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# Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics

## Chapter 12 Kinematics of a Particle

12.1 INTRODUCTION
Mechanics
a branch of physical science that is concerned with the state of rest and motion of bodies subjected to
action of forces
1. Statics
a. Concerned with the equilibrium of a body that is either at rest or moves with constant velocity
2. Dynamics
a. Concerned with bodies that have accelerated motion
b. Kinematics
The study of the geometry of the motion
c. Kinetics
The study of the forces that cause the motion
12.2 RECTILINEAR KINEMATICS: CONTINOUS MOTION
Rectilinear
Straight-line path
Rectilinear Kinematics
Kinematics of particles are characterized by position, velocity, and acceleration at any given instant in
a straight-line motion
Position
Location of particle along a single coordinate axis
Displacement
Change in position

Velocity
Average speed is total displacement divided by total time
Average velocity is displacement divided by total time

1. Average velocity
a.

2. Instantaneous velocity
a.

Acceleration
Acceleration is zero if velocity is constant ( )
A particle that is slowing down is decelerating
A particle can have an acceleration and yet have zero velocity

1. Average acceleration
a.

2. Instantaneous acceleration
a.

Relationship between instantaneous velocity and instantaneous acceleration

Constant acceleration (a
c
)

Equations can be integrated to obtain formulas that relate a
c
, v, s, and t
1. Velocity as a function of time
a.

2. Position as function of time
a.

3. Velocity as a function of position
a.

12.3 RECTILINEAR KINEMATICS: ERRACTIC MOTION
Examples

D
i
f
f
e
r
e
n
t
i
a
t
e

I
n
t
e
g
r
a
t
e

12.4 GENERAL CURVILINEAR MOTION
Curvilinear
Curved path s
Curvilinear motion can cause changes in both in magnitude and direction of position, velocity, and
acceleration
Position
Path as a function of ()
Designated by the position vector r
()
Displacement
Distance along the curve

Velocity
Speed is the magnitude of v
v is tangent to the path
Average velocity is displacement divided by total time
1. Average velocity
a.

2. Instantaneous velocity
a.

3. Speed
a.

Acceleration
Acceleration is zero if velocity is constant ( )
A particle can have an acceleration and yet have zero velocity

Acceleration is tangent to the hodograph (curve) and not the path

1. Average acceleration
a.

2. Instantaneous acceleration
a.

12.5 CURVILINEAR MOTION: RECTANGULAR COMPONENTS (I, j, k)
Position
Particle at point (x, y, z) on the curved path s
1. Position vector
a.
2. Magnitude of r
a.

Velocity
1. Velocity vector
a.

()

()

()

b.

2. Magnitude of velocity
a.

Acceleration
1. Velocity vector
c.

()

()

()

d.

2. Magnitude of velocity
b.

12.6 MOTON OF A PROJECTILE
Constant downward acceleration a
c

1. Horizontal Motion
a. Velocity as a function of time

b. Position as a function time

c. Velocity as a function of position

2. Vertical Motion
a. Velocity as a function of time

b. Position as a function time

c. Velocity as a function of position

)

12.7 CURVILINEAR MOTION: NORMAL AND TANGENTIAL COMPONENTS (n and t)
Planar Motion
Using n (normal) and t (tangent) to describe
motion
u is used to designate a unit vector
radius of curvature is
Velocity
(

Acceleration
1.

a. The tangential component of acceleration
represents the time rate of change in the
magnitude of the velocity.
2.

a. The normal component of acceleration represents the
time rate of change in the direction of the velocity
b.

## always acts toward the center of curvature (centripetal acceleration)

3.

4.

5. Magnitude of acceleration

12.8 CURVILINEAR MOTION: CYLINDRICAL COMPONENTS (r and )

12.9 ABSOLUTE DEPENDENT MOTION ANALYSIS OF TWO PARTICLES
Example 1
Position

Velocity

Acceleration

Example 2
Position

Velocity

Acceleration

12.10 RELATIVE-MOTION OF TWO PARTICLES USING TRANSLATING AXES
Position
Absolute position of each particle, r
A
and r
B
, is measured
from the common fixed origin O
Particle B moves with particle A with each having their own axis
The axes of B and A are permitted to translate (move) relative
to the fixed axis of O
The position of B is measured relative to A
is denoted by the relative-position vector
r
B/A

Velocity

Acceleration