Notes on chapter 12.

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Notes on chapter 12.

© All Rights Reserved

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12.1 INTRODUCTION

Mechanics

a branch of physical science that is concerned with the state of rest and motion of bodies subjected to

action of forces

1. Statics

a. Concerned with the equilibrium of a body that is either at rest or moves with constant velocity

2. Dynamics

a. Concerned with bodies that have accelerated motion

b. Kinematics

The study of the geometry of the motion

c. Kinetics

The study of the forces that cause the motion

12.2 RECTILINEAR KINEMATICS: CONTINOUS MOTION

Rectilinear

Straight-line path

Rectilinear Kinematics

Kinematics of particles are characterized by position, velocity, and acceleration at any given instant in

a straight-line motion

Position

Location of particle along a single coordinate axis

Displacement

Change in position

Velocity

Average speed is total displacement divided by total time

Average velocity is displacement divided by total time

1. Average velocity

a.

2. Instantaneous velocity

a.

Acceleration

Acceleration is zero if velocity is constant ( )

A particle that is slowing down is decelerating

A particle can have an acceleration and yet have zero velocity

1. Average acceleration

a.

2. Instantaneous acceleration

a.

Relationship between instantaneous velocity and instantaneous acceleration

Constant acceleration (a

c

)

Equations can be integrated to obtain formulas that relate a

c

, v, s, and t

1. Velocity as a function of time

a.

2. Position as function of time

a.

3. Velocity as a function of position

a.

12.3 RECTILINEAR KINEMATICS: ERRACTIC MOTION

Examples

D

i

f

f

e

r

e

n

t

i

a

t

e

I

n

t

e

g

r

a

t

e

12.4 GENERAL CURVILINEAR MOTION

Curvilinear

Curved path s

Curvilinear motion can cause changes in both in magnitude and direction of position, velocity, and

acceleration

Position

Path as a function of ()

Designated by the position vector r

()

Displacement

Distance along the curve

Velocity

Speed is the magnitude of v

v is tangent to the path

Average velocity is displacement divided by total time

1. Average velocity

a.

2. Instantaneous velocity

a.

3. Speed

a.

Acceleration

Acceleration is zero if velocity is constant ( )

A particle can have an acceleration and yet have zero velocity

Acceleration is tangent to the hodograph (curve) and not the path

1. Average acceleration

a.

2. Instantaneous acceleration

a.

12.5 CURVILINEAR MOTION: RECTANGULAR COMPONENTS (I, j, k)

Position

Particle at point (x, y, z) on the curved path s

1. Position vector

a.

2. Magnitude of r

a.

Velocity

1. Velocity vector

a.

()

()

()

b.

2. Magnitude of velocity

a.

Acceleration

1. Velocity vector

c.

()

()

()

d.

2. Magnitude of velocity

b.

12.6 MOTON OF A PROJECTILE

Constant downward acceleration a

c

1. Horizontal Motion

a. Velocity as a function of time

b. Position as a function time

c. Velocity as a function of position

2. Vertical Motion

a. Velocity as a function of time

b. Position as a function time

c. Velocity as a function of position

)

12.7 CURVILINEAR MOTION: NORMAL AND TANGENTIAL COMPONENTS (n and t)

Planar Motion

Using n (normal) and t (tangent) to describe

motion

u is used to designate a unit vector

radius of curvature is

Velocity

(

Acceleration

1.

a. The tangential component of acceleration

represents the time rate of change in the

magnitude of the velocity.

2.

a. The normal component of acceleration represents the

time rate of change in the direction of the velocity

b.

3.

4.

5. Magnitude of acceleration

12.8 CURVILINEAR MOTION: CYLINDRICAL COMPONENTS (r and )

12.9 ABSOLUTE DEPENDENT MOTION ANALYSIS OF TWO PARTICLES

Example 1

Position

Velocity

Acceleration

Example 2

Position

Velocity

Acceleration

12.10 RELATIVE-MOTION OF TWO PARTICLES USING TRANSLATING AXES

Position

Absolute position of each particle, r

A

and r

B

, is measured

from the common fixed origin O

Particle B moves with particle A with each having their own axis

The axes of B and A are permitted to translate (move) relative

to the fixed axis of O

The position of B is measured relative to A

is denoted by the relative-position vector

r

B/A

Velocity

Acceleration

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