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FLUOR DANIEL

PROCESS MANUAL

PIPING HYDRAULICS AND SPECIFICATION
BOOK 1

PNEUMATIC CONVEYING
SECTION TOC

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DATE 8-94

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8.0 PNEUMATIC CONVEYING
8.1 INTRODUCTION
8.2 GAS-SOLIDS FLOW THEORY
8.2.1 General
8.2.2 Vertical Upward Flow
8.2.3 Horizontal Flow
8.2.4 Material Characteristics
8.2.5 Design Calculation Methods
8.3 TYPES OF PNEUMATIC CONVEYING SYSTEMS
8.3.1 Dilute Phase Systems
8.3.2 Dense Phase Systems
8.4 SYSTEM SELECTION AND DESIGN
8.4.1 System Type
8.4.2 Pipeline Design
8.4.3 Mode of Operation
8.4.4 Solids Feeder
8.4.5 Air Mover
8.4.6 Gas-Solid Separation Equipment
8.4.7 Solids Storage
8.4.8 Factors Affecting System Design
8.5 SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS
8.5.1 Introduction
8.5.2 Dust Explosions - General
8.5.3 Sizing of Vents - Basic Methods
8.5.4 Factors Affecting Estimation of Vent Size
8.5.5 Venting Considerations for Pneumatic Conveying Equipment
8.5.6 Control of Ignition
8.5.7 Inerting
8.6 REFERENCES, CODES AND STANDARDS

FLUOR DANIEL

PROCESS MANUAL

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8.7 APPENDICES
8.7.1 Appendix I: Design Calculation Methods
8.7.2 Appendix 2 :
8.7.3 Appendix 3: Fluor Daniel Shortcut Calculation Method
8.7.4 Appendix 4: Fluor Daniel Modified Allied Flotronics Method
8.7.5 Appendix 5: Fischer-Gerchow Method
8.7.6 Appendix 6: Fan Engineering Method
8.7.7 Appendix 7A: Konno and Saito Correlation (FPS Units)
8.7.8 Appendix 8
8.7.9 Appendix 9: Bulk Solid Material Characteristics
8.7.10 Appendix 10: Not Used.
8.7.11 Appendix 11
8.7.12 Appendix 12
8.7.13 Appendix 13: Sieves
8.7.14 Appendix 14: Not used
8.7.15 Appendix 15: Not used
8.7.16 Appendix 16: Not used
8.7.17 Appendix 17A: Airlock Size and RPM Calculation
8.7.18 Appendix 18A: Diverter Valve Application Chart
(a)

8.7.19 Appendix 19A: Filter Air-to-Cloth Ratio Selection A:C = (AxBxCxDxE):1
8.7.20 Appendix 20: Properties of Common Vapors and Gases
8.7.21 Appendix 21: Altitude - Pressure - Temperature - Density Table of air
8.7.22 Appendix 22: Economics
8.7.23 Appendix 23: Fundamental Burning Velocities of Selected Gases and Dusts
8.7.24 Appendix 24: Fire Hazard Properties of Selected Liquids, Gases and Volatile Solids
8.7.25 Appendix 25: Defining the Limits of Hazardous (Classified) Locations For Compliance with
National Electrical Code
8.7.26 Appendix 26: Explosion Properties of Dusts
8.7.27 Appendix 27: Equipment Data Sheets - Process Input
8.7.28 Appendix 28: Sample Specification
8.8 INDEXES TO FIGURES AND TABLES (NARRATIVE AND APPENDICES)
8.8.1 Index of Figures
8.8.2 Index of Tables

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PIPING HYDRAULICS AND SPECIFICATION
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8.0 PNEUMATIC CONVEYING

8.1 INTRODUCTION

Pneumatic conveying is widely used in the process industries for the handling of dry bulk
solid materials, in powdered, granular or pelletized form.

Pneumatic Conveying vs. Mechanical Systems

Advantages over Mechanical
- Fewer moving parts
- Compact layout in product section
- Multiple pickups/discharges
- Completely enclosed
- Heat/cool/dry/blend

Disadvantages
- Low efficiency
- High velocity attrits and erodes
- Inert or dry gas needed to prevent explosions or moisture pickup

There are two broad types of systems, dilute phase and dense phase.

Dense Phase vs. Dilute Phase

Advantages of Dense Over Dilute Phase

- Reduced wear from abrasive products
- Reduced breakage for friable products
- Reduced skins and fines for polymers

Disadvantages

- Requires multiple systems for multiple pickups

Pneumatic conveying systems have a variety of applications including unloading of
stockpiles, feeding raw materials to process units and transferring product to or from storage
bins.

FLUOR DANIEL

PROCESS MANUAL

PIPING HYDRAULICS AND SPECIFICATION
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This manual is intended to provide a guide towards establishing a logical basis for the
preliminary selection and specification of a conveying system, and to enable informed
evaluation of alternative tenders by conveying system vendors.

A valuable published work on the subject is the "Pneumatic Conveying Design Guide" by
David Mills. It contains an exhaustive treatment of conveyer design and a wealth of
experimental data. This document has drawn upon Mills' work and other published and
unpublished data. A few selected articles are listed at the end of this manual and provide
additional insight into the design and operation of pneumatic conveying systems.

Stokes' Law states that the terminal velocity of a particle falling through a fluid is
determined by the particle density, diameter, shape, and fluid properties such as density
and viscosity. Translated into pneumatic conveying terms, a flowing gas will drag
particles with it above a gas velocity which is characteristic of the solid particle and gas
physical properties, and particle shape. This characteristic gas velocity is known as the
saltation velocity. Particles traveling above the saltation velocity are suspended in stream
flow with the gas, or are entrained in the gas stream. System pressure drop is the sum of
the energy losses in the system. These losses are described by an energy balance, and
include terms for gas acceleration, solids acceleration, gas friction loss, solids friction
loss, and static losses in vertical flow. In pneumatic conveying systems, this energy
balance describes a two-phase compressible flow system, and is therefore usually a trial-
and-error calculation procedure. All available procedures are approximations, have
dependence upon average solids material characteristics, which can vary widely, making
design calculations difficult to make with certainty. Inexperienced engineers should
apply these methods with caution. The approaches presented in this manual will yield
suitably conservative estimates, but must be verified by either direct experience with the
material in question, or laboratory tests.

8.2 GAS-SOLIDS FLOW THEORY

8.2.1 General

An appreciation of the nature of two-phase gas-solid flow within an enclosed
duct is needed to understand the flow regimes in pneumatic conveying. A
pneumatic conveying system is generally made up of sections of straight pipe,
some of which are vertically oriented and normally carry solid material in an
upward direction, and some which are horizontally oriented and provide for flow
in lateral, horizontal directions.

There is a distinct difference in the flow and transport characteristics of gas-solid
systems between vertical and horizontal flow. This can be seen in the analyses
presented below. It is also recognizable in plant operations in the form of line
vibrations which may occur at too high a solids loading or too low a gas flow
rate.


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Figure 8-1

VERTICAL CONVEYING PHASE DIAGRAM


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8.2.2 Vertical Upward Flow

The phase diagram in vertical conveying is illustrated in Figure 8-1. It consists
of a plot of pressure drop per unit length versus superficial gas velocity, with the
specific solid flow rate as a parameter, and is most conveniently drawn on log-
log coordinate paper. Such a phase diagram is specific for a given conveying
fluid density and viscosity, for a given pipe size and for a given density and
particle size of the conveyed material. Representation on such a plot indicates
the bounds within which a vertical conveying line may operate and the attendant
pressure drop and required gas rate. The curve for the empty pipe represents a
lower bound; the dilute suspension "fluidization" curve represents another
boundary (essentially the free fall or terminal velocity of the largest particle in
the material to be conveyed), and the available pressure drop represents an upper
bound. Within this area vertical pneumatic conveying may be carried out, with
the following main types of flow being identified:
- Dilute Phase Flow - At low solid-gas ratios the particles are carried upwards
in the flowing gas steam as a uniform suspension.
- Dense Phase Flow - Occurs at higher solid-gas ratios and may be either
slugging or non-slugging. Heavy/coarse particles tend to be carried upward
as a series of slugs. Small/light particles may be transported upward without
slugging but with a large amount of internal recirculation occurring.
- Moving Bed Flow - The product is transported upwards as a packed column,
with very little internal circulation.

The transition from dilute phase to dense phase conveying is not always clear,
particularly when dealing with materials of wide particle size distribution in
which the largest particles might slowly accumulate at a bend near the bottom of
a vertical line (if the velocity is only sufficient to carry up the fines in dilute
phase flow) until they form a slug, bridging the pipe, and are then blown up
momentarily as another slug begins to accumulate at the bottom. Such operation
might go undetected if the slugs form rapidly enough or if the total line pressure
drop is large enough to overshadow the fluctuation it would cause in the
discharge pressure of the air mover.

Ideally the transition from dilute to slugging dense phase vertical flow for a
uniform particle size material would appear as illustrated in Figure 8-1 where W
1
,
W
2
etc., represent increasing specific solid flux rates in units of mass flowrate
times the total pipe cross sectional area. At some high gas velocity represented
by Point A, the introduction of solids at a rate W
2
results in a pressure drop
greater than that necessary to push the gas alone through the pipe. As the gas
velocity is lowered, the pressure drop decreases, following a path nearly parallel
to that of the curve for the empty pipe. When the velocity has decreased to
around Point B there is a slower decline in pressure drop with further reductions
in gas velocity. This is a consequence of the slowing down of the particles and
of the resulting increase in the density of the suspension in the pipe. The

FLUOR DANIEL

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particles travel up the pipe at a lower velocity than the gas. This velocity
difference, or "slip", is related to their free fall or terminal velocity in the gas
medium. If gas were passing up the pipe at a superficial velocity equal to the
particle's free fall or terminal velocity then the particle could (theoretically) be
held in suspension, moving neither upward nor downward. Thus, as the
superficial velocity is reduced from Point A to Point B, the particles slow down
significantly. Since the net mass flowrate W, remains constant, the flowing
density or holdup must increase. This increased particle holdup, or inventory, or
suspension density, is reflected in the pressure drop; the frictional pressure drop
becomes negligible at low velocity, but the holdup or inventory pressure drop
increases, and predominates as the superficial velocity decreases from Point B to
Point C.

As the suspension density increases, the distance between particles decreases.
When, as illustrated in Figure 8-2, this distance decreases to the point where a
downstream particle gets into the wake of its following neighbor, it drops into
this wake and falls, touching its upstream neighbor, and thus effectively presents
a larger binary to the flowing gas stream. The stream cannot support this larger
particle and hence the entire suspension collapses to the bottom of the pipe. The
velocity at which this collapse of the dilute suspension occurs is referred to as the
choking velocity. Choking velocity, as illustrated in Figure 8-1 is a function of
the solid flowrate W; the greater the mass flowrate the higher the velocity needed
to maintain the particles sufficiently distant from each other to avoid
precipitating the choking condition.

If choking occurs while a continuous feed of solids is maintained at a rate W1,
the solids build up, starting at the lower end of the vertical pipe, until the
inventory reaches a point where slug flow (dense phase) becomes the steady state
mode. This sequence of events is illustrated schematically in Figure 8-3.

No good correlations for dense phase flow in vertical pipes exist (especially for
"dune" type flow), although the Particulate Solids Research Institute (PSRI) is
investigating this area.

8.2.3 Horizontal Flow

The phase diagram for horizontal conveying is more complex than that described
for vertical conveying, because it is dependent on the deaeration characteristics
of the solids being conveyed. In a vertical pipe when the solids slow down or
approach choking, they cannot fall to rest; they can only fall head-on into the
oncoming gas stream. In a horizontal pipe when the solids slow down, they can
sink to the bottom of the conveying line and either remain there as stationary
solids, still pushed along by the conveying gas as an aerated mass, or be pushed
through the pipe as deaerated slugs. As particles drop out, a layer of material
builds up, which moves in wave or "dune" flow along the bottom of the
conveying pipe, with particles in stream flow in the gas stream above the salted
layer. As velocities drop lower, the dunes fill the pipe forming pistons. Since

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gas density decreases and therefore velocity increases as the gas flows through
the conveying system, it is possible to transition from dense to dilute phase flow
in the system. The flow regime is dependent upon the solids flowrate, the gas
velocity and the solids' deaeration characteristic. The pressure drop per unit
length of pipe length differs depending upon the mode of the conveying, whether
as a dilute suspension, a dense aerated mass, or slug flow.

The various types of flow regimes as well as pipeline pressure drop versus air
velocity for horizontal and vertical pipe are shown in Figure 8-4A. Additionally,
Figure 8-4B presents five modes of gas-solids flow in horizontal pipes.

Consider first a simple situation involving conveying a relatively coarse material
of uniform particle size with air through a horizontal line; the corresponding
phase diagram, again on a log-log grid, is illustrated in Figure 8-4. The
Curve AB represents the pressure drop for the gas only and the accuracy and
reliability of prediction of the conveying pressure drop depends on the reliability
in predicting the Curve AB. If at some relatively high gas velocity solids are
constantly introduced into the line at a rate W
1
, an increased pressure drop will be
necessary to propel the gas-solids mixture through the line, as represented by
Point C in Figure 8-4. As gas velocity is reduced, the flowing frictional
resistance decreases and the observed pressure drop decreases along the Curve
CD. However, as gas velocity decreases the particle velocities also decrease,
until at some sufficiently low gas velocity, represented by Point D, the particles
"salt" out, or settle out, on the bottom surface of the pipe. The velocity at which
this occurs is termed the "saltation velocity"; it is a function of the gas and solids
characteristics and also of the pipe size.

When dealing with relatively coarse and uniform particle sizes, saltation is
generally accompanied by a rapid filling up of the pipe to nearly half its cross
section. Thereafter, steady state conveying proceeds in the open space above the
salted layer. As gas velocity is further reduced, the salted layer becomes deeper,
thereby further restricting the pipe area and resulting in a rising pressure drop as
along Curve EF.

Comparing Figure 8-4 for horizontal flow, with Figure 8-1 for vertical flow, it
becomes evident that in the case of vertical flow the particle free fall or terminal
velocity represents an ultimate lower velocity limit below which essentially no
dilute phase vertical conveying can occur; in the case of horizontal flow there
must also exist some similar lower limit. The lower limit in horizontal conveying
must be the minimum velocity necessary to convey a single particle through the
pipe without having it salt out; i.e., the single-particle saltation velocity or the
saltation velocity at zero loading.


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Figure 8-2

CHOKING VELOCITY PHENOMENA






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Figure 8-3

SCHEMATIC OF SOLID BUILD-UP FROM DILUTE TO DENSE PHASE



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Figure 8-4A

FLOW REGIMES & PRESSURE DROP FOR HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL PIPELINES



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Figure 8-4B

MODES OF COCURRENT GAS-SOLIDS FLOW IN HORIZONTAL PIPES


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Figure 8-4

HORIZONTAL CONVEYING PHASE DIAGRAM


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As applicable to pneumatic conveying, the effective single particle saltation
velocity is that velocity at which the particle will travel through the pipe,
occasionally hitting the walls, such that the contact is minimal and not normally
detectable. Measurement of single particle saltation velocities reveals that there
are several distinct velocity criteria applicable to concurrent fluid particle flow
when a particle is dropped into a stream flowing through a pipe:

a) The minimum velocity needed to move the particle, though without
transporting it an appreciable distance before it finally comes to rest
(presumably related to the particles' orientation in its most stable position of
rest).
b) The minimum velocity required to transport a particle by rolling or bouncing
along the bottom of the pipe.
c) The minimum velocity required to transport an injected particle, without
saltation, in fully suspended flow.
d) The minimum velocity required to pick up a particle from rest on the bottom
of the pipe and transport it.
e) The minimum velocity required to pick up a particle from a layer of particles
and transport it through the pipe.
f) Conditions a to e correspond to increasing velocities in that order. Practical
considerations suggest that criteria c and e are the most significant in
horizontal conveying. In general, criterion e corresponds to a superficial
velocity 2 - 2 times that of criterion c. Criterion c is considered to
correspond to the single particle saltation velocity which, as illustrated in
Figure 8-4, represents the minimum conveying velocity in horizontal pipes,
analogous to the choking velocity in Figure 8-1.

The factor of 2 - 2 between criteria c and e is in agreement with observations
that when saltation occurs the pipe fills up nearly half full (doubling the velocity
in the space above the salted layer) before steady state conveying is restored.

8.2.4 Material Characteristics

There are two primary considerations in determining the practicability of and the
design of pneumatic conveying system; first is the material's characteristics, and
second is the system's design parameters.
Material characteristics can vary widely in the same material in ways which can
significantly impact pneumatic conveying systems. Bulk or apparent density is
the uncompressed apparent density of the solids. True density is the actual
density of the material without void space in between the particles. Bulk density
includes the void space, which lowers the density of the powder when compared
to the solid itself. If the bulk density is variable (aeration is greater or lesser), the
feed rate into a pneumatic conveying system can vary greatly, particularly in
systems which are fed volumetrically. Feed rate variation can cause surging,

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which if extreme could plug the system.

Particle size and distribution can also cause the bulk density to vary since fine
materials become aerated more readily, lowering the bulk density. Fine materials
may work in one conveying system, but not in another. For example, fine
materials may not perform well in piston type dense phase systems over long
distances. Some materials readily break into smaller particles (i.e., are friable).
This tendency may reduce the value of the material or cause excessive losses.
Low velocity dense phase systems can be used to reduce this type of degradation.
Particle shape will affect system selection as well. Efficiency of conveying and
separation equipment is affected by particle shape. Long, thin particles such as
fibers cannot be separated efficiently using a cyclone. They are carried through
with the gas. These particles must be filtered.

Materials with a high moisture content can stick inside piping causing plugs, clog
rotary valves and blind filters such as dust collectors. Cohesive powders can act
like moist powders since the particles may form large agglomerates with
pressure.

Some powders, especially refractories, are highly abrasive. Abrasive powders
are typically handled in dense phase systems, which have low velocities. Low
velocity reduces wear. Refractory liners, and special fittings such as vortex
elbows or blinded tee elbows are used to control wear in dilute phase systems.

Other considerations include whether the material is toxic, carcinogenic, an
irritant, flammable, hygroscopic, or explosive. Most organic and metal powders
are explosive or flammable when fine enough.

A summary of design problems, the principle effects of a materials
characteristics, and the design approach to solve the design problem follows.


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Design Problem Principle Effects Approach to Solution

Flow
Characteristics
Power consumption; uniformity
of operation.
Velocity control; use of
feeders.

Attrition
(Degradation)
Product damage; change in flow
characteristics; increase in
explosive hazard.
Reduce bends; lower
velocity; dense phase
conveying
.
Bulk Density Power consumption; tendency
to aerate.
Velocity control.
Component sizing.

Particle Size Power consumption; build-up in
ducts. Filter efficiency.
Velocity control. Filter
design.

Abrasiveness Accelerated component wear. Velocity control.

Moisture
Sensitivity
Caking in storage; product
spoilage.
Dry conveying medium;
ventilation in storage.

Toxicity Personnel hazard. Vacuum systems.

Temperature
Sensitivity

Product damage. Cool conveying medium.
Chemical
Activity

Corrosion; contamination. Material of construction.

Odors Spoilage of foods. Special filters.

This table is taken from the lecture notes by Hendrik Colijn, Consulting
Engineer, Transportation & Material Handling Services, for a "Pneumatic
Conveying Systems" course.

8.2.5 Design Calculation Methods

Dilute phase design calculation methods include the Zenz-Othmer method, the
Fischer-Gerchow method, the Fan Engineering method, the short-cut method
used at Fluor Daniel, the Modified Allied Flotronics method and the Konno-Saito
correlation recommended by PSRI. All of these methods involve some form of
energy balance equation analogous to the Bernoulli equation in fluid hydraulics.
The Fischer-Gerchow and Fan Engineering methods focus on a momentum
equation which use empirical material friction factors. These material factors are
usually proportional to the tangent of the angle of repose. The Kenz-Othmer and
Konno-Saito methods use the gas frictional loss and a material to gas loading
ratio, avoiding the empirical factors, but producing conservative solutions:

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a) Fluor Daniel Short-cut Method
b) Modified Allied Flotronics Method (Modified by Fluor Daniel Houston)
c) Fischer-Gerchow Method
d) Fan Engineering Method
e) Konno-Saito Method (PSRI)
f) Zenz-Othmer Method (Solt)

Dense phase design calculation methods include various graphical phase diagram
methods, the Zenz-Other method (for two-phase "dune" or "wave" flow), and the
PSRI method (for "slug" or "piston" flow).

a) Phase Diagram Method (Graphical)
b) Zenz-Othmer Method (Solt)
c) PSRI Method

The three basic parameters calculated for pneumatic conveying systems are
conveying line size, system pressure drop, and gas mover horsepower. The
various calculation methods as well as example problems are included in
Appendix 8.7.

8.3 TYPES OF PNEUMATIC CONVEYING SYSTEMS

In pressure systems a source of pressurized gas is positioned at the supply end of the
system. Pressure is used to push gas through the conveying system through the pick-up
point, and a cyclone or dust collector which disengages the solids from the flowing gas at
the solids destination. The gas is discharged directly to the atmosphere. Pressure
systems may operate in dilute, dense, or some combination flow regime. Pressure
sources include fans, rotary lobe blowers, centrifugal blowers and various types of
compressors The solids flow capacity and ultimate conveying distance will be limited by
the pressure the source is able to supply. The conveying gas may be air or some inert gas
such as nitrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, or argon.

In vacuum systems a fan or blower is positioned on the discharge end of the system. A
vacuum is pulled on the conveying system through the pick-up (material feed) point, and
a cyclone or dust collector which disengages the solids from the flowing gas at the solids
destination. The gas is exhausted from the flowing gas at the solids destination. The gas
is exhausted from the fan or blower to atmosphere. Vacuum systems are typically dilute
phase systems using fans or rotary lobe blowers to provide the vacuum. Small systems
may use regenerative blowers as well. Dense phase vacuum conveying may be used over
short distances.



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Closed systems are used to limit the make-up of inert gas or conditioned air required for
some systems. These systems can be operated in pressure or vacuum, but are typically
operated with a minimum system pressure just over ambient atmospheric pressure with
inert atmospheres. Setting a slightly positive minimum system pressure ensures that the
system will leak out, keeping air (oxygen) from entering the system. These systems can
be treated the same as the pressure system, except that the fan, blower, or compressor
discharges through the system, ending at the suction, instead of exhausting to
atmosphere. System pressure is controlled by bleeding excess gas and adding make-up at
the system minimum pressure point, typically at the fan, blower, or compressor suction.
Temperature is controlled by an aftercooler at the discharge of the fan, blower or
compressor. It is important in designing closed loop systems that the design pressures of
bins, hoppers, silos, and solids disengagement equipment such as cyclones and dust
collectors be considered carefully. Typically such equipment is a very low design
pressure (-4" W.C. to +12" W.C.). Locate bins, hoppers, and silos at or near the system
low pressure point in order to minimize the required design pressure. Dust collectors and
cyclones are readily available with design pressures up to +100" W.C., but typically are
limited to 30" W.C. All these vessels and equipment may be designed for much higher
pressures at much greater expense.

Combination (vacuum/pressure) systems use vacuum on the feed end of the system, and
pressure on the discharge end. Low pressure systems using fans may at times pass solids
along with the gas through the fan. Material handling fans are prone to high maintenance
due to wear. Most combined systems require a rotary lobe blower, which cannot tolerate
particulates. The material is filtered through a dust collector, and then re-fed to the
pressure side of the system.

Pneumatic conveying systems are broadly divided into dilute and dense phase systems.

8.3.1 Dilute Phase Systems

In dilute phase systems a material feeder introduces solid particles into a gas
stream, which is either created by a source of positive air pressure, or induced by
a source of vacuum. The kinetic energy of the airstream is converted into
dynamic pressure and aerodynamic lift, and the particles are fluidized and
accelerated to form a suspension. The mass ratio of solid-gas in the suspension
defined as the phase density, is less than 10:1. At the destination the particles
must be separated from the gas stream.

A variety of mechanisms may be used for feeding the material into the gas
stream. Rotary valves are the most common, although blowing seals, venturi
feeders and screw feeders have also been used. Material feeders are potential
sources of gas leakage from the system and their influence upon system selection
and design is discussed in Section 8.4.4.

The gas-solid separation devices used include cyclones, fabric filters and, in
some applications, elutriators. The selection of separation devices is primarily
dependent upon the product characteristics, as discussed in Section 8.4.6.

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The minimum conveying velocities required to achieve dilute phase flow are
typically in the range 13-15 m/sec. Volumetric expansion with declining
pressure along the pipe may therefore yield conveying velocities of the order of
40 m/sec at the outlet. Most bulk solids can be conveyed in the dilute phase
mode; the effect of particle characteristics and size distribution upon the
suitability for dilute and dense phase conveyance is critical.

Figure 8-5a shows dilute phase flow at velocities slightly above the minimum
conveying velocity; a strand of particles skips along the bottom of the pipe,
whilst the particles above this region are in fully suspended flow. Figure 8-5b
illustrates flow at higher velocities where the particles have formed a completely
uniform suspension.

Dilute phase systems may be broken down into the following categories:

- Positive pressure systems
- Vacuum systems
- Combination vacuum-pressure systems

They may be further divided into open and closed systems.

a) Positive Pressure Systems

Positive pressure systems involve a gas mover forcing gas through a pipe
into which the product is introduced, fluidized and accelerated. At the
destination a gas-solid separator removes the bulk solid from the gas.
Positive pressure systems usually have a pressure not exceeding
14.5 psig/1 barg and utilize either:

- Axial or centrifugal fans; or
- Twin lobed or positive displacement blowers

Air mover selection is discussed in Section 8.4.5.

Positive pressure systems are especially suited for delivery to multiple
destinations. Diverter valves may be used to select the direction of flow
from several alternative routes. Positive pressure systems are not
recommended where several sources feed the same conveying line via rotary
valves, because the air leakage (and energy loss) through the valves can be
significant compared to the total air volume required for conveying.

A simple positive pressure system is depicted in Figure 8-6.

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Figure 8-5


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b) Vacuum Systems

Vacuum systems operate according to the same principle as positive pressure
systems, except the solids are conveyed by an air flow induced on the suction
side of the air mover see Figure 8-7. Centrifugal fans or twin-lobed rotary
blowers are usually used in such systems. The conveying line pressure drop
for vacuum systems is limited to 7 psia/0.5 bara max. (there will be
additional pressure drop due to the gas solid separation equipment). As a
result they cannot achieve the throughputs or distances possible for an
equivalent positive pressure system. The lower air density in vacuum
systems means piping and equipment are generally larger than for pressure
systems with the same conveying rate. Feed hopper walls are thicker when
they are subjected to vacuum. Properly feeding the conveyor from the
hopper reduces the potential for hopper wall collapse. Vacuum systems need
complex pipework and isolation valves. Vacuum systems are less commonly
found in multipoint discharge systems because they are more prone to "make
up" than positive pressure systems.

Despite such disadvantages vacuum systems are ideally suited for a variety
of uses, such as vacuuming up material from stockpiles, ship unloading, and
cleaning up product spills. Vacuum systems have been successfully used in
multipoint discharge systems in batching applications such as with dry
ingredients or micro-ingredient blending. Each receiver is manifolded to a
common vacuum source and has its own vacuum valve. The number of
receivers that can be on-line simultaneously is limited only by the
vacuum source size. They are superior to positive pressure systems for
transferring product from several sources to a single destination. Leakage
across rotary valves is relatively insubstantial when compared with positive
pressure systems because of the small pressure differential across the valves
when in vacuum service. The fact that leakage is inward is also
advantageous, enabling the handling of toxic, odorous or radioactive
materials.

Air ingress must be prevented if it at all possible. However, at many points it
is probably unavoidable (e.g., at flexible piping sections used in ship
unloading). Air ingress will alter the balance of conveying air velocities and
must be accounted for in the specification of the air mover.

c) Combination Vacuum-Pressure Systems

Combined vacuum-pressure systems have the advantage of being suitable for
transferring product from multiple sources to multiple destinations. The
source hoppers may be isolated by knife gate valves, the destinations selected
by diverter valves. There are several types. The air mover serves as both an
exhaust and blower. Particle degradation and erosion make it unwise to
convey the product through the air mover, although this has been done in

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Figures 8-6 and 8-7

POSITIVE LOW PRESS & VAC SYSTEM



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some applications. As single blower "pull-push" systems tend to be
undersized, they have a history of being heavy maintenance items. On no
account should product be passed through a Roots type or a Gardner Denver
(PD lobe type) blower. Instead it should be bypassed using an intermediate
storage hopper with its own filter and feed device as depicted in Figure 8-8
and Figure 8-8A. Conservatively size the air mover, especially when using
fans, and also ensure low air-to-cloth ratios in the filters.

Dual combined systems separate the positive and negative pressure system
by means of an intermediate vessel and enable the optimum equipment item
for each service to be specified. Selection of a liquid ring vacuum pump and
a screw or reciprocating compressor, instead of the single twin-lobe rotary
blower usually used in single systems, would enable transport over a greater
distance. A schematic of a dual combined system appears in Figure 8-9 and
Figure 8-9A.

The different pressures in the two parts of the system influence the air
volume and therefore velocity; the different air densities influence the
minimum conveying air velocities. Therefore, for an equivalent solids
flowrate, different pipeline diameters may be required in the two different
parts of the system.

d) Closed Circuit Systems

Most pneumatic conveying systems draw air from the atmosphere and
discharge it to the atmosphere (via appropriate filtration equipment to protect
the air mover from damage, the product from contamination and the
environment from pollution). This arrangement is adequate for most
transport duties because the product itself is enclosed, and pollution may be
eliminated by correct design of gas-solid separators and vents.

In a closed system the discharge gas is recycled from the vent back to the air
mover suction. This recirculation of the conveying medium to (generally air
or nitrogen) reduces the demand to a small makeup supply compensate for
leakage.

Where the product characteristics dictate the use of a conveying medium
other than air, economic considerations will favor conservation of the gas in
a closed system. If the product is explosive in air, or would be
contaminated/degraded by exposure to air, an alternative medium must be
used. Nitrogen is the most common alternative medium. Other
circumstances which may necessitate the use of a closed system include the
transport of radioactive, toxic or odorous products. The effect of the product
characteristics and of the conveying medium on system selection is discussed
further in Section 8.4.



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Figure 8-8

"PULL-PUSH" CONVEYING, ONE PRIME MOVER














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Figures 8-8A

"PULL-PUSH" CONVEYING SYSTEM VACUUM PRESSURE WITH ONE PRIME MOVER




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Figure 8-9

"PULL-PUSH" CONVEYING, TWO PRIME MOVERS















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8.3.2 Dense Phase Systems

The British Standard draft definition is as follows:

"Dense phase conveying occurs when products are conveyed through
all or part of the pipeline with air velocities lower than those required
for dilute phase conveying and at phase densities equivalent to those
found in fluidized flow". The phase density is defined as the solids-
to-gas loading ratio by weight.

Dense phase systems usually operate at pressures in the range of 15-90 psig/1-
6 barg, with gas velocities of typically 3-33 ft/sec/1-10 m/sec. Initial gas
velocities and velocities at the exit greater than 10 m/sec have been observed.
Streams with phase densities of 40 and above are considered to be in dense phase
flow. Systems operating at phase densities up to 300:1 have been designed.

Dense phase systems have several advantages over dilute phase systems. They
are generally more efficient, achieving higher product throughputs at lower gas
flowrates and thereby reducing energy costs. The tendency for particle breakup
is also reduced at lower gas flowrates. The lower volumetric flowrates enable the
use of smaller air movers, piping sizes and separators. Higher pressure operation
enables conveying over much greater distances (than the few hundred meters
attainable by dilute phase systems) with some dense phase systems transporting
product as far as 3,000 m.

In most dense phase systems solids are fed to the conveying pipe using a vessel
called a "blow tank" or transporter. Blow tanks/transporters usually operate at
pressures above 1 barg; in such cases they must be designed according to the
ASME code for Pressure Vessels, Section VIII, Division 1. They, together with
the required instrumentation and control, are therefore a relatively expensive
component. Similarly, the higher pressure means that the Roots type blowers
common in dilute phase applications are usually inadequate for dense phase
systems. Instead more expensive compressors must be used, unless the gas
consumption is low enough to be accommodated by the plant air system. The
transport mechanism at such low velocities is shown in Figure 8-10. In
horizontal flow (a) Particles are metered into the pipe and remain on the bottom
because the air velocity is too low to overcome the frictional resistance, R. (b) the
particle dune increases in cross section as more particles are fed into the pipe. As
the height of the dune increases so does the air resistance force, W. (c) the dune
moves in the direction of air flow and spreads out and other dunes collide with it
forming a larger dune. The pipe cross section is reduced, the velocity increases
and the dune moves along the pipe.

In vertical flow (a) an individual particle settles when the air velocity v falls
below the terminal velocity W
S
of the particle. (b) the pressure of more particles
in the same cross section of pipe reduces the gas flow area and therefore
increases the velocity. (c) when a sufficient number of particles are present the
effective air velocity between the particles exceeds the terminal velocity, W
S
, and
the group of particles is lifted. (d) in effect, when conveying bulk granular

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solids, a slug flow pattern develops.

Unlike dilute systems, many materials cannot be successfully conveyed in the
dense phase. The particles most suitable for dense phase conveying are those
with a narrow particle size distribution and good air retention properties.
Granular products, especially those with a high percentage of fines, generally
cannot be transported in the dense phase because their low permeability leads to
blockages. Theoretical modelling of dense phase flow behavior is extremely
difficult and for reliable design the use of test rigs and scale up techniques is
essential.

a) Blow Tank/Transporter Systems

1) General Principles

The most common type of dense phase system is based on the blow tank
or transporter. Essentially a blow tank/transporter is a pressure vessel
which is charged with material, pressurized and discharged batchwise
into a pipeline. The filling and discharging cycle must then be repeated.
While it is inherently a batch process it may be adapted for continuous
operation by using twin pressure vessels either in series or parallel, as
discussed below. When specifying batch systems, however, state the
average pseudo-continuous rate required as such to the vendor who will
recommend the approximate blow tank system size and cycle time.

2) Single Plug Blow Tanks

3) The simplest form of blow tank, Figure 8-11 only has valves to isolate
the tank from the supply hopper and the vent line. The blow tank starts
to pressurize as soon as the vent line is closed, and both the tank and line
must be pressurized before any material is delivered. The material is
pushed into the line as a single plug, usually via a bottom discharge. No
separate conveying air is used and fluidizing air is not usually supplied to
the vessel. Towards the end of the cycle the tank and line must be
depressured to enable charging of the tanks for the next cycle. The time
spent pressurizing and depressurizing the system reduces the proportion
of the cycle that is spent actually conveying product. Therefore, to
achieve a given time-averaged transfer rate the actual transfer rate must
be higher (Figure 8-12). The ratio of the mean to peak transfer rates may
be increased (thereby reducing the peak transfer rate required to achieve
a given mean transfer rate) by:
- Increasing vessel size
- Fitting valves to the discharge line and (if fitted) supplementary air
line

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It is desirable to reduce the peak transfer rate required to meet a given
service because it is this rate that provides the sizing basis for the
equipment.

By increasing the vessel size and hence the amount of product conveyed
per cycle also increases the proportion of the cycle spent conveying. A
balance must be met between the rate cycling and the blow
tank/transporter size.

The fitting of valves to the discharge line and supplementary air supply
line (if fitted) enables rapid pressurization and depressurization. The
tank may be rapidly pressurized if all the air available is used and
discharge is prevented until the required steady state pressure is reached.
Depressurization time is reduced by isolating the tank from the
conveying line, closing the discharge line valve and opening the vent line
valve immediately upon its emptying. This is also advantageous because
it prevents the large volume of air in the blow tank from rapidly
expanding through the conveying line once the plug has been discharged
from the pipeline. The very high air velocities that otherwise result
could cause severe erosion problems during this pipework venting
process and subject bends (especially blank tee-pieces) to very high
forces; pipework must be well supported in such circumstances.The
"rapid expansion" problem does not exist in systems that have been
designed to maintain product in the line between blow tank/transporter
fillings.

The air supply used to pressurize the blow tank is usually also used to
fluidize the tank contents and thereby facilitate discharge. The fluidizing
membrane is usually porous plastic, porous ceramic or filter cloth
sandwiched between two perforated metal plates or rubber "pulsers." A
secondary air supply is frequently fed into the conveying line just
downstream of the tank. More recently, however, 80-90 % of the air is
fed along the total length of the line. This supplementary air is useful if
the material has poor air retention properties, and is essential for good
control. Where the secondary air supply is fed into the conveying line
just downstream of the tank, the discharge rate may be controlled by
proportioning the air supply between the fluidizing and supplementary
air lines (Figure 8-13).

- Increased product flow is obtained by increasing the fraction of the
total gas rate that is supplied to the blow tank.
- Reduced product flow is obtained by increasing the fraction of the
total gas rate that is supplied as supplementary air.




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Blow tanks/transporters may be classified as top discharge or bottom
discharge, depending upon the direction in which the product is
discharged. Top discharge tanks have an internal discharge pipe
positioned above the fluidizing membrane (typically by 1.2 in/30 mm for
powdered materials) as shown in Figure 8-14. Top discharge tanks
achieve the highest feed rates and enable better control; they are best
suited to fluidizable powders with low air permeability and good air
retention properties. However, with top discharge tanks the contents are
never completely discharged. If complete discharge is essential (e.g., for
conveying accurately weighed batches or if contamination between
different batches must be avoided) bottom discharge operation is
necessary.

Bottom discharge tanks used not to have fluidizing membranes; the
material being gravity fed into the pipeline. Current designs, however,
have fluidizing membranes. They are recommended for granular
materials for which top discharge is unsuited because the high
permeability may preclude build up of sufficient lift.

The pressure drops across the discharge section of blow tanks must be
accounted for in specification of the air mover. In general,

Bottom Discharge Tanks < 1.5 psi/0.1 bar
Top Discharge Tanks > 1.5 psi/0.1 bar

Large top discharge tanks may have the pressure drop reduced by
removing the mixture from the side.

4) Pulse Phase ("Air Knife") Systems

A pulse phase system involves a blow tank discharging a stream of
material into the conveying line. Intermittent timed air injection from an
"air knife" at the pipe entrance divides the stream into a series of discrete
plugs as illustrated in Figure 8-15. For powdery materials with poor air
retention properties a long plug will tend to block the pipeline. By
chopping the material into shorter plugs the friction between the particles
and the pipe wall is reduced and blockage may be avoided. The main
problem with conveying materials of this type occurs in vertical pipes
where the material does not form plugs, and the air velocity is below the
choking velocity; the material builds up and chokes the pipe. Layout is
particularly influential in this situation. The use of short risers will
enable plugs to build up and then be conveyed as a mass-flow slug when
the pressure differential exceeds the frictional forces and gravity. Some
authorities (e.g., Krambrock, 1983) have questioned the utility of this
mode of conveying, asserting that the transport of compact plugs requires
significantly larger forces than for the transport of material in duning
flow mode.

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Figure 8-10

DENSE PHASE SYSTEM TRANSPORT MECHANISM AT LOW VELOCITY


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Figure 8-11

SINGLE PLUG BLOW TANK























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Figure 8-12

MATERIAL FLOWRATE AGAINST TIME FOR A SINGLE PLUG BLOW TANK SYSTEM


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Figure 8-13

AIR SUPPLY PROPORTIONED BETWEEN THE FLUIDIZING AND
SUPPLEMENTARY AIR LINES TO IMPROVE CONTROL



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Figure 8-14

TOP DISCHARGE BLOW TANK SHOWING INTERNAL
DISCHARGE PIPE POSITIONED ABOVE FLUIDIZING MEMBRANE


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This use of timed pulse air injection has been recommended for products
with the following characteristics:

- Granular/plastic pellets
- Narrow size distribution
- High air permeability
- Low air retention

It should be noted that fine materials with very low air retention
characteristics may be unsuitable for dense phase flow altogether.

In designing such a system, the air knife must be located sufficiently
close to the blow tank to ensure that the discharge line pressure drop is
not excessive, but far enough from the tank to avoid impeding the plug
formation.

5) Plug Control Systems

Numerous proprietary dense phase systems have been developed for
transport of solids at very low velocities over long distances, based upon
various means of controlling plug formation to avoid blockage.

Three approaches have been used in the design of plug control systems:

- Plug Prevention with Injection of Secondary Air
- Plug Elimination using Bypassing Air
- Plug Prevention using Controlled Secondary Air

Plug Prevention with Injection of Secondary Air

Secondary air may be supplied along the length of the conveying line
either via a perforated tube or via a bypass (Figure 8-16). This may
fluidize the product and help prevent plugging. If however a plug does
manage to form, the air will follow the path of least resistance into the
line, entering downstream of the plug without affecting it. Over longer
conveying distances the air velocity increases excessively due to
expansion of the gases resulting in a higher pressure drop and air
consumption unless the pipeline size is stepped up appropriately.

This method is best suited to transporting readily fluidizable materials at
high solid- gas ratios.

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Plug Elimination using Bypassing Air

The conveying pipe may be fitted with either an internal or external
bypass, as shown in Figure 8-17. During normal operation little air flows
through the branch pipe. When a plug forms air will bypass it until it has
reached the point in the plug where the air pressure exceeds the
resistance by the downstream section of the plug. In this way the plug is
split into sections, disintegrating progressively from the downstream to
upstream end.

This system enables very low velocities to be used for the transport of
free flowing bulk materials. It is especially useful for powdery and
pulverized materials with low air permeability and high air retention. An
external bypass may be used if the material is damaged by an internal
bypass. It cannot be used for fine cohesive product because the bypass
would become plugged. Abrasive solids also create problems by
severely eroding the bypass, in which air velocities are relatively high.




Figure 8-15

PULSE PHASE ("AIR KNIFE") SYSTEM
DIVIDES THE STREAM INTO DISCRETE PLUGS


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Plug Prevention by Controlled Secondary Air

This system is designed for the transport of fine, adhesive/caking bulk
materials at very low air velocities. To keep the pressure and conveying
velocities as low as possible, solids plugs must be quickly detected and
destroyed without increasing the conveying gas volume. Air boosters are
positioned either at strategic locations (i.e., bends) along the conveying
line, or at regular intervals 10-50 ft/3-15 m apart depending upon the
materials being conveyed (Figure 8-18). They sense the pressure at each
stage and adjust the booster pressure downstream to keep the material
flowing and prevent back pressures in the system from developing.
Booster valves-unlike bypass systems - add air to the line and therefore
increase the conveying air velocity. The valves only admit air when and
where it is required.

Such systems, if properly designed for an appropriate product, offer low
maintenance and long service life despite their relative sophistication.

6) Continuous Operation Using Dual Blow Tanks

Single blow tank systems operate in a batch mode. As discussed above,
to achieve a given time-averaged product flowrate, a higher rate must
prevail during the steady-state section of the cycle. The pipeline
diameter and air requirements must be based upon this higher rate. The
use of dual blow tanks enables almost continuous operation and the time-
average flowrate approaches the steady state flowrate. As a result, the
pipeline diameter, air requirements etc., are lower than for single blow
tank systems - although a second pressure vessel is required. The cost
may still be competitive with that for single blow tank systems because
the continuous nature of the operation may enable the duty to be
achieved with smaller blow tanks. In single tank systems the blow tank
size tends to be larger in order to increase the ratio of average to peak
conveying rates.

Dual blow tank systems may be configured with the pressure vessels
either in parallel or in series.

- Parallel Blow Tanks

A parallel blow system is depicted in Figure 8-19. Note that each
blow tank requires a dedicated set of discharge, vent and isolation
valves. Whilst one blow tank is being discharged, its twin is being
depressured, filled and repressured, ready for discharge when the
first tank is empty. An automatic control system is required to
ensure correct timing and sequencing. In this way almost continuous
conveying is achieved through the shared pipeline.

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Figure 8-16

PLUG PREVENTION WITH INJECTION OF SECONDARY AIR








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Figure 8-17

PLUG ELIMINATION USING BYPASSING AIR


























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Figure 8-18

PLUG PREVENTION BY CONTROLLED SECONDARY AIR


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For a given mass of material conveying "continuously" uses less air
as efficiency is increased, provided adequate control logic is in place
to keep the material flowing.

- Series Blow Tanks

Continuous blow tank operation may also be achieved by two
pressure tanks vertically in line beneath a supply hopper as shown
in Figure 8-20. The intermediate vessel is used as an airlock for
transferring material between them. This vessel is filled from the
hopper and pressurized to the same pressure as the blow tank
(usually by a pressure balance line from the blow tank). The
isolation valve to the blow tank is opened, the blow tank topped up
with product, and the valve closed. The transfer tank is then vented
and refilled. In this way a continuous flow of material is maintained.

The plot plan may influence the choice between parallel and series
blow tanks, with parallel systems occupying the most floor space but
series systems requiring substantial headroom.

b) Air Mixing Systems

Gas mixing systems handle fluidizable, pulverized, powdered and granular
materials. Gas and product are mixed at the entrance to the conveying line,
to yield high solid-gas ratios. Two types of these systems have been
developed:

1) Screw Feeder with Air Jet

A variable pitch screw feeds material from a hopper to a mixing chamber
into which high pressure air jets are directed. Material is then discharged
into the conveying line (Figure 8-21A). Pressures up to 40 psig/2.8 barg
may be achieved.

2) Air Swept Double Entry Rotary Feeders

Product trapped in the vaned pockets of a rotary feeder is mixed directly
with high pressure air entering each pocket through air ports built into
the end bells of the feeder (Figure 8-21B). The pocket of material is then
blown into the pipeline by the trapped air. The system operates at
pressures up to about 20 psig/1.4 barg.


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Figure 8-19

PARALLEL BLOW TANKS





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Figure 8-20

CONTINUOUS BLOW TANK OPERATION WITH TWO
PRESSURE TANKS IN LINE BENEATH A SUPPLY HOPPER


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Figure 8-21A

SCREW FEEDER WITH AIR JET




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c) High Pressure Rotary Valve Systems

At least one vendor offers a dense phase pneumatic transport system based
upon high pressure rotary valves instead of the usual blow tank-type feeders.
Rotary valves are available rated for differential pressures of up to 50 psi/3.5
bar, with special attention given to minimizing the air leakage that usually
precludes the use of high pressure systems.

Operational differences with dense phase blow tank systems include:

- Product flowrate is controlled by setting the valve rotation speed, not by
splitting the conveying air into two parts.
- Rotary valve systems allow continuous conveying from a single vessel.
- Air leakage occurs from rotary valves but not from blow tanks. This air
leakage must be compensated for to ensure that the average velocity at
the end of conveying line remains constant, even as the leakage rate
changes with changing differential pressure across the valve.

8.4 SYSTEM SELECTION AND DESIGN

The objective in undertaking the selection and design of a pneumatic conveying system is
to provide the means for the reliable and economical transfer of a given bulk material at a
specified rate over a given distance.

In selecting the most suitable system for a given service numerous interrelated issues
must be resolved - the system type (open or closed), system pressure (positive or
negative), mode of flow (dilute or dense phase), type of operation (batch or continuous),
and the types of feed and gas-solid separation systems. The key parameters influencing
those issues are the properties and conveying characteristics of the product to be
transferred and the conveying distance and layout involved.

In the "Pneumatic Conveying Design Guide" by David Mills, a method is presented
which should yield the most economical and suitable system in circumstances where
there are no constraints on selection. Client preferences and constraints such as space
limitations may limit the choices available. The guidelines below borrow heavily from
Mills' treatment of conveyor selection.

The stages in the specification of a pneumatic conveying system are as follows:

a) Select Basic Type of System (8.4.1)
b) Design Pipeline (8.4.2)
c) Select Mode of Operation (8.4.3)
d) Select Feeder (8.4.4)

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e) Select Air Mover (8.4.5)
f) Select Gas-Solid Separation System (8.4.6)
g) Design Solids Storage (8.4.7)
h) Factors Affecting System Design (8.4.8)

The order of the decision stages will change as external constraints dictate that a
particular type of equipment must be included in or excluded from the selection. The
decision stages are discussed below in the preferred order (i.e., assuming there are no
constraints), although in all cases they involve a degree of iteration.

A summary of the advantages and disadvantages as well as process conditions for the
various types of systems is shown in Figures 8-22A through F.

Pneumatic Conveying Systems are being used today for products which a few years ago
would have been handled exclusively by mechanical means.

In spite of this, however, it is still the "conventional" products which make up the bulk of
the systems installed and consequently provide the most extensive design information.

Most Pneumatic Conveyor manufacturers favor a certain method of conveying or a
certain component applied to a variety of methods. This is understandable as it is at least
an attempt at partial standardization.

We try to be impartial in our selections, but we do have a tendency to stay away from
rotary air locks unless they are definitely indicated. The following comments shown in
Figure 8-22F must, therefore, reflect our preferences and prejudices and should be used
as a guide rather than an indictment!

If the product you are interested in is not listed, ask the mechanical department for
assistance.

8.4.1 System Type

The first choices are concerned with whether an open or closed system is
required, and whether a positive or negative pressure system should be used.

a) Open and Closed Systems

The material properties usually decide whether the system should be open or
closed. Open systems are preferred because of their lower capital cost and
minimal complexity. In many cases the proper design of gas-solid separators
and vents is sufficient to prevent pollution. Open systems should therefore
be used except where a closed system is necessary for economic,
environmental or safety reasons.


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Closed systems usually involve recirculation of the discharge gas back to the
air mover suction. This recirculation of the conveying medium reduces the
demand to a small makeup supply to compensate for leakage. The volume of
exhaust requiring filtration is substantially reduced, with only a small bleed
stream required. Closed systems are best suited to continuous operation.

Closed systems are used where a closely controlled environment is required.
For instance, hygroscopic materials must be transported in dry air and may
be conveyed in a closed system to minimize the air drier duty.

In other cases the material may react (sometimes explosively) with air,
necessitating the use of an alternative, inert conveying medium. Nitrogen is
the most common gas for this purpose. Economics usually dictate that
conveying media other than air are conserved in a closed system. Materials
with an excessive dust content may be transported in a closed system to
minimize the size and cost of the exhaust filtration system. Toxic or
radioactive materials must be transported in closed systems and
comprehensive measures taken to ensure that leakage to the environment
does not occur.

b) System Pressure

The choice between the following systems must be made:

- Positive pressure systems
- Negative pressure (vacuum) systems
- Combined negative-positive pressure systems
- Dual combined systems

The distinctions between those systems were described in Section 8.3. To
briefly summarize:

Positive pressure systems are:

- Suited to the widest range of solids feeders.
- Capable of long distance conveying at high operating pressures.
- Ideal for feeding multiple destinations from a single source via diverter
valves.
- Inadequate for feeding from multiple sources in series because air
leakage across several solids feeders may be excessive.

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Figure 8-22A

SYSTEM DESIGN AND SELECTION



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Figure 8-22B

SYSTEM DESIGN AND SELECTION



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Figure 8-22C

SYSTEM DESIGN AND SELECTION



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Figure 8-22D

SYSTEM DESIGN AND SELECTION







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Figure 8-22E

SYSTEM DESIGN AND SELECTION



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Figure 8-22F

DESIGN CONDITIONS FOR CONVEYING VARIOUS SOLIDS MATERIALS

PRODUCT CONVEYING
METHOD
ABRASION
PROBLEM
CORROSION
PROBLEM
FRIABILITY
PROBLEM
EXPLOSION
HAZARD
CEMENT
USUALLY
PRES
SURE
Yes No None
ALMOST NIL
FLOUR Usually
pressure
No Food product -
watch for
contamination
None Yes, in some
air/material
concentrations
WHEAT &
CORN
Vacuum or
Pressure
Mild No Yes Yes, in some
concentrations
SAND Vacuum or
pressure
Severe No Some, if
coated
None
PLASTIC
PELLETS
Vacuum or
pressure
No Watch for
contamination
None Yes, usually due
to static build-up
ALUM Vacuum or
pressure
No Some None Slight
AMMONIUM
NITRATE

Vacuum or
pressure
No Yes Yes, if in
pellet form
Yes
MALT Vacuum or
pressure
Mild No Yes Yes, in some
concentrations
SALT Vacuum or
pressure
Moderate Yes With some
Grades
No

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Figure 8-22F

DESIGN CONDITIONS FOR CONVEYING VARIOUS SOLIDS MATERIALS

SEGREGATION
PROBLEM
LONG RADIUS
BENDS
RECOMMENDED
TYPICAL
CONVEYING
RATE 100 FT.
USE OF ROTARY
AIR LOCKS
DUSTING
PROBLEMS
None Steel sch. 40 pipe
or rubber hose
40 T.P.H. thru 4"
line @ 15 P.S.I.
Not recommended Surprisingly
little, if min.
req'd. air flow
used
None Same mat'l. as
conveying line
25 T.P.H. thru 4"
line @ 15 P.S.I.
Recommended if
vented adequately
Yes, should be
trapped in dust
collector
Some Steel sch. 40 pipe 15 T.P.H. thru 4"
line @ 8 P.S.I.
Recommended Not excessive
but dust
collectors usual
Some if coated Heavy wall rubber
hose or wear
pocket
elbows
10 T.P.H. thru 4"
line @ 10 P.S.I.
Not recommended Can be
noticeable
None Same mat'l as
conveying line
10 T.P.H. thru 4"
line @ 5 P.S.I.
Recommended if
properly designed
Minimal
Possible Same mat'l as
conveying line
10 T.P.H. thru 4"
line @ 8 P.S.I.
Not recommended Yes
Possible As for conveying
line
10 T.P.H. thru 4"
line @ 6 P.S.I.
Can be used Some
Some Steel sch. 40 pipe 7 1/2 T.P.H. thru
4" line @ 4 P.S.I.
Recommended Not excessive
With some
grades
Stainless steel min.
1/8" wall
18 T.P.H. thru 4"
line @ 12 P.S.I.
Can be used Yes

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Figure 8-22F

DESIGN CONDITIONS FOR CONVEYING VARIOUS SOLIDS MATERIALS

REMARKS
High density (.2 to .4 S.C.F.M. 1b. of material) pressure systems usual. Pumps like viscous fluid when
aerated. Systems in use operating at 100 P.S.I. Look out if line plugs - usually must be disassembled.

Use of Rotary air locks precludes high pressure systems. If R.A.L.'s used, should be blow thru, type for
satisfactory clean out. Pressure pod systems for flour operate similar to cement systems but less air req'd.

Free flowing product. Feeds & conveys well. Does not fluidize - must be blown thru line (1 to 2
S.C.F.M./lb. of material common). Handles equally well in pressure or vacuum system. R.A.L. systems
most common. Maximum pressure usually 8-10 P.S.I.

Abrasion biggest problem. Heavy wall pipe should be used for straight runs. High air velocities (6000
ft./min.) req'd. for sharp sands. Hose or wear pocket elbows will combat abrasion.

Air locks should have controlled feed inlet. Pressures should be kept low to minimize velocity and temp.
gradients. Special conveying lines often used to eliminate streamer formation. Conveys well. Usually
can be stopped in line and re-started.

Alum. hardens and glazes on rubbing surfaces. Air locks, if used, need large clearances. Often coats
inside of pipelines.

Usually handled in pellet (prill) form. Must be kept from contact with oil (explosion hazard). Air locks
should, therefore, have outboard bearings.

Handles well, but air flows usually kept low to minimize breakage. Otherwise, conveys similar to wheat.

Corrosion main problem. Air locks, if used, should be stainless steel. Conveying lines usually
aluminum. Requires min. 5000 ft./min. air velocity for steady flow. Fine salt harder to convey than
coarse grades.

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Figure 8-22F

DESIGN CONDITIONS FOR CONVEYING VARIOUS SOLIDS MATERIALS

PRODUCT
CONVEYING
METHOD
ABRASION
PROBLEM
CORROSION
PROBLEM
FRIABILITY
PROBLEM
EXPLOSION
HAZARD
SUGAR Vacuum or
Pressure
Yes Food prod. -
watch for
contamination
Some Yes, in some
dust concen-
trations
LIME
(pulverized)
Usually
pressure
Moderate Some No No
LIMESTONE
3/4" / 1 1/4"
Usually
pressure
Yes Some No No
FERTILIZER Vacuum or
pressure
Moderate Yes Yes Yes
SODA ASH
(light)
Usually
pressure
No Yes No No
SODA ASH
(heavy"
Vacuum or
pressure
Slight Yes Yes No
PLASTIC
RESIN
Vacuum or
pressure
Slight Watch for
contamination
No Yes
CLAY Usually
pressure
No No No No

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Figure 8-22F

DESIGN CONDITIONS FOR CONVEYING VARIOUS SOLIDS MATERIALS

SEGREGATION
PROBLEM
LONG RADIUS
BENDS
RECOMMENDED
TYPICAL
CONVEYING
RATE 100 FT.
USE OF ROTARY
AIR LOCKS
DUSTING
PROBLEMS
Some Stainless steel min.
1/8" wall
30 T.P.H. thru
6" line @ 6
P.S.I.
Can be used but not
recommended
Yes
No As for conveying
line
30 T.P.H. thru
4" line @ 15
P.S.I.
Possible Yes
No Sch. 40 steel pipe 28 T.P.H. thru
5" line @ 6
P.S.I
Not recommended Yes
Yes Sch. 40 pipe 18 T.P.H. thru
4" line @ 12
P.S.I.
Not recommended Yes
No As for conveying
line
18 T.P.H. thru
4" line @ 9
P.S.I.
Possible Yes
Yes As for conveying
line
12 T.P.H. thru
4" line @ 7
P.S.I.
Possible Yes
Some Stainless steel min.
1/8" wall
7 1/2 T.P.H.
thru 3" line @ 9
P.S.I.
Not recommended Yes
No As for conveying
line
30 T.P.H. thru
4" line @ 14
P.S.I.
Not recommended Yes

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Figure 8-22F

DESIGN CONDITIONS FOR CONVEYING VARIOUS SOLIDS MATERIALS




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- Advanced dense phase systems (e.g., pulse phase and plug control
systems) are capable of transferring many products that are unsuited to
conventional dense phase transport. They are especially suited to low
velocity transport of friable/abrasive products, offering lower operating
costs but at a higher initial capital cost.

Negative pressure (vacuum) systems are:
- Ideal for drawing product from multiple sources because air leakage
across the feeders is minimal.
- Inward leakage prevents the escape of fines, dust etc., an essential
requirement when transporting toxic or radioactive products.
- Limited in pressure differential and conveying distance.

Combined negative-positive pressure systems are:
- Ideal for transferring a product from multiple sources to multiple
destinations.
- Limited in pressure differential and conveying distance.

Dual combined systems are:
- Able to convey over greater distances than normal combined systems.
- More efficient than combined systems because the duty is split into a
positive and negative half, enabling the optimum blower and exhaust
types to be specified for each half.

c) Other Design Considerations

Other considerations include system leakage, and system layout. Leakage,
either into vacuum systems or out from pressure systems, must be added to
that required for conveying when sizing the gas supplier. Diverter valves and
rotary valves all leak through the seals. Additionally, rotary valves displace
gas as they rotate. Leakage in very high pressure (>40 psig) becomes very
large. Typically blow pots are used at pressures greater than 40 psig to
reduce leakage. Other leak points (such as at flanges) also occur.

Equipment arrangement is typically dictated by the process. However, some
choices can be influenced by the requirements of the pneumatic conveying
system. Plant Design System 3-D modeling enables the process engineer to
optimize process layout including the conveying system to minimize run
lengths and numbers of sweeps, lowering the ultimate system pressure drop,
and therefore gas and horsepower requirements. Typical guidelines for
piping layout include allowing for a minimum straight run before the first

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sweep in a system, or between horizontal-to-vertical sweeps, avoidance of
inclined lines, and minimization of the number of sweeps.

A minimum distance of 200 pipe diameters or 15 feet (whichever is smaller)
is required to allow the gas and the solids to reaccelerate after a bend or a
pick-up point. Diverter valves are counted as 30
o
bends. Sub-90
o
bends
are ratioed directly as a fraction of the 90
o
bend. While maximum vertical
runs are limited by the available pressure drop, typical limits are about 100 ft
total vertical distance for medium pressure systems. Inclines are more
complex than either vertical or horizontal runs due to solids recycle. The
maximum pressure drop (and recycle) occurs at an incline of 45
o
.

While maximum vertical runs are limited by the available pressure drop,
typical limits are about 100 ft total vertical distance for medium pressure
(<7.0 psig) systems.

Wear the conveying system and attrition of the material can be reduced by
keeping line velocities low, especially at the terminal end of the system. Size
the dilute phase system conveying lines such that the velocity is relatively
constant. Line velocities in dilute phase systems should be maintained above
saltation, but below 6,000 ft/min (9,500 ft/min is maximum).

A brief description of common design errors follow.

d) Common Design Errors

1) Change in the layout or piping arrangement adds bends or length after
the pressure drop calculations have been completed. Pressure drop
calculations must be re-checked after detail design is completed.
2) Extra pressure drop not accounted for the use of scored or roughened
pipe or for corrugated hose.
3) Selection of a centrifugal blower for which the design point is on the
"flat" portion of the head vs. capacity performance curve, resulting in a
radically reduced gas flow for a small increase in the pressure drop due
to slight saltation or slightly increased solids feed rate. Solids feed rate
may vary due to non-uniform bulk density.
4) Insufficient straight length between solids feed point and downstream
bend, resulting in a failure of solids to accelerate before reaching the
bend and leading to the plugging of the line.
5) Increase in diameter of the downstream pipe to reduce pressure drop
without adequate attention to maintaining the conveying velocity above
saltation velocity.
6) Design gas flow rate insufficient to handle peak solids feed rate, as from
a rotary valve - especially if it is oversized and slow-running.

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7) Dust collector undersized for peak gas flow rate, especially for the tank
and line clearing step of a blow tank dense phase system cycle.
8) Failure to provide control interlocks to ensure that the blower is
operating when the solids feed is begun, and remains operating for a
period after the solids feed has ended.
9) Installation of upward inclined sections of pipe resulting in saltation,
high pressure drop, and plugging.
10) Taps not provided to permit checking of conveying gas line pressure or
velocity during system troubleshooting.
11) The system has too many diverter valves, feed points, or discharge points
making the system difficult to troubleshoot due to complexity.
12) Centrifugal blower has a head vs. capacity characteristic that overloads
the motor when no solids are flowing, pressure drop is small, and gas
flow is large.
13) Poorly sealed diverter valves leak gas into or out of the in-service
branch, or leak solids into the out-of-service branch.
14) Shutoff valves used in place of diverter valves and improperly arranged
so that a pocket of solids accumulates against the closed valve.
15) Sight glasses omitted, hindering inspection, operation, and
troubleshooting.
16) Conductive jumpers not provided for non-conductors such as sight
glasses or pipe connectors, resulting in an explosion hazard due to
accumulation of static electricity.
17) Grounding not provided for all equipment and pipe, resulting in an
explosion hazard.
18) Tramp metal not removed from the solids feed, resulting in an explosion
hazard.
19) Vacuum and pressure relief not provided for system using rotary lobe
blowers.
20) A filter is not provided on the suctions of rotary lobe blowers or on
compressors.
21) A means for pressure drop measurement across the dust collector is not
provided.
22) The level sensor is placed too high in the receiving vessel, by ignoring
the material pipeline effect (material characteristic angle of repose). This
error leads to overfilling and possible overpressuring of the vessel or to
plugging of the conveying line.
23) The placement of the receiving vessel vent too near the inlet permits
sealing off of the vent and results in overpressuring of the vessel.

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24) Ineffective auxiliary dust pick-ups for miscellaneous equipment when
tied into a conveying system due to the change in pressure in the
conveying system, depending on whether the solids feed is on or off.
25) Conveying pipe and supports not laid out to permit easy access for
clearing line plugs.
26) Gas leakage across rotary valves not adequately considered in sizing of
conveyor line and blower.
27) Rotary valves are not designed for the maximum expected pressure
differential.
28) A shutoff valve was omitted above the rotary valve. This omission
requires that feed vessel be empty before the rotary valve can be
serviced.
29) Inadequate consideration given to the possible need for venting of the
rotary valve to prevent the holdup of solids above the valve.
30) Inadequate stiffness of the rotary valve shaft, permitting deflection, wear,
and increased gas leakage.
31) Light-weight base support for the rotary valve flexes allowing belts to
slip or chains to jump from their sprockets.
32) Poor seals on rotary valves allow leakage to atmosphere or into internally
mounted bearings.
33) Dirty plant air causes plugging of solenoids or air operators on valves.
34) Moist plant air leads to freezing in solenoids, air operators, or on dust
collector bags.
35) Moist conveying gas leads to tackiness of some solids or freezing on dust
collector bags.
36) Heat buildup in closed loop systems leads to degradation or tackiness of
solids.
37) Solids to be conveyed, especially during process upsets, have properties
(such as size, shape, or moisture content) which are different from the
design basis.
38) Abrasive characteristics of the solids not recognized at the time of the
system design.
39) Friability characteristic of the solids not recognized at the time of the
system design.
40) Corrugated flexible connections or hoses installed with the flow in the
wrong direction, leading to particle attrition.
41) Crevices at pipe joints, leading to cross-contamination in dual or multiple
service systems.


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8.4.2 Pipeline Design

Conveying lines may be fabricated from carbon steel, refractory-lined carbon
steel, stainless steel, aluminum, flexible hose, or even glass in specialty
applications. Most chemical and plastic applications use stainless steel or
aluminum pipe. Stainless steel is favored when contamination is a concern. Pipe
used in dilute phase conveying of plastic pellets is usually dimpled or "pinged"
on the inside surface to reduce the generation of "angel hair" and "skins." "Angel
hair" and "skins" form when pellets slide along the inner pipe surface,
overheating and melting due to friction. The dimpled surface causes the pellets
to tumble, preventing overheating due to friction.

Coupling at pipe joints can be by either compression type couplings in low
pressure systems (<8 psig), or by flanged connections (gas-tight flanged
connections are recommended for closed loop systems). Welded or threaded
pipe is not recommended since all pneumatic conveying systems plug
periodically, and must have break points for cleaning out plugs. Pipe sections are
typically 20 ft. to 30 ft. long with flanged connections at the bends. Break points
are usually at the bends, especially at horizontal to vertical bends. Bends are
usually long radius (r/d = 12) sweeps, but can also be blinded tees or short radius
elbows (r/d = 1.5). Sweeps are used to minimize the losses due to reacceleration
of the gas and the solids after the bend. Minimum distances must be allowed
between sweeps, especially in horizontal to vertical changes to allow the gas and
solids to reaccelerate. Closed loop system return gas lines should be at least
twice the area in cross section over the area of the material section of the loop.

The specification of the pipeline diameter sets the line pressure drop, and in
conjunction with the feeder and separator pressure drops, determines the air
mover rating.

To achieve the desired product flowrate over a specified conveying distance,
several combinations of pipe internal diameter and system pressure drop may be
acceptable. These parameters should be selected such that the power
requirements are minimized and any pressure limitations on the feed device are
not exceeded and the design is the most effective.

In general high pressure dense phase systems will involve relatively small bore
piping (< 3 in/80 mm) whereas low pressure dilute phase systems utilize larger
diameter piping (> 8 in/200 mm). Dense phase system pipe diameters similar to
those generally thought of as more suitable for dilute phase systems do exist.

There are two main approaches towards establishing the pipe diameter and
system pressure drop (and therefore the air supply pressure):

- Mathematical models
- Test data from an existing plant or test rig

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Vendors typically will insist on test data. They measure:

- Acceptable velocities
- Stall pressure
- Particle breakup
- Air consumption.

The vendor will optimize the system against any criteria the client wishes, such
as line size, air consumption, capital cost, material breakup, etc.

The crucial significance of material properties means that if reliable
mathematical models, or existing test data, is not available for the product to be
conveyed, then use of a test rig will be necessary to establish the conveying
characteristics. If test data is used it must be scaled to correspond to the
conveying distance, pipeline orientation, pipeline diameter and number of bends
in the new design.
a) Mathematical Models in Pipeline Design

Mathematical models are only applicable to the limited range of materials
and conveying conditions for which ample data is available. The use of
models is therefore not discussed further here but a method for solving dilute
phase transportation problems are presented in Appendix II, Section 8.7.2. If
additional information is required David Mills' "Pneumatic Conveying
Design Guide" is a good starting point. Software programs are also
available.

b) Test Data and Conveying Characteristics in Pipeline Design

The characteristic behavior of any given bulk solid when pneumatically
conveyed involves too many interrelated parameters for adequate
representation using mathematical models. It is necessary to conduct tests
using the actual material to be conveyed if accurate knowledge of the
conveying characteristics is sought.

The most useful representation of the conveying characteristics of a given
material is obtained by plotting the material mass flowrate against the air
flowrate, and superimposing lines of constant pressure drop and phase
density, as illustrated in Figure 8-23 for the conveying of cement.

It is also useful to plot the conveying line inlet air velocity against the phase
density to enable determination of the minimum conveying conditions,
Figure 8-24. The conveying line inlet air velocity specified for design should
incorporate a design margin of 20 % over the minimum conveying


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Figure 8-23

CONVEYING CHARACTERISTICS FOR CEMENT CONVEYED THROUGH A PIPELINE
50M LONG, 75MM DIAMETER, HAVING A TOTAL OF NINE BENDS AT 90 DEGREES















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Figure 8-24

EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF MINIMUM CONVEYING CONDITIONS FOR
CEMENT CONVEYED THROUGH A PIPELINE 100M LONG, 50 MM DIAMETER,
HAVING A TOTAL OF 17 BENDS



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1) Pipeline Design Procedure

An algorithm for system design is presented in Figure 8-25. The stages
are as follows:

Specify the Material Mass Flowrate, mp

In specifying the bulk material flowrate consider:

- If operation is batchwise, the steady-state rate required will be
higher than the averaged mean.
- whether the feeding device can meet the specified flowrate.

Specify the Conveying Distance Required, L

The conveying distance must be specified in terms of:

- Horizontal distance
- Vertically downward distance
- Vertically upward distance
- Number and type of bends

Material Conveying Characteristics

The material conveying characteristics must be determined by field
trials or using a test rig.

Scaling to Conveying Distance and Geometry

In scaling the conveying characteristics from the test rig geometry to
the required design:

- First, scale the required distance, allowing for vertical sections
and bends.
- Second, scale the conveying characteristics in terms of pipeline
diameter.

Scaling procedures are discussed in more detail in Section 8.4.2.


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Figure 8-25

ALGORITHM FOR PNEUMATIC CONVEYING SYSTEM
DESIGN BASED ON THE USE OF TEST DATA


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Can Material Flowrate be Achieved Satisfactorily?

Using the conveying characteristics (now applicable to the required
design) check that the required material flowrate can be achieved for
the specified pipeline distance and nominal bore. The material
flowrate may be achieved with a range of pipeline diameters.

The most economic combination of parameters should be evaluated).

Calculate Power Required

Calculate the power required using the air mass flowrate obtained
from the conveying characteristic. A value corresponding to 20 %
above the minimum conveying velocity should be used.

2) System Rating Procedure

In rating an existing conveying system, or in evaluating a system design
proposal by a vendor, the procedure is simpler because many of the
design parameters are fixed. An algorithm for system rating is presented
in Figure 8-26. The stepwise procedure is as follows:

Specify Fixed Parameters

In an existing design the pipeline length, diameter and geometry are
all fixed.

Material Conveying Characteristics

The material conveying characteristics should be available.

Scale to Length and Diameter Required

The conveying characteristics must be scaled to the pipeline length,
diameter and geometry of the proposed design.

Specify Air Requirements

The minimum air mass flowrate may be determined from the scaled
conveying characteristics, based upon the system pressure drop. The
actual air mass flowrate specified for the air mover should
incorporate a design margin of 20 % above the minimum air mass
flowrate required for conveying.


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Figure 8-26

ALGORITHM FOR PNEUMATIC CONVEYING SYSTEM RATING
BASED ON THE USE OF TEST DATA








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Specify the Material Mass Flowrate

The delivery pressure and air flowrate of the air mover are known, so
the achievable material mass flowrate may be read from the
conveying characteristic.

a) Pipeline Scaling Parameters

Conveying characteristics derived from test data are widely used in system
design. If the conveying characteristics are established for the material being
conveyed in a given pipeline (i.e., the test rig), it is possible to scale them up
to a pipeline of different geometry (i.e., the desired system layout).

In scaling from the test rig to the design case the following approach is
followed:

- Bends are accounted for in terms of equipment length of straight
horizontal pipe.
- Distance is scaled, in terms of equivalent length of straight horizontal
pipe.
- Diameter is scaled.
- Orientation (vertically upwards, vertically downwards) is scaled in terms
of the ratio of the conveying line pressure drop in vertical pipe to that in
horizontal pipe.

1) Equivalent Lengths for Bends

The equivalent lengths for bends in terms of straight horizontal pipe
ranges from about 6.6 ft/2 m in low velocity dense phase flow to
66 ft/20 m in high velocity dilute phase flow. For this reason it is
recommended that the number of bends in a pipeline should be
minimized, especially in dilute phase systems.

The equivalent lengths are correlated in terms of the conveying line inlet
air velocity, Figure 8-27.



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Figure 8-27

INFLUENCE OF PIPELINE BENDS EXPRESSED
AS EQUIVALENT LENGTH OF STRAIGHT HORIZONTAL PIPELINE

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2) Pipeline Length

Pipeline length is scaled using the relationship:

Mp
1
Le
1
= Mp
2
Le
2


where:

Mp = solid mass flowrate (kg/sec)
Le = equivalent length of straight horizontal pipe (m)

and:

1, 2 = different pipelines of same diameter, air mass flowrate
and conveying line P. (NB. This criteria ensures that the
air velocities are the same in each pipeline)

While the above equation may be used to scale data to either longer or
shorter pipelines, care must be taken in both cases:

Scaling to Shorter Lengths

When scaling to shorter lengths for a specified air mass flowrate and a
given pipeline P, the phase density of the material increases as does the
overall material flowrate. However, the phase density may increase to
the point where the material cannot be successfully conveyed. This is
especially likely if the material is one of the many unsuited to
conventional dense phase conveying.

Scaling to Longer Distances

When scaling to longer distances, for a specified air mass flowrate and a
given pipeline P, the phase density of the material decreases, as does the
overall minimum flowrate. However, the decrease in phase density may
in turn cause the minimum conveying air velocity to increase to the point
where the material cannot be conveyed successfully.

Due to difficulties in accurately calculating system Ps, a designer may
select a source pressure much greater than the design point and drop the
excess pressure across the blow tank/transporter. This gives tremendous
flexibility to account for "unknowns" and may in the final analysis justify
the extra compressor costs.


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3) Pipeline Diameter

Pipeline diameter is scaled on the basis that the material mass flowrate is
proportional to the pipe cross sectional area.

Mp
2
= Mp
1
(d
2
/d
1
)
2


where:

Mp = solid mass flowrate (kg/sec)
d = pipeline diameter (m)

and:

1,2 = different pipelines of same length and geometry

The above equation should be used with caution as experimental data
indicates that it is only accurate to within approximately 25 %.
- The conveying air velocity at the entrance to a new section of larger
bore pipeline must not fall below the minimum value corresponding
to the phase density at which the material is being conveyed at that
point.
- The lengths of the individual sections of different diameter pipeline
should be in proportion to the pressure drop across each section,
excepting the first and last sections. The first section should be 10 %
longer than that evaluated on the basis of P ratios, the final section
shortened by this distance. This should ensure that criteria (i) above
issatisfied.
- It is recommended that an enlargement section with a 6
o

included
angle be located at the point at which the pipeline is stepped.

4) Pipeline Orientation

The conveying data, originally for material flowing in a straight
horizontal pipeline, has been corrected to allow for the number of bends,
and the pipeline length and diameter. It must now be corrected to allow
for flow vertically upwards and downwards in the pipeline.

The horizontal conveying distance greatly exceeds the vertical in most
pneumatic conveying systems. The approach used is to represent a given
length of vertical pipeline by an equivalent length of horizontal pipeline
obtained using a scaling parameter.


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Conveying Vertically Upwards

Le (horizontal pipeline) = 2 X L (vertical lift)

irrespective of the conveying conditions.

Conveying Vertically Down

The pipeline gain or loss in conveying vertically down is dependent
upon the phase density of the flowing stream. In general, at low
phase densities (< 40) the P per unit length is less and at high phase
densities (> 40) the P per unit length is more, than for the
equivalent flow in horizontal pipe. Scaling is therefore less clear cut
than in conveying vertically upwards.

Table 8

SCALING IN VERTICALLY DOWNWARDS CONVEYING
SYSTEMS
Phase Density
C
Allow for Vertical Downward Sections by Adjusting
the Equivalent Length of Horizontal Pipeline
C < 5


5 < C < 40
C = 40


100 > C> 40
C > 100
Increase in equivalent horizontal length = length of
vertical downward section

Increase in equivalent horizontal
a

No allowance for vertically downward sections
(i.e., neglect)

Reduction in equivalent horizontal
a

Reduction in equivalent horizontal length = length of
vertical downward section

Notes:
(a) It may be assumed in this region that the increase or decrease
in equivalent horizontal length is linearly proportional to phase
density.

- Diverter Valves

Diverter valves are used in pneumatic conveying lines to route material
and air to different destinations. Using diverter valves, a single gas
source can be used to supply multiple sources and multiple destinations.
Diverter valves come in three principle types; flap diverters, tunnel
diverters, and double valves (such as ball or pinch valves). Flap diverters
use a rotating drum with one or two lines that run across the drum. The

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drum is rotated to line up one path or another with the line(s). Double
valve arrangements close a valve in the closed path, opening a new path.
Flap valves are more suited to low and medium pressure systems.
Tunnel diverters are more suitable for medium and high pressure
systems, especially where dense phase, or combined dilute and dense
phase systems may be operated. Double valve systems are used more for
high and very high pressure systems. A leakage table for flap and tunnel
diverter valves is included in the course material. This leakage, like that
for rotary valves should be included in the system gas requirements for
gas mover sizing.

See Appendix 18 for a diverter valve application chart as well as a
diverter valve leakage chart.

8.4.3 Mode of Operation

Pneumatic conveyor operation may be either batchwise or continuous. In some
cases process requirements dictate the mode of operation, but usually the choice
of feeder decides the issue.

Feeder selection is itself dependent upon the material properties and pressure
requirements (a function of material properties and conveying distance).

Blow tanks, for example, are usually selected either for high pressure (long
distance) duties, or where material characteristics dictate low speed transport.
Blow tanks are batch mode feeders, although the use of dual pressure vessels
may enable continuous operation, as discussed in Section 8.3.2.

Batch mode operation involves transfer at rates above the time averaged mean.
This maximum conveying rate must be estimated and used for design of the
pipeline and specification of the product feeder and air mover.

The complex interrelationship of the variables involved in pneumatic conveying
results in an iterative design procedure. The pipeline initial design, based upon
the required conveying duty, may result in selection of a high pressure drop
dense phase system. A blow tank feeder would therefore be selected; if batch
operation of the process is acceptable then the pipeline would need to be
redesigned for the maximum conveying rate.

8.4.4 Solids Feeder

Material line feeders serve to meter solids into the conveying system. These can
be either rotary valves, or some other type of feeder used in conjunction with a
rotary valve, double flap valve or a venturi eductor. Volumetric feeders meter
constant volumes of material per unit time. Bulk density must be constant in
order to maintain feedrate accuracy. Finer and more cohesive materials will vary
in bulk density more than will coarser materials. Material flow rate variances can

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cause surges in the conveying systems, which can cause plugging. Fan systems
are especially prone to this kind of plugging. Volumetric feeders may be screws,
belts, vibratory pan or tube conveyors, rotary valves, or double-flap valves.
Gravimetric feeders meter constant weights of material per unit time. Bulk
density variances are still important, but less so. Gravimetric feeders tend to be
either screw or belt feeders.

Where the solids feeder to be selected is more than a railcar (for which the
engineer has no design input), the following issues must be considered in
selecting a solids feeder:

- Pressure Rating
- Air Leakage
- Pressure Drop
- Flow Control
- Product Suitability

a) Pressure Rating

If the pipeline diameter, pressure drop and conveying mode have already
been determined, a feeder must be selected with a pressure rating adequate
for the resulting system pressure drop.

The pressure rating ranges of the major types of solids feeders are shown in
Figure 8-28. Note that some European manufacturers now offer rotary
valves rated to differential pressures of up to 50 psia/3.5 bara.

Selecting the feeder with the greatest working pressure allows use of a
smaller diameter line, only if it is matched with a higher pressure motive.
For a given diameter the feeder with the highest pressure rating yields the
maximum conveyor duty.

b) Air Leakage

Air leakage across the product feeder must be accounted for in the
specification of the volumetric rate for the air mover. Inadequate account for
air leakage may result in pipeline blockage.

In positive pressure systems air leakage across the valves (rotary or other)
may disrupt the feeding of product. In vacuum systems leakages are usually
negligible because of the relatively low pressure differential. Regular
maintenance is essential to prevent excessive leakage.


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Figure 8-28

APPROXIMATE OPERATING PRESSURE RANGES FOR CONVEYING LINE FEEDING DEVICES



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c) Pressure Drop

The pressure drop across the feeder must be accounted for in the
specification of the air mover. It is desirable to minimize the pressure drop
across the feeder - any avoidable pressure drop is a waste of energy.

d) Flow Control

Achieving a constant steady flow of product is important; excessive
fluctuation may result in pipeline blockage. Feeders such as rotary valves,
screw feeders and gate-lock valves readily enable metering of product.
Venturi feeders require installation of metering equipment. Blow tank
discharge rates may be controlled by proportioning the flow of air between
fluidizing and supplementary air lines.

e) Product Suitability

Feeder selection must account for the nature of the product being handled.
The suitability of given feeders for various products is discussed below.

f) Feeder Types

The most commonly used types of material feeders are discussed below:

- Rotary Valves
- Screw Feeders
- Venturi Feeders
- Blow Tanks
- Gate-Lock Valves

A comparison of material flowrate versus maximum conveying distance is
shown in Figure 8-29 for different types of feeders. See Table 8-1 for more
details of feeder types.

Rotary Valves

Rotary valves are used to isolate the conveying system from either the
atmosphere, or from feeders and bins at the feed point. Rotary valves
may also function as feeders, but chiefly isolate areas of differing
pressure. Rotary valve sizing depends on many considerations such as
particle size, bulk density, moisture content, and cohesiveness. Rotary
valves must move slowly enough to allow the pockets to completely fill,
but quickly enough to provide a continuous stream without surging.
Rotary valve pockets do not fill 100 % with material, but have a fill
efficiency depending on the material characteristics such as bulk density,
particles size, moisture and cohesiveness. Typically, coarse materials

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such as plastic pellets will have high (95 %) fill efficiencies, with
maximum rotor speeds up to 30 rpm. Fine powders (average particle
size less than 200 mesh) can have low fill efficiencies (50 % to 80 %)
with rotor speeds limited to about 15 rpm. Fill efficiencies and
maximum rotor speeds vary between manufacturers and materials.

Rotary valves usually are vented to allow displaced gas to escape so that
the solids may quickly fill the pockets. Rotary valves usually are vented
back to the top of the feed bin to which they are attached. Most rotary
valves are straight drop-through design, but rotary valves in plastic pellet
service are typically side-entry to prevent jamming or shearing the pellets
in the rotor. In closed loop systems, it is recommended to include slide
gate valves below the rotary valve to isolate the valve from the
conveying line to avoid allowing air to enter the system during rotary
valve maintenance. The rotary valve is one area where reliability and
performance matter more than mere price. Use of a high quality rotary
valve is essential to good operation.

Rotary valves are the most commonly used material feeders for dilute
phase systems. A few vendors also offer dense phase systems utilizing
high specification rotary valves. They serve as airlocks, to prevent the
passage of air either from pressure sys-tems or into vacuum systems,
while regulating the solids flow to provide a uniform feedrate. They are
also necessary on the solids outlet beneath the cyclone at the discharge of
vacuum systems.

The simplest form of rotary valve consists of a bladed rotor contained
within a fixed housing, as illustrated in Figure 8-30. This design is
referred to as a "drop-through" type feeder; the rotor pockets are filled by
material dropping through the overhead inlet port, the rotation of the
pockets transfers the product through 180
o
to the outlet where it is
discharged by gravity, to be entrained by the conveying air.


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Figure 8-29

COMPARISON OF MATERIAL FLOWRATE VERSUS
CONVEYING DISTANCE FOR DIFFERENT TYPES OF FEEDERS




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Table 8-1
GUIDELINES FOR THE SELECTION OF MATERIAL FEEDERS

Feeder Type Features and Application

Rotary Valves






Screws




Gate valves

Venturis


Blow tanks






Vacuum
nozzles

Drop - through


Offset

Blow-through

Simple

Decreasing
pitch






Single

Two in parallel

Two in series

Standard type
Leaks air; allow for leakage

Pellets

Cohesive products

Vacuum or low pressure

High pressure; high power-
requirement

Coarse feeding mechanism

Low efficiency; little headroom
required

Batch operation; Ideal for abrasives

Semi-continuous operation

Continuous operation; often fitted
with screw feeder

Off-loading ships; clearing
stockpiles and spills



The suitability of a rotary valve for a given service depends not only
upon the pressure rating required but also upon the particle
characteristics. They are not recommended for handling abrasive
particles because wear of the rotor tips will result in increased air
leakage. Soft materials (Mohs hardness < 3) may suffer unacceptable
levels of degradation in rotary valves. If used at all in such service the
valves should be conservatively sized and operated at very low speeds.
When feeding granules or pellets, shear may cause particle degradation
and valve vibration; in such cases a valve with an offset inlet should be
used (Figure 8-31a). For cohesive solids a "blow through" type valve is
necessary (Figure 8-31b) where conveying air is used to purge the valve
pockets and material entrainment takes place in the valve. The feeding

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of fine fluidizable particles may be readily disrupted by air leakage in
positive pressure systems; large granular particles are less likely to be
affected.

Rotor and pocket design is also dependent upon the particle
characteristics. Rotors may be either open-ended with the blades welded
directly to the central cylindrical drive shaft; or they may be closed-
ended, with disks welded at either end of the shaft forming enclosed
pockets. Closed ended pockets are preferred for abrasive products, to
avoid wearing of the rotor housing end plates. The pockets themselves
may be either deep, suitable for free-flowing materials that will not lodge
in the pocket; or shallow and rounded, suitable for cohesive materials.

In those mechanical designs where small abrasive particles may intrude
into bearings causing excessive wear, seal purging should be provided.
Consult vendors.

The leakage rates through rotary valves should be provided by the
vendor. The following table (8-2) may provide a first estimate.

Table 8-2

AIR LEAKAGE THROUGH FULLER ROTARY VALVES

Feeder Size, in/mm
Leakage (SCFM/M
3
/hr) at given AP
6 psi/0.4 bar 9 psi/0.6 bar 12 psi/0.8 bar
10/254 65/110 85/144 130/221
10 x 18/254 x 458 100/170 150/255 200/340
15/381 105/178 160/272 210/357
18/457 128/217 190/323 256/435
22/559 152/258 255/433 305/518
28/711 200/340 300/510 400/680


See Appendix 17 (8.7.17) for leakage information from rotary valves.

Screw Feeder

A screw feeder feeds product into an air-mixing chamber. Air nozzles in
the chamber generate an air stream which entrains the product. They
may feed against line pressures of up to 36.3 psig/2.5 barg. The
discharge rate is controlled by the speed of rotation of the screw. (The
power consumption of screw feeders is considerably higher than that of
rotary valves). They are frequently used for feeding pulverized fly ash,
cement and similar materials.


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Figure 8-30



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Figure 8-31

(a) OFF-SET VALVE

(b) BLOW THROUGH VALVE


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The simple (constant pitch) screw feeder is limited to use in negative
pressure systems where the pressure drop is negligible and leakage is
therefore relatively minor. Constant pitch screw feeders are rarely used
in positive pressure systems because they provide a poor seal and allow
excessive air leakage. Their power consumption is considerably higher
than that of rotary valves.

Decreasing pitch screws may be used to feed positive pressure systems
with fine cohesive products. The decreasing pitch compresses the
material into a compact plug which forms an effective seal. The power
consumption of decreasing pitch screws is of the order of 10 times that of
a simple screw.

Venturi Feeder

A venturi feeder consists of a reduced pipeline cross section near the feed
point. This increases the velocity of the entraining air and reduces the
pressure in the throat. Ideally, a venturi design would result in this
pressure being reduced to the pressure at the supply source (e.g., supply
hopper), which is usually atmospheric. This ensures there is no air
leakage opposing the flow of material.

Venturi feeders are useful for cases where rotary valves may be
damaging to, or damaged by, the product (e.g., abrasive or friable
materials). The maximum conveying line pressure drop is 4.4 psi/0.3
bar, limiting their application. They are best suited to free flowing
materials (e.g., sand, coal, alumina). Separate provision must be made
for control of the feedrate.

Venturi feeders may in turn be fed by:

- Belt
- Screw or vibratory feeders
- Supply hopper (with valves or calibrated orifice)

Gate-Lock Valves

Gate-lock valves comprise two gates in series which alternately open and
close, enabling material to pass from the supply hopper into the
conveying line where it is entrained in air (Figure 8-32). Operation of
the gates is intermittent (5-10 times/min) and the resulting flow unsteady.
As a result, relatively high gas velocities are needed to ensure that a
transient high solid flowrate does not block the line, they should only be
used in dilute phase systems.


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The leakage of air outwards in positive pressure systems, inwards in
negative pressure systems, must be accounted for in sizing the air mover.
In positive pressure systems the air which leaks past the lower gate from
the conveying line must be vented to prevent interference with the
material about to flow from the upper gate.

Gate-lock valves are inexpensive, but are the least used type of feeder
because of their low efficiency. Their lack of moving parts makes them
suitable for use with friable and (with appropriate materials of
construction) abrasive material.

Suction Nozzles

Suction nozzles are used in negative pressure systems when only the top
surface of the material is accessible, for instance when off-loading ships.
The nozzle design must ensure that the inlet will not become plugged
with material even when the nozzle is totally immersed in it, and that
enough air is available to convey the material once it is entrained in the
line. Two air inlets are required, one for primary air at the material
pickup point, and one (or several) downstream for secondary air as
shown in Figure 8-33.

The flow of primary and secondary air must be regulated and the ratios
must be controlled.

8.4.5 Air Mover

Conveying gas an be supplied by fans, rotary lobe blowers, centrifugal blowers,
and compressors. Fans are used for low pressure differential systems
(+/- 20" W.C.) with low solids to gas loadings (0.45 to 1.3 vacuum; 1 to 3
pressure). Conveying distances are limited (100 ft vacuum, 200 ft pressure), and
the maximum throughput is 50 tons/hr. Care must be taken in fan selection; flat
fan curves will result in an unstable system prone to surging or plugging. Fans
usually meant for air handling (no solids) will have fan curves too flat for use in
conveying systems. Rotary lobe blowers are positive displacement devices used
in medium pressure differential systems (+/- 7.0 psi) with medium solids to gas
loadings (2.5 to 4.5 vacuum; 3 to 13 pressure). Conveying distances are better
than for fan systems (300 ft vacuum, 1000 ft pressure), and the maximum
throughput is 100 tons/hr. Compressors are used for high pressure differential.
systems (up to 40 psig for continuous dense phase systems, up to 150 psig for
blow pots) with high solids to gas ratios (13 to 45 for continuous) to very high
solids to gas ratios (45 to 135 for blow pots) loadings. Conveying distances for
continuous systems are up to 3000 ft, up to 8000 ft for blow pots, with maximum
throughputs of 200 tons/hr. Some small systems can be supplied with
compressed air or other (inert) gas directly from plant systems instead of a
dedicated compressor. These are typically low rate vacuum or pressure loading
systems. Most gas movers are sources of noise; many are housed in sound
enclosures. Rotary lobe blowers usually are furnished with inlet and outlet
mufflers.

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Figure 8-32




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Figure 8-33



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Roots-type rotary lobe blowers must be protected during startup, especially in
closed loop systems. If the blower suction is starved, the rotating lobes could
touch, damaging the blower. In closed loop systems, typically a bypass loop is
used during startup. Use of variable-speed drives is also a solution in avoiding
blower damage in rapid startup of closed loop systems.

The specification of the air requirements and selection of the air mover type is
discussed in the following sections:

a) Air Requirements

In Section 8.4.2, Pipeline Design, the following parameters were established:

- Conveying line pressure drop
- Air mass flowrate
- Pipeline diameter

The delivery pressure and volumetric flowrate of the air mover must be
specified.

The delivery pressure required is the sum of the following pressure drops:
- Transmission line
- Feeder
- Conveying line
- Air filter
- Safety margin

The safety margin is usually taken to be 10 %.

The volumetric flowrate is usually expressed at normal temperature and
pressure (i.e., 0 C and 1.013 bara, 32 F and 14.7 psia). The volumetric
flowrate for which the air mover must be rated is the sum of:

- Volumetric flowrate required for conveying
- Volumetric flowrate lost by leakage (e.g., through rotary valve)

Volumetric flowrate declines with decreasing temperatures, so design should
be on the basis of the lowest likely temperature. Seasonal fluctuations in
temperature must be considered.

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The compression effects on temperature are only of importance for positive
pressure and combined systems.

In negative pressure systems the conveying air conditions at the conveying
line inlet are always approximately ambient (allowance being made for the
inlet filter).

An ideal isentropic compression process is modelled as follows:

1

T
2
= T
1
(P
2
/P
1
)

1


where:
T
2
= discharge temperature (
o
K),
o
K =
9
5
(
o
F + 460)
T
1
= suction temperature (
o
K),
o
K =
o
C + 273
P
2
= discharge pressure (psia or bara)
P
1
= suction pressure (psia or bara)

and:

= Specific heat ratio (= Cp/Cv = 1.4 for air)
N
i
= The isentropic efficiency is defined as
1 2
1 2
T * T
T T


where:

N
i
= isentropic efficiency,
T
2
* = actual air outlet temperature (
o
K),

and:
T
1
, T
2
as defined above.

The following volumetric flowrate at normal temperature and pressure V
o
, in
m
3
/sec is calculated thus:

V
o
= 2.695
1
1 1
T
V P

where:

P
1
= pressure at conveying line entrance (bar)
V
1
= volumetric flowrate required for conveying (m
3
/sec)
T
1
= temperature at conveying line entrance (
o
K)

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The volumetric flowrate required for conveying is determined from the air
mass flowrate established in Section 8.4.2, Pipeline Design. Care must be
taken to allow for the compression effects on temperature, if necessary.

In the USA, inlet or free air conditions for fans are 1 ATM (14.7 PSIA) and
70
o
F (21.1
o
C), not 1 ATM (1.01 bar) and 59
o
F (15
o
C).

Compression Effects on Temperature

Air compressors developing pressures in excess of 2 barg usually
incorporate coolers, because isothermal compression may be neglected.

Roots-type blowers, operating at lower pressures, do not usually
incorporate air cooling. As a result their discharge air may be at a
relatively high temperature compared to the inlet air. For instance, a
blower with a delivery pressure of 14.5 psig/1 barg, taking suction from
the atmosphere 60
o
F/15
o
C, will have a delivery temperature of
194
o
F/90
o
C. The volumetric flowrate at 194
o
F/90
o
C is approximately
26 % greater than at 60
o
F/15
o
C. The effect of any such temperature rise
on the product and its transport velocity should be considered. If
conveying plastic pellets for example, the formation of angel hairs would
increase appreciably at 194
o
F/90
o
C relative to 60
o
F/15
o
C and cooling
would therefore be required for process reasons.

It should be appreciated that the temperature of the flowing gas-solid
mixture is a function of both the air and material temperatures upon
feeding the system.

Compression Effects on Humidity

Isothermal compression results in condensation and the discharge of
saturated air. If water droplets are entrained and carried into the
conveying line, or if condensation occurs in the line, the process may be
adversely effected. Hygroscopic materials, even if they convey well in
saturated air, such as pulverized fly ash and cement, would become
cohesive and a blockage would probably occur. The product
characteristics and air humidity indicate whether removal or drying of
the air is necessary.
A filter is often sufficient to remove droplets suspended in the air stream.
If this is unsatisfactory and the humidity of the conveying air must be
reduced, drying is necessary.

A refrigerant drier is usually sufficient to dehumidify the air to the
degree required, cooling the stream to approximately 35.6
o
F/ 2
o
C,
removing the condensate and heating it again.

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For more stringent drying requirements desiccant driers may be used.
They dehumidify the air to the equivalent of a dew point of
-40
o
F/-40
o
C. High operating costs mean their use should be avoided if
possible.

b) Air Mover Selection

Once the duty for the air mover has been established, in terms of delivery
pressure and volumetric flowrate, the most suitable type may be selected.

The range of air movers commonly used in pneumatic conveying is
illustrated in Figure 8-34. Note that centrifugal compressors are not listed
among the aerodynamic machines used. They are generally designed for
very high volumetric flowrate, (60-600 ft
3
/sec/100-1000 m
3
/min), high
pressure (up to 150 psig/10 barg) applications and are therefore unsuited to
pneumatic conveying. They are ideal for dense phase conveying which may
require pressures of that order.

The turndown requirements of the system must be considered: approximately
the same volume flow of air may be required but at a lower pressure, in order
to achieve a given reduction in the material flowrate. In any conveying
system, irrespective of turndown, the volumetric air flowrate should be
relatively invariant with changing pressure to ensure that the minimum
conveying air velocity is maintained. As a guideline, for dilute phase
systems the air mover should maintain the volumetric flowrate to within
25 % of design with a change of 25 % in pressure.

It is good practice to select a blower with reserve capacity to allow fine
tuning of the air velocity on start-up.

As shown in Figure 8-35 the operating characteristic for fans is not ideal for
pneumatic conveying. The air rate is very dependent upon the line pressure
drop. If the solids feedrate increases, the pressure drop increases and the air
rate drops. Beware of flat fan curves for centrifugal fans in conveying
service. A small variation in solids loading will cause the fan to go to static
"no delivery" or become unstable. As a result fans are only used for short
distance dilute phase conveying. The operating characteristics for positive
displacement machines are much steeper, making them much more suitable
for pneumatic conveying. Where fans are to be used, the fan curves should
be steeper than those used in typical exhaust or air handling service.



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Table 8-3

AIR MOVERS FOR POSITIVE PRESSURE SYSTEMS

Air Mover Delivery Pressure Volumetric
Flowrate
Comments
Axial or
Centrifugal
Fans
Low Pressures (~
1.5 psig/0.1 barg)

Roots-type
Rotary Blowers
up to 14.5 psig/1
barg
up to 294 ft
3
/sec/
500 m
3
/min
Low thermo-
dynamic efficiency,
pulsating flow
Liquid Ring
Compressors
up to 58 psig/4
barg
0.6-42 ft
3
/sec/
1-70 m
3
/min
Inefficient
Sliding Vane
Compressor
up to 58 psig/4
barg single stage
up to 29 ft
3
/sec/50
m
3
/min
Cooling essential
(water jacket or oil
injection)
Rotary Screw
Compressor
single stage to
58 psig/4 barg, two
stage to
160 psig/11 barg
2.4-412 ft
3
/min
4-700 m
3
/min
steady flow-air
receiver not required
Reciprocating
Compressors
> 14.5 psig/1 barg
up to 118 ft
3
/sec/
200 m
3
/min


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Figure 8-34




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Figure 8-35



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Table 8-4

AIR MOVERS FOR VACUUM SYSTEMS

Air Mover Comments

Centrifugal Fan Weak Vacuum

Roots-type Blower 400 mmHg vac

Liquid Ring Vacuum Pump single stage 600 mmHg vac
two stage 700 mmHg vac

Also note that:

1) Filters should be provided on the air mover inlet. They should be sized
to handle 150 % of the design flow.
2) Inlet and outlet silencers should be provided. They should be located a
minimum distance from the air mover.
3) Air movers that service pressure systems shall be oil free.
4) Air movers for blow tanks must bypass the tanks or be shutdown during
the filling cycle. Short cycles favor the use of a bypass to avoid possible
overheating from frequent starting.

8.4.6 Gas-Solid Separation Equipment

The object of gas-solids separation equipment is:
- To recover as much conveyed product as possible, and
- To minimize environmental pollution

In general, the finer the particles to be separated, the greater the cost of the gas-
solid separation equipment. The effect of particle degradation must be
considered in specifying the separation equipment. Particle degradation may
significantly alter the particle size distribution of the material being conveyed,
increasing the fines content as shown in Figure 8-36. In some cases minimizing
the particle degradation (e.g., by minimizing particle velocity, using long radius
bends etc.,) may enable the specification and cost of the separation equipment to
be reduced.

Gas-solid separation usually is performed in cyclones and dust collectors. Other
methods include target boxes (in low velocity dense phase systems),
precipitators, scrubbers, and in-line screeners and air-classifiers in combination
with final filters of some type.

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Figure 8-36



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The major types of gas-solids separation equipment used in pneumatic conveying
are discussed below. Selection is dependent upon the density and size
distribution of the particles to be separated and the efficiency of separation
required.

Care must be taken to specify the filter for the maximum loadings (dust, air
flowrate) anticipated, especially with some dense phase systems, where a surge
may occur as the solid plug leaves the conveying line.

a) Gravity Settling Chambers

Suitable when the bulk material is relatively large (> 0.1 in/3 mm dia.,
density > 62 lb/ft
3
/
/1,000 kg/m
3
) and does not contain fine dust. In relatively
low velocity dense phase systems the product bin itself may act as the fall-
out vessel. If excessive re-entrainment of the collected particles is to be
avoided the gas velocity should decrease to 9.8 ft/sec/3 m/sec or less. If low
density or fibrous materials are present a mesh separating screen may be
fitted at an angle across the direction of gas flow.

b) Cyclones

Cyclones are used to remove medium to fine particulates (less than
0.4 in/1 mm dia.) and almost invariably constitute the initial gas-solid
separation step in dilute phase systems. If the solids contain or generate dust
a fabric filter must be fitted downstream. Operation at high inlet gas
velocities (up to 98 ft/sec/30 m/sec) may cause problems when conveying
friable or abrasive materials.

High throughput cyclones collect particles down to 0.003 in/80 mm; high
efficiency cyclones remove particles down to 0.001 in/30 mm.

c) Fabric Filters

Fabric filters are used to remove fine particles (< 0.004 in/100 mm dia.),
especially those of low density. They are frequently used to supplement
gravity settling chambers and cyclones, by removing any remaining fines
before the exhaust is vented to atmosphere. In negative pressure systems
they must be used - usually downstream of a cyclone - to protect the
exhauster from the ingress of dust, especially if it is a Roots-type rotary
blower. Compressors and rotary lob blowers require inlet cartridge filters to
ensure no particles or dust enters the blower or compressor, which may
damage them.

Three main methods of filter cleaning are used:
- Mechanical shaking

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- Reverse Air Cleaning
- Reverse Pulse Jet Cleaning

The first two methods are batch processes, requiring isolation of the filter
during cleaning. Reverse Pulse Jet Cleaning occurs continuously, without
interruption of the separation process. It involves regular short (0.1 sec)
pulses of high pressure air (87-109 psig/6-75 barg) directed down the inside
of the filter tube, momentarily reversing the direction of air flow and flexing
the fabric. It is superior to the other techniques because it results in the
smallest filter size - there is no need to allocate additional filter area to allow
for downtime during cleaning. Typically air to cloth ratios depend on the
particle size, the finer the material the less air used. For a granular material
such as sugar 8 ft
3
/min of air is required per ft
2
of cloth; for a finer material
such as talc, 2 ft
3
/min of air is required per ft
2
of cloth.

Useful information for filtration of particles using fabric filters is provided in
Appendix 19.

d) HEPA Filtration

In cases where the particles may pose a toxic or other health hazard, HEPA
(high efficiency particulate air filters) may be required as the final step. By
definition, HEPA filters give a particle removal efficiency of at least 99.97 %
for 1x10
-5
in/0.3 mm particles. Pre-filtration should ensure that the HEPA
filters are protected from lint particles 4x10
-5
- 8x10
-5
in/1-2 m dia., and
dust concentrations > 1.4x10
-6
lb/ft
3
/23 mg/m
3
.

8.4.7 Solids Storage

A proper storage silo, bin or hopper must be designed to allow for free discharge,
considering the material characteristics of the particular solid. The most
important characteristics include particle size, bulk density, moisture content,
angle of repose, and cohesiveness. Inlets should in the center of the roof to allow
for even weight distribution. Steep (60
o
angle or better) bottom cones are usually
required to ensure discharge even with relatively free-flowing powders.
Mechanical bin dischargers, aeration devices, or specialized mass flow bottom
designs are used to prevent rat-holing and bridging from occurring in the silo and
ensure discharge. Sufficient freeboard (usually about 2 ft. over the top of the
pile) must be allowed when at the maximum fill level to account for the angle of
repose of the material. The characteristic angle of repose of the material should
be considered when choosing the location of the bin high level switch. Load
cells are also widely used to sense level in silos. Silos usually have shallow (15
o

angle) cone roofs. These roofs are required only to prevent water from entering
the silo and to support the silo vent filter. Some silo roofs double as the relief

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panel, or are lift-off to allow for relief in the event of dust explosions. Blending
silos are specialized silos designed to blend different grades of plastic pellets to
produce a uniform specification material. This method is used to work-off off-
grade material by blending it with good material such that the entire blend is
within specification. Blending is accomplished by gravity flow in the silo,
sometimes in combination with pneumatic recirculation loops.

8.4.8 Factors Affecting System Design

In specifying a pneumatic conveying system the following general information is
needed:

- Solids material definition
- Definition of system capacity
- Type of system to be used
- Degree of control for economic operation
- Conveying equipment supplier

The first step toward designing a pneumatic conveying system to perform a given
function is to collect all the data necessary to define the system. One equipment
manufacturer requests the following list of information as a minimum before
starting his own analysis. The list is in some ways incomplete but suggests the
overall complexity of the problem.

Basic Design Data

- Plant Location
Attitude
Ambient Temperature Range
- Material to be Conveyed
Type/Name of Material
Bulk Density
Particle Specific Gravity
Particle Size Distribution (Sieve Analysis)
Angle of Repose
Properties - Hygroscopic, Friable, Abrasive, Toxic, Explosive in air, etc.
Maximum Allowable Temperature
Allowable Contamination
- Conveying Data
Conveying Rate and Time
Number of Feed Points
Number of Delivery Points
Conveying Fluid
Type of Metal in Contact
Type of System

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- Layout and Design Data
Equipment Locations
Conveying Distance
Horizontal
Vertical
Electrical Area Classification
- Control Scheme

a) Product Characteristics

One of the complexities of pneumatic conveying, as with any bulk solids
handling system, is that the properties of the solids product will themselves
strongly influence the design and performance of the system in many ways,
even to the extent of influencing the suitability of the handled material for its
own end use. It is not possible to present an in-depth treatment of all the
design factors resulting from product properties in this manual. A summary
of product properties which can have a major effect on the selection and
design of the pneumatic transport system are listed below. These items are
intended to be representative only and are presented to suggest to the process
engineer types of potential problems to be aware of when making a
preliminary system selection for a given product material.

If the product is new, or there is no prior industrial experience with handling
it, pilot tests should be considered as essential for establishing proper
transport design parameters. In lieu of this, and for estimating purposes only,
experience with similar materials may be used to develop approximations for
the transport properties.

1) Bulk Density, Particle Specific Gravity

These properties, together with particle size, are used to determine the
minimum velocity needed to prevent plugging in the transfer lines. They
are also used to size rotary valves and other volumetric feeding devices.
The bulk density should be determined in a loose state. Some products
will settle and compact in storage. If the product tends to aerate, and
exhibits a lowered bulk density, then the aerated bulk density should also
be known.

2) Particle Size Distribution

Three size characteristics of the product are important, i.e., the minimum,
mean, and maximum size particles. A product with uniform size
particles will tend to be easy to fluidize and can be expected to lend itself
to dense phase as well as to dilute phase conveying. If large size
particles are to be handled in dilute phase transport, the minimum

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conveying velocity must be checked, for it may be too high to preclude
line erosion. On the other hand, a product with fine particle size will
require special attention to disentrainment from the conveying gas at the
system terminus.

3) Sliding Friction

This characteristic is important in determining the product's resistance to
flow in the horizontal portion of the transfer line. The usual
measurement which is taken is called the "angle of slide on a steel plate".
It is the "angle of repose," or the angle that the product forms with the
horizontal when it is poured into a pile. This angle is a measure of
product flowability. An angle measured at up to 45 degrees is an
indication that the product is free-flowing; an angle above 45 degrees
means that product flow will be sluggish. Tables 8-11 and 8-12
(Appendix 9, 8.7.9, Appendix 10, 8.7.10, respectively) and contain the
characteristic "angle of slide" and/or "angle of repose" for many common
bulk solid materials.

Under certain conditions, even materials with poor flow characteristics
can be conveyed satisfactorily. Products such as chopped butadiene
rubber (which is subject to cold flow and reagglomeration) can be
handled trouble-free if a Venturi feeder is used to introduce the material
and it is maintained continuously in a fluidized state.

4) Product Hardness (Friability, Abrasiveness)

The hardness of a material has a pronounced effect on system design. A
soft or friable material must be handled with extreme care to avoid
reducing it to dust. Normal speeds cannot be used for rotary lock valves
which are to be used to feed soft materials (i.e., these with a Mohs
hardness scale rating of 3 or less. For this type of service, if used at all,
the rotary feeder should be conservatively sized and operated at very low
speeds.

With dilute phase conveying of soft materials the use of extremely long
radius elbows is suggested to reduce centrifugal forces along the pipe
wall. Special receivers or oversized cyclone collectors may also be
required to reduce such forces. Finally, deceleration chambers are
needed to allow the product to slow down before entering the terminal
receiver, all the while holding velocities to an absolute minimum.

If a given friable material can be fluidized easily, dense phase conveying
should be considered. With the much lower transfer velocity, and the
correspondingly lowered interactive friction within the solids bed,
particle destruction should be markedly reduced.

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On the other hand, the abrasive condition of a material can be increased
greatly when it is picked up in a high-speed moving air stream. Many
materials that are considered to be only mildly abrasive can become
particularly destructive to the conveying pipe due to a sandblast effect.
For example, the shell of flaxseed is reported to be able to cut through a
steel pipe elbow with only a few days use. Rotary lock feeders are also
susceptible to accelerated wear when handling materials such as Portland
Cement, foundry sand, etc. Abrasive materials call for the use of blow
tanks or cascade valves in preference to rotary lock feeders.

With highly abrasive solids, special attention must be paid to fittings,
etc., where solids impingement is to be expected. Special elbows are
available with square cross-sections and replaceable backs which may be
lined with rubber to reduce abrasion. Also, special cast nickel alloy
flanged bends are made in 15 degree segments which can be bolted in
series to produce any incremental turn desired. The initial expense of
this type of design is fairly high but erosion is frequently quite localized
and only those few segments that wear out have to be replaced.

5) Explosion Hazards

An increasing number of powders are considered to be potentially
hazardous when mixed with air. Also, some materials may have residual
flammable liquids left on them from the manufacturing process which
could be ignited during the transfer step if oxygen is present. One
example of this is polymer products, which if not first devolatilized, will
contain traces of potentially explosive monomer liquid on its surface. In
these cases, a closed-loop inert gas system is recommended
(a)
.

Some other chemical combinations must also be considered as explosive
in nature. For example, metal dust may react exothermally or explode,
when dispersed in either nitrogen or carbon dioxide; and materials such
as ammonium nitrate or organic peroxides are subject to spontaneous
autoignition.

Safety aspects are further discussed in Section 8.5.

6) Static Electricity

When products are known to pick up exceptionally high static electric
charges, the transfer system should be well grounded. In addition to this,
the humidity may have to be regulated and special-elimination devices
used.


(a)
Coal dust is an explosion hazard if the conveying gas contains more than 15 % volume oxygen

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7) Hygroscopic Products

Moisture often has a dramatic effect on the flow properties of particulate
solids. With the pressure of moisture much will depend on how it is
contained rather than the total amount present. Moisture may be
contained within the particle voids, as a surface film surrounding the
particles, or chemically bound as water of formation or crystallization.
Of these, the surface moisture will have the most pronounced effect in
increasing the resistance to particle flow. The apparent mechanism is
one of particle agglomeration. High air humidity is known to have a
pronounced effect on the "flowability" of flour, salt, magnetite, urea, etc.
Dry or conditioned air should be considered with this type of material.

A closed-loop system may prove to be effective without drying because
only a small amount of makeup air is needed and the product itself will
tend to dry the stream of recycled air.

8) Oily Products

Surface contamination with liquids other than water can also be a
problem. Products that contain more than 10 % fat or oil can cause
buildups at elbows and cyclone separators. The centrifugal forces and
frictional heat can cause the oils to move from the particle interior to its
surface and cause agglomeration. To minimize this problem, consider
increasing the radius of curvature of the elbows and centrifugal
separators.

Also, consider including provisions in the design for washing such
critical points with hot water or steam.

Trace amounts of oil can be picked up from the conveying air stream if
an oil-lubricated air blower is used. The importance of this should be
assessed prior to finalizing the conveying system design.

9) Toxic, Odorous, Corrosive Materials

A number of product properties lend themselves to being handled in a
like or similar manner. If a material is toxic, odorous, or corrosive and
cannot be tolerated in the surrounding atmosphere it is better handled in a
vacuum system where leakage is inward. This type of problem lends
itself to a closed loop system where the small amount of exhaust purge
can be more easily managed, and there is assurance that torn filter bags
will not allow the product to escape to the atmosphere.




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10) Product Contamination

Filtration of the motive air or gas entering the system is necessary where
air laden dust may unduly contaminate a product such as foodstuff,
polymer, etc., or damage the air blower. Typically these filters require a
pressure drop of about 0.1-0.15 psi/7-10 mbar, which is not a large drop
when a positive displacement blower is to be used. However, filters
must be sized for the particular service to prevent excessive maintenance
and to retain the system's conveying capacity for a long operating period.

In addition to dust, one must consider the potential product
contamination from blower lubricating oil. When handling polymeric
materials, such as polyethylene pellets, one must use rotary positive
displacement blowers which do not require lubrication on the tables. If a
lubricating compressor should be used in such a service, good seals
would be mandatory to prevent the oil from entering the air stream.
This also prevents the use of such items as a Fuller-Kenyon pump or
reciprocating blowers for these services.

11) Temperature Sensitive Products

Products which have a low melting point must be handled carefully to
avoid generating an excessive amount of frictional heat which could
cause an incipient melting or softening. For example, individual
particles of PVC resin powder are prone to fuse or bond together from
internal friction if the material is handled roughly. PVC resin does tend
to pack up in transfer lines if not carefully handled. The fusion property
is particularly aggravated if the material is simultaneously subjected to
compacting stresses. As a result, when PVC has been squeezed through
a rotary feeder and then remelted, small black flecks appear on the
surface of the melt. The flecks are formed as a result of the
overheating/overstressing of the PVC in the rotary feeder. As a result of
this type of problem, low-velocity dense-phase conveying is commonly
used to transfer PVC but rotary feeders are never used for this material.

12) Fibrous Materials

One can easily be misled by the visually apparent particle uniformity of
some fibrous materials and conclude that they will convey beautifully.
Flour is such a material. Flour is normally transported with a dense-
phase system and so long as it is kept fluidized there is no problem. But
if the air flow should stop the individual fibers will tend to interlock as a
massive plug and it becomes necessary to literally drill out the lines. It is
likely that most agricultural grain products in milled form would act in a
similar manner.


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b) Layout and Design Considerations

It is extremely important for the process engineer to recognize that proper
plant layout and careful attention to certain design details are absolutely
necessary to ensure trouble-free operation of a pneumatic transfer system
installation. Reference literature on pneumatic conveying has stressed the
flexibility available to the designer for the routing of the transfer line. What
is not always made clear is that changes in flow direction (such as at elbows,
bends, etc.) can represent the largest single contribution to the system
pressure drop, and consequently to its operating cost.

The engineer or designer needs to be cognizant of particular pitfalls of
pneumatic conveying. The following is a list of items which should be
considered during the initial design and layout phase of such a system:

1) Make the transfer line routing as direct as possible without interference
to other equipment. Use a minimum number of bends
(b)
. If possible, use
sweeping bends to change direction gradually.
2) Keep the distance of the piping between the blower discharge and the
first solids pickup point as short as possible and with as few bends in it
as possible.
3) Always increase the size of the air piping one or two line sizes as
necessary prior to reaching the first solids feeder. This should prevent
line erosion from too high a localized solids velocity.
4) Provide for at least 20 pipe diameters of horizontal run in the transfer
piping past the first solids pickup point before making its first upwards
bend towards an overhead pipeway. The purpose for this procedure is to
give the solids time to accelerate and become entrained in the gas stream
before they are carried up the vertical riser.
5) One of the most potentially erosive locations in a transfer line is where
there is a sharp change in direction at the end of a long horizontal straight
run, especially near the terminal end of the system where the fluid
velocity is at its maximum. There are several possible solutions to this
problem if the solids material is known to be abrasive.
- Slow the product down. Increase the line size before reaching the
bend
(c)
. A 10 pipe diameters length run should be sufficient for the
enlarged portion oftheline.

(b)
On a large system (8-10 in / 200-250 mm diameter pipe) a single bend can add as much as 25 BHP / 18.6 kw to the blower
driver operating requirements.

(c)
This is said to be more popular in Europe where the metric lines are made in smaller size increments than the ASA sizes used
as U.S. standards.


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- Make a transition to a harder material for the bend than for the
straight pipe.
- Use a replaceable wear plate insert in the elbow.
- Consider change in layout. If possible, make line elevation change
close to the starting point and run the line high to its destination.
- Use very long radius bend(s) to make change in direction gradually.
- Use 304 SS for long radius ells in aluminum pneumatic transfer
systems.

6) Certain published literature shows the use of sloped lines (45-60 from
the horizontal) to convey solids to a higher elevation. This is a
dangerous practice and should be avoided. With this configuration the
solids will be thrown along the bottom portion of the pipe, collect, and
create a slugging condition accompanied by a lot of line vibration.
7) With materials that are not too easily fluidizable and which tend to settle
out in the transfer line, consider using a reverse bend of about 5o
following the normal horizontal bend (a modified "S" curve) to reentrain
the solids into the conveying gas.
8) The ducting for pneumatic conveying systems is normally designed for
ease of replacement. Lightweight, thin wall construction is commonly
used for the straight sections of the system. Schedule 10 steel pipe may
be used with the more abrasive materials, but aluminum is far easier to
fabricate and so is used where compatible with the product. Elbows, etc.,
are usually of stainless steel even when aluminum straight sections are
used.
9) Attempt to standardize on the size and shape of elbows and other critical
parts subject to excessive wear from erosion so that they can be used
interchangeably and the spare parts inventory can be kept to a minimum.
10) Most transfer systems do not need much structural support because they
are relatively light in weight. Couplings are used to make up sections of
the transfer line so that it can be dismantled easily for inspection and
cleaning. These connectors allow some flexibility for line expansion;
but, because they are compression-type fittings, it is especially important
to anchor the elbows at strategic locations to prevent joint separation.

Use flanged spools in 20-30 ft runs on rack and outdoor installations and
12-16 ft. spools indoors. This will allow better operability and
maintainability.

11) Avoid all-welded construction - especially at elbows and other locations
subject to excessive wear. Design should allow for easy replacement of

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all such parts. Typically flange spools are used; 20-30 ft/6-9 m runs on
rack and outdoor installations; 12-16 ft/4-5 m runs for indoor
installations.
12) Several line sizes which are considered to be nonstandard for the
petroleum industry are commonly used with pneumatic conveying
systems.

A five inch line size is used quite often in bulk handling systems. For
example, bulk trucks which handle cement use 127 mm/5-inch
conveying systems to be able to unload rapidly (within a half hour).
32 mm/1 in and 64 mm/2 in line sizes have also been used. These
sizes are not difficult to obtain, but their use is not necessarily
recommended.

13) One design technique developed in Europe is to maintain a relatively
constant velocity in the transfer line by stepping up the line size as the
system pressure drops. This is easier to do with metric sizes than with
the much large ASA size steps, however.
14) Note ambient inlet air is not always 14.7 psia (1.01 bara).

If plant air is used, drying may be required as with instrument air.

c) Control Schemes

Control schemes for most pneumatic conveying systems are very simple
ones. Position switches are usually provided on diverter valves. Most gas
suppliers have temperature limits on both suction and discharge. High
temperature shutdowns or alarms are not typically required for suppliers
unless the system is a closed loop. Some materials are heat sensitive at
normal supplier discharge temperatures. Some blowers and compressors
have very high exhaust temperatures due to heat of compression (approx.
13
o
F per psi of compression). Aftercoolers are typically required on rotary
lobe blowers in plastic pellet conveying applications. The discharge
temperature would then be controlled to remove this compression heat. High
pressure (or high vacuum) can be used to signal a line pluggage. Closed loop
systems control the minimum pressure in the loop to minimize gas make-up
rates. Pressure relief is required to protect silos, bins and hoppers, which are
designed for very low pressures (12" W.C. or lower). Explosion panels are
usually included on cyclones and dust collectors. Another consideration is
for controlled start-ups especially for closed-loop systems. It is important
that rotary lobe blowers not experience large pressure differentials at start-
up; pulling a vacuum on the suction of a rotary lobe blower at start-up could
cause the rotor lobes to touch, destroying the blower. Typically a bypass is
provided for start-up in constant speed blowers, or variable speed drives may
be employed.

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8.5 SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS

8.5.1 Introduction

Pneumatic conveying can be used for various applications, including powder
handling. The possibility of dust explosion must be a consideration during the
design of a pneumatic conveyor, because of the high concentrations of dust
present. Typically the minimum concentrations in air for an explosion to occur is
in the range of 6x10
4
-0.03 lb/ft
3
/10-500 g/m
3
. Although every effort should be
made in the design to eliminate ignition sources and prevent electrostatic sparks,
some unforeseen ignition sources must be anticipated. The majority of dust
explosions are caused by unknown ignition sources.

The conveying pipe can be designed to withstand the explosion pressure.
However, at the delivery point the conveyor will be discharged into a collecting
vessel or silo with associated air separation equipment (filters or cyclones),
which will require explosion protection. In the event of an explosion the
conveyor and feed should be shutdown.

Where the conveying pipe is not strong enough to withstand an explosion, the
conveying would have to be carried out using an inert conveying medium
because venting would be impracticable.

Pneumatic conveying systems generally offer greater safety to operators than any
other type of bulk handling system. They are cleaner, offering less exposure to
operators. Typically dust explosions do not occur in operating pneumatic
conveying lines. The reason for this observation is two-fold; first, the material
loading is usually higher than the upper explosion limit, and second the velocity
is usually too high for flame propagation (i.e., it blows itself out). The four
requirements for a dust explosion include: 1) dust must collect in the facility,
2) dust must be suspended in air at a concentration above the lower explosion
limit, 3) the dust suspension must be ignited, and 4) sufficient dust to sustain
combustion must be in close proximity to the ignited dust. Static electricity and
motors or switch gear not designed for dusty environments are prime ignition
sources. Explosion vents are typically used to protect equipment, but must be
vented outside buildings or other enclosures to prevent secondary explosions
from ordinary nuisance dusts which may accumulate due to poor housekeeping.
Explosion suppression systems have also been used, but care must be taken to
ensure that the devices do not discharge undetected. If this happens, the next
explosion may not be suppressed since the device will already have discharged.
Closed loop systems have even lower explosion risk when an inert atmosphere is
used. In destination silos, bins, hoppers, and dust collectors it is another story,
especially when the system is not operating. During times when the system is
not operating, conditions could occur to cause a dust explosion. Equipment and
piping must be thoroughly grounded even at sight glasses and hose connections,
and explosion relief panels must be furnished. Atmospheric inerting may be

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insufficient as the system could be exposed to air during maintenance. One must
then remove the fuel, or provide a fire control system (sprinklers) to satisfy the
NFPA code. Information from a number of sources on the relative explosiveness
of some materials is included in 8.7.26 - Appendix 26. Additionally, a list of
materials and their relative explosiveness is included in the reading file from the
U.S. Bureau of Mines (1961). This manual gives a detailed method for the sizing
of explosion vent areas.

8.5.2 Dust Explosions - General

The UK Institution of Chemical Engineers (IChemE) publishes a three part
Guide to Dust Explosion, Prevention and Protection. In addition the Industry and
Engineering standards published for the process location should be consulted.

See Appendix 23 for basic data for gases and dusts.

Under certain conditions fine particles of combustible material dispersed in air
will ignite and explode. This causes a rapid pressure increase within the
containing structure. If the equipment is not designed to withstand the explosion
it can result in extensive damage and the possibility of injury.

In enclosed vessels the pressures generated by these explosions can reach 10 barg
for organic dusts and higher still for metal dusts such as aluminum. These high
pressures cannot be tolerated by most dust handling equipment and therefore
protection methods must be considered.

a) Exclusion of Ignition Sources

Without an ignition source there cannot be a dust explosion. All practical
measures must be taken to exclude ignition sources. Unfortunately, this step
is insufficient on its own and other precautions must be taken because the
ignition source for the majority of dust explosions is not known and therefore
impossible to design out. Examples of ignition sources include: Flames, Hot
Surfaces, Incandescent Material, Spontaneous Heating, Welding or Cutting
Operations, Friction Heating or Sparks, Impact Sparks, Electric Sparks and
Electro Static Discharge Sparks.

b) Exclusion of Oxygen (Inerting)

Using nitrogen, carbon dioxide or other suitable gases the oxygen content is
reduced to below the minimum required to support combustion (typically
< 6 - 15 %). This method is expensive, it requires a closed system to
conserve the inert gas and continuous monitoring of the oxygen content.




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c) Containment

The vessels and associated pipework are built to withstand the maximum
pressure. This is expensive, except in very small systems.

d) Venting (Bursting Disks)

This method is widely used, it is relatively simple and cheap to install. Vents
provided in the walls of the vessel allow dust and combustion products to
escape, limiting the pressure rise to an acceptable level.

e) Suppression

In some cases venting is unacceptable (If the dust is toxic or corrosive for
example). The start of the explosion is detected by instruments which trigger
the release of fire suppressants.

There are a number of conditions that must be satisfied simultaneously for a dust
explosion to occur.

The dust must be combustible. Many substances have been involved in
serious dust cloud explosions including organic chemicals, resins, metal
powders and food products.
The dust must have a particle size distribution which will propagate flame.
In general if the particle size of a combustible dust is reduced the risk of
explosion increases. Fine particles stay in suspension more readily than
coarse particles, hence the probability of producing an explosible
concentration is enhanced. Particles with diameters greater than 500 m are
unlikely to cause dust explosions. (However coarse particles can produce
fines when handled and this should be considered).
The dust concentration within the suspension must be within the explosible
range. Typically the minimum concentrations in air for an explosion to occur
is in the range 10 -500 g/m
3
.
The dust suspension must be in contact with an ignition source of sufficient
energy.

When all of the these conditions are satisfied the hazard from a dust
explosion is dependent upon the explosibility of the dust, the volume and
characteristics of the vessel and the degree of turbulence in the vessel.

The explosibility of the dust can be measured in the laboratory using the
standard 201 sphere. The maximum rate of pressure rise (dP/dt)
max
bar/s and
the maximum explosion pressure in an enclosed explosion, P
max
are measured

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over a range of dust concentrations, using a standard technique. The highest
value of (dP/dt)
max
is used to calculate the K
ST
value for the dust.

K
ST

=
3 / 1
max
V
dt
dP
|
.
|

\
|


where:

V = the vessel volume in m
3


This equation is referred to as the cube root law. The K
ST
value is defined as
the maximum rate of pressure rise measured under standard conditions in
1 m
3
vessel, and is used to characterize the explosibility of the dust by
reference to four groups. See Table 8-5.


Table 8-5

DUST EXPLOSION DATA

K
ST
EXPLOSION CLASS CHARACTERISTICS
0
> 0 - 200
200 - 300
> 300
St0
St1
St2
St3
No Explosion
Weak Explosion
Strong Explosion
Very Strong Explosion


The Chilworth Laboratory at Southampton University, UK, carries out this type
of work. Other laboratories in the UK can be found in the IChemE Guide to Dust
Explosion, Prevention and Protection Part 1 by Dr C. Schofield.

Alternatively the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) can be consulted or their
equivalent in Europe. In the USA the Environmental Protection Agency can be
consulted.

8.5.3 Sizing of Vents - Basic Methods

The basic principle of venting is that if a dust explosion occurs in a vessel a vent
of sufficient area should open rapidly allowing unburnt dust and explosion
products to escape, thus limiting the pressure rise to an acceptable level. The
acceptable pressure rise is determined by the requirement that the vessel does not
rupture and in some cases does not deform.

Venting is a widely used precaution because it is relatively simple and cheap. In
the following circumstances venting is inappropriate and alternative precautions
should be used and specialist advise sought.

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The dust is toxic or corrosive.
The dust explodes violently K
ST
> 600 bar m/s.
The dust is a detonating or deflagrating material (will explode in the absence
of atmospheric oxygen). When detonation occurs there is insufficient time
for the vent to open to reduce pressure.
The vessel has a volume larger than 1,000 m
3
(methods not yet confirmed by
experiment).
The vent cover will not withstand corrosive and erosive conditions inside the
vessel.
It is not possible to vent dust and combustion products to a safe place.

There is no single method for sizing vents to cover all eventualities. The most
widely used methods are considered below:

a) Vent Ratio Method

VENT RATIO =
3
2
m , VESSEL OF VOLUME
m , VENT OF AREA


For vessels up to 30 m
3
recommended vent ratios are given below in
Table 8-6.

Table 8-6

VENT RATIO DATA - SMALL VESSELS

MAX RATE OF PRESSURE
RISE (BAR/S)
VENT RATIO
(1/m)
< 345
345 690
> 690
1/6.1
1/4.6
1/3.1

It will be appreciated that for larger vessels the vent areas can be large and
difficult to accommodate. The large areas arise because the vent ratio
method is based on rapid flame propagation throughout the whole vessel
volume rather than a spherical flame front from a single ignition source. In
reality such a high degree of turbulence and fragmentation of the flame front
is unlikely to occur throughout the whole vessel volume, resulting in
overgenerous vent sizing. For larger vessels the vent ratio is modified as
shown in Table 8-7.



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Table 8-7
VENT RATIO DATA - LARGE VESSELS

VOLUME RANGE, m
3

MODIFICATION
30 - 300
300 - 600
(silos)
> 700
Vent Ratio reduced Linearly from
1
/
6
to
1
/
25

Half Area of Top
(Full Area for More Explosive Dusts)
Full Area of Top

The following list is of specific applications of the vent ratio method and the
necessary conditions.

- The maximum reduced explosion pressure will not exceed 0.03 barg and
the vent cover will not weigh more than 25 kg/m
2
.
- Discharge ducts, if incorporated, are less than 3 m long, (vent ducts are
not recommended for very weak vessels).
- A high degree of turbulence and flame front fragmentation is allowed
for.
- Unless detailed information is available to the contrary the volume used
in the calculation should be the total volume of the vessel.

The vent ratio method was used for many years in the UK and USA to
determine vent areas.

b) Nomograph or Cubic Law Method

This method is widely used in Europe. It is based, indirectly, on the cubic
relationship for closed vessels which has been shown to apply to vented
vessels, within acceptable limits. This law only applies to vessels with L/D
ratios less than 5 to 1 and volumes greater than 17 liters.
K
ST
=
3 1/
max
V
dt
dP
|
|
.
|

\
|


From this equation the relationship between vent area (F) and vessel volume
(V) was deduced.






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F
2
=
3 2
1
3 2
2 1
/
/
V
V F


where:

F
1

= vent area on the test vessel necessary to limit the pressure rise to
the prescribed value

F
2

= vent area on the vessel in question required to limit the pressure
rise to the same value

V
1

= volume of test vessel

V
2

= volume of vessel in question

The scale up of test data for different conditions and for the different St
classes of dust has been simplified by the provision of a series of
nomographs in Figures 8-37A thru 8-37C. A similar series of nomographics
is shown in Figures 8-38A thru 8-38C based on the K
ST
values.

To determine the vent area F, m
2
for a vessel of volume V, m
3
the following
information is required:

- P
STAT
, barg = vent opening pressure

- P
RED
, barg =the reduced pressure (maximum pressure in the vented
vessel; reduced from Pmax by the presence of the vent)

- The St classification of the dust, from laboratory test

It is assumed the vent cover has low inertia with an area density less than
10 kg/m
2
. The use of the nomograph is illustrated in Figure 8-39.

Figure 8-40 shows an example of the comparison of vent areas determined
from St and K
ST
nomographs.

These nomographs are for strong ignition sources. To avoid making
judgments on the likely strength of ignition it is recommended that these
nomographs are used for all ignition strengths.


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Figure 8-37A

NOMOGRAPH FOR DETERMINING VENT AREAS BASED ON ST CLASSIFICATION
[VDI (1979)]: P
stat
= 0.1 barg.



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Figure 8-37B

NOMOGRAPH FOR DETERMINING VENT AREAS BASED ON ST CLASSIFICATION
[VDI (1979)]: P
stat
= 0.2 barg.



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Figure 8-37C

NOMOGRAPH FOR DETERMINING VENT AREAS BASED ON ST CLASSIFICATION
[VDI (1979)]: Pstat = 0.5 barg.


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Figure 8-38A

NOMOGRAPH FOR DETERMINING VENT AREAS BASED ON Kst VALUES
[VDI (1979)]: Pstat = 0.1 barg.


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Figure 8-38B

NOMOGRAPH FOR DETERMINING VENT AREAS BASED ON Kst VALUES
[VDI (1979)]: Pstat = 0.2 barg.


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Figure 8-38C

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Specific areas for the application of the nomograph method and necessary
conditions are summarized as:

K
ST
and St should be measured using the standard laboratory methods.
The lowest pressure that can be designed for without extrapolation is 0.2
barg.
The vent cover inertia must be low and the area density of the cover must
be less than 10 kg/m
2
.
The vessel volume is between 1-1,000 m
3

Unless detailed information is available to the contrary the volume used
in the nomograph should be the total free volume of the vessel.
The turbulence in the vessel is similar to that in the test method.
The vessel should have an L/D ratio less than 5:1. For weaker vessels
use 3:1.
This method takes no account of vent ducts.

c) K Factor Method

It has been shown for compact rectangular vessels the maximum explosion
pressure in a vented vessel was related to the vent area.

P
max

F
Av
K = Note: K is not the same as Kst
where:
F = the vent area
Av = the cross sectional area of the vessel

Details of this method are to be found in the IChemE Guide to Dust
Explosion Prevention and Protection Part 1, Section 4.3.

The specific areas of application for the K factor method and the necessary
conditions are summarized below:

Suitable for St2 in the absence of excessive turbulence.
The vent cover inertia must be low and the weight per unit area of the
cover must be less than 10 kg/m
2
.
Vessel volume between 1 - 1,000 m
3
.
The area Av used in the determination of K is usually taken as the area of
the smallest side of the vessel.

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Figure 8-39



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The vessel L/D ratio should be less than 5:1 (3:1 for weak vessels).
The method in the IChemE guide makes no allowance for vent ducts.

d) The Rust Method

This is a fourth alternative for calculating vent areas. It is based on the flame
front being spherical initially and then determined by the vessel shape. It has
been used for plant handling soap and detergent powders. It is particularly
useful for weak explosions (St1).

8.5.4 Factors Affecting Estimation of Vent Size

a) Weak Vessels

The Vent Ratio Method is recommended.

b) Weak Explosions

K
ST
< 50 bar/s (approx). The St Nomograph will overestimate the required
vent size, hence the K
ST
Nomograph or the Rust method should be used.

c) Turbulence

A pneumatic conveyor supplying a solid/air mixture to a silo may create a
turbulent dust cloud. In this circumstance the flame front may be fragmented
or stretched and centers of ignition may be spread throughout the vessel -
increasing the rate of combustion and creating a higher rate of pressure rise.
The vent ratio method should be used, methods based on a spherical flame
spread should be avoided.

d) Internal Obstructions

This has a similar effect to turbulence. Internal obstructions can impede the
passage of flame towards the vent. Tests may be required to find the
optimum location for the vent.

e) Vent Location

The vent should be located so that the flame front is unimpeded and the
flame front area must never be reduced so that it is less than the area of the
vent. The required vent area can be made up of smaller vents if required,
providing the total area and the opening pressure are adequate.

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The vent location is influenced by requirement to vent the unburnt dust and
the combustion products to a safe place.

f) Vessel Shape

In general the methods described are most suited to a compact vessel.
Usually the L/D ratio should not exceed 5:1 although ICI recommend 3:1 for
process vessels and silos. There are no standard methods available for
vessels with L/D ratios exceeding 5.

The nomograph method is most appropriate for conical vessels and the K
factor method for cylindrical vessels.

g) Limitations to Vent Area

In some pieces of equipment it is not possible to have a vent area obtained
using the standard methods because of obstructions from ancillary
equipment, inlet and outlet pipes for example. In this situation the vessel
must be strengthened to allow a higher pressure and consequently a smaller
vent size can be calculated.

h) Vessel Operating Pressure

The activation pressure for the vent must be significantly different from the
normal operating pressure to avoid the vent opening during normal operation.

i) Interconnected Vessels

Where two vessels are connected by a pipe a dust explosion in one vessel
will be communicated to the second vessel, if it cannot be isolated. In the
second vessel, precompression and increased turbulence will enhance the rate
of pressure rise. The following procedure isrecommended by the IChemE
Guide to Dust Explosions, Prevention and Protection Part 1 Section 5.9:

The vent activation pressure should be less than 0.2 barg.
For vessels with similar volumes (within 10 %) both vessels should be
sized using the nomograph method.
For vessels of different sizes the vents should be sized using the
nomograph method, but both vessels and interconnecting lines should be
designed for pressure-shock resistance of at least 2 barg.
Where the smaller vessel cannot be adequately vented it should be
designed for a pressure-shock resistance equivalent to the maximum
explosion pressure.

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If the vessels are isolated by fast acting valves or extinguisher burners
controlled by explosion detection systems then each vessel should be vented
separately by the appropriate method.

j) Vent Ducts

1) Fitting a vent has two serious implications:
The flow of dust and gases from the vent is impeded and the pressure
reduction in the vessel will be significantly impeded.
The vent duct, initially, may be filled with a mixture of unburnt dust
and air which will be ignited by the burning material flowing from
the vent.

2) The effect of the duct on the vessel pressure is illustrated in Figure 8-41.
The increase due to the vent duct is large and could cause the vessel to
rupture. The IChemE Guide makes the following recommendations:
Vent ducts should be as short as possible in length - ideally less than
3 m in length.
The pressure rise in the vessel should be estimated on the basis given
in Figure 8-41.
If the pressure rise due to the duct is unacceptable the size of the vent
should be increased accordingly.
The cross sectional area of the duct should be the same or up to 10 %
greater than the vent size. An increase in cross sectional area in the
direction of flow is beneficial.
Vent cross section can be any shape (for rectangular vents up to 5:1
aspect ratio is acceptable) - circular ducts are often preferred because
of the greater strength for the same gauge metal.
There should be no change in shape of the vent duct along its length
that could impede the flow of combustion products or the movement
of vent covers.
The vent duct should be straight because of the unpredictable effects
of bends. Short bends of long radius may be acceptable to divert the
discharge but expert guidance should be sought.
The vent duct should be constructed to have the same pressure-shock
resistance as the vessel being protected.


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Figure 8-41




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8.5.5 Venting Considerations for Pneumatic Conveying Equipment

a) Silos

Silos may operate full or partially full. For the purpose of sizing vents the
total free volume should be used as more dust is likely to be generated under
empty conditions.

In large silos the dust cloud is likely to be of low turbulence, although a
pneumatic conveyor inlet could cause break-up of a flame should it be
operating at the time of ignition.

Vents in side walls are not recommended, the vent should be located in the top
cover. For the purpose of sizing the vents for cylindrical silos the vent activating
pressure should be 0.1 barg and a maximum reduced pressure of 0.2 barg could
be expected to be within the strength capabilities of typical silos.

The nomograph and K factor methods should be used to size the vent. Both
of these methods are limited to vessels with L/D < 5, which will limit the
height of the silo. If the L/D is very high, sufficient pressure may be
developed to damage the silo before the flame front reaches the vent. For
vessels with L/D ratio close to or just above 5, or where the dust cloud could
be turbulent, the whole cross sectional area should be used for venting.

b) Cyclones

The dust cloud in a cyclone is concentrated close to the outer wall. The
volume occupied by an explosible dust cloud will therefore be much smaller
than the volume of the cyclone, and the vent areas determined by the usual
methods will appear conservative. However, there are occasions where an
explosion downstream may course a "blow-back" which would disrupt the
normal air flow resulting in a uniform distribution of dust. Hence to
determine the vent area the whole cyclone volume should be used as this is
the worst case.

The K factor and nomograph methods are recommended for vent sizing, if
the cyclone can withstand a reduced pressure greater than 0.2 barg.

The position of the vent is important. The most favorable position for the
vents is around the top surface of the cyclone body (Figure 8-42). It is
essential the construction and installation of the vent covers does not cause
turbulence in the air flow, which could affect the cyclone performance. In a
typical high-throughput cyclone the area available for venting on the top
surface is about 50 % of the cross sectional area, therefore a K factor of 2 can
be readily accepted.

Vents are sometimes fitted on top of the vortex tube see (Figure 8-43). In
this position explosion pressures will be higher than in the alternative

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position and the vortex tube needs to be strong enough to avoid being
damaged by an explosion in the body of the cyclone.

c) Dry Dust Collectors

Under normal operating conditions the dust concentration entering the bag or
fabric filter will be well below the lower explosive limits. However, during
fabric cleaning high dust concentrations occur locally and any disturbance of
the system would cause dust to be re-entrained from the sides of the vessel
and from the material collected in the hopper. Ignition is commonly caused
by sparks or smoldering material conveyed from the upstream processes.
This may cause explosion directly, or burning may spread from smoldering
material under the influence of higher air velocities close to the fabric filter.
It is generally believed the ignition is most likely to occur in the hopper.

It is recommended that vents are located on the dirty side of the filter close to
the hopper. In general the vent sizing should be based on a reduced pressure
of 0.35 barg or less depending on the design in question. The clean side
should be provided with vents, especially if the clean side volume is greater
than about 50 % of the dirty side volume - this additional vent area should be
sized based on the clean side volume.

If the vent on a filter is activated it is important that the fan is switched off
automatically and stopped quickly to limit the spread of the combustion.
Additionally, fire extinguishing is recommended to stop the fabric bags
continuing to burn.

d) Conveying Pipeline

The conveying pipe should be designed to be strong enough to withstand the
explosion pressure, however, at the delivery point the conveyor will be
discharged into a collecting vessel or silo. The collecting vessel and air
separation equipment (cyclones and filters) will be protected.

In the event of an explosion the conveyor and its feed should be shutdown.

If the pipe is not strong enough to withstand an explosion and it is not
practical to vent the line, an inert gas would have to be used.

8.5.6 Control of Ignition

In addition to venting it is advisable to take some precautions to reduce the risk
of ignition. In the sections below specific precautions are given for particular
types of equipment. These precautions are not usually sufficient on their own
and other precautions (venting, inerting) should also be used.

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Figure 8-42


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a) Pneumatic Conveying Lines

All components should be regularly checked for earth connection, which
should have a resistance less than 10 ohms. Where flexible connections are
required flexible metal parts should also be used.

Pipework either side of sight glasses and flange connections should be
connected to earth with a resistance less than 10 ohms.

The conveying air should be taken from a clean ignition free source. Blower,
fan, pump or compressor motors should be fitted with an overload trip.

Air pressure relief and non-return valves may also be fitted.

Feed to the system should be controlled at optimum rate.

Detectors which initiate shutdown if hot material or sparks are detected in the
feed, may be installed at the feed point.

At start-up the air supply should first be established and then powder fed in
at its optimum rate as quickly as possible.

At shutdown the powder supply should be stopped quickly and the air
continued until all the powder has been removed.

Pneumatic conveying lines should not contain any dead areas where dust can
accumulate.

Non-conducting plastic conveying lines should be used with care. Antistatic
plastics should be used if the material is sensitive to ignition by static
electricity (see BS5958).

Electrical equipment should conform to BS6467.

b) Storage Bins

All metal storage bins are preferred if the material is sensitive to ignition by
static electricity. The resistance to earth should be less than 10 ohms and
should be checked regularly. Special precautions may be necessary for
plastic containers for high resistivity powders (see BS5958).

Electrical wiring should not be strapped to the outside of bins.

Metal items such as chain measures or metal tapes should not be lowered into the
bin. Level indicators of approved dust tight design should be used. They must
be adequately earthed and electricity supply cables should not run inside the bin.


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Material feed to the bin should be shut off if it contains excessively hot
material. Infrared sensors may be used to detect hot material.

Cutting and welding preparations on the bin should only be carried out in
accordance with the Factories Act 1961 Subsection 31(4).

Bins used to store materials liable to spontaneous heating should have
provision for being discharged in isolation from the rest of the plant, to a safe
place.

Carbon monoxide monitors may be used to detect spontaneous combustion.

Electrical equipment should conform to BS6467.

c) Dust Filters

All metal collecting bins are preferred. The resistance to earth should be less
than 10 ohms and should be regularly checked. Special precautions may be
necessary for high resistivity powders. BS5958 gives details.

Precautions should be taken to prevent overflowing of the collecting bin.

Level indicators of approved dust-tight design must be adequately grounded.
Electricity supply cables should not run inside nor be strapped to the outside
of the collecting bin. Electrical equipment should conform to BS6467.

Filter bags made from epitropic fibers, which conduct electricity can be used
to prevent the build up of static electricity on the bags, but steps must be
taken to ensure that the bags are earthed.

The use of filter bags which incorporate metal wires into the weave, requires
some caution, because if the connection between a metal wire and earth is
broken (by wear) the isolated wire will create an electrostatic hazard.

Material feed to the filter should be shut off if it contains excessively hot
material. Infrared sensors may be used to detect hot material. Filters
collecting materials liable to spontaneous heating should have provision for
being discharged in isolation for the rest of the plant.

Cutting and welding operations on the collecting bin should only be carried
out in accordance with the Factories Act 1961 Subsection 31(4).


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8.5.7 Inerting

a) Use of Inert Gas

An effective method of explosion prevention is the partial or complete
substitution of the air or flammable atmosphere with which the dust is mixed
by an inert gas. Dust explosions can be eliminated if oxygen is excluded
completely or is reduced to a concentration level below which flame
propagation and consequently explosion cannot occur.

This method, called inerting, is applicable to enclosed plants. A plant that is
substantially open to the atmosphere cannot be effectively inerted because
significant fluctuation in oxygen concentration are likely. Furthermore the
loss of inert gas would be uneconomic and may lead to a build-up of inert gas
in places accessible to people, with the risk of the asphyxiation. An HSE
Guidance Note GS 5 (HSE 1977/A) gives advice on entry into confined
spaces where inert gas may be present.

A major consideration when designing a plant to be protected by inerting is
the need for continuous monitoring of oxygen and flammable gas or vapor
concentrations.

Inerting is of particular use for very strongly explosible dusts (K
ST
> 600 bar
s
-1
). It is also used where flammable solvent vapors are present.

The design of inert gas systems requires estimates of leakage rates from plant
items and of the efficiency of gas mixing in the plant. It is recommended
that the advice of a specialist is sought.

b) Diluent Dust Addition

The term "inerting" is also used in some instances to describe the technique
whereby combustible dusts are made noncombustible by diluting them with
an inert dust such as calcium sulphate, limestone, sodium bicarbonate,
common salt, various silicates or stonedust. Such materials may act as a heat
sink or otherwise interfere with the flame propagation. The technique is
readily applicable where unwanted by-product materials, or other materials
for which some contamination is acceptable, are involved. In most cases
more than 60 % diluent dust is required: in some cases considerably more is
required. Furthermore the diluent dust must be intimately mixed with the
explosible dust. Diluent dust inerting is not widely used except in coal
mines.



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c) Inerting Gases

Typical inert gases used include nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon, helium and
flue gases.

The choice of inert gas depends on a number of factors including:

- Cost
- Availability of supply
- Reliability of supply
- Likelihood of contamination of the dust by constituents of the inert gas,
including moisture
- Volume effectiveness in reducing explosibility

Greatest consideration should be given to ensuring that the supply of inert
gas is reliable and that adequate backup facilities are available in the event of
failure.

The IChemE Guide to Dust Explosion, Prevention and Protection Part 2
Appendix C provides a method to determine the concentration of inert gas
required to prevent explosion.























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Table 8-8

RELATIVE MERITS OF INERT GASES

Gas Advantages

Disadvantages

Carbon Dioxide Readily available in compressed form,
from proprietary inert gas generators,
and in some cases as a waste gas from
on-site processes.

Effective - higher oxygen levels (per
cent by volume) are permissible
compared with nitrogen

Moderate cost.

Some metal dusts react violently with
Carbon Dioxide (e.g., aluminum).

Flow of Carbon Dioxide can generate
considerable electrostatic charge.

Nitrogen Readily available in compressed or
cryogenic form, and in some cases as a
waste gas from on-site processes.

Moderate cost.

Less effective in volume/volume terms
than Carbon Dioxide.

Some metal dusts react with Nitrogen
(e.g., magnesium) at high
temperature.

Flue gases Often readily available as a waste gas
from on-site generators.

Often available at low cost.

Requires additional equipment to:

Cool the gas
Remove contaminants
Monitor or remove combustible vapors
Remove incandescent material.

May react with dusts.

Storage of flue gas may not be
practical, so that adequate quantities
may not always be available for
example during a furnace shutdown.

Argon or Helium Unlikely to contaminate products or
react with them.

Expensive.


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8.6 REFERENCES, CODES AND STANDARDS

Fluor Master Specification 000.259.29610, Bulk Material Handling - Pneumatic
Conveying Systems

Fluor Master Specification 000.259.59611, Pneumatic Conveying Diverters

Fluor Master Specification 000.259.59612, Rotary Feeders and Airlocks

NFPA Code 91, Standard for the Installation of Blower and Exchange Systems for Dust,
Stock and Vapor Removals or Conveying

NFPA Code 650, Pneumatic Conveying Systems for Handling Combustible Materials

OSHA Code of Federal Regulations Title 29 Part 1910

BS 5667, Specification for Continuous Mechanical Handling Equipment - Safety
Requirements

BRE Fire Research Station, Fire Research Notes 992, Dust Explosion Hazards in
Pneumatic Transport (K N Palmer)

Perry, R.H., Chemical Engineers' Handbook, pp. 7-17 to 7-25, 6th Edition, 1984

Mills, David; Pneumatic Conveying Design Guide, Butterworths, Sevenoaks, Kent, UK,
1990

Bohnet, M; Advances in the Design Pneumatic Conveyors, Int. Chem. Eng., July 1985,
25 (3), 387-405

Krambrock, W; Dense Phase Pneumatic Conveying, Ger. Chem. Eng., (Engl. Transl.),
July 1983, 6(4), 199-210

Kraus, M.N., Pneumatic Conveying Systems, Chem. Eng. (Int. Ed), 13 October 1986,
93(19), 50-61

Kraus, M.N., Pneumatic Conveying Systems for Bulk Materials, 3rd Edition

Mills, D., Troubleshooting Pneumatic Conveying (Part 1), Chem. Eng. (Int. Ed),
June 1990, 97 (6), 93-102, 105

Mills, D., Troubleshooting Pneumatic Conveying (Part 2), Chem. Eng. (Int. Ed), July
1991, 97(7), 101-107

Mills, D., Pneumatic Conveying: Cost Effective Design, Chem. Eng. (Int. Ed), February
1990, 97(2), 70-82

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The Best of Pneumatic Conveying, Powder and Bulk Engineering.

Thompson, F.M., Dense Phase Pneumatic Conveying, Chem. Process, (Chicago), May
1985, 51(6), 52-54, 57-59

Zenz, F.A., Othmer, D.F., Fluidized and Solid Particle Systems, Reinhold Pub. Co., New
York

8.7 APPENDICES

8.7.1 Appendix 1: Design Calculation Methods
8.7.2 Appendix 2: Example Problem
8.7.3 Appendix 3: Fluor Daniel Shortcut Calculation Method
8.7.4 Appendix 4: Fluor Daniel Modified Allied Flotronics Method
8.7.5 Appendix 5: Fischer-Gerchow Method
8.7.6 Appendix 6: Fan Engineering Method
8.7.7A Appendix 7A: Konno and Saito Correlation (FPS Units)
8.7.7B Appendix 7B: Konno-Saito Method (as recommended by PSRI)
8.7.7C Appendix 7C: Zanz-Othmer Method (dilute and two-phase dense phase flow
systems)
8.7.7D Appendix 7D: Particulate Solids Research Institute (PSRI) (for piston flow
dense phase systems) (See PSRI "Desktop Design Manual,"
Edition 1, June 1994)
8.7.8 Appendix 8: Table 8-10 Standard Pipe Dimensions
8.7.9 Appendix 9: Tables 8-11 and 8-12, Bulk Solid Material Characteristics
8.7.10 Appendix 10: Not Used
8.7.11 Appendix 11: Table 8-13, Dilute Phase Conveying Velocities for Various
Materials
8.7.12 Appendix 12: Table 8-14, Dense Phase Conveying Velocity for Various
Materials
8.7.13 Appendix 13: Sieves
Table 8-15, U.S. Sieve Series
Table 8-16, Tyler Standard Screens
Table 8-17, I.M.M. Screens
Table 8-18, British Standard Sieves
8.7.14 Appendix 14: Not Used
8.7.15 Appendix 15: Not Used
8.7.16 Appendix 16: Not Used
8.7.17A Appendix 17A: Airlock Size and RPM Calculation
8.7.17B Appendix 17B: Airlock Loss - Approximate
8.7.17C Appendix 17C: Rotary Valve Leakage Chart (Flotronics)
8.7.18A Appendix 18A: Diverter Valve Application Chart
8.7.18B Appendix 18B: Line Diverter Valve Leakage Chart
8.7.19A Appendix 19A: FILTER AIR-TO-CLOTH Ratio Selection
8.7.19B Appendix 19B: Comparative Air-Filter Characteristics
8.7.19C Appendix 19C: Fabric Temperature Limits

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8.7.19D Appendix 19D: Fibers for Dry-Filtration Fabrics
8.7.19E Appendix 19E: Selection Criteria for Dry Filter and Wet Scrubber Selection
8.7.19F Appendix 19F: Size and Characteristics of Air - Barne Solids
8.7.20 Appendix 20: Properties of Common Vapors and Gases
8.7.21 Appendix 21: Altitude-Pressure-Temperature-Density Table of Air
8.7.22 Appendix 22: Economics
8.7.23 Appendix 23: Fundamental Burning Velocities of Selected Gases
8.7.24 Appendix 24: Fire Hazard Properties of Selected Liquids, Gases and Volatile
Solids
8.7.25 Appendix 25: Defining the Limits of Hazardous (Classified) Locations for
Compliance with National Electric Code
8.7.26 Appendix 26: Explosion Properties of Dusts
8.7.27 Appendix 27: Equipment Data Sheets - Process Input
8.7.28 Appendix 28: Sample Specification

8.7.1 Appendix I: Design Calculation Methods

Dilute phase design calculation methods include the Zenz-Othmer method, the
Fischer-Gerchow method, the Fan Engineering method, the short-cut method
used at Fluor Daniel, the Modified Allied Flotronics method and the Konno-Saito
correlation recommended by PSRI. All of these methods involve some form of
energy balance equation analogous to the Bernoulli equation in fluid hydraulics.
The Fischer-Gerchow and Fan Engineering methods focus on a momentum
equation which use empirical material friction factors. These material factors are
usually proportional to the tangent of the angle of repose. The Zenz-Othmer and
Konno-Saito methods use the gas frictional loss and a material to gas loading
ratio, avoiding the empirical factors, but producing conservative solutions.

a) Fluor Daniel Short-cut Method
b) Modified Allied Flotronics Method (Fluor Daniel Houston)
c) Fischer-Gerchow Method
d) Fan Engineering Method
e) Konno-Saito Method (PSRI)
f) Zenz-Othmer Method (Solt)

Dense phase design calculation methods include various graphical phase diagram
methods, the Zenz-Othmer method (for two-phase "dune" or "wave" flow), and
the PSRI method (for "slug" or "piston" flow).

a) Phase Diagram Method (Graphical)
b) Zenz-Othmer Method (Solt)
c) PSRI Method


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PIPING HYDRAULICS AND SPECIFICATION
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The three basic parameters calculated for pneumatic conveying systems are
conveying line size, system pressure drop, and gas mover horsepower. Each
calculation method will be described, and some sample problems will be
performed.

8.7.2 Appendix 2 :

Example Problem Basis

A dilute phase pressure system uses air to convey 50,000 lb/hr of a low density
(35 lb/ft
3
) polyethylene pellet. The pellet is a 1/8" diameter sphere. The air
supply pipe is 120 ft horizontal run, 20 ft vertical run, with (3) 90
o
mitered
elbows and (1) 45
o
mitered elbow. The material pipe is 150 ft horizontal, 75 ft
vertical, with (4) 90
o
bends, (1) 45
o
bend, (1) 15
o
bend, and (1) 30
o
diverter
valve. Calculate the diameter of the pipe required.

Bear in mind that velocity increases with decreasing gas density as the gas flows
down the pipe. All calculations are based on the average system velocity.


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PNEUMATIC CONVEYING
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DATE 8-94

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PNEUMATIC CONVEYING SAMPLE
PROBLEM DILUTE PHASE SUMMARY


System: Pressure System for LDPE Pellets


Capacity: 25 Tons/Hr; 50,000 lbs/hr; 833 lbs/min


Line: 8" Sch 10; 8.329" ID; 0.378 ft
2
flow area


Design Parameter Fluor Shortcut Modified
Flotronics
Fischer/
Gerchow
Fan
Engineering

Pickup Velocity, FPM 4,800 4,905 4,500 4,800

Air Flow Rate SCFM Not Calculated 2,225 2,268 Not
Calculated

Terminal Velocity FPM Not Calculated 5,886 6,000
(Assumed)
----

Solids Ratio, R lb/lb air 4.62 5.0 4.90 4.62

Solids Conveying AP, psi 5.0 3.05
(2.65 with
slide rule)
3.40 2.80

Air Only AP, psi 1.18
(Assumed)
1.18
(Assumed)
1.18
(Calculated)
1.18
(Calculated)

Total AP, psi 6.18 4.23 4.58 3.98

Note: For this system a blower was purchased for 2,468 SCFM and a design AP of 8 psi. The
design AP included suction piping, inlet muffler, discharge muffler, cooler and filter pressure drops.
The blower was equipped with a 125 hp motor.


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PROCESS MANUAL

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PNEUMATIC CONVEYING
SECTION 8.0

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APPENDICES

8.7.3 Appendix 3: Fluor Daniel Shortcut Calculation Method

This is a rapid method which is handy to use for a preliminary selection of a line
size and an estimate of the pressure drop for the system. The shortcut method is
limited only to conventional dilute phase pneumatic conveying systems.
Procedural steps in the calculation procedure are as follows:

Assumptions

a) Conveying line size and schedule.
b) Endpoint air is at standard condition (i.e., 14.7 psia and 70 F)

Table 8-9A

TYPICAL SOLIDS LOADING IN PNEUMATIC TRANSFER LINES

Line Le
Loading Factor (Lb./Sec./Ft.
2
)

0 to 250 ft. 45 to 60
250 to 500 30 to 40
Solids Loading Factor range is for systems operating at between 0 to 10 psig

For materials with bulk densities of 55 lb./ft.
3
or less with maximum particle
sizes up to 1/8", the following average velocities may be used:

Table 8-9B

Conveying Distance Average Velocity

200 ft. 4,000 ft./min.
500 ft. 5,000 ft./min.
1,000 ft. 6,000 ft./min.

1) Calculate System Equivalent Length: (See Note 1, Page 139)

Determine the equivalent length of bends: (See Note 1)

Le(bends) = n(50 ft.)

n = number of equivalent bends

So the Total System Equivalent Length = n(50 ft.) + H (ft.) + V (ft.)

where:
H = Horizontal distance of pipes
V = Vertical distance of pipe

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2) Select Solids Loading Factor:

From Table 8-9A, determine the solids loading.

3) Check Solids Loading:

W
|
|
.
|

\
|
2
ft . sec
lb
=
xA x ft
xW in
60
144
2
2


where:

W = Solids rate (lb./min.)
A = Internal pipe flow area (in.
2
)

4) Determine the Pickup Velocity:

Determine the pickup velocity from Figure 8-44.

Note: The size and type of material is required.

5) Gas Density and Solids/Gas Ratio:

Assume a Solids Pressure Drop:

Calculate the inlet gas density:

p(g)=29(14.7+AP)/(10.73(459.7+T(
o
F))),(lb./ft.
3
)


where:

P(g) = gas density, lb./ft.
3

AP = pressure drop, psi

Then Solids/Gas Ratio R = 60W/(p(g)V1)

where:

V1 = pickup velocity (ft./min.)

6) Calculate the Solids Pressure Drop for Average System Pressure and
Solids/Gas Ratio:

Pavg. = (P1 + P2)/2, (Psia)

Determine AP from Figure 8-45, (Psi/100 ft.).


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7) Calculate Total Solids Pressure Drop = AP
100
(Le/100), (Psi).
If not within 10 % of assumed value; try another guess and repeat
calculation.

Note: (1) For equivalent length of system, use total horizontal and
vertical length plus an allowance of 50 ft. for each 90
o
elbow.
For two 45 elbows use the equivalent of one 90
o
elbow.


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PROCESS MANUAL

PIPING HYDRAULICS AND SPECIFICATION
BOOK 1

PNEUMATIC CONVEYING
SECTION 8.0

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DATE 8-94

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Figure 8-44

DILUTE PHASE CONVEYING VELOCITIES


FLUOR DANIEL

PROCESS MANUAL

PIPING HYDRAULICS AND SPECIFICATION BOOK 1

PNEUMATIC CONVEYING
SECTION 8.0

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DATE 8-94

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Figure 8-45

SHORTCUT METHOD PRESSURE DROP CHART




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PROCESS MANUAL

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BOOK 1

PNEUMATIC CONVEYING
SECTION 8.0

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DATE 8-94

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FD Shortcut Calculation Method for Solution to Example Problem

Assumptions:

a) 8" schedule 40 conveying line
b) Endpoint air is at standard condition (i.e., 14.7 psia and 70
o
F)

Calculations

1) Calculate System Equivalent Length:

Determine the equivalent length of bends;

Le(bends) = n(50 ft.)

n = number of equivalent bends = 4+((30
o
+15
o
+45)/90
o
)=5

So, Le(bends) = 5(50) = 250 ft.

So the Total System Equivalent Length = 150+75+250 = 475 ft.

2) Select Solids Loading Factor:

From Table 8-9A, target solids loading is between 30 to 40 lb./sec./ft.
2
.

3) Check Solids Loading:

W = 144W/60A W = 5,000 lb./hr./60 min./hr. = 833.3 lb./min.

=
0 50 60
3 833 144
. x
. x
A = 50.0 in.
2
(Table 8-10, Appendix 8)

= 39.9 lb./sec./ft.
2


This meets the expected solids loading factor range.

4) Determine the Pickup Velocity:

From Figure 8-44 (same as that used in Fan Engineering calculation),

V1 = 4,800 ft./min. (Note this in the velocity range of
Table 8-9B.)


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PROCESS MANUAL

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5) Gas Density and Solids/Gas Ratio:

Assume a Solids Pressure Drop:

AP = 5.0 Psi

p(g) = 29(14.7+dP)/(10.73T(abs))

= 29(14.7 Psia+5 Psi)/(10.73(460+70
o
F))=0.10 lb./ft.
3


Then Solids/Gas Ratio R = 60w/(p(g)V1)

= 60(39.9 lb./sec./ft.
2
)/(0.10 lb./ft.
3
(4,800 ft./min.) = 5.0 lb.
Solids/lb. Gas

6) Solids Pressure Drop for Average System Pressure and Solids/Gas Ratio:

Pavg. = (14.7 Psia+19.7 Psia)/2 = 17.2 Psia

From Figure 8-45, AP(corrected) = 1.15 Psi/100 ft.

So, Solids Pressure Drop = dP
100
(Le/100)=1.15 Psi/100 ft. (475 ft./100) =
5.5 Psi
Conclusion

This is within 10 % of assumed value; therefore use an 8 inch Schedule 40 pipe.

Note that an 8 inch Schedule 10 pipe would decrease the AP from 5.5 psi to 5.0 psi. If
Schedule 10 pipe is cost effective and sufficient erosion protection is provided then use
an 8 inch Schedule 10 pipe.

8.7.4 Appendix 4: Fluor Daniel Modified Allied Flotronics Method

This method was developed in the Houston Office of Fluor Daniel based on
stepwise method received unofficially from Allied Flotronics. Allied Flotronics
used this method in an unofficial, but widely distributed computer program using
a Lotus 1-2-3 spreadsheet template. There are at least two releases (one for
windows) of the Flotronics software circulating within Fluor Daniel. The fate of
this program is uncertain at best since it is unofficial, undocumented, and the
source company no longer exists having been recently absorbed by a competitor.
There are also known problems with the original Flotronics software as it
underestimates line sizes in vacuum systems. The Fluor Daniel Modified
Flotronics Method spreadsheet is attractive for preliminary estimates because it is
relatively user friendly, and is very fast. However, it has only been validated for
LDPE pressure systems.



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PROCESS MANUAL

PIPING HYDRAULICS AND SPECIFICATION
BOOK 1

PNEUMATIC CONVEYING
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DATE 8-94

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Assumptions:

a) 8" schedule 10 conveying line
b) Endpoint air is at standard condition (i.e., 14.7 psia and 70 F)

EQUIVALENT LENGTH OF BENDS

Pipe Size: 2" 3" 4" 5" 6" 8" 10" 12"
Le, Ft.: 6 10 11 14 17 22 27 34

1) Select System Type: Pressure
2) Determine System Layout (refer to problems statement)
3) Select Pipe Diameter (8" Schedule 10 assumed)
4) Calculate Flow Area:
A = PI(Dt)
2
/(4(144))=Pl(8.329 In.)
2
/(4(144)) = 0.378 ft.
2
.

5) Determine the equivalent length of bends from the table above;
Le(bends) = n(Le)

n = number of equivalent bends = 4+((30+15+45)/90)=5

For an 8" bend, Le = 22 ft., so total bend equivalent length
= 5(22) = 110 ft.

6) Determine Total Equivalent Length:

Le (total) = 150+75+110=335 ft.

7) Assume a System Pressure Drop:

Assume a pressure drop of 4 Psi

8) Determine Initial Pressure:

P1 = 14.7+4 = 18.7 Psia

9) Determine Final Pressure:

P2 = 14.7 Psia




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PROCESS MANUAL

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10) Calculate Pickup Velocity

V1 = C800(p(b))
1/2
(14.7/P1)
1/2
(1+(Le/10,000))

V1 = (1.1)800(35lb./ft.
3
)
1/2
(14.7Psia/18.7Psia)
1/2
(1+(335 ft./
10,000)) = 4,776 ft./min.

11) Calculate the Gas Densities:
Initial Gas Density = p(g)1 = 0.075 lb./ft.
3
(18.7 Psia/14.7 Psia) =
0.095 lb./ft.
3


Final Gas Density = p(g)
2
= 0.075 lb./ft.
3

12) Calculate the Terminal Air Velocity:
V2 = V1(p(g)1/p(g)2) - 4,776 ft./min.(0.075 lb./ft.
3
/0.095 lb./ft.
3
) =
6,050 ft./min.

13) Calculate the Gas Flow:

Q = V2(A) = 6,050 ft./min.(0378 ft.
2
) = 2,287 Scfm

14) Calculate the Average Velocity:

Va = (V1+V2)/2 = (4,776 ft./min.+6,050 ft./min.)/2 = 5,413 ft./min.

15) Calculate the Average Gas Density:

p(g)a = (0.095 lb./ft.
3
+0.075 lb./ft.
3
)/2 = 0.085 lb./ft.
3


16) Calculate the Gas Friction Loss:

dP
100
= [0.0035+(0.264/(114.8Dt(Va)(p(g)a
0.42
))]p(g)a(Va)
2
/(6,955Dt)

= [0.0035+(0.264/((114.8(8.329 in.)(5,413 ft./min.)
(0.085 lb./ft.
3
))
0.42
)] x (0.085 lb./ft.
3
) (5,413 ft./min.)
2
/
(6,955(8.329 in.))

= 0.20 Psi/100 ft.


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PROCESS MANUAL

PIPING HYDRAULICS AND SPECIFICATION
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17) Calculate the Solids to Gas Ratio:

R = Ws/(60Q0.075)
= 50,000 lb./hr./(60(2,287 Scfm)0.075)
= 4.86 lb. Solids/lb. Gas

18) Calculate the Conveying Friction Loss Ratio:

B = 0.63R+0.3 = 0.63(4.86 lb. Solids/lb. Gas)+0.3 = 3.36

19) Calculate the conveying friction loss:

dPf = (Le/100)dP
100
(B) = 335 ft./100)(0.20 Psi/100 ft.)(3.36)
= 2.25 Psi

20) Calculate the Acceleration Loss:

dPa = 5e-10W(V2)
2
/Q
= 5e-10(50,000 lb./hr.)(6,050 ft./min.)
2
/2,287 Scfm
= 0.40 Psi
= 0.23 Psi

21) Calculate Lift Loss:

dP1 = 0.007((W/60)+Q(0.075))L/Q
= 0.007((50,000 lb./hr./60)+(2,287 Scfm)(0.075))(75 ft.)/
2,287 Scfm
= 0.23 Psi

22) Estimate Fitting Loss:

dPd = 0.11 n = 0.11(2) = 0.22 Psi

23) Calculate the Total Piping Loss:

dPp = 3.1 Psi

Trial 1 of 4 Psi is 29 % higher than Calculated; if trial>(+/-2 %) from
Calculated, try again.

24) Trial 2, Guess Pressure Differential = 3.0 Psi

Trial 2 Calculated System Pressure Drop = 3.05 Psi

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8.7.5 Appendix 5: Fischer-Gerchow Method

The Fischer-Gerchow method calculates the gas friction loss and the solids
moving loss. The total system loss is the total of these two losses. Air friction
losses are normally read from tables or charts using the average gas velocity. A
pressure drop and gas density must be assumed at the beginning, and then
checked against the final total. The procedure is a trial and error procedure.
Solids losses include acceleration losses, elevation losses, horizontal losses, and
elbow (fitting) losses.

Assumptions

a) 8" schedule 10 conveying line
b) 4,000 ft./min. pickup velocity
c) 6,000 ft./min. endpoint velocity
d) Endpoint air is standard condition (i.e., 14.7 psia and 70 F)
e) Example problem conditions in Appendix 2

1) Calculate air flow rate:

(4,000 ft./min.)(0.378 ft.
2
) = 1,512 Acfm at pickup point

(6,000 ft./min.)(0.378 ft.
2
) = 2,268 Scfm at the endpoint

2) Calculate Solids Acceleration Loss (E1):

Average velocity = (4,000 ft./min.+6,000 ft./min.)/2
= 5,000 ft./min.

E1 = Mv2/2g = 50,000 lb./hr.(5,000 ft./min.)2/
((60 min./hr.)2(32.2 ft./sec.2)) = 89,825 ft.-lb./min.

3) Calculate Solids Elevation Loss (E2):

E2 = ML = 50,000 lb./hr.(75 ft./60 min./hr.) = 62,475 ft.-lb./min.

4) Calculate Horizontal Loss (E3):

E3 = ML = 50,000 lb./hr.(150 ft.)(0.625) = 78,094 ft.-lb./min.

where:
f(s) = solids friction factor = tangent of angel of repose;
The angle of repose for LDPE is 32
o
, so Tan 32
o
= 0.625

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5) Calculate Fitting Loss (E4):

E4 = (Mv2/gR)(L)(f(s))n
= 50,000 lb./hr.(5,000 ft./min.2/((60 min./hr.)
(32.2 ft./sec.2(8 ft.)
x (2)PI(R/4)(0.625)5 = 882,100 ft.-lb./min.
where:
L = bend length = 2PI(R/4)
n = number of equivalent bends = 4+((30o+15o+45o)/90o) = 5

6) Total Solids Conveying Loss:

E5 = E1 + E2 + E3 + E4 = 1,112,494 ft.-lb./min.; Q

= 2,268 Scfm from (1)

Press. Loss =
lb ft 2 . 5 Scfmx 268 , 2
. C . InW Scfm min / lb ft 494 , 112 , 1
min

=


= 94.33 In. W.C. = 3.41 psi

7) Air Only Frictional Loss for Gas Supply Pipe:

Assume Total System Pressure Drop = 5.0 Psi

p(g) = Gas Density
= 29(14.7 Psia+5 Psig)/(10.73 Psia-ft.3/lb.-Mole-
R(459.7 R+70 F))
= 0.1 lb./ft.3 at the start of the system

From the friction loss chart (Figure 28), at 1,512 Acfm (or 4,000 ft./min.)
and an 8.3 pipe I.D., loss = 3.1 In. W.C. per 100 ft.

Fitting loss, from Fluor Chart 101C-9 in Process Manual Vol. V, for 90o
miters in 45o increments. (See Section 5.0 of Hydraulics Book 2 for
currently used methodology).

Ks = 0.356, so the loss = (3+(45/90))0.356(4,000 ft./min./
60 min./hr.)2(0.1 lb./ft.3/9,270)
= 0.057 psi

Using 20 % Safety Factor, Loss = 1.2(0.57 Psi) = 0.06 Psi = 1.66 In.
W.C.

Total Air Friction Loss = (3.1 In. W.C./100 ft.)(140 ft.)+1.66 In.
W.C. = 6 In. W.C.

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8) Air Only Frictional Loss for Material Pipe:

Endpoint Air Flow = 2,268 Scfm

p(g) = 29(14.7 Psi+(5 Psig/2))/(10.73 Psia-ft.
3
/lb.-MoleR(459.7 R+70 F))
= 0.88 lb./ft.3 average

From the friction loss chart (Figure 28), at 2,268 Scfm (or 6,000 ft./min.)
and an 8.3 pipe I.D., loss = 6.45 In. W.C. per 100 ft.

Fitting loss, from Fluor Chart 101C-10 in Process Manual Vol. V, for an
8 ft. radius bend, at 8 ft. x 12/8 = 12, so Ks = 0.10 (extrapolated to R/D =
12), So the Loss =

(4+((30
o
+15
o
+45
o
)/90
o
))0.1(6,000 ft./min./60 min./hr.)2(0.088 lb./ft.3/9,2
70) = 0.47 Psi

Using 20 % Safety Factor, Loss = 1.2(0.047 Psi) = 0.06 Psi = 1.58 In.
W.C.

Total Air Friction Loss = (6.45 In. W.C./100 ft.)225 ft.+1.58 In W.C. =
16.1 In. W.C.

9) Inlet and Exit Losses:

Allow 3 In. W.C. for each of (1) pickup tee, (1) receiver inlet and (1)
receiver exit So, Total = 9 In. W.C.

10) Summary:

Solids Losses: 3.4 Psi = 94.33 In. W.C.
Air Pipe Loss: 6.0 In. W.C.
Air Loss: 16.1 In. W.C.
Inlet/Outlet Loss: 9.0 In. W.C.

Total Pressure Drop = 125.43 In. W.C. = 4.53 Psi

11) Check Solids to Air Ratio at the Receiver:

(50,000 lb./hr./60 min./hr.)(2,268 Scfm (0.75 lb./Sft.3)) = 4.9 to 1

12) Check Pickup Velocity:

2,268 Scfm (14.7 Psia)/(14.7 Psia+4.53 Psi) = 1,734 ft.3/min.

1,734 ft.3/min./0.378 ft.2= 4,587 ft./min.

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PROCESS MANUAL

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SECTION 8.0

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4,000 ft./min. was assumed; assume a new pickup velocity of
4,500 ft./min.

13) Repeating trial with 4,500 ft./min. pickup velocity:

Total Pressure Drop = 4.89 Psi, Pickup Velocity = 4.503 ft./min.

14) Size Blower:

Add Blower Discharge Muffler Loss: 5 In. W.C.
Add Blower Discharge Cooler Loss:` 5 In. W.C.
Add Blower Discharge Filter Loss: 5 In. W.C.

Total Miscellaneous Losses: 15 In. W.C.

Blower Discharge Pressure = 4.89 Psi+(15/27.68) Psi = 5.43 Psi

(5.43)27.68(1,212,116)/(33,000(102.78)) = 53.74 bHp

Assume a blower efficiency of 75 %; So blower motor = 53.74/0.75
= 71.65 Hp

Assume a blower service factor of 15 %

So blower motor = 71.65(1.15) = 82.4 Hp, therefore use a 100 Hp motor.

For Size 18 Rotary Valve, Air Leakage is 120 Scfm at 5 Psi Pressure
Differential. The Total Air Flow is 2,268 Scfm+120 Scfm = 2,388 Scfm

Add Blower Inlet Filter Loss: 5 In. W.C.

Thus at blower inlet: 2,388(14.7)/(14.7 - (5/27.68)) = 2,418 Acfm

Blower Suction Pressure = 14.52 Psia

Blower Discharge Pressure = 20.13 Psia

Blower Differential Pressure = 5.61 Psi

8.7.6 Appendix 6: Fan Engineering Method

The Fan Engineering method uses an assumed pickup velocity and pipe size to
calculate the solids to gas ratio, or loading and gas volume. Principles of
aerodynamics are used to calculate the particle floating velocity, and the particle
velocity relative to the gas. Energy equations are then used to determine the
solids and gas frictional losses. The total system loss is the total of these two
losses. Air friction losses are normally read from tables or charts using the
average gas velocity. A pressure drop and gas density must be assumed at the
beginning, and then checked against the final total. The procedure is a trial and

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PROCESS MANUAL

PIPING HYDRAULICS AND SPECIFICATION
BOOK 1

PNEUMATIC CONVEYING
SECTION 8.0

PAGE 155

DATE 8-94

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error procedure. Solids losses include acceleration losses, elevation losses,
horizontal losses, and elbow (fitting) losses.

Assumptions

a) 8" schedule 10 conveying line
b) Endpoint air is at standard condition (i.e., 14.7 psia and 70
o
F)
c) Example problem conditions in Appendix 2.

1) Calculate Floating Velocity:
Assume Total System Pressure Drop = 5.0 Psi

p(g)= Gas Density
= 29 (14.7 Psia+5 Psig)/(10.73 Psia-Ft.
3
/lb.-Mole-
o
R(459.7
o
R+70
o
F))
= 0.1 lb./ft.
3
at the start of the system

Vf = (4gp(b)D(p)/(
3
fdp(g)))
1/2

= (4(32.174 ft./sec.2)(35 lb./ft.3)(0.01 ft.)/(3(0.5)(0.1 lb./ft.
3
)))
1/2

= 17.3 ft./sec. = 1,040 ft./min.

2) Pickup Velocity:

From Figure 8-44, "Dilute Phase Conveying Velocities" chart, for 1/8"
diameter pellets and a bulk density of 35 lbs./ft.
3
the pickup velocity is
4,800 ft./min.

3) Calculate the Relative Solids Velocity:

Vr (horizontal run) = Vf(0.18+(0.000065Va))
= 1,040(0.18+(0.000065(0.48)
= 512 ft./min.

4) Calculate the Solids Velocity:

Vm (horizontal) = 4,800-512 = 4,288 ft./min.
Vm (vertical) = 4,800-1,040 = 3,760 ft./min.

5) Calculate Solids Lift Loss:

Assume the same solids to gas loading as in the Fischer-Gerchow
example above; R = 4.62 lb. Solids/lb. Gas


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Lift Loss = TPI = RL/69.4 = (4.62)75/69.4 = 4.99 In. W.C.

6) Calculate Solids Acceleration Loss:
a) Loss for Pickup from Rest:

TPA1 = RVm
2
/(2g69.4)
= 4.62 lb. Solids/lb. Gas (4,288 ft./min./
60 min./hr.)
2
/ (2(32.2 ft./sec.
2
)69.4)
= 5.28 In. W.C.

b) Loss for Reacceleration from First Bend (Lift):

Velocity = 0.8 (4,288 ft./min.) = 3,430 ft./min.

Must Reaccelerate to 3,760 ft./min.

TPA2 = R(Vm2
2
-Vm1
2
)/(2g69.4)
= 4.62 lb. Solids/lb. Gas((4,288/60)
2

-(3,430/60)
2
ft.
2
/sec.
2
)/(2(32.2 ft./sec.
2
)69.4)
= 0.68 In. W.C.

c) Loss for Reacceleration from Second Bend (Horizontal):

Velocity = 0.8 (3,760 ft./min.) = 3,008 ft./min.

Must Reaccelerate to 4,288 ft./min.

TPA3 = R(Vm2
2
-Vm1
2
)/(2g69.4)
= 4.62 lb. Solids/lb. Gas((4,288/60)
2
-(3,008/60)
2
ft.
2
/sec.
2
)/(2(32.2 ft./sec.
2
)69.4)
= 2.68 In. W.C.

d) Loss for Reacceleration from Last Three Bends (Horizontal):

Velocity = 0.8 (4,288 ft./min.) = 3,430 ft./min.

Must Reaccelerate to 4,288 ft./min.

TPA4 - 6 = 3(R(Vm2
2
-Vm1
2
)/(2g69.4))
= (3)4.62 lb. Solids/lb. Gas ((4,288/60)
2
-(3,430/60)
2
ft.
2
/sec.
2
)/(2(32.2 ft./sec.
2
)69.4)
= 5.70 In. W.C.


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PROCESS MANUAL

PIPING HYDRAULICS AND SPECIFICATION
BOOK 1

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\225-002 Book1 Section 8.doc-10/2/2003 6:08:00 PM
e) Total Loss for Reacceleration:

TPA Total = 14.34 In. W.C.

7) Horizontal Losses:

TPH = fRL/69.4; Use same f as for Fischer-Gerchow, f = 0.625

TPH = (0.625)4.62 lb. Solids/lb. Gas(150 ft.)/69.4 = 6.24 In. W.C.

8) Total Losses for Bends:

TP(90) = fR Vm
2
PI/(2g69.4)
= (0.625)4.62 lb. Solids/lb. Gas (4,288ft./min./
60 ft./sec.)
2
PI/(2(322 ft./sec.
2
)69.4)
= 10.37 In. W.C./Bend

Total Loss = 5 Bends(10.37 In. W.C./Bend) = 51.85 In. W.C.

9) Total Solids Losses = 77.42 In. W.C. (2.8 Psi)

10) Total System Pressure Drop:

Total Solids Losses = 77.42 In. W.C. = 2.8 Psi
Total Gas Only Losses = 1.18 Psi (Same as Fischer-Gerchow)

Total System Pressure Drop = 3.98 Psi

8.7.7 Appendix 7A: Konno and Saito Correlation (FPS Units)
d


1 2 3 4 5 6
( )
L
V
L G
gD
L U .
D g
L U f
g
V G
g
U
P
g
S
S
.
g g
C
g g
c
S S
c
g g
+ +
u
+

+ +

= A
5 0
2 2
057 0 2
2


where:

g g
S
U
G

= u
and


1
This chart taken from Particulate Solids Research "Desktop Design Manual"

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\225-002 Book1 Section 8.doc-10/2/2003 6:08:00 PM
D = Tube diameter, ft.
f = Fanning friction factor, (-)
g = gravitational constant, 32.2 ft./s
2
g
c
= gravitational conversion constant, 32.2 lb.
m
-ft./(lb.lb.
f
-2
)
G
S
= Solids mass flux, lb./s-ft.
2
L = Pipe length, ft.
U
g
= Superficial gas velocity, ft./s
V
S
= Solids gas velocity, ft./s
AP = Pressure drop, lb/ft.
2
g
= Gas density, lb./ft.
3

1 = Pressure drop due to fluid acceleration
2 = Pressure drop due to acceleration of solids
3 = Fluid-pipe friction pressure drop
4 = Solids-pipe friction pressure drop
5 = Pressure drop due to static head of solids
6 = Pressure drop due to static head of gas (important only at high
pressures)

Note: If the solids and the gas are already accelerated, terms 1 and 2 should be
omitted from the calculation. Also, terms 5 and 6 should be omitted when
applying the correlation to horizontal flow.

PSRI Choking Velocity Correlation

10 . 0
f
p
35 . 0
p
35 . 0
f ch
s
p
t ch
d
D
U
G
gd
U U
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|



where:

U
ch
= Choking Velocity, ft./s or m/s
U
t
= Single Particle Terminal Velocity, ft./s or m/s
g = gravitational constant, 32.2 ft./s
2
or 9.81 m/s
2
D = Diameter of the Conveying Line, ft. or m
G
s
= Solids Mass Flux, lb./ft.
2
-s or kg/m
2
-s
f
= Gas Density, lb./ft.
3
or kg/m
3
p
= Particle Density, lb/ft
3
or kg/m
3
d
p
= Particle Size, ft. or m

Accuracy: Within 30 %



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Parameter Ranges:

8 < d
p
3400 m
0 < P 700 psig 0 < P < 48 bar
1 < G
s

250 lb./ft.
2
-s
0 < G
s
<
1220 kg/m
2
-s
1.2 < D 12 in. 3.2 < D < 30.5 cm
55 < r
p

490 lb./ft.
3

881 < rp <
7849 kg/m
3


Note:
1) 1. Predicts data for all Geldart Groups
2) For d
p
<44 mm, use 44 m (small d
p
's agglomerate)
3) Use D = 12 in. (30 cm) for D > 12 in. (30 cm)

Problem 7-1: Calculate the choking velocity for a vertical pneumatic conveying
system in which air is to be used to convey solids flowing at a mass flux of
60 lb./ft.
2
-s through a 4-in-diameter pipe. Use the following values and
conditions for the calculations:

f
= 0.15 lb./ft.3;
p
= 120 lb./ft.3;
f
= 0.044 lb./ft.-h; dp = 762 m;
Ut = 10.2 ft./s.

Solution: D = 4 in. = 0.33 ft.; dp = 762 m = 0.0025 ft.

The choking velocity correlation

10 . 0
f
p
35 . 0
p
35 . 0
f ch
s
p
t ch
d
D
U
G
gd
U U
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|



Trial and error method: Assume values of Uch; Correct value is when the left-
hand side (LHS) equals the right-hand side (RHS) of the equation,

Assume U
ch
= 19 ft./s,

LHS =
0025 . 0 x 2 . 32
2 . 10 0 . 19
= 31

RHS = 3 . 31
15 . 0
120
0025 . 0
33 . 0
15 . 0 x 19
60
1 . 0 35 . 0 35 . 0
= |
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
; LHS=RHS;

U
ch
= 19 ft/s




FLUOR DANIEL

PROCESS MANUAL

PIPING HYDRAULICS AND SPECIFICATION
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PNEUMATIC CONVEYING
SECTION 8.0

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DATE 8-94

\225-002 Book1 Section 8.doc-10/2/2003 6:08:00 PM
PSRI Saltation Velocity Correlation

( ) u u
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
3 . 0
salt
s salt
f U
G
5 . 11
gD
U


where:
U
salt
= Saltation Velocity, ft./s or m/s
g = gravitational constant, 32.2 ft./s
2
or 9.81 m/s
2

D = Diameter of the Conveying Line, ft. or m
Gs = Solids Mass Flux, lb./ft.2-s or kg/m
2
-s
f = Gas Density, lb./ft.
3
or kg/m
3

dp = Particle Size, m
u = Pipe inclination from the horizontal, degrees
u u = Function dependent on pipe inclination
= 1+0.006dp
0.74
sin 2u

Accuracy: Within 30 %

Parameter Ranges:

8 < d
p
< 10,000 m
0 < P < 750 psig 0 < P < 52 bar
1 < G
s
<
500 lb./ft.
2
-s
0 < G
s
<
2440 kg/m
2
-s
0.3 < D < 16.5 in. 0.8 < D < 42 cm
40 <
p

<
550 lb./ft.
3

640 <
p

<
8810 kg/m
3

0 < u < 70 degrees

Note:
1 Predicts data for all Geldart Groups
2 Use D = 17 in. (43 cm) for D > 17 in. (43 cm)

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PROCESS MANUAL

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\225-002 Book1 Section 8.doc-10/2/2003 6:08:00 PM
Problem 7-2: Calculate the saltation velocity for a horizontal pneumatic
conveying system as in Problem 7-1.

Solution: D = 4 in. = 0.33 ft.; ( ) O | = 1 for = 0
o


The saltation velocity correlation can be rewritten as:
( )
769 . 0
3 . 0
S
f
G
gD 5 . 11 U
Salt
|
|
.
|

\
|
u u
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
769 . 0
3 . 0
salt
1 x
15 . 0
60
33 . 0 x 2 . 32 5 . 11 U
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

U
salt
= 64.6 ft/s

(Refer to Figure 8-46, following)

8.7.7B Appendix 7B: Konno-Saito Method (as recommended by PSRI)

The method of Konno and Saito is the method which is recommended by
the Particulate Solids Research Institute for the design of vacuum and
pressure dilute phase pneumatic conveying system. This method is
another energy balance equation similar to the Zenz-Othmer method.
This one equation is used to calculate all losses, but the acceleration
terms are only used once per system, and the vertical static losses for gas
and material static head are ignored for horizontal lines. The equation
may be broken into six different terms: 1) air acceleration loss,
2) material acceleration loss, 3) air friction loss, 4) material friction loss,
gas static head loss, and material static head loss. The material friction
loss is calculated based on the air loss and a material loading ratio.

dP=(((v(g)
2
*p))/2*gc))+(W*v(p)/gc)+((2f(g)*p(g)*v(g)
2
*L)/gc*dt))
+((0.057*v(g)*p(g)*Th*L)/((gc*dt)^0.5))+(W*L/v(s))+(p(g)*L)
Units

where:

dP = Pressure Drop (Psi)
v(g) = Gas Velocity (ft./sec.)
p(g) = Gas Density (lb./ft.
3
)
f(g) = Gas Friction
v(p) = Material Velocity (ft./sec.)
p(p) = Material Density (lb./ft.
3
)
f(p) = Material Friction
W = Material Flux (lb./sec.-ft.
2
)
L = Line Length (ft.)
gc = Gravitational Acceleration (ft./sec.
2
)
dt = Line Diameter (inches)

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Figure 8-46

PRESSURE DROP FOR SOLIDS REACCELERATION IN PNEUMATIC
CONVEYING THROUGH 90
O
ROUND ELBOWS IN HORIZONTAL TO VERTICAL FLOW



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where:

Th = (W/(v(g)*p(g)))

This equation can be broken into separate terms, and can be manipulated into
more convenient terms. We will do so, taking each term separately. Also, we
will assume some values for each term in order to perform a sample calculation:

Units

Conveying gas = Air

sp(g) = Standard Gas Density 0.0752 (lb./ft.
3
)
Mw = Gas Molecular Weight 28.951 (lb./lb.-Mole)
mu(g) = Gas Viscosity 0.0183 (cP)
P1 = System Inlet Pressure 4.585 (Psig)
P2 = System Outlet Pressure 1.3 (Psig)
T = Temperature 70 (oF) = 294.26(
o
K)
Q(g) = Gas Flow Rate 2,301 (Scfm)
C = Material Rate 833 (lb./min.)
p(p) = Material Density 75 (lb./ft.
3
)
p(b) = Material Bulk Density 35 (lb./ft.
3
)
Dpl = largest Particle Size 0.0104 (ft.)
Dpm = Mean Particle Size 0.0104 (ft.)
L = Line Length
Horizontal 150 (ft.)
Vertical 75 (ft.)
g = Gravitational Acceleration 32.174 (ft./sec.
2
)
dt = Line Diameter (inches) 8.329 (inches)

Gas Acceleration Term:

dP = ((v(g)
2
*p(g))/(2*gc))

where:

Q(q) = 2,301 (Scfm)
T = 70.0
(
o
F)
P1 = 4.6 (Psig)
P2 = 1.3 (Psig)
p(g) = 0.0982
(lb./ft.
3
)
A = 0.3784
(ft.
2
)
v(g) = 77.6 (ft./sec.)
dt = 8.329 (inches)
dP = 0.06 (Psi)



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This loss is only considered once per system, assuming no blinded tee elbows,
and one material pick-up point per system.

Material Acceleration Term:

dP = (W*v(p)/gc)

C = 833.33 (lb./min.)
Q(g) = 2,301 (Scfm)
T = 70.0
(
o
F)
P1 = 4.6 (Psig)
P2 = 1.3 (Psig)
p(p) = 75
(lb./ft.
3
)
p(g) = 0.0982
(lb./ft.
3
)
A = 0.378
(ft.
2
)
v(g) = 77.61 (ft./sec.)
v(p) = 69.85 (ft./sec.)
v(t) = 7.76 (ft./sec.)
Dpl = 0.0104 (ft.)
dt = 8.329 (inches)
dP = 0.61 (Psi)

This loss is only considered once per system, assuming no blinded tee elbows,
and one material pick-up point per system.

Gas Friction Term:

f(g) = 0.013961

dP/L = ((2f(g)
*
p(g)
*
v(g)
2
/(gc
*
dt))


C = 833.33 (lb./min.)
Q(g) = 2,301 (Scfm)
T = 70.0
(
o
F)
P1 = 4.6 (Psig)
P2 = 1.3 (Psig)
p(g) = 0.0898
(lb./ft.
3
)
v(g) = 77.61 (ft./sec.)
dt = 8.329 (inches)
e = 0.0018 (inches)
f(g) = 0.0140
dP/L(g) = 0.0047 (Psi/ft.)

This term is applied using the average pressure in the segment. Using inlet
pressure is an acceptable first guess. The average loss per foot is then multiplied

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with the segment length to obtain the segment pressure drop. Trial and error
calculations are used to obtain the final pressure drop.

Material Friction Term:

dP/L = ((0.057*v(g)*p(g)*(W/(v(g)*p(g))))/((g*dt)^0.5))

W = 36.71
(lb./sec.-ft.
2
)
p(g) = 0.0898
(lb./ft.
3
)
v(g) = 77.6080 (ft./sec.)
dt = 8.329 (inches)
gc = 32.174
(ft./sec.
2
)
dP/L = 0.0031 (Psi/ft.)
L(horizontal) = 150 (ft.)
L (vertical) = 75 (ft.)
Number of Bends = 5
Le(bends) = 14 (ft.)/Bend
Total Le = 295 (ft.)
dP = 0.91 (Psi)

Material Static Pressure Losses Due to Vertical Rises:

dP/L = (W/v(p))

W = 36.71
(lb./sec.-ft.
2
)
v(p) = 69.8472 (ft./sec.)
dP/L = 0.0036 (Psi/ft.)

Gas Static Pressure Losses Due to Vertical Rises:

dP/L = p(g)

p(g) = 0.0898
(lb./ft.
3
)
dP/L(static) = 0.0006 (Psi/ft.)

Total System Pressure Drop = 3.29 (Psi)

Initial Guess = 3.29 (Psi)

The free-fall terminal velocity is the minimum gas velocity required to suspend a
particle in a vertical pipe against gravity. If the gas velocity falls below the
choking velocity, a plug could form in the conveying line. This can happen if the
system is in between being stream and two-phase flow in some systems due to
the natural surging or slugging which happens in two phase flow. Other systems
may form weak pistons in two-phase or piston flow, and behave as fluidized beds
rather than forming pistons in vertical lines. These lines may plug under these

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conditions. The pressure and vacuum spreadsheets use a test for choking
velocity to warn when the vertical lines may plug.

Free-Fall Terminal Velocity:

Calculate the omega parameter; OMEGA = ((4*g*mu(g)*0.000672*(p(p)
-p(g)))/(3*(p(g)^2))^(1/3)

where:

mu(g) = 0.018 (cP)
p(g) = 0.0898
(lb./ft.
3
)
p(p) = 75.00
(lb./ft.
3
)
OMEGA = 1.69 (ft./sec.)

Calculate the delta parameter, DELTA =
((3*((0.000672*mu(g))^2))/(4*g*p(g)*(p)- p(g)))^(1/3)

where:

mu(g) = 0.018 (cP)
p(g) = 0.0898
(lb./ft.
3
)
p(p) = 75.00
(lb./ft.
3
)
DELTA = 7.98E-05 (ft.)

Free-Fall Terminal Velocity = vt =
OMEGA*(((24/(((D(p)/12)/DELTA)^2)+((2.696
(2.0136*PHI))/(((D(p)/12)/DELTA^0.5)))^-1)

PHI = 1 (For Spheres Only)
Dp1 = 0.1250 (Inches)
vt = 27.61 (ft./sec.)

Chocking Velocity:

The chocking velocity is the characteristic velocity at which the material will
tend to form plugs in the conveying line.

Right Hand Side of the Equation: RHS = ((W/(Uc*p(g)))^0.35)*((dt/
D(p)1)^0.35)*((p(p)/p(g))^0.1)
where:

p(p) = 75
(lb./ft.
3
)
p(g) = 0.0898
(lb./ft.
3
)
W = 36.71
(lb./sec.-ft.
3
)
dt = 8.329 (Inches)
D(p)1 = 0.125 (Inches)
RHS = 19.36


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Left Hand Side of the Equation: LHS = (Uc-vt)/((g*D(p)1/12)^0.5)

where:

vt = 27.61 (ft./sec.)
g = 32.174
(ft./sec.
2
)
D(p)1 = 0.125 (Inches)
RHS = 19.92

Guess Uc until RHS = LHS:

Uc = 39.14 (ft./sec.)

Saltation Velocity:

Every material has a characteristic velocity at which any particle will become
entrained in the flowing gas stream, according to Stokes' Law. Restating Stokes'
Law, the particle will be suspended in the flowing gas stream depending on the
particle size, particle shape, particle density, gas density, and gas viscosity. The
particle will reach a terminal velocity with respect to the gas. This characteristic
velocity, when calculated for the largest particle, becomes known as the saltation
velocity. When the gas stream is moving at less than or equal to the saltation
velocity, the solid material will begin to disengage from the flowing gas. The
particles will fall to the pipe bottom. First, the particles will scrape along the
pipe bottom, then as the gas velocity is reduced, the particles will begin moving
in wave or dune flow. As the gas velocity is decreased more, the dunes may fill
the pipe from bottom to top, forming moving slugs or pistons. These pistons may
be either permeable or impermeable to gas. Plastic pellets or other coarse
powders with little or no fines form permeable pistons.

The saltation Velocity = Usalt = (11.5*((g*(dt/12))^0.5)*((W/
p(g))^0.3)*PHIth)^0.769
where:

g = 32.17
(ft./sec.
2
)
dt = 8.33 (Inches)
W = 36.71
(lb./sec.-ft.
3
)
p(g) = 0.09
(lb./ft.
3
)
PHIth = 1.00 (For Horizontal Lines Only)
Usalt = 86.45 (ft./sec.)

8.7.7C Appendix 7C: Zenz-Othmer Method (Dilute and Two-Phase Dense
Phase Flow Systems)

The following material is excerpted from the documentation of a Lotus 1-2-3
spreadsheet for pneumatic conveying system design. The first portion is a
discussion of the Zenz-Othmer method as presented by Paul E. Solt for the

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design of both dilute and two-phase dense phase flow systems. The second
section (Appendix 7D) is a design method developed at the Particulate Solids
Research Institute (PSRI) for piston flow dense phase systems. Both methods are
fairly analytical, require readily available information, and lend themselves to
computer type trial and error solutions.

Zenz-Othmer Method (as presented by Paul E. Solt)

The method of Zenz and Othmer is a versatile method which can handle vacuum
and pressure conveying systems in both dilute and two-phase (dume flow) dense
phase flow regimes. This method is somewhat conservative in two-phase flow
due to the assumption that the line pressure drop is the same for both vertical and
horizontal flow. The method below follows Solt in that the dilute phase vertical
pressure drop equation is used in an effort to account for the reduced wall friction
in vertical flow.

Dilute Phase Systems:

Dilute phase (or stream-flow) systems are those in which the gas velocity
exceeds the characteristic saltation velocity of the material being transported in
horizontal flow, and exceeds the characteristic choking velocity of the material
being transported in vertical flow. Pressure losses in dilute phase flow are the
sum of acceleration and frictional losses for both the material and gas. These
losses where calculated by Zenz and Othmer for horizontal flow (equation 11.1)
and for vertical flow (equation 11.2).

Horizontal pressure losses in dilute phase pneumatic conveying systems has been
calculated by Zenz & Othmer using equation 11.1. This equation is an energy
balance derived from the Bernoulli equation, and can be broken down into four
different terms: 1) air acceleration loss, 2) material acceleration loss, 3) air
friction loss, and 4) material friction loss. The material friction loss is calculated
based on the air loss and a material loading ratio.

dP = (vv(g)
2
*
p(g))/288
*
g)+(W
*
v(p)/g)+((f(g)+v(g)
2
L)/6
*
g
*
dt))
*
(1+(f(p)
*
W)/
(f(g)
*
v(g)
2
*
p(g))

where:

Units

dP = Pressure Drop (Psi)
v(g) = Gas Velocity (ft./sec.)
p(g) = Gas Density
(lb./ft.
3
)
f(g) = Gas Friction
v(p) = Material Velocity (ft./sec.)
p(p) = Material Density
(lb./ft.
3
)
f(p) = Material Friction

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W = Material Flux
(lb./sec.-ft.
2
)
L = Line Length (ft.)
g = Gravitational Acceleration
(ft./sec.
2
)
dt = Line Diameter (Inches)


This equation can be broken into separate terms, and can be manipulated into
more convenient terms. We will do so, taking each term separately. Also, we
will assume some values for each term in order to perform a sample calculation:

Units

Conveying Gas = Air

sp(g) = Standard Gas Density 0.0752
(lb./ft.
3
)

Mw = Gas Molecular Weight 28.951 (lb./lb.-Mole)
P1 = System Inlet Pressure 3.974 (Psig)
P2 = System Outlet Pressure 1.3 (Psig)
T = Temperature 70
(
o
F) 294.26 (
o
K)
Q(g) = Gas Flow Rate 2,301 (Scfm)
C = Material Rate 833 (lb./min.)
p(p) = Material Density 75
(lb./ft.
3
)

p(b) = Material Bulk Density 35
(lb./ft.
3
)

Dp1 = Largest Particle Size 0.0104 (ft.)
Dpm = Mean Particle Size 0.0104 (ft.)
L = Line Length
Horizontal 150 (ft.)
Vertical 75 (ft.)
g = Gravitational
Acceleration
32.174
(ft./sec.
2
)

dt = Line Diameter 8.329 (Inches)

Gas Acceleration Term:

dP = (2.09le-6
*
Q(g)
2
*(459.7+T))/(dt^4
*
(14.696+((P1+P2)/2)))

Q(g) = 2,301 (Scfm)
T = 70.0
(
o
F)
P1 = 4.0 (Psig)
P2 = 1.3 (Psig)
dt = 8.329 (Inches)
dP = 0.0653 (Psi)

This loss is only considered once per system, assuming no blinded tee elbows,
and one material pick-up point per system.


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Material Acceleration Term:

Dp= (C/1517*(dt^2))*(((Q(g)*459.7+T))/(11.8*(dt^2)*(14.696+(P1+P2)/2))))
-(6.305((p(p)*Dp1*(459.7+T)/(14.696+((P1+P2)/2)))^0.5))))

C = 833.3333 (lb./min.)
Q(g) = 2,301 (Scfm)
T = 70.0
(
o
F)
P1 = 4.0 (Psig)
P2 = 1.3 (Psig)
p(p) = 75
(lb./ft.
3
)
Dp1 = 0.0104 (ft.)
dt = 8.329 (Inches)
dP = 0.63 (Psi)

This loss is only considered once per system, assuming no blinded tee elbows,
and one material pick-up point per system.

Gas Friction Term:

dP/L = (((0.0245
*
((e/dt)^0.23))+((0.0009073
*
(dt^0.6)
*
((459.7+T)^0.75))/
((e^0.1)
*
((Q(g)
*
((0.555
*
(459.7+T))+120)))))) X (((Q(g)^2)
*
(459.7+T))/
(9961
*
(dt^5)
*
(14.696+(P1+P2)/2))))

C = 833.3333 (lb./min.)
Q(g) = 2,301 (Scfm)
T = 70.0 ( F)
P1 = 4.0 (Psig)
P2 = 1.3 (Psig)
dt = 8.329 (Inches)
e = 0.0018 (Inches)
dP/L(g) = 0.0017 (Psi/ft.)

This term is applied using the average pressure in the segment. Using inlet
pressure in an acceptable first guess. The average loss per foot is then multiplied
with the segment length to obtain the segment pressure drop. Trial and error
calculations are used to obtain the final pressure drop.

Material Friction Term:

The particle friction loss is accounted for as a ratio of particle friction loss to gas
friction loss:

Ratio = ((f(p)
*
v(p))/f(g)
*
v(g)))
*
(W/(v(g)
*
p(g)))

The first part of this term cannot be greater than unity. However, the velocity of
the particle is very nearly that of the fluid, whereas the particle friction is many

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times that of the gas. Therefore this term is assumed to be equal to 1.0. So:

Ratio =1.0*13.35*C/Q(g)

C = 833.3333 (lb./min.)
Q(g) = 2,301 (Scfm)
Ratio = 4.83

The total horizontal loss:

dP/L = dP/L(g)*(1+Ratio)

dP/L = 0.0099 (Psi/ft.)
L(straight) = 150 (ft.)
Number of Bends = 5
Le(bends) = 14 (ft.)/Bend
Total Le = 220 (ft.)
dP = 2.19 (Psi)

Vertical pressure losses in dilute phase pneumatic conveying system has been
calculated by Zenz & Othmer using equation 11.2. This equation accounts for
losses due to static head in vertical lines, and is added to equation 11.1 to obtain
the total pressure loss per foot for a vertical line. This loss is then multiplied
with the material ratio as for the horizontal line case. As for the horizontal line,
this equation is applied to the average pressure in a trial and error procedure.

Static Pressure Losses Due to Vertical Rises:

dP/L = C/(47.12*(dt^2)**(((Q(g)*(459.7+T))/
((dt^2)*11.799*(14.696+((P1+P2))))-(6.305*(((p(p)*Dp1*(459.7+T))/
14.696+((P1+P2)/2)))^0.5))))

C = 833.3333 (lb./min.)
Q(g) = 2,301 (Scfm)
dt = 8.329 (Inches)
T = 70.0 (F)
P1 = 4.0 (Psig)
P2 = 1.3 (Psig)
p(p) = 75
(lb./ft.
3
)

Dp1 = 0.0104 (ft.)
dP/L(pipe) = 0.0099 (Psi/ft.) (Equation 11.1)
dP/L(static) = 0.0046 (Psi/ft.)
L(straight) = 75 (ft.)
Number of Bends = 0
Le(bends) = 14 (ft.)/Bend
Total Le = 75 (ft.)
dP = 1.09 (Psi) (Equation 11.2)

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Total System Pressure Drop = 3.97 (Psi)

Initial Guess = 3.97 (Psi)

Two-Phase (Dune Flow) Dense Phase Systems:

Two-phase dense phase systems are those in which the gas velocity is less than
the characteristic saltation velocity of the material being transported in horizontal
flow, and exceeds the characteristic choking velocity of the material being
transported in vertical flow. Pressure losses in two-phase flow are the sum of
acceleration and frictional losses for both the material and gas. These losses
were calculated by Zenz & Othmer for horizontal flow (equation 11.10a) and for
vertical flow (equation 11.2). Air and material acceleration losses in two-phase
dense phase systems are calculated in the same way as for the dilute phase
systems. Vertical losses due to static head is also calculated in the same way.

Horizontal losses are calculated using equation 11.10a:

dP/L= C/(1.72
*
(dt^2)
*
(((Q(g)
*
(T+459.7))/((dt^2)
*
(14.696+P)))^0.55)))
*
((Dp1
*
12/
dt)^0.25)

C = 833.3333 (lb./min.)
Q(g) = 2,301 (Scfm)
dt = 8.329 (Inches)
T = 70.0
(
o
F)

P1 = 4.0 (Psig)
P2 = 1.3 (Psig)
p(p) = 75
(lb./ft.
3
)

Dpm = 0.0104 (ft.)
Dp1 = 0.0104 (ft.)
dP/L(pipe) = 0.0543 (Psi/ft.) (Equation 11.10a)
Le = 219.76 (ft.)
dP = 11.94 (Psi)

From the calculation for dilute phase systems above:

Gas Acceleration Losses: 0.07 (Psi) (Same Gas Acceleration Term
as in dilute phase case)
Material Acceleration
Losses:
0.63 (Psi) (Same Material Accel. Term as
in dilute phase case)
Horizontal Friction
Losses:
0.05 (Psi/ft.) (Equation 11.10a)
Vertical Friction Losses: 0.0099 (Psi/ft.) (Equation 11.1)
Vertical Static Losses: 0.0046 (Psi/ft.) (Equation 11.2)
Total System Pressure
Drop =
9.94 (Psi)

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Saltation Velocity:

Every material has a characteristic velocity at which any particle will become
entrained in the flowing gas stream, according to Stokes' Law. Restating Stokes'
Law, the particle will be suspended in the flowing gas stream depending on the
particle size, particle shape, particle density, gas density, and gas viscosity. The
particle will reach a terminal velocity with respect to the gas. This characteristic
velocity, when calculated for the largest particle, becomes known as the saltation
velocity. When the gas stream is moving at less than or equal to the saltation
velocity, the solid material will begin to disengage from the flowing gas. The
particles will fall to the pipe bottom. First, the particles will scrape along the
pipe bottom, then as the gas velocity is reduced, the particles will begin moving
in wave or dune flow. As the gas velocity is decreased more, the dunes may fill
the pipe from bottom to top, forming moving slugs or pistons. These pistons may
be either permeable or impermeable to gas. Plastic pellets or other coarse
powders with little or no form permeable pistons.

The following two methods are from three methods discussed by Paul E. Solt in
one of his articles in "Powder & Bulk Engineering" Magazine. The first is from
the B.F. Sturtevant Co., and is useful to conservatively estimate pickup velocities
in first approximations of required airflow. The second is more analytical, and is
from the work of Thomas & Matsumoto.

Saltation Velocity:

Sturtevant: Vgs = 920*(p(b)^0.5)

where: p(b) = 35
lb./ft.
3


Vgs = 5442.793 ft./min.
Matsumoto:
Determine the critical particle size: D(p)* = 1.39*dt*((p(p)/p(g))^-0.74)

where: dt = 8.329 Inches = 0.2116 Meters
p(p) = 74.8452
lb./ft.
3
=
1.1990 g/cc
p(g) = 0.07
lb./ft.
3
=
0.0012 g/cc

So: D(p)* = 0.0018 Meters = 1.7539 mm

Now, D(p) = 0.1250 Inches = 3.1750 mm

and since D(p)>/=D(p)*, the material is coarse

For fine materials, ugs = 5.56e3*((D(p)/dt)^1.43)*((Frs/10^4)

where: dt = 8.329 Inches = 0.2116 Meters
D(p)1 = 0.1250 Inches = 3.1750 mm
g = 32.17
ft./sec.
2


v(g) = 103.25 ft./sec.
ugs = 4.8160 lb.(s)/lb.(g)
Frs = 10*((ugs/(5560*((D(p)/dt)^1.43)))^0.25) = 7.6978
Frs = (Ugs/((g*dt)^0.5)), so UGS = 36.38 ft/sec=
2182.62 ft/min

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For coarse materials, ugs = 0.373*((p(p)/p(g)^1.06)*((Fr(p)/10)^-3.7)*
((Frs/10)^3.61)

Free-Fall Terminal Velocity = vt = 6.305*(((p(p)*Dp1*(459.7+T))/(14.696+P))^0.5)

where:

dt = 8.329 Inches
D(p) = 0.1250 Inches
g = 32.17
ft./sec.
2

v(g) = 103.25 ft./sec.
ugs = 4.8160 lb.(s)/lb.(g)
vt = 102.72 ft./sec.
P1 4.0 Psig
T = 70.0 F
p(g) = 0.07
lb./ft.
3

p(p) = 0.1250
lb./ft
3

Dpi = 0.1250 Inches
Ups = 0.53 ft./sec.
Frp = 2.51
Frs = 10*((ugs/(0.373*((p(p)/p(g))^1.06*((Frp/10)^-3.7)))^(1/3.61)) = 0.6450
Frs = (Ups/((g*dt)^0.5)), so UPs = 3.05ft./sec. =
182.89ft./min.

Free-Fall Terminal Velocity:

The free-fall terminal or choking velocity is the minimum gas velocity required
to suspend a particle in a vertical pipe against gravity. If the gas velocity falls
below the choking velocity, a plug could form in the conveying line. The can
happen if the system is in between being stream and two-phase flow in some
systems due to the natural surging or slugging which happens in two phase flow.
Other systems may form weak pistons in two-phase or piston flow, and behave as
fluidized beds rather than forming pistons in vertical lines. These lines may plug
under these conditions. The pressure and vacuum spreadsheets use a test for
choking velocity to warn when lines may plug.

The choking or free-fall terminal velocity is given by Paul E. Solt as:

Free-Fall Terminal Velocity = vt = 6.305*(((p)*Dp1*(459.7+T))/(14.696+P))^0.5)








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This velocity was calculated above as part of the saltation velocity circulation:

p(p) = 78.85 lb./ft.
3

Dp1 = 0.13 Inches
T = 70 F
P = 4.00 Psig
vt = 102.72 ft./sec.


8.7.7D Appendix 7D - Particulate Solids Research Institute (PSRI) (for Piston
Flow Dense Phase Systems)

Dense phase piston flow systems are those in which the gas velocity is
substantially below the specific saltation velocity of the material being
transported in horizontal flow, and exceeds the characteristic choking velocity of
the material being transported in vertical flow. These systems can be
characterized into four types: 1) Two phase flow (described above using the
Zenz-Othmer design procedure), 2) Extrusion flow in which materials with long
deaeration times are fluidized and pumped like a liquid, 3) Packed-Bed flow in
which relatively large particles are moved in a continuous packed stream, and
4) Piston or slug flow where the material moves in discrete pistons or slugs.
Extrusion flow and Packed-Bed flow regimes are not well understood, have high
pressure drops per unit length, and have no well defined design correlations.
Piston flow behavior can be predicted according to material characteristics. This
behavior can be described by the system type: 1) Pulsed systems use a secondary
gas stream at the blow-pot discharge ("air knife") to cut the pistons into
appropriate lengths, 2) Simple systems require no secondary gas ("air knife") as
the pistons form by themselves according to the material characteristics, and
3) Bypass systems which add secondary gas all along the material pipe as well as
the blow pot discharge through a small parallel gas pipe.

The design of these systems has four steps: 1) Determine the solids classification
and system type, 2) Determining the minimum required pipe diameter,
3) Calculating the system pressure drop, and 4) Determining the minimum gas
requirement.

Determination of Solids Classification and System Type:

There are three methods to make these determinations: 1) ICI-Warren Spring
Classification, 2) Surface Tension method, and 3) Sdelta method. The ICI-Warren
Springs method is based only on 60 oF air, and is a purely graphical method. The
effect of using other gases at different temperatures is not known. The Sdelta method
requires more information on particle size and distribution than is usually available.
Consequently, the Surface Tension method is recommended for use in spreadsheets.





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Surface Tension Classification Method: (Refer to Figure 8-47)

Calculate Abscissa, X = D(p)/((3*(mu(g)^2)/(4*g*p(g)*(p(p)-p(g))))^(/13))

P = 114.7 (Psia)
T = 70.0
(
o
F)
D(p) = 0.1250 (Inches)
mu(g) = 1.23E-05 (lb./ft.-sec.)(DIPPR REGRESSION)
p(p) = 74.8
(lb./ft.
3
)
p(g) = 0.5848
(lb./ft.
3
) (IDEAL GAS LAW)
g = 32.174
(ft./sec.
2
)
Mw = 29 Lb./lb.-mole
X = 240.81

Calculate Void Fraction, e = 1-(p(b)/p(p)) =

p(p) = 74.8
(lb./ft.
3
)
p(b) = 35.0
(lb./ft.
3
)
e = 0.5

From plot of Superficial Velocity vs. Particle Diameter, (Refer to Figure 8-48)

e Y Y calc
At e = 0.50 5.80 5.98
At e = 1.00 24.50 24.59

"Y calc" is calculated from regression of the plotted Superficial Velocity vs.
Particle Diameter curves.

Calculate Omega = ((4*g*mu(g)*(p(p)-p(g)))/(3*(p(g)^2))^(1/3)

mu(g) = 1.23E-05 (lb./ft.-sec.) (DIPPR REGRESSION)
p(p) = 74.80
(lb./ft.
3


p(g) = 0.58
(lb./ft.
3
)
(IDEAL GAS LAW)
g = 32.17
(ft./sec.
2
)

Omega = 0.49 (ft./sec.)

Calculate Incipient Solids Fluid Velocity, Vmf = Y*Omega

vmf Vmf calc
Vmf = 2.82 (ft./sec.) 2.90 (ft./sec.)

Calculate Particulate Terminal Velocity, Vt = Y(e=1)*Omega

Vt = 11.89 (ft./sec.) 11.94 (ft./sec.)

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Figure 8-47

ICI/WARREN SPRING AND SURFACE TENSION PARTICLE CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS
FOR CONVEYABILITY (CURVES BASED ON AMBIENT AIR FOR MOTIVE GAS)



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Figure 8-48

SUPERFICIAL VELOCITY VS. PARTICLE DIAMETER
DEFINITION OF THE CONSTANT "C" IN EQUATION 1











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Calculate Particle Reynolds Number at Vmf, Re(p)=X*Y=
((Cd*(Re(p)^(1/3))*((Re(p)/Cd)^(1/3))

Y Y calc
Re(p) = 1396.68 1439.86
Re(p)>1.0, Re(p) is in Newton's Law region.

Calculate Constant "C" = Vmf/Vt

Y Y calc
C = 0.24 0.24

For Re(p) in the Stoke's Law range (Re</=1.0), particle surface tension = s =
18*1000*Vt*mu(g)*0.3048*(3.6/(0.000672*3600))

Y Y calc
Vt = 11.89 (ft./sec.) 11.94 (ft./sec.)
mu(g) = 1.23E-05 (lb./ft.-sec.) (DIPPR REGRESSION)
s = 1.1924 (Dynes/cm) 1.20 (Dynes/cm)

For Re(p) in the Newton's Law range (Re> 1.0), particle surface tension = s =
0.3*1000*(Vt^2)*D(p)m*p(g)*0.3048*0.3048*0.3048*16.01846

Y Y calc
Vt = 11.89 (ft./sec.) 11.94 (ft./sec.)
p(g) = 0.58
(lb./ft.
3
)
(IDEAL GAS LAW)
D(P)m = 0.0104 (Ft.)
s = 384.6762 (Dynes/cm) 387.5035 (Dynes/cm)

System Type:

Materials with surface tensions greater than 10 dynes/cm form strong, self-
sustaining slugs. Simple systems are recommended. Materials with surface
tensions between 10 and 0.2 dynes/cm form weak slugs. Bypass systems are
recommended. Materials with surface tensions below 0.2 do not readily form
slugs on their own. A pulsed system is recommended.

The surface tension for this material is 387.5035 (Dynes/cm)

The example above exhibits surface tensions above 10.0 dynes/cm, suggesting a
simple system is recommended.


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Minimum Pipe Diameter:

For "coarse powders" (surface tensions > 0.2 dynes/cm), Dt =
8.71*(((3600*m)/(p(b)))^0.4)

m = 13.89 (lb./sec.)
p(b) = 35
(lb./ft.
3
)
Dt = 6.02 (Inches)

For "fine powders" (surface tensions </=0.2 dynes/cm), Dt = 9.59*(((m*3600)/
(p(b)*((Lb.)^0.5)))^0.5)

m = 13.89 (lb./sec.)
p(b) = 35
(lb./ft.
3
)
Lb. = 2 (ft.)
Dt = 5.08 (Inches)

Since this powder has a surface tension greater than 0.2 dynes/cm, it is classified
as a coarse powder.

System Pressure Drop:

It should be noted that this correlation is from the ICI-Warren Springs
investigations carried out in 1979. These investigations were carried out with air
at ambient conditions which was then compressed up to a maximum pressure of
413.7 kPag (60 Psig). No differences were observed between horizontal and
vertical pipe orientation regarding pressure drop. (Refer to Figure 8-49).

dP= P2*{Exp[(L/C)*((W/A)/(((W/A)*e*p(g)2/p(b))+(p(g)2*Vmf2))*(P2/(P2+dP)]-1}

where:
P2 = System Discharge Pressure = 14.696 (Psia)
L = Linear Length of Line = 225 (ft.)
C = System Constant = 15748.00 (ft.)
W = Conveying Rate = 13.89 (lb./sec.)
A = Minimum Conveying Pipe Area = 0.1975
(ft.
2
)
Gs = Mass Flux = 70.31
(lb./sec.-ft.
2
)
e = Voids Friction = 0.53
p(g)2 = Discharge Gas Density = 0.0749
(lb./ft.
3
)
p(b) = Solids Bulk Density = 35
(lb./ft.
3
)
Vmf = Discharge incipient Velocity = 2.82 (ft./sec.)
Guess dP = System Pressure Drop = 30.4950 (Psi)
Calculated DP = System Pressure Drop = 30.4945 (Psi)


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Figure 8-49

GRAPHICAL SOLUTION OF ICI/WARREN SPRINGS PRESSURE DROP EQUATION



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Minimum Gas Requirement:

The minimum gas velocity is assumed to be the gas flow at the minimum
fluidization velocity. Operating at this point gives the maximum solids to gas
ratio.

First calculate the maximum Solids to Gas Ratio = Rmax =(Gs/((Gs*e*p(g)1/
p(b))+(p(g)1*Vmf)) (Refer to Figure 8-50)

where:

Gs =Mass Flux = 70.31
(lb./sec.-ft.
2
)

e =Voids Fraction = 0.53
p(g)1 =Inlet Gas Density = 0.2304
(lb./ft.
3
)
(IDEALGAS LAW)
p(b) =Solids Bulk Density = 35
(lb./ft.
3
)

Vmf =Discharge incipient Velocity = 2.82 (ft./sec.)
Rmax =Maximum Solids to Gas Ratio = 78.55 (lb. Solids/lb. Gas)

Now calculate the minimum required superficial gas velocity = Vsup =
(1/K)*(1+(Gs*e/ (p(b)*Vmf)))

K = K Ratio = 0.40
Vsup = Superficial Velocity = 9.71 (ft./sec.)
Q = Gas Required at Feedpoint = 115.11 (Acfm)
Q = Gas Required at Feedpoint = 353.98 (Scfm)


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Figure 8-50

MINIMUM AIR RATES FOR CONVEYING POWDERS AND GRANULAR SOLIDS
(BASED ON ICI/WARREN SPRINGS DATA)














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8.7.8 Appendix 8


Table 8-10

STANDARD PIPE DIMENSIONS


NOMINAL
SIZE, IN


SCHEDULE
WALL
THICKNESS
IN
INTERNAL
DIAMETER
IN


IN
5


FLOW AREA
IN
2


3/4 10 .083 .884 .5398 .614
3/4 40 .113 .824 .3799 .533
1 10 .109 1.097 1.589 .945
1 40 .133 1.049 1.270 .864
1-1/2 10 .109 1.682 13.46 2.222
1-1/2 40 .145 1.610 10.82 2.036
2 10 .109 2.157 46.69 3.654
2 40 .154 2.067 37.73 3.272
3 10 .120 3.260 368.2 8.35
3 40 .216 3.068 271.8 7.39
4 10 .120 4.260 1,403 14.25
4 40 .237 4.026 1,058 12.73
5 10 .134 5.295 4,162 22.02
5 40 .258 5.047 3,275 20.01
6 10 .134 6.357 10,382 31.77
6 40 .280 6.065 8,206 28.9
8 10 .148 8.329 40,083 54.5
8 40 .322 7.981 32,381 50.0
10 10 .165 10.42 122,840 85.3
10 40 .365 10.02 101,004 78.9
12 10 .180 12.39 291,982 120.6
12 40 S .375 12.00 248,832 113.1
14 10 .250 13.50 448,403 143.1
14 30 S .375 13.25 408,394 137.9
16 10 .250 15.50 894,661 188.7
16 30 S .375 15.25 824,861 182.7


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8.7.9 Appendix 9: Bulk Solid Material Characteristics

Table 8-11

COEFFICIENTS OF FRICTION FOR VARIOUS
MATERIALS SLIDING ON STEEL
(a)



MATERIAL

BULK DENSITY
(lbs/ft
3
)

COEFFICIENT
OF FRICTION
(b)

Alfalfa, ground 15 0.6
Alumina, fine, granulated 55 0.7
Anthracite Coal, broken of any size 55 0.4
Bagasse, wet 4 1.0
Beans (See Coffee, Cocoa, Navy, Soy)
Bituminous Coal, pulverized 30 0.8
Borax, dehydrated, powdered 75 0.8
Bran 21 0.7
Brewers Grits 33 0.4
Buckwheat 34 0.5
Casein, granular 40 0.6
Cinders 42 0.7
Clover seed 48 0.5
Coal (See Anthracite, Bituminous)
Cocoa Beans 37 0.5
Cocoa Nibs 32 0.5
Coconut meal 32 0.8
Coconut, shredded 25 0.5
Coffee Beans, green 42 0.5
Coffee, steel cut 28 0.4
Coke, pulverized 25 0.7
Corn, field (on cob) 45 0.4
Corn, shelled 45 0.4
Corn Flakes 12 0.4
Corn Germ 25 0.5
Corn Germ Flakes 25 0.7
Corn Grits 40 0.4
Cornmeal 40 0.7
Cornmeal muffin mixture 28 1.0
Cotton Seed 25 0.6
Cotton Seed Meal 33 0.7

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Table 8-11 (Continued)

COEFFICIENTS OF FRICTION FOR VARIOUS
MATERIALS SLIDING ON STEEL
(a)



MATERIAL

BULK DENSITY
(lbs/ft
3
)


COEFFICIENT
OF
FRICTION
(b)


Cryolite, " to 200 mesh, crushed 52 0.6
Dolomite, pulverized 46 0.9
Farina 44 0.6
Feldspar, pulverized 55
Flax Seed, ground 28 0.8
Flour 37 0.7
Flour, prepared biscuit 26 0.6
Fly ash, powdered 45 0.8
Fuller's Earth, raw 42 0.9
Glass Batch, average mix 100 0.7
Grass, blue, seed 11 1.0
Gravel 120 0.6
Gypsum 142 0.6
Hominy 45 1.0
Iron Oxide Pigment 25 0.4
Kalsomine, powder 32 0.8
Limestone, pulverized 85 0.9
Linseed Meal 27 0.6
Linseed, rolled 25 0.7
Malt, dry 32 0.4
Malt, spent dry 10 0.5
Malt Sugar, ground 35 0.6
Malt Sugar, unground 30 0.6
Mica, ground 13 0.7
Milk, powdered 40 1.0
Navy Beans 54 0.4
Oats 26 0.4
Oats, rolled 18 0.5
Pablum 9 0.6
Plaster of Paris, powdered 50 0.8
Portland Cement 95 0.8
Pumice, pulverized 40 1.0
Resin, synthetic (from plant), crushed 40 0.6

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Table 8-11 (Continued)

COEFFICIENTS OF FRICTION FOR VARIOUS
MATERIALS SLIDING ON STEEL
(a)



MATERIAL

BULK DENSITY
(lbs/ft
3
)


COEFFICIENT
OF FRICTION
(b)

Resin and Wood Flour, powdered 19 0.8
Rice 50 0.4
Rubber, scrap, ground 23 0.7
Salt, granulated 81 0.6
Sand, coarse sized 95 0.6
Sand, Core 65 0.8
Sand, Mine run 105 0.7
Sand, very fine 100 0.6
Sand, voids full of water 120 1.0
Seed (See Clover, Cotton, Flax,
Grass, Timothy)

Soap chips 10 0.6
Soy Beans, crushed 34 0.7
Soy Beans, flour 27 0.8
Soy Beans, meal 40 0.5
Soy Beans, split 44 0.5
Soy Beans, whole 47 0.4
Starch, lump and pelleted 30 0.5
Starch, powdered 35 1.0
Starch, tablet, granular crystals 40 0.4
Sulphur, pulverized 50 1.0
Timothy Seed 36 0.5
Tobacco Stems, chopped, coarse 16 0.4
Wheat 48 0.4
Wheat Germ 32 0.6
Wheat Germs, ground 32 0.7
Wood Chips, dry 23 0.4
Wood Sawdust, dry 20 0.7
Wood Sawdust, ground 20 1.0

Notes:
(a) Reference data from "Fan Engineering" published by Buffalo Forge Company.
Adapted from the data of Weights of Various Substances, Stephans-Adamson
Division of Borg-Warner Corporation, Aurora, Illinois.

(b) Coefficient of friction is computed as the tangent of the angle of slide (angle
of repose).

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Bulk Solid Material Characteristics


Table 8-12

ANGLE OF REPOSE FOR VARIOUS BULK MATERIALS
(a)


MATERIAL BULK DENSITY
(lbs/ft
3
)
ANGLE OF
REPOSE
(DEGREES)

Adipic Acid, fine 45 35 - 45
Alum, fine 45 - 50 30 - 45
Alum, lumpy 50 - 65 30 - 45
Alumina, fine 35 - 60 55
Alumina, briquette 65 22
Aluminum, chips 7 - 15 45 +
Aluminum Silicate, fine, non-abrasive 49 30 - 45
Aluminum Sulphate, granular 45 - 58 32
Ammonium Chloride, crystalline, fine,
non-abrasive
52 30 - 45
Ammonium Sulphate, damp,
granulated
40 45
Antimony, powder, fine, mildly abrasive 30 - 45
Asbestos shred, irregular, mildly
abrasive, light and fluffy
20 - 25 45
Ashes, dry, granular or lumpy, mildly
abrasive
20 - 25 45
Ashes, damp, granular or lumpy, mildly
abrasive
35 - 45 45
Asphalt, crushed, granular, non-
abrasive
45 30 - 45
Bakelite, powder, non-abrasive 30 - 40 45 +
Barytes, lumpy, very abrasive 144 - 180 30
Barium Carbonate, very fine, mildly
abrasive
72 45
Bauxite, calcined, granular 70 26
Bauxite, ground, dried 68 35
Bauxite mine run, lumpy, very abrasive 75 - 85 31
Bentonite, crude, lumpy, mildly
abrasive
34 - 40 45 +


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Table 8-12 (Continued)

ANGLE OF REPOSE FOR VARIOUS BULK MATERIALS
(a)


MATERIAL BULK DENSITY
lbs/ft
3

ANGLE OF
REPOSE
(DEGREES)

Bentonite, fine, mildly abrasive 50 - 60 42
Benzene hexachloride dust, dangerous
to health
56 45 +
Sodium Bicarbonate, very fine, non-
abrasive
41 30
Borate of lime, very fine, non-abrasive 30 - 45
Borax, fine, non-abrasive 50 - 70 30 - 45
Boric acid, fine, non-abrasive 55 30 - 45
Bronze, chips, fine, very abrasive 30 - 50 45 +
Calcium Dichromate, granular 62 25
Calcium Carbide, powdered 139 45
Calcium Lactate, lumpy, non-abrasive 26 - 29 45 +
Calcium Oxide (lime), fine 27 43
Carbon, ground 50 21
Cast Iron Chips, granular, mildly
abrasive
130 - 200 45
Cement, Portland, very fine, mildly
abrasive
90 - 100 30 - 45
Cement Clinker, lumpy, very abrasive 75 - 95 30 - 45
Chalk, lumpy, mildly abrasive 85 - 90 45
Chalk, fine, mildly abrasive 70 - 75 45
Chalk, precipitated, powdered 18 45
Charcoal, bone, carbonated, granular 60 27
Charcoal, wood, lumpy, mildly abrasive 15 - 30 35
Chrome Ore, granular, very abrasive 125 - 140 30 - 45
Clay, calcined, fine, very abrasive 80 30 - 45
Clay, powdered, 11 % moisture 45 45
Coal, anthracite, granular, mildly
abrasive
52 - 60 30 - 45

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Table 8-12 (Continued)

ANGLE OF REPOSE FOR VARIOUS BULK MATERIALS
(a)


MATERIAL BULK DENSITY
lbs/ft
3

ANGLE OF
REPOSE
(DEGREES)

Coal, anthracite, fine, mildly abrasive 60 45
Coal, bituminous, slack, granular, non-
abrasive
45 - 50 29 - 45
Coal, ground 40 29
Coffee Beans 30 - 45
Coffee, ground, fine, non-abrasive 25 30 - 45
Coke, petroleum, calcined, lumpy, very
abrasive
35 - 45 30 - 45
Copper Ore, lumpy, very abrasive 120 - 150 30 - 45
Copper Oxide, powdered 190 40
Copper Sulphate, ground 75 31
Cork, ground, fine, light 5 - 15 45 +
Cottonseed, dry, de-linted, granular
non-abrasive
22 - 40 30 - 45
Cottonseed Hulls, fine, non-abrasive,
light
12 45
Diatomaceous Earth, very fine, very
abrasive
11 - 14 30 - 45
Dicalcium Phosphate, very fine, non-
abrasive
43 45 +
Disodium Phosphate, fine, mildly
abrasive
25 - 31 45 +
Dolomite, lumpy, mildly abrasive 80 - 100 30 - 45
Dolomite, pulverized 46 41
Epsom Salts, fine, non-abrasive 40 - 50 30 - 45
Feldspar, ground, fine, mildly abrasive 65 - 70 45
Ferrous Sulphate, granular, mildly
abrasive
50 - 75 30 - 45
Flour, fine, non-abrasive 30 - 46 55 - 60
Flue Dust, blast furnace 40 - 125 45
Fluorspar, granular, mildly abrasive 82 - 110 45 +


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Table 8-12 (Continued)

ANGLE OF REPOSE FOR VARIOUS BULK MATERIALS
(a)


MATERIAL BULK DENSITY
lbs/ft
3

ANGLE OF
REPOSE
(DEGREES)

Fuller's Earth, raw, fine, mildly abrasive 35 - 42 35
Graphite, flake, granular, non-abrasive 40 30 - 45
Graphite, flour, very fine, non-abrasive 28 30
Gravel, lumpy or granular, mildly
abrasive
90 - 120 30 - 40
Gypsum 142 45 +
Gypsum, calcined, granular, mildly
abrasive
55 - 60 40
Gypsum, calcined, powdered, mildly
abrasive
60 - 80 45 +
Gypsum, raw, under 1", lumpy, mildly
abrasive
90 - 100 30 - 45
Hops, dry, non-abrasive 35 45 +
Iron Oxide, pigment 25 40
Kaolin Clay, lumpy, mildly abrasive 163 30 - 45
Lead Silicate, granulated 230 40
Lead Sulphate, pulverized 184 45
Lime, ground, fine, non-abrasive 60 45 +
Lime, hydrated, fine, non-abrasive 40 30 - 45
Lime, pebble, lumpy, non-abrasive 53 - 56 45 +
Limestone, crushed, lumpy, mildly
abrasive
85 - 90 30 - 45
Limestone, pulverized 75 - 85 42
Lithopone, pigment, very fine, non-
abrasive
45 - 50 30 - 45
Magnesium Chloride 33 45 +
Manganese Sulphate, granular, very
abrasive
70 30 - 45
Mica, pulverized, fine, mildly abrasive,
very light and fluffy
13 - 30 30 - 45
Mineral Wool 20 30
Molybdenite Ore, powdered 107 40
Monosodium Phosphate 50 30 - 45

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Table 8-12 (Continued)

ANGLE OF REPOSE FOR VARIOUS BULK MATERIALS
(a)


MATERIAL BULK DENSITY
lbs/ft
3

ANGLE OF
REPOSE
(DEGREES)

Sodium Nitrate, granular 68 24
Oxalic Acid Crystals, fine, non-
abrasive, hygroscopic
60 45 +
Phosphate Rock, lumpy, mildly
abrasive
75 - 85 30 - 45
Phosphate Rock, pulverized 60 40 - 52
Polystyrene Beads, fine, non-abrasive 40 30 - 45
Polyethylene, cubes 25
Polyethylene, pellets 23
Polyethylene, powder 52
Potassium Carbonate 51
Potassium Chloride, pellets, granular,
mildly abrasive
120 - 130 30 - 45
Potassium Nitrate, granular, mildly
abrasive
76 30
Potassium Sulphate, fine, mildly
abrasive
42 - 48 45
Powdered Starch 50
Pumice, fine, very abrasive 40 - 45 45
Pyrites, pellets, granular, mildly
abrasive
120 - 130 30 - 45
Rubber, reclaim, lumpy, non-abrasive 25 - 30 45 +
Rubber, scrap, ground, stringy,
sluggish
23 - 50 35 +
Salicylic Acid, fine, non-abrasive,
hygroscopic
29 30 - 45
Shale, crushed, granular, mildly
abrasive
85 - 90 39
Silica Gel, fine, very abrasive 30 - 45 30 - 45
Slag, furnace, lumpy 160 - 180 45 +
Soap, beads or granules, non-abrasive 30 - 45



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ble 8-12 (Continued)

ANGLE OF REPOSE FOR VARIOUS BULK MATERIALS
(a)


MATERIAL BULK DENSITY
lbs/ft
3

ANGLE OF
REPOSE
(DEGREES)

Soapstone Talc, very fine, mildly
abrasive
40 - 50 45 +
Soda Ash, light 25 - 38 37
Soda Ash, heavy 55 - 62 35
Sodium Antimonate, crushed 49 31
Sodium Nitrate 68 - 80 24
Sodium Sulfite 96 40
Sodium Sulphate 88 31
Steel Turnings, irregular, very abrasive 75 - 150 45 +
Sugar, refined, fine, non-abrasive 50 - 55 30 - 45
Sulphur, lumpy, non-abrasive 55 - 85 32
Sulphur, powdered, fine, non-abrasive 55 - 60 30 - 45
Tin Oxide, ground 100 35
Triple Super Phosphate 50 - 55 30 - 45
Trisodium Phosphate 60 30 - 45
Vermiculite, expanded, granular, light
and fluffy, mildly abrasive
16 45 +
Vermiculite Ore, lumpy, mildly abrasive 80 30 - 45
Wheat, whole grain, non-abrasive 48 30
Wood, chips or shavings - 45
Zinc Calcines, powdered 85 54
Zinc Ore, roasted, granular 100 38
Zinc Oxide, heavy, very fine, non-
abrasive
20 - 35 45 +
Zinc Oxide, light, very fine, non-
abrasive
10 - 15 45 +
Zinc Sulphate 70 - 88 44

Note:

(a) Source not available


8.7.10 Appendix 10: Not Used.


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8.7.11 Appendix 11


Table 8-13

DILUTE PHASE CONVEYING VELOCITIES FOR VARIOUS MATERIALS

Material Particle
Size Description
Bulk
Density
(lbs/ft
3
)
Pickup
Velocity
(ft/min)
Alumina 100 % passing #140
U.S. Sieve
58 3000
Barite 99 % passing #230
U.S. Sieve
85-135 3000
Barley Seed ------ 38 4800
Bauxite, Ground 100 % passing #140
U.S. Sieve
90 3000
Bentonite, Ground,
Aerated
95 % passing #200
U.S. Sieve
54 2000
Cement, Portland "Fine" 91 3600
Coal Up to 1/2 inch 45 4000
Coal "Powdered" -- 3500
Coffee Beans ------ -- 2700
Fluorspar 50 % passing #200
U.S. Sieve
101 2500
Fuller's Earth 95 % passing #140
U.S. Sieve
35-55 1800
Kieselguhