature of the sender
Teacher demonstrates the structure of a C++ program through illustration and explains the
position and significance of each part through the following analogies
From and to entries to the # include statement
Situation to the main () statement
Punctuation to the semi colomns an braces
Body of the letter to the program statements
Name and signature to the closing statement (return statement)
Students prepare notes on the structure of C++ program
Live Demonstration of IDE
5.1.5 Observation
A gruop of five students are formed and the teacher loads C++ IDE in the computer, and
perform different steps like editing, saving, compiling and running a simple program
Students prepare notes on various steps in developing a simple C++ program in their
observation book
The above five students then demonstrate for another five groups and make sure that all the
students are now able to use the IDE for C++ program development and they have prepared
notes in the observation book
Simple C++ programs
5.1.6 Development
Problem : Write a program to display a message
Using the idea obtained while learning the C++ program structure, student individually
write program in their observation book and some of them are presented.
Consolidation: Teacher consolidates the steps into a program and students make the
corrections if any
The program is entered if any, during compilation and execution are recorded in the
observation book
107 107 107
Computer Science
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108 108
Teachers Sourcebook VHSE
Introduction
In this module we are introducing some new concept and constructs of the language. Here
learner understand operators, type conversions, shorthand, variables initialisation etc. A variety
of activities like collection classification, list preparation, class assignments, lab assignments
etc can be caused out for better transactions of the topics
Curriculum Objectives
To understand C++ operators through reading and discussion and prepare a categorised list
of operators
Syllabus
Operators - Arithematic (+,-, *,/, %), unary + and increment and decrement, relational (<,>,
<=, >=, ==, !+) Logical (&&, ||,!) Conditional, precedence of operators, expression -Types
conversions, Implicit and explicit methods, C++ shorthand, assignment statement, variable
intialisation and type compatibility
Pre- Requisities
Basic knowledge in arithmetic operators and their priority
Idea about memory cells, memory word, and their size.
Activities
5.2.1 Discussion : constants and variables
Problem: What is meant by variables in mathematics
List the benefits in using variable in solving problems
Group discussion is conducted and findings are presented
Consolidation: Ensure that the following points are evolved in discussion
A quantity which varies is a variable
English letters are used for representation
Useful for representing numbers
Can have any value at any time
Problem: How are books arranged in library? List the advantages in using portioned shelves
for keeping books
Group discussion is conducted and findings are presented
OPERATORS AND EXPRESSIONS
5.1
109 109 109
Computer Science
Consolidation Ensure that the following points are evolved in discussion
Books are arranged in portioned shelves with some names give to them
Name represent the types of books stored
Portion with a name can have different books at any number of times
Books can be easily searched or referenced by specifying the portion name
Problem: List the analogies between the above two consolidations
Discussion is conducted and responses are noted
consolidation: The concept of variables in the context of programming is introduced through
the consolidation and pictorial illustrations
Students are asked to draw a box on their note book and name it as total marks
They write their total marks in SSLC examination
Teacher draws a box with the name total marks the board and records the marks of each
students one by one
Students recognise that memory location can store one value at a time
Teacher consolidates the values as constants and name as variable
Modifiers
5.2.2 Discussion
Teacher draws a box with the name maximum and total marks and records the maximum
marks and total marks of each students
Students recognizes that memory location stores a value which does not change at all
The concept of constant is introduced and illustrates the syntax
Group discussion is conducted to identify the limitation in storing large value with basic
data type
Teacher consolidates by introducing type modifiers through illustrations
C++ Operators
5.2.3 Discussion
Students are asked to write the operators which were studied earlier
Discussion conducted and possible to classify the operator
Teacher consolidate by introducing additional operators in the textbook
Students are asked to write programs
Each group presents the program
If correction needed, possible through general discussion
Consolidating : Different C++ operators are introduced
Students make corrections on observation book and execute them in the lab
110 110
Teachers Sourcebook VHSE
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Computer Science
Introduction
The input and /or output may be of different types. This include character and string types.
C++ have built in functions for performing input and output operations on characters and string
type data. This module provides the ability to use such functions so that character and string
data can be effectively used. Group activities, individual activities are possible for effective
transaction of the topics contained in this module.
Curriculum Objectives
Understand I/O functions through discussion, observation etc and develop programs using
them
Syllabus
Header files - iostream.h
Stream functions - get(), getline(), put(), write()
Header file - stdio.h
Console function getchar(), get(), get(), put char(), put(), Puts()
Pre-Requisities
Familiarity in using input and output statements of C++ using extraction (>>) and insertion
(<<) operators. Ability to write simple programs using C++.
Idea about characters and string constants
Knowledge about basic data types of C++ and their use.
Activities
1 Discussion on character input/output functions
Problems: Write a C++ program to enter a character through the keyboard and display it.
General discussion conducted. Ensure that the following points are evolved.
Identification of input and output statements
Recognization of operators and operands
Refresh the concept of Cin and Cout
List use of builtin functions which are known to learner and identify the importance of
header files
Teacher demonstrates the syntax and use of get() and put() functions with the help of
examples and learners prepare notes on them
INPUT AND OUTPUT
FUNCTIONS
5.3
112 112
Teachers Sourcebook VHSE
2.Developing program
Each learner can modify the program developed earlier by applying get() and put() functions
instead of >> and << operators
Refer textbook for more programs and ask the learners to write and execute them in the lab.
Observing the work of console I/O functions for characters
Teacher demonstrates the use of input output functions like getchar(), get(), putchar(). and
put() functions. Importance of stdio.h header file introduced and learner prepare notes on
these function and their features.
Programs which developed earlier can be modified with the console functions in their
observation book
The programs in observation book are entered in the computer and executed.
4 Discussion on string I/O functions
Problem: How will you input your school name and display it on the screen?
General Discussion conduct
Definition of string constant and resemblance with character constant
Listing basic data types and noting down the lack of string data type
Need of variable and syntax of variable declaration
Conclusion
Variable needed to handle string data
Variable is to be declared prior to its use
Syntax for variable declaration needs concerned data type which not belongs to basic data
type
Teacher introduces string type data to a variable with char data type and number of character
in the string.
