Human boundaries in conservation management and consequences of limited protection

Jaguar Paradise?

David Aneurin Jones, Sara Calçada and Rebeca Chaverri
Tortuguero, Costa Rica

Email: costarica@gviworld.com Global Vision International Costa Rica, Apartado Postal 78-7209, Cariari de Pococí, Limón, Costa Rica.

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In Partnership

Rainforest Concern
Rainforest Concern was established as a registered charity in 1993 to protect the world's tropical rainforests and the incredible biodiversity they contain, together with the indigenous people who still depend on them for their survival.

Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund
Founded by Dian Fossey in 1978 to save the Gorillas. Dedicated to the conservation of gorillas and their habitats in Africa through anti-poaching, regular monitoring, research, education and support of local communities, DFGFI uniquely continues to promote the ideals and vision of Dr. Dian Fossey.

Jane Goodall Institute
Founded in 1977, the Jane Goodall Institute continues Dr. Goodall’s pioneering research of chimpanzee behavior -- research which transformed scientific perceptions of the relationship between humans and animals. Today, the Institute is a global leader in the effort to protect chimpanzees and their habitats. It also is widely recognized for establishing innovative community-centered conservation and development programs in Africa, and the Roots & Shoots education program, which has groups in more than 90 countries.

South African National Parks
SANParks is one of the world's leading conservation and scientific research bodies and a leading proponent of maintaining the indigenous natural environment.

CONANP
Comisión Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas (National Commission of Protected Natural Areas) CONANP, is a governmental body that manages 150 areas of federal property (17.8 million hectares) in Mexico with the aim of regional sustainable development for the conservation of their ecosystems and biodiversities.

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Where do we work?

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Maps: MINAET unless stated

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Maps: MINAET unless stated

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Maps: MINAET unless stated

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Maps: MINAET unless stated

Study Site

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Maps: MINAET unless stated

International Sea Turtle Symposium February 2009, Melbourne, Australia

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2008: 166

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Working in the area

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Funneling effect?
Indio Maiz Biological Reserve
3,180 km² (318,000 hectares),

Barra del Colorado Wildlife Refuge
812 km² (81,211 hectares)

Tortuguero National Park
312 km² (31,187 hectares)

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North of the border
A major threat facing these wild areas is poverty and population growth, which can drive uncontrolled agricultural expansion and over-hunting by a hungry populace. Vast expanses of unpopulated and unprotected wild lands are still found along the Nicaragua’s Caribbean coastal plain, but with limited oversight, they risk being converted into African palm plantations.
WCS http://www.wcs.org/where-we-work/latinamerica/nicaragua.aspx 17-Nov -09

Oil Palm Development on Nicaragua's Caribbean Coast
Oil palm plantations are beginning to rival coffee and bananas for agricultural lands throughout Central America, and are of particular threat to Nicaragua's Jaguar Corridor. Panthera has been conducting research to provide guidelines that will make oil palm agriculture more "jaguar friendly" rather than allow the burgeoning industry to destroy jaguar habitat.
Panthera Newletter – Issue 7 Nov 2009

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Conflict

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Conflict

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Keystone species; flagships Tortuguero – “The place of the turtles” Over 134,000 visitors in 2008 High variety of jaguar prey species Abundance of marine turtles Easy prey – little consumption Increasing isolation and loss of habitat
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Jaguar Paradise?
Human boundaries in conservation management and consequences of limited protection

David Aneurin Jones, Sara Calçada and Rebeca Chaverri
Tortuguero, Costa Rica

Email: costarica@gviworld.com Global Vision International Costa Rica, Apartado Postal 78-7209, Cariari de Pococí, Limón, Costa Rica.
costarica@gviworld.com http://gvicostarica.blogspot.com/

