84 views

Uploaded by cataice

Basics

- Marshall Test
- Lab 2 BJT Transistors Lab
- D5-D5M − 13 Penetration of bituminous materials
- Thevenin's Theorem
- Thevenin's and Norton's Theorem
- Three Phase Induction Motor
- Thevenins Theorem Lab Report-libre (1)
- Determination of Needle Penetration of Bituminous Material
- SUG413 - Advanced Engineering Survey (Setting-Out Survey)
- Thevenins Theorem Lab Report
- Simply Supported UDL Beam Formulas _ Bending Moment Equations
- Thevenin s Theorem
- Spot Speed Study
- Analysis of a Simply Supported Beam
- Maximum Power Transfer Theorem
- Verification Thevenin’s Theorem and Maximum Power Transfe
- Reactions and Moment for Propped Cantilever Beam Subjected to Point Load and Uniformly Distributed Load
- Spot Speed Study
- Simply Supported Beam
- marshall test

You are on page 1of 5

uk 1

EDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA

MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS

NQF LEVEL 3

OUTCOME 1 - LOADING SYSTEMS

TUTORIAL 2 SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAMS

1. Be able to determine the effects of loading in static engineering systems

Non-concurrent coplanar force systems: graphical representation e.g. space and free body

diagrams; resolution of forces in perpendicular directions e.g. F

x

= F Cos, F

y

= F Sin, vector

addition of forces, conditions for static equilibrium ( F

x

= 0, F

y

= 0, M = 0), resultant,

equilibrant, line of action

Simply supported beams: conditions for static equilibrium; loading (concentrated loads, uniformly

distributed loads, support reactions)

Loaded components: elastic constants (modulus of elasticity, shear modulus); loading (uniaxial

loading, shear loading); effects e.g. direct stress and strain including dimensional change, shear

stress and strain, factor of safety

INTRODUCTION

The importance use of the knowledge gained from tutorial No.1 is in the solution of problems

involving beams and other structures. These problems require us to solve the reaction forces where

they rest or are attached to the surroundings and the solution of the forces and moments inside the

material of the structures. Fortunately in this unit you are only required to study simply supported

beams.

You might be asking the question, what is a beam? Well a beam is a structure that is loaded

laterally (sideways) to its length. These loads produce bending and bending is the most severe way

of stressing a component. Suppose you were given a simple rod or a ruler and asked to break it. You

would struggle to break it by stretching it or twisting it but it would be easily to break it by bending

it. A beam may be obvious when it is a girder or a length of timber like a plank but a beam can be

any structure with side loads. So what is a simply supported beam? Quite simply it is a beam that

rests on supports without being attached to them. We usually idealise the supports as sharp edges or

rollers so that the force acting at these points can only be normal (90

o

) to the length. The forces that

act at the resting points are called the reaction forces and you need to be able to calculate these first.

SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM

D.J.Dunn www.freestudy.co.uk 2

1. FINDING THE REACTION FORCES

REACTION FORCES

A reaction force is the force applied to a beam or other structure when it rests against something. In

this tutorial we are only going to examine the reactions to the loads acting on a beam resting on

simple supports as shown in the diagram. The loads are point loads. The rests are knife edges or

rollers. We consider that a knife edge pushes upwards vertically with reaction forces R

a

and R

b

as

shown. Reactions are solved by applying two simple rules.

A body in equilibrium has no resultant force in any direction. F

y

= 0

A body in equilibrium has no resultant turning moment in any direction. M = 0

By applying these principles we can solve the reactions.

POINT LOADS

A point load is a load or force that acts at a single point on a structure and it is depicted by a single

arrow on diagrams.

WORKED EXAMPLE No. 1

The free body diagram shown is for a simply supported beam with point loads. Calculate the

reaction forces R

a

and R

b

.

MOMENTS M = 0 about any point so it is convenient here to use the left end at the point

where R

a

acts. Since the reaction at that point cannot produce a moment, it is eliminated from

the balance. (Remember clockwise is negative)

(R

b

x 5) - (60 x 4) - (20 x 2) = 0

(R

b

x 5) = (60 x 4) + (20 x 2)

R

b

= 280/5 = 56 kN

VERTICAL FORCES F

y

= 0 (remember up is positive)

R

a

+ R

b

- 20 - 60 = 0

R

a

+ R

b

= 80 kN

R

a

+ 56 = 80 Kn

R

a

= 80 - 56 = 24 kN

D.J.Dunn www.freestudy.co.uk 3

WORKED EXAMPLE No.2

Although lattice frames are part of this unit, it is worth remembering that a rigid structure like

this is really a beam. Calculate the reaction forces R

a

and R

b

. All the angles are 45

o

.

SOLUTION

Since all the angle are 45

o

the horizontal distances between each force must be 2 m and the end

forces must be 1 m from the ends.

Take moments about R

b

(you could try doing it about Ra and show that you get the right

answers that way as well).

M = 0

(10 x 5) + (20 x 3) + (30 x 1) - (R

a

x 6) = 0

50 + 60 + 30 = 6R

a

R

a

= 140/6 = 23.33 kN

F

y

= 0

R

a

+ R

b

- 10 - 20 - 30 = 0

23.33 + R

b

- 10 - 20 - 30 = 0

R

b

= 60 - 23.33 = 36.67 kN

UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LOADS (u.d.l.)

A uniform load is one which is evenly distributed along a length such as the weight of the beam or a

wall built on top of a beam. It is depicted by a series of arrows as shown. We usually denote the

loading as w Newtons per metre.

We deal with uniform loads by replacing them with an equivalent point load.

If the load extends over a length x metres then the total load is F = wx Newton. We replace the

u.d.l. with a single point load at the middle a distance of x/2 metres from the end.

D.J.Dunn www.freestudy.co.uk 4

WORKED EXAMPLE No. 3

A uniform load on a beam is shown below. It has a value of 2.5 kN per metre. Calculate the

reaction forces.

SOLUTION

If the load is 2.5 kN for each metre of length then the total load is 4 x 2.5 = 10 kN

This load is equivalent to a single point load at the middle of 10 kN. It should be apparent that

in this case, the reactions must be equal to half the total load so are both 5 kN acting up. Lets

do the calculation anyway. Taking moments about R

b

we have

(10 x 2) - (R

a

x 4 ) = 0 4R

a

= 20 R

a

= 5 kN

Balancing vertical forces R

a

+ R

b

- 10 = 0 5 + R

b

- 10 = 0 R

b

= 5 kN

WORKED EXAMPLE No. 4

A beam 4 m long rests on simple supports and carries a uniform load of 2.5 kN/m over the first

1.5 m as shown. Calculate the reaction forces.

The total load is now 1.5 x 2.5 = 3.75 kN This acts at the middle of the length 0.75 m

from the end. Balancing moments about R

a

we have

(R

b

x 4) - (3.75 x 0.75) = 0 R

b

= 2.8125/4 = 0.703 kN

Balancing vertical forces R

b

+ R

a

= 3.75 R

a

= 3.75 - 0.703 = 3.05 kN

D.J.Dunn www.freestudy.co.uk 5

SELF ASSESSMENT EXERCISE No. 1

Solve the reactions for each case below.

1.

(Answers 0.75 and 0.25 kN)

2.

(Answers 4.25 and 2.75 kN)

3.

(Answers 5.375 and 2.625 kN)

4.

(Answers 5kN and 7 kN)

- Marshall TestUploaded byAli M. Chehadeh
- Lab 2 BJT Transistors LabUploaded byrangebyte
- D5-D5M − 13 Penetration of bituminous materialsUploaded byPedro Alvelais
- Thevenin's TheoremUploaded byKevin Rodriguez
- Thevenin's and Norton's TheoremUploaded byDozdi
- Three Phase Induction MotorUploaded byRaghu Jgfyc
- Thevenins Theorem Lab Report-libre (1)Uploaded byAL Rajhi Zakaria
- Determination of Needle Penetration of Bituminous MaterialUploaded byTom Fraser
- SUG413 - Advanced Engineering Survey (Setting-Out Survey)Uploaded byMuhammad Ruzaini
- Thevenins Theorem Lab ReportUploaded byAbdullah
- Simply Supported UDL Beam Formulas _ Bending Moment EquationsUploaded bySara Ad
- Thevenin s TheoremUploaded byAldren RebaLde
- Spot Speed StudyUploaded byEngr. Ikhwan Z.
- Analysis of a Simply Supported BeamUploaded byBen
- Maximum Power Transfer TheoremUploaded byhussainsaifee
- Verification Thevenin’s Theorem and Maximum Power TransfeUploaded byabdullah86
- Reactions and Moment for Propped Cantilever Beam Subjected to Point Load and Uniformly Distributed LoadUploaded byshahidatulahmad
- Spot Speed StudyUploaded byFaeez Zain
- Simply Supported BeamUploaded byGelbert Silot
- marshall testUploaded byZick Zickry
- Dc Maximum Power Transfer Theorem ProofUploaded bySahil Abrol
- Maximum Power Transfer TheoremUploaded bylekasanshitha
- Equations of StateUploaded bySpr FA
- Marshall TestUploaded byDhany
- Strength of MaterialsUploaded byHenry Hong
- Course 3 Flat Slab DesignUploaded bymariobrossmarion33
- MSJC PROVISIONS FOR THE DESIGN OF MASONRY DEEP BEAMS.pdfUploaded byEmerald DonGon
- Stress and Strain IntroUploaded bykurdufani21

- Machine FoundationsUploaded bynizamaniza
- 183140654-Feynman-Exercises-Volume-2.pdfUploaded bycataice
- [Design of Composite Materials and StructuresUploaded bycataice
- [Lec Dt3 Journal BearingsUploaded bycataice
- 00 - Propriedades Do Cobre (Www_copper_org)Uploaded bynicacio_89507470
- Flat Plate Deflection Chapter13 1Uploaded byFeeling_so_fly
- AA-SM-005-002 Bolted Connections - 2- Bolt BendingUploaded bycataice
- AA-SM-003 Beam in a SocketUploaded bycataice
- AA SM 002 002 Torsion Irregular SectionsUploaded bycataice
- AA SM 002 001 Torsion Regular SectionsUploaded bycataice
- AA SM 001 000 Section PropertiesUploaded bycataice
- Summary of Reports, Gust Alleviation FactorsUploaded bycataice
- Tm214323 Fastener TorqueUploaded bycataice

- Maya BasicsUploaded bypkm7929
- asapmlsUploaded byAdam Heđi
- BS 8666-2000Uploaded byZineNBA
- ProSheet GuidelinesUploaded byTri Nguyen
- Lab Manual(CP Lab-II).docUploaded bythangamkarna
- International Boiling Point Project RubricUploaded bygjohnston9077
- Translational Mechanical SystemUploaded bycfairiha
- lab10-3.docUploaded byNur Syahida Dhillon
- Parallel and Counter FlowUploaded byJaiganesh
- I'm from the street man I feel like sesame, uhUploaded by;(
- Reza approach.pdfUploaded byfondexx
- Fem of Double Wishbone SuspensionUploaded byShubham Gupta
- Mini Project AbstractUploaded byVasanth Reddy
- Management Problem, Research Objective, HypothesisUploaded byhumairjafri2011
- Angle Pair RelationshipsUploaded byYoAmoNYC
- Report Making FormatUploaded byVarun Pillai
- MA Viva BankUploaded byManish Narkhede
- Introduction to counting processesUploaded byMarlon Santos
- Pelton TurbineUploaded byKeith Lam
- UNIT- I NotesUploaded byGayatiri Ranganath
- Riemann IntegralUploaded byHimraj Bachoo
- 05.SixSigma.pdfUploaded byMohamed Elfawal
- label2rgbUploaded bysharmi
- Bods ScriptingUploaded byLakshmi P
- Entrepreneurial Activity in the EUUploaded byanton88be
- A Practitioner’s Defense of Return PredictabilityA Practitioner’s Defense of Return PredictabilityUploaded byborelcantelli
- Intro Bison StanfordUploaded byখালেকুজ্জামান সৈকত
- Calibration of HydrophonesUploaded byAndu Albalat
- FULLTEXT01.pdfUploaded byAnyak2014
- 6 2 reflections (day 1) lesson planUploaded byapi-280465014