Teacher asks the students to write program individually to input their name and address
Teacher correct the code which were developed by students after discussion
Teacher introduced syntax and use of getlines and write() functions
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teacher
Students prepare notes on strong management and syntax of functions for string I/O
5 Development of programs
Problems are given for utilising character and string functions
General discussion conducted and findings are noted on observation book
Students executed the programs in the lab
Comparison of various I/O functions
Discussion conducted and comparisons of characters and I/O functions are prepared
Comparisons can be presented in chart manner with the name of functions, type, use and
example. The chart is submitted and teacher verifies the chart.
113 113 113
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114 114
Teachers Sourcebook VHSE
Introduction
This module deals with control statements in C++ language. Control statements provide
methods for expressing a logical sequence in a program. These statements have an important
role in the C++ language. In case of decision making, branching and looping statements are
used. So the knowledge of the syntax and usage of the statements are essential. So deep
knowledge in selecting loops and conditions checking statements must be clear. This is done
through programming exercises.
Curriculum Objectives
Identify the logic referencing in problem solving and familiarises various control structures
in C++ using real life problems and their solution, prepare flowcharts for various control
structures, through discussion
Develop C++ program to solve various problems through discussion and practical
Syllabus
Conditional statement - if statement, if else, if else of ladder, switch statement, Nested
switch, default statements, break statement, loop statement - for while, do -while , nested control
structures, Jump statement, go to , break, continue , exit function.
Pre- Requisities
Knowledge about data types, variables, arithmetic operators and relational operators.
Familiarity to the general outline of C++ program
Knowledge of algorithm and flowchart.
Activities
5.4.1 Discussion on Conditional statement
Problem: To find the biggest of two numbers
Discuss he steps involved in the problems
Introduced the syntax and usage of conditional operator
Implement the conditional operators in the program
Introduce the if statement syntax and rewrite the program using if statement
List the difference between conditional operator and if statement
Consolidation: Teacher consolidates the discussion as in textbook
CONTROL STATEMENTS
5.4
115 115 115
Computer Science
5.4.2 Discussion on other various if statements
Problems: To find the biggest of three numbers
Discussion conducted and teacher hints the program logic
Students writes the program in book
Teacher introduces the concept of nested if statements
Problem: To find the grade of a student in SSLC examination
Writes the program using nested if statement
Teacher introduces the if else if ladder
Students rewrite the program using if else if ladder
Programs are executed in the lab
5.4.3 Discussion on switch case statement
Problem: To find the day of the week contain condition checking for multiple cases
Discussion checking for multiple cases
Discussion conducted and program logic obtained
Students write the program using if else if ladder
Teacher introduced the syntax and use of switch case statement
Problem: Compare if else if ladder and switch case statement
Consolidation: The list prepared by students is consolidated as in textbook by teachers.
5.4.4 Assignment on conditional statements
Programs connected with if else if ladder or switch case are given
Students writes the programs individually
Students executes the programs in the lab
5.4.5 Familiarisation of loops
Problems: Program to print first 10 natural numbers
Students develop the program but it will be more difficult to print upto a large number
Teacher introduced loop concepts
Explain the syntax and working of the loop
Students are asked to rewrite the program using for loop
Give more programs using for loop as assignment
5.4.6 Discussion on other loops
Teacher rewrite the syntax and working of while loops
Problems: rewrite the above program using while loops
Give more programs using while loops as assignments
Teacher introduces the syntax and working of do while loop
Problems : Rewrite the above program using do while loop
116 116
Teachers Sourcebook VHSE
Give more programs using do while loop as assignment
Problem : Compare the three loops
Discussion conducted and presents the prints obtained
Consolidation : Teacher consolidates the points obtained
5.4.7 Familiarisation of nested loop
Problem: Program to display multiplication table
Discussion conducted and students develops the programs
Teacher guide students to write the program to display multiplication table for a single
number . Using loop convert into number from 1 to 10
Teacher consolidates the program presented by students
Discuss syntax and use of nested loop
Consolidation : Teacher consolidates the nested loops used.
5.4.8 Assignment on loops
Give programs using nested loops
Students write the program individually
Students execute the program in the lab
5.4.9 Familiarisation of control statements
Prepare a list containing syntax, flowcharts and example of condition checking statements
and loop statements studied in this module.
Test on programming skills
Select set of questions for test
Fix a time limit for the test
Call each one to select question in random order and solve in the time allowed.
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118 118
Teachers Sourcebook VHSE
Introduction
This chapter discusses arrays and their operations. In programming array has an important
role. Lack of knowledge on arrays and its operations is one of the major difficulties of writing
programs. C++ does not have a built in string data type. With the help of arrays and its operators
String manipulations are implemented. Hence a deep knowledge in different kind of operations
on array is essential for developing good programs..
Curriculum Objectives
To understand the concept of arrays and its operations through illustrations and discussion
and develop programs stating the advantage of arrays.
Syllabus
Concepts of Data structure - Basic data structure - Arrays , stack, queues, concepts of one
dimensional and two dimensional arrays (Declaration,intialisation, reading) Matrix arithematic
(Addition, substraction and Multiplication), Implementation of string using array, string
manipulation such as reverse string, counting vowels, consonants special characters from a
string.
Pre- Requisities
Different data types and their declaration
Use of for loop in C++ programs
Activities
5.5.1 Discussion
Problem: Write a C++ program to store marks of all students in the class .
Students list the program individually in their books
List down the difficulties that they face while writing the program
Randomly select two or more of group leaders for presenting the difficulties of writing
programs
Through discussion find the solution to overcome these difficulties in writing lengthy code
for declaring a large number of variables, accepting values for those variables and also for
displaying them
Consolidation: Need of array variables is emphasised.
Learner prepare notes
ARRAYS AND STRUCTURE
5.5
119 119 119
Computer Science
Understanding Arrays
5.5.2 Discussion
Problem: Write a C++ program to read a group of numbers using arrays
Let A,B,C be variables used for storing the given group of numbers. The problem is how to
read a particular element from this groups
Discuss the difficulties of reading a particular element, list them.
Given another group of element say A1,A2,A3,.....,A26. How to read a particular element
say A12 from this group, discuss and list them.
Compare and discuss these two tasks and list the steps
Which one is the easiest method to read a particular elements, what is the reason for it.
Through a group discussion arrive at a consolidation that using a common variable with
indices will give an easy way to read an element
The discussion should cover the following point. The array name, use of index accessing
different elements, intialisation etc.
Randomly select two or more of the group leaders for presenting the collected ideas about
an array
Consolidation: Teacher consolidates the following points from the above discussion - array
declaration, use of index to access each element of the array, memory allocation for array
accessing different elements, using the for........... loop for accessing the individual elements
of the array and learner should prepare notes.
1 The statement in T[5] = { 0,0,0,0,0} will initialise all the array elements
to the value 0
2 The statement int T[5] = {0} also does the same thing.
Students prepare notes
Two Dimensional Arrays
5.5.3 Discussion
Problem: Posing a questions How can they use variables for storing the physics mark of
10 students in a class? Call one students to write the declaration statement on the board as
follows.
int mark [9]
Posing another question How can they use variables (or declare variable) for storing six
subjects marks for 10 students.
Through a group discussion, they will understand the difficulty of using single dimensional
array for this purpose, note difficulties.
Problems: Posing a problem How the students be selected in a classroom if the class room
contains 12 benches and desks and it should be arranged in two groups row wise.
Through a discussion they understood that students be selected in each group as 6 * 5
students in both section. (ie, if total of 60 students in the class)
120 120
Teachers Sourcebook VHSE
Consolidation: Teacher consolidate it and introduced the concept of 2D arrays and explain
the declaration statement of 2D arrays
Teacher can also use examples like the following
Using array variables to store total marks of each student in all the classes. (int mark [11][49],
Here mark[2][30] is the total mark of 30th student in the 2nd standard. Here the first index
denote the class and the second index denote the roll no of the students
Using array elements to store matrix elements
Students can prepare notes
Program for Matrix Addition
5.5.4 Discussion
Problems : Given 12 numbers How to arrange these numbers in two groups , each contains
2 rows and 3 columns each?
Through a group discussion, students understand that these 12 numbers can be arranged in
two 2 x 3 matrix forms, and note the ideas.
One student present their note.
Given two groups of numbers in matrix form and try how to add the corresponding elements
in it.
Through a group discussion, learner got the idea of adding two matrixes of same order;
note the concepts
Consolidation: Teacher consolidates this and demonstrate how for ... loop is used for storing
elements in 2D arrays, How to use for loop to add individual elements in two matrices,
display elements in a matrix etc
Problem: Write a program to add two matrixes of same order
Discussing the features of for .. loop for reading elements in 2 matrix and use the concept of
adding the elements of two matrix, students prepare a program for this
Group leaders present the program
Consolidation: Teacher consolidates the program
Learner can write it their note
Matrix Subtraction
5.5.5 Assignment
Matrix Multiplication
5.5.6 Discussion
Problem: Given 12 numbers How to arrange these numbers in two groups , each contains
2 rows and 3 columns each.
Through a group discussion, students understand that these 12 number can be arranged in
two 2 x 3 matrix forms, and note the ideas.
Give two groups of numbers in matrix form and try how to multiply elements in it.
121 121 121
Computer Science
Through a discussion with the help of facilitator and textbook, learner got the concept of
multiplying two matrix and prepare notes
Present the concept before the students in the class
Problem: Write the program for multiplying two matrix of given order
Discussing the features of for ...... loop for reading elements in two matrix, and use the
concept of multiplying the elements of two matrix, students prepare a program for this
Group leader present program
Consolidation: Teacher gives necessary suggestions and modification to get the final program
Students prepare the note
Implementation of String using Arrays
5.5.7 Discussion
Problem: Pos a question What is the meaning of the following declaration?
Char str[10];
In discussion, facilitator demonstrate the idea that C++ use the character array to store string
values. here str is a variable that can hold string value having maximum 9 characters, C++
uses I/O symbol to denote the end of the string values.
The statement charstr [] = SSMVHSS; will store the characters in the memory in the
following way
S S M V H S S \0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Here the last symbols stored in Str[7] represent the NULL value, which shows the end of
the string. computer treat this one as a single character and note two.
Consolidation: Implementation of string using array is introduced
Learner prepare notes for concept obtained from above discussion.
Program For Reversing A String
5.5.8 Discussion
Problem : Pos a problem How to store, reverse and display a given string
Through discussion with help of teacher and text book, learner identify the method for
reversing a string. A new variable can be used for storing the reversal string
Problem: Pos a problem to write the complete program for reversing a string
Through group discussion with reference of text book and with the help of teacher students
write the program
Consolidation : Faciliatator consolidates it and writes it on the board as follows
#include <iostream.h>
#include <conio.h>
str
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Teachers Sourcebook VHSE
int main()
{
Char a[10].b[10]
clrscr();
Cout << Enter a string;
Cin >> a;
int pos =0; /* for storing the position of the last characters in the string *?
While ( a [Pos] ! = \0)
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For (int i=pos -1 , j=0; i>=0;i--,j++)
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b[j] = a[i];
}
b[i]= /0
Cout << The string before reverse; <<a;
Cout << The string after reverse : <<b;
}
When you copy individual character of a string one by one, the last
character must be made as \0. But when you accept a complete string
using the statement Cin>> str;
C++ will automatically place a NULL symbol at last
Students can write this program in their note and do it in the computer
Program for counting the vowels in a string
5.5.9 Discussion
Problem : Explain the program code for counting the numbers of vowels in a string as
follows
Through a group discussion with the help of teacher and with relevance of text book,
students got the idea for doing the program as follows.
int Count1 = 0, i=0;
while (a[i]!=\0)
if ( a [i] == a || a [i] == e|| a[i] == i || a[i] == o || a[i] == u)
Count 1++;
When the loop will be completed, the count1 variable will contain the number of vowels
present in the string
Consolidation: Teacher consolidates the programs
Learner perpare the notes
123 123 123
Computer Science
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Teachers Sourcebook VHSE
FUNCTIONS
Introductions
The students are familiar with functions and they knows main() function and built in
functions. In this module we are introducing the concept of user defined functions. Here
students can create their own function and able to solve problem effectively. This module
introduced some new built-in functions also. Discussions, observations and demonstrations
helps to know about functions and evaluation can be carried out in lab.
Curriculum objectives
To familiarize the significance of functions through discussion and note down the advantages
of using functions and develop programs.
To familiarize different types of functions and prepare a classification table for the predefined
functions.
To understand the significance of user defined function and different methods of functions
calls through illustrations.
Syllabus
Defining a function, Types of functions Predefined functions, character functions
isalnum(), isalpha(), is digit(), islower(), isupper(), tolower(), toupper(), string manipulation
function strcpy(), strcat(), strlen(), strcmp(), mathematical functions abs(). Sqrt(), pow(),
exp(), log(), sin(), cos(), Miscellaneous functions- setw(), getch(), clrscr(), use of endl,Header
file ctype.h, string.h, math.h, conio.h, iomanip.h, user defined functions functions prototype
Invoking a function, Passing arguments to a functions specifying arguments data type, default
arguments, call by value, call by reference, returning values from a function, calling functions
with arrays recursive function.
Pre-Requisites
Structure of C++ program
Various constructs of C++ program
Familiarity in using built in function and header files.
Program compilation knowledge
Knowledge in string handling
5.6
125 125 125
Computer Science
Activities
1. Discussion on concept of functions
Problem: Invitation letter to the guardians of students of a class are to be sent by post.
Printer matter copies, envelops, address list, pen, stamps, and gum are given to a group 5
students sealed , stamped and addressed covers are to be returned
Students discuss how can divide the work to each group.
Consolidation : Students develops a strategy as follows
First group members folds the printout
Second groups inserts the printout to envelops
Third groups writes the address on envelops
Fourth group pastes stamps on the envelops
Fifth group seals the covers and returns for posting
If a listing similar to the one given above not obtained some conditions for the processing
may be suggested as specified below.
Folding should be in a uniform manner
Address should be written legibly with same handwriting
The product should be neat
What we expect from this kind of listing is to convince the learners about the fact that a
task can be simplifies into subtasks each of which can be executed in a shared manner so that
work load will be minimized and the result can be obtained, with minimum time and efforts.
Discussion conducted and benefit of group work over individual work is proved. Also the
factors to be considered in following strategy should be pointed as order of execution,
transfer of items from one person to another etc.
Teacher can introduce the concept of functions with this real life example
Learner prepares short notes on functions and its advantages
Observation on the working of character functions.
Discussion conducted to understand the concepts of predefined functions with the help of
real life examples like key for vehicle, switch for an electronic device etc.
Some built in functions are listed and their features are discussed in terms of their use, way
of usage data to be given, values returned etc. The concepts and relevance of arguments
and return values are illustrated with these examples.
Learner writes program individually, to input a character and display its type as uppercase,
alphabet, lower case alphabet, digit, special character etc
Discussion conducted to understand the process of programming
Character functions are demonstrated with examples and the significance of header file
ctype.h is introduced
Program developed earlier is modified using these functions and source codes are presented
and features are listed.
More problem are given and students write programs using these functions on observation
book
126 126
Teachers Sourcebook VHSE
The program in observation book are verified and implemented in the lab.
As character functions introduced we can also introduce string manipulating functions,
mathematical functions and miscellaneous functions
Learner prepares a categorized list of pre-defined functions along with syntax, use and
examples
4 Discussion on need of user defined function
Problem: Program to find the value of nCr which can be obtained by the formula n!/(n! *
(n-r)!)
Discuss the logic and write the program individually
More programs are presented and repetition of the loop thrice in the program to perform the
same activity but with different data, is identified.
Bring students attention to built in functions like sqrt() in similar situations, Learner thinks
about the need of a functions.
Consolidation: No other functions can be used for this and now introduce the facility user
defined functions.
5Discuss function definition
Problem: Write a simple program; say to find the sum of two numbers
Bring attention to the main() function. Identify its components as functions header and
functions body . Also list some functions covered in activity 2 and 3 and discuss the features
as follows
The names of the functions reflect their task and they follow the rules of identifiers.
Some functions have arguments and the arguments have their own role
Some functions return values, while some others do not.
Introduce the syntax of function definition through discussion
Learner write functions to solve simple problems. Include the problem to find the factorial
of a number as it was discussed in activity 4 and left unsolved.
Discussion on functions prototyping
A real life situation is introduced to list the order of execution of activities in a group
activity1 may be taken into consideration, Some other examples are admission procedure,
banking activities, procedure in an office etc.
Responses are noted on the board and consolidated
Problem : Write a complete C++ program to find the factorial of a number using user
defined functions.
Program code listed and order of execution is demonstrated through participatory approach.
Mean while the significance of main() function stressed. Also the arguments in functions
call and function definition are taken into consideration and introduce the terms actual
arguments and formal arguments.
Compile the program in lab and observe error. Compare this with the error message reported
when a variable is used without declaring it. Invite possible solutions from the students.
127 127 127
Computer Science
The students modify the program to make it an error free program and get it verified.
7. Discussion on different methods of function call
Real life situations is introduced
Case1: Teacher gives a solved program to add two numbers on a sheet of paper. Asks
students to modify the program for subtracting them on the same paper.
Case 2: Teacher gives solved program to multiply two numbers as a sheet of paper. Asks
students to modify the program for dividing them on another paper.
Discussion conducted and finds the difference between two cases.
Consolidation, introduced the concept of referencing variable and the syntax for its
declaration in comparison with ordinary variable declaration
Learners rewrite the program developed earlier with reference variables as formal arguments.
Identify the two methods of function call by value and call by reference and students prepares
notes on them.
8.Observation of function calls using arrays
Discussion conducted and refresh the concept of arrays
Demonstrate the method of calling functions with array.
Give problems to solve with user defined function having arrays as arguments. Programs
are presented, executed in the lab and verified.
9 Discussion on recursive functions
Brain storming session is organized to list the logic of divide and conquer technique in the
context of Tower of Hanoi
The logic is used to find the factorial of a number
Problem: Interpret the above technique and generalize the logic
After discussion, the logic is presented. Consolidation: Teacher consolidates as follows.
A problem with a number, say N, can be solved by solving the problem by another number,
say (N-1) which can be solved by solving the problem with yet another number, say (N-2)
and process is continued until the problem is solved by number 1
To be precise, the technique followed is divide the main problem into smaller and smaller
problem and by conquering the smaller problem attain the main target.
Ask the students to write the program to find the factorial using the above logic and introduce
the function as recursive functions.
The program is presented and features are discussed
10.Discussion on the scope of rules of variables and functions
Introduced real life situation to understand the problems that emerged while accessing ones
own properties by another (Accessibility of principles phone and the public phone installed in
the school office)
Ask the students to list the problems and their reasons.
Introduced the concept of scope rules of variables and functions through illustration by
128 128
Teachers Sourcebook VHSE
writing a program with user defined functions.
Prepare notes on scope rules of variables and functions.
Reference books
1 Programming in C++ E Balaguru Swami
2 Computer Science XI Sumitha Arora (Dhantha.. publications)
3 Programming in C++ - Sham series
129 129 129
Computer Science
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130 130
Teachers Sourcebook VHSE
COMPUTER NETWORKS
Introduction
Today, computer network has a great role to play. We have the facilities in Internet such as
video chatting by which people in different corners of the world can have face to face
communication between them, at very low expenses. Now a days computer networks are used
in almost all the sectors like banking, telecommunication, educational institutions railways etc.
This unit includes the basic concepts of network, protocols, topologies, reference models,
internet connectivity. So let us make the learning process in the unit interesting and enjoyable.
Curriculum Objectives
To acquaint the various terminologies used in computer network through discussion and
observation.
To identify various types of computer network through discussion, observation and
demonstration
To know the concept of various network topologies through discussion and demonstration.
To understand the reference model in network through discussion and comparison
To discuss the concept of internet and types of connectivity through practical experiences
Syllabus
Need for network, advantages of network; definition terminologies used - nodes, server,
protocol - types of networks - LAN, WAN MAN, wireless networks topologies - BUS, STAR,
ring, tree, mesh, graph, internet and intranet, reference models - OSI and TCP/IP, Hardware
and software requirements for internet connection.Types of connectivity - ISDN, dial-up,
browsing, e-mail,- use , advantages and disadvantages.
Pre- requisites
Basic knowledge of computer, network in high school classes
Idea about internet
Activities
6.1 Need for Network (30Min)
Discussion
Discuss the need for network in group wise. The discussion should cover the points what is
the need of network, advantages of network and definition from the experience in high
school classes.
6
131 131 131
Computer Science
Teacher gives guidelines to gather the points
Group presents the findings
Teacher consolidates the points and finally shapes the definition of computer networks
Sharing resources
Communications
...........................
..........................
Learners note down the points
6.2 Network components (30Min)
Demonstration and observation
Learners examines different components in a computer network like server, node, LAN
card, cables routers, Hub/switch etc. and their connectivity.
Students prepare a chart showing the components and their uses
Teacher consolidates and shapes the definition of components
Students should make notes individually
6.3 Types of networks (3hrs)
Discussion and observation
Students are divided into groups and discuss the types of network from the experiences in
high school class.
Teacher can help the students to consolidates the findings
LAN
WAN
MAN
Wireless
............
Students should prepare a chart contains the comparative study of network
6.4 Network topologies (3hrs)
Discussion and demonstration
Learners discuss the different types of topologies and they also discuss the merits and
demerits of using different topologies.
The teacher can supply reference materials journals in order to help the learner to reach the
findings
Each group presents the findings
Teacher consolidates the points and introduce the different topologies using diagrams.
Conclusion
Recall the relevance of topologies in computer networks and list the merits and demerits
Bus topology
132 132
Teachers Sourcebook VHSE
Star topology
Ring topology
Tree topology
Mesh topology
Graph topology
Learners should make notes on them individually
6.5 Reference Models ( 5hrs)
Discussion
Students are asked to discuss the different reference models
Teacher guide the discussion by supplying resource materials
Groups presents their findings
Teacher consolidates the points with the functional diagrams of reference models
Students should prepare notes individually
6.6 Internet and Intranet (30min)
Discussion
In the discussion, the learner should cover the points like ownership, geographic area,
accessibility of information etc.
Teacher can help the students in discussion in differentiate internet and intranet, network
owned by an organisation
After presenting the findings of each group teacher can consolidate the points
Differentiate internet and intranet
uses
Examples - Banking network
- Railway network
Students should prepare a chart contain the above points
6.7 Internet Connection and Connectivity (30Min)
Discussion and Observation
Discuss the requirements for an internet connection and better accessing connection.
Discussion cover the points like the hardware and software requirements (modem, telephone
line etc) and different methods of internet connectivity (Dial up and direct connection)
Teacher consolidate the points
Hardware requirements ( PC, modem, telephone, leased lines)
Software requirements
Methods of internet connectivity (dial up , direct connection)
Learners should prepare notes individually
6.8 Domain names and protocol (30Min)
Discussion
133 133 133
Computer Science
Students are asked to prepare a list of websites (may contain, org., .come, .net,.edu etc) and
discuss on protocol ( Teacher explain the protocol by citing an example as principal presided
all school functions)
The learner writer an address like http://www.KeralaVHSE.org.
Teacher classifies the list based on the domain names and introduces the concepts of domain
and uniform resources locator (URL)
Teacher introduces the term protocol and http is the basic protocol of internet
Teacher consolidates the list of commonly used protocol
Students should make notes on domain names and protocol
6.9 Browsing (30Min)
Teacher demonstrates browsing, (creation of e-mail address and sending e-mail (Include,
inbox, outbox, compose message, structure of message, forward, reply)
Learner observes and practices it independently
Discuss the merits and demerits of e-mail
Learner should makes notes on them.
Reference
Computer Network- Andrew S. Tannenn Bamn
134 134
Teachers Sourcebook VHSE
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Computer Science
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Teachers Sourcebook VHSE
Introduction
Today we are living in a world of Electronics where digital electronics find tremedous
application. Digital electronic circuits are used in electronic products such as toys, home
appliances like wasting mache, microwaves ovens, automobile control systems etc. This unit
is intended to given the fundementals of this branch. It is also aimed to create the interest in the
students to construct simple circuits using logic gates. This unit also introduce the
microprocessor. Microprocessor find a tremendous influence in computer. Students get an
awareness of 8085 Microprocessor. The assignments work, which is the part of the Continuous
Evaluation, comes under this unit.
Curriculum Objectives
To understand the various terminology is used in Boolean algebra, Basic postulates, Basic
theorems and Demorgans law, truth tables through discussion and solving problems.
To introduce basic logic gates: OR AND NOT and advance logic gates NAND, NOR and
XOR, XNOR and then truth tables through discussion, demonstration and assignments.
To study the application of logic gates through discussion and demonstration.
To get an awareness of microprocessor and familiarise the 8085 microprocessor block
diagram and description of each block through discussion.
Syllbus
Basic Postulates of Boolean algebra; Basic theorems of Boolean algebra; De Morgans
theorems; Principle of Duality; Evaluation of Boolean expressions (using Truth table and
Algebraic method); Logic Gates - Basic Logic Operations OR, AND, NOT; Truth Tables -
Basic Gates OR, AND, NOT -Advanced Gates NAND, NOR, XOR, XNOR - Implementation
of Basic Logic Gates using NAND and NOR Gates; Application of Logic Gates Half adder,
Full adder, Encoder, Decoder (using Basic Logic Gates) - Microprocessor: Functional Block
Diagram of 8085 - Brief description of each block
Pre- requisites
Idea about binary number system
Concept of mathematical operations on binary number system.
Activities
2.1 Number system (2 hrs)
Class is divided into groups
DIGITAL ELECTRONICS
7
137 137 137
Computer Science
Each group is given a task to list out various number systems.
Group leader presents the list.
Teacher consolidates the entire findings in a chart
Decimal
Binary
Octal
Hexadecimal
Recalling the relevance of binary number system in a digital computer (conclusion of
the discussion is that there are two voltage levels within a computer and hence the
relevance of 0 and 1
Students should prepare notes individually.
2.2. Boolean Algebra (2 hrs)
Discuss the concept of boolean algebra.
Teacher can guide and encourage to bring the idea about postulate and theories of boolean
algebra.
DeMorgans laws and principles of duality.
Teacher can guide to evaluate the boolean expressions using truth table and algebraic method.
Teacher should solve some simple problems to develop a concrete knowledge of Boolean
Algebra.
Some problems can be given as assignments to the students.
2.3 Logic Gates (4 hours)
Discuss the basic logic operations OR, AND, NOT groupwise.
Students can present the logic operations with truth tables.
Finally teacher can consolidates the findings in a comparision chart and students can prepare
notes.
Teacher can demonstrate and explain different logic gates and its working with the help of
diagram. (Logic gates include OR, AND, NOT, NAND, NOR, XOR, XNOR)
Encourage and guide the students to form its truth table and implement the logic gates
using NAND and NOR gate.
2.4 Application of logic gates (1 hr)
After reviewing the binary arithmetic operation, the teacher can explain the halfadder
Encourage and guide the learners to form its truth table and the corresponding boolean
expression.
Divide the students into small groups and instruct the groups to implement the circuit.
Teacher can consolidate the activity by reviewing the implementation of logic function.
2.5 Full adder (1 hr)
Adopting the same strategy of activity 2.4.
138 138
Teachers Sourcebook VHSE
2.6 Encoder (1 hr)
Adopting the same strategy of activity 2.4.
2.7 Decoder (1 hr)
Adopting the same strategy of activity 2.4.
2.8 Microprocessor (8 hrs)
Teaching can demonstrate and explain the use and functions of microprocessor with the
help of a block diagram.
Students should be familiarised with the functioning of microprocessor and also prepare
notes..
Continous Evaluation Item
Assignment (Home) : Design of logic circuits, Implementation of logic gates, problem sovling
using boolean algebra.
Reference
1 Digital Computer Electronics - Malvino, Tata Mc.Graw Hill, N.Delhi.
2 Fundementals of Digital Circuits A.Anandkumar, Prentice Hall of India, N.Delhi (Unit
1, 2, 4 and 5)
3. Principles of Electronics - V.K.Mehta - S.Chand, New Delhi (Chapter 28)
139 139 139
Computer Science
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Teachers Sourcebook VHSE
LINUX
Introduction
Over the years, free software has gained more acceptance than proprietory software. Linux
Operating System is a very popular free software. It is an operating system in lieu of Windows
& Unix Operating System. Being a powerful operating system, it is included in our syllabus.
This unit includes the basis of Linux OS and towards the end of the chapter, the learners are
acquainted with LINUX and more over the learners familiarise a versatile free software.
Curriculum Objectives
To understand various operating system through discussion.
To get an awareness of free software through discussion.
To understand installation procedure of Linux through practice.
To understand the KDE desktop through demonstration.
To surf the web through demonstration.
To understand Linux Office suite through discussion and demonstration.
To understand files through discussion, demonstration and practice.
To understand the extensions of Linux system through demonstration.
To understand shell through demonstration & practice.
Syllabus
Introduction to Linux - what is Linux, Linux Distro, hardware suitability, making space for
Linux. Installing Linux - preparing to install Linux, security level, allocating the disk space,
creating disk partitions, root password, creating a user account, setting automatic login, installing
the boot loader. Exploring the KDE desktop - KDE taskbar, launching applications, virtual
desktops, desktop theme, screen saver, event sounds.
Surfing the web - internet, webbrowser, E-mail, transfering files, composing webpages,
File structure - Directory tree, sub directories, file manager, command line, file system, creating
a new text file, moving file around, deleting files, making shortcuts, changing access permissions,
accessing files in Windows, Compressing and extracting files.
Linux Office Suite - Introducing the open office suite - open office writer - Exporting
documents from open office, Spreadsheet, Presentation, Charts and Graphs, Formulas in open
office
Playing sound and video - Synthesising sounds, playing recorded sounds, Watching videos,
Playing CDs, Burning CDs.
8
141 141 141
Computer Science
Linux Shell - Introduction to shell , Understanding run levels, Editing with Vi, Switching
between virtual consoles, Moving between shell applications, Viewing text files, Searching,
Printing from the shell, Scripting the shell, Using shell commands, Editing text streams,
Substituting varriables, Creating shell scripts, Branching a script, Looping a script, Handling
input values.
Extending Linux System- Installing packages, Removing packages, Downloading packages,
Installing downloads, Installing other desktops, Switching between desktops, Linux resources.
Pre Requistes
Basic knowledge of software & hardware.
Basic knowledge of operating system.
Activities
8.1 To classify various operating system (30min)
Divide the learners into groups and conduct a group discussion based on the following
points.
Types of operating system.
Popular operating system.
Teacher consolidates the following points and the students are asked to write down the
point.
Single user single task OS - DOS
Single user Multiple OS - Windows, Linux
Multiuser Multitask OS - UNIX, LINUX, ZENIX
Origin of Linux
8.2 Discussion on free software(30min)
List the different software on board.
What is free software & proprietory software?
Pick out the free software & proprietory software from the list on the black board.
After discussion the teacher consolidation the following points.
Free software
Examples of free software
Propritory software
Examples of proprietory software.
8.3 Installation of Linux (2hrs)
Demonstration
Teacher demonstrate the installation procedure of Linux.
Students are asked to note down what they are observing.
Teacher checks the following points are observed.
hardware required
142 142
Teachers Sourcebook VHSE
security level
allocation of disk space
creating drive partition
password
creating user account
setting attomatic login
8.4 Exploring the KDE desktop (2hrs)
Demonstration
Teacher demonstrate the KDE desktop on computer such as task bar, launching application,
virtual, desktops, desktop theme screen saver, event sounds.
Students are asked to write down what they are observing.
Teacher checks the following points are observed.
KDE task bar
Lanuching application
virtual desktops
desktop theme
screen saver
event sounds
8.5 Surfing the web (2hrs)
Discussion
Problem : What are the traditional methods of communication.
Students list the methods and its advantages and disadvantages in their
books.
Problem : What is internet?
Students express their knowledge about internet
Problem : How internet helps human being?
Students list the uses of internet.
Demonstration
The teacher demonstrates how the internet connection is established.
Students are asked to observe that following points.
Modem
dial-up connection
leased line
user name
password
Discussion
Problem : What are the applications of internet?
143 143 143
Computer Science
Students list the applications, such as Email, File Transfer, Composing
webpages.
Demonstration
The teacher demonstrates the E-mail address password, sending mail,
receiving mail, .composing, deleting etc.
Students are asked write the procedure for
E-mail address
password
sending male
receiving male
composing
deleting
8.6 File structure (5hrs)
Discussion
Problem : How do you set a text book?
Students are asked to list the elements of a textbook such as characters,
words, sentences, paragraphs, sections, chapters, content page/index.
Teacher helps the students to reach a definition of text files.
Discussion
Problem : Have you seen telephone directory?
What is its structure?
Teacher helps the students to understand directory.
Demonstration
Teacher demonstrates naming of files, directory system creation of files,
and different types of files.
Practice:
Students are asked to create a file and draw the directory tree structure.
8.9 Demonstration and practice on scripting the shell (2hrs)
Teacher demonstrates the shell scripts and its commands.
Each student should practice on shell commands, creating shell script, branching a script,
looping a script and handling input values.
Students are asked to prepare notes on shell commands, creating shell scripts, branching a
script, looping a script and handling input values.
Randomly select two or three students and ask them to present their points and allow others
to supplement it.
8.10 Demonstration on Extending file system (2hrs)
Teacher demonstrates how to install, remove and download packages and ask the students
to note down the procedure.
144 144
Teachers Sourcebook VHSE
Teacher should go through the procedure noted down by each student and correct it if
necessary.
Teacher demonstrates how to install other desktops and how to switch between desktops
and ask the students to note down the procedure.
Teacher should go through the procedure noted down by each student and correct it if
correction is needed.
8.7 Playing sound & video (2hrs)
Demonstration
Teacher demonstrates how to play sound and video and ask the students
to write down the procedure.
Each student should give an opportunity to play sounds and videos.
Teacher checks the procedure noted down by each student and correct it
if correction is needed.
8.8 Demonstration of shell, Vi editors (2hrs)
Teacher demonstrates the use of vi editor and ask the students to note down the procedure
of handling vi editor.
Divide the students into groups consists of two or three students and ask them to practice vi
editor and correct the procedure they have written.
Randomly select two or three groups and ask them to present their procedure and supliment
it by others if needed.
Reference Book
1 Linux in easy steps - Mike Mcgrath (Dreamtech press)
145 145 145
Computer Science
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PART III
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Computer Science
I - Principles of programming.
1. List the difference between raw data & processed data.
2. The manager of an organization handling huge amount of data decided to
computerise the firm. List and explain the probable reasons for taking such a
decision.
3. How can you improve the quality of information?
4. List the advantages of Electronic data processing over Manual data processing.
5. List new types of I/O devices
II - Data Representation
1. List the types of data that are to be stored in computer.
2. Discuss the different data codes used in computers.
3. How will you represent integers in 1s complement form and 2s complement form.
4. Do you think 1s complement form of binary number is required? Why?
5. Convert your & yours friend roll number to binary.
6. Write down the ages of your family members and compute the total age. Convert
this age into binary, octal and hexadecimal numbers.
7. Complete the following series
0010, 0100, 0110, ............., ...........
8. Fill in the blanks
(........5.........)
16
= (1100........1001)
2
9. Sort the following terms in the order of data heirarchy in ascending order.
Byte, Bit, file, field
10. Find the missing term in the binary expression.
1111+..........=101101
III - Computer System Organisation
1. List out the components of a photoshop program window.
2. You have a large image that does not fit entirely on the screen. How will you scroll
and zoom the image?
3. If the Navigator palette is not on the screen, how will you display the navigator
pallete?
SAMPLE QUESTIONS
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4. List out the important tools in the tool box.
5. You accidently make large number of unrequired changes to your file, what are
the steps you have followed to ignore all the changes you have made?
6. Prepare a table showing the difference between bitmap and vector images.
7. List out the steps you have followed to change the size of an image.
8. You have given a scanner and scanner software (vista scan), list out the steps to
scan an image.
9. An image has many unwanted areas, how will you reduce the size of the file?
10. List out the different file formats in photoshop.
11. You want to select a parts of an image so that you can make desired changes to the
selected parts. What are the steps you have followed to do so using (i) Marque
tools (ii) Lasso tools.
12. You are asked to add position of an image to an existing selection. What are the
steps you have follwed to do so?
13. You want to select an appropriate brush size for painting and editing - tools. Which
palette will use? How?
14. How will you use Blur tool?
15. Site an example where layers can be used.
16. How will you create a new layer.
17. The data contained in a layer no longer needed. What to do?

Is A>B
Read A,B
Start
B is larger A is larger
stop stop
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18. You have type Computer on a photoshop image. How photoshop treats it?
19. List out the steps to use cutout filter.
20. One of your friend decided to start a DTP centre. Give your suggestion regarding
the purchase of hardware and software.
21. Choose the device used to conduct evaluations of objective type answers in an
examination.
MICR, OMR, OCR, Bar Code Reader
22. An organisation uses large amount of data every day for processing. Give your
suggestions to process these data accurately within a short time. Justify.
23. Computer is considered as a dumb device. Are you agree or not? Justify.
24. Classify the following terms into output device, memory and software in a table.
Hard Disk, Mouse, VDU, Windows, Printer, Keyboard ROM, Computer MICR,
CD, PageMaker, Scanner, Assembler, LCD
Unit IV - Principles of Programming
1. Write an algorithm to find the largest among three numbers. Express the algorithm
in a flow chart.
2. Locate and list errors in the following flowchart:
3. Following are the lists of phases in programming. List out the odd ones and arrange
them in correct order.
Debugging, Algorithm, Coding, Execution, Flowchart, Scanning, Documentation,
Compiler.
4. Somebody copies software without authors legal permission. Do you think it is a
crime? Why?
5. You find an error in a program segment. Name the process you use to detect and
correct the error?
Unit V - Programming in C++
1 How many ways are there in C++ to represent an Integer constant?
2. What is the difference between a and a in C++?
3. Consider the following two C++ statements. Are they equivalent?
char grade = 65; char grade = A;
4. Differentiate 25L and 25?
5. An unsigned list can be twice as large as signed int. Explain how?
6. Given the two following expressions:
i) val = 3 ii) val = = 3
i. How are these different?
ii. What will be the result of two if the value of val is 5 initially?
7. Identify errors in the following code segment.
int main()
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{
cout<<Enter two nos;
cin>>num>>auto;
float area = length * breadth;
}
8. How many ways can a variable be declared in C++?
9. Illustrate with an example that the unary negative operator? Is useful as a test for
zero?
10. Evaluate a+ = a++ + ++a if a = 20 initially.
11. Compare an if and a?: operator.
12. Can you consider the words cin and cout as keywords? Why?
13. Is it necessary to include a header file in the program? If it is not done, what
happened?
14. Can you consider char as an integer data type? If yes why?
15. What happens if break statement is oriented for the case part in the switch statement.
16. Compare execution of entry controlled and exit controlled with example.
17. List two techniques that improve readability of a program.
18. If the function call strcmp (s1, s2) returns O, what will be the conclusion?
19. A data to be displayed within the specified space? Name the suitable built in
function.
20. Give the values of m and n after the following two statements are executed?
int m=5;
int n = m++ * ++m;
21. State the difference between using the following statement
a. cin>>ch;
b. cin.get(ch);
22. Identify the problem with the following code.
int array [5]; i;
for (i=0;i<=5; i++)
cout<<array[i];
23. Suppose we want to store and process a table of item names and their cost. Can we
use a two-dimensional array? Explain?
24. In the statement given below, what is the order of evaluation of operation?
y=a*++b+m/2 ;
25. Rewrite the following codes using a while loop structure
int i
for (i=0; x<5;++i)
{
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Computer Science
//c++ statements
}
26. When do we need to use the following statement?
for(; ;)
27. What is wrong with the following definition? Correct the error
double divide (int m, int n)
{
return m/n;
}
28. What will be the output of the following code?
for (int m=0; m<5; m++)
cout<<m;
29. Replace if.........else ladder by a switch statement the following code segment.
if(x==5)
c++;
else if (x= =6)
b++;
else if(x= =9)
c++;
30. Write the output for the following code segment
cout<<He in said \n Hello /n;
Unit VI - Computer Networks
1. NICs and IITs want to exchange their information. Which type of network they
can be used?
2. List out the advantages of network.
3. Ten computers are given to you. What are the possible methods to interconnect
these computers?
4. You have a computer at home and wanted to establish an Internet connection.
What type of connection will you prefer? Justify?
5. How an Internet become an Extranet?
6. Your friend is working in abroad. He needs your recent photograph urgently to
get a Visa. What is the fastest way to send it?
7. Explain ISI-OSI reference model.
8. Explain TCP/IP reference model.
9. 9. There are 20 computers in your lab.
a. Suggest the most suitable topology to interconnect these computers with reason.
b. What are the other hardware requirements?
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Unit VII - Digital Electronics
1. List out the difference between Boolean Algebra and Algebra in Mathematics.
2. State and prove De-Morgans Theorem.
3. List out the basic logic operators and draw their truth table.
4. Draw the symbols of basic gates and advanced gates with their truth table.
5. How will you make full adder using half adder?