References
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Aranda Sánchez J.M. (1981). Rastros de los Mamíferos Silvestres de México. In. Instituto nacional de investigaciones sobre recursos bioticos, Xalapa, Ver. Autar L. (1994). Sea turtles attacked and killed by jaguars in Suriname. Marine Turtle Newsletter, 67, 11-12. Bjorndal K.A., Wetherall J.A., Bolten A.B. & Mortimer J.A. (1999). Twenty-Six Years of Green Turtle Nesting at Tortuguero, Costa Rica: An Encouraging Trend. Conservation Biology, 13, 126-134. Campbell C.L. & Lagueux C.J. (2005). Survival Probability Estimates for Large Juvenile and Adult Green Turtles (Chelonia mydas) Exposed to an Artisanal Marine Turtle Fishery in the Western Caribbean. Herpetologica, 61, 91-103. Carrillo E., Morera R.A. & Wong G. (1994). Depredación de tortuga lora (Lepidochelys olivacea) y de tortuga verde (Chelonia mydas) por el jaguar (Panthera onca). Vida Silvestre Neotropical., 3, 48-49. Chinchilla F.A. (1997). La dieta del jaguar (Panthera onca), el puma (Felis concolor) y el manigordo (Felis pardalis) en el Parque Nacional Corcovado, Costa Rica. Revista de Biologia Tropical, 45, 1223-1229. Cullen Jr. L. (2006). Jaguars as Landscape Detectives for the Conservation of Atlantic Forests in Brazil. In: Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology. Durrell Institue of Conservation and Ecology, University of Kent; PhD thesis Canterbury. Daily G., Ceballos G., Pacheco J., Suzán G. & Sanchez-Azofeita A. (2003). Countryside Biogeography of Neotropical Mammals: Conservation Oportunities in Agricultural Landscapes of Costa Rica. Conservation Biology, 17, 1814-1826. de Haro A. & Harrison E. (2006). Report del Programa de Tortuga Verde 2007. In. Caribean Conservation Corporation. de Haro A. & Troëng S. (2005). Report on the 2005 Green Program at Tortuguero, Costa Rica. In. Caribean Conservation Corporation. Engeman R.M., Martin R.E., Smith H.T., Woolard J., Crady C.K., Shwiff S.A., Constantin B., Stahl M. & Griner J. (2005). Dramatic reduction in predation on marine turtle nests through improved predator monitoring and management. Oryx, 39, 318-326. Fowler L. (1979). Hatching success and nest predation in the Green sea turtle, Chelonia Mydas, at Tortuguero Costa Rica. Ecology, 60, 946-955. Garla R., Setz E. & Gobbi N. (2001). Jaguar (Panthera onca) Food Habits in Atlantic Rain Forest of Southeastern Brazil. Biotropica, Vol., No. (Dec.), pp., 33, 691-696. Harrison E. & Troëng S. (2002). Report on the 2002 Green Program at Tortuguero, Costa Rica. In. Caribean Conservation Corporation. Harrison E., Troëng S. & Fletcher M. (2005). Jaguar Predation of Green Turtles (Chelonia mydas) in Tortuguero, Costa Rica – Current Trends and Conservation Implications. Abstracts, 25th International Sea Turtle Symposium, 2005. Heithaus M.R., Wirsing A.J., Thomson J.A. & Burkholder D.A. (2008). A review of lethal and non-lethal effects of predators on adult marine turtles. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 356, 43-51. Mora J.M., Rodríguez M.A. & López L. (2003). Sondeo Ecológico Rápido y Monitoreo de Especies Indicadoras en el Parque Nacional Tortuguero. 161 p. Mora S. (2002). Estudio rápido de manejo para una muestra de 19 áreas protegidas gerencialmente fuertes de Costa Rica. In. Wildlife Conservation Society. Nolasco D. & Debade X. (2007). Final summary of the green turtle season 2007. In. Caribean Conservation Corporation, p. 2. Núñez R., Miller B. & Lindzey F. (2000). Food habits of jaguars and pumas in Jalisco, Mexico. Journal of Zoology, 252, 373-379. Opay P. (1998). Hunting green turtles at Tortuguero, Costa Rica. Oryx, 32, 10-12. Sánchez-Azofeifa G., Daily G.C., Pfaff A.S.P. & Busch C. (2003). Integrity and isolation of Costa Rica's national parks and biological reserves: examining the dynamics of land-cover change. Biological Conservation, 109, 123-135. Sánchez-Azofeifa G.A., Harriss R.C. & Skole D.L. (2001). Deforestation in Costa Rica: A Quantitative Analysis Using Remote Sensing Imagery. BIOTROPICA, 33, 378384. Schaller B. (1972). The Serengeti Lion. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. Troëng S. (1997). Report on the 1997 Green Program at Tortuguero, Costa Rica. In. Caribean Conservation Corporation. Troëng S. (1999). Report on the 1999 Green Program at Tortuguero, Costa Rica. In. Caribean Conservation Corporation. Troëng S. (2000). Predation of green (Chelonia mydas) and leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) turtles by jaguars (Panthera onca) at Tortuguero National Park, Costa Rica. Chelonian Conservation and Biology, 3, 751-753. Troëng S. & Rankin E. (2005). Long-term conservation efforts contribute to positive green turtle Chelonia mydas nesting trend at Tortuguero, Costa Rica. Biological Conservation, 121, 111-116. Verissimo, D., Jones, D.A., & Chaverri, R. 2008-11-12 "Jaguar predation as a potential threat to populations of marine turtles" Presented at the annual meeting of the Mesoamerican Society for Biology and Conservation, Hotel Real Intercontinental, San Salvador, El Salvador Zeller K. (2007). Jaguars in the New Millennium Data Set Update: The State of the Jaguar in 2006. In. Wildlife Conservation Society, p. 77.

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Thanks
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With institutional support from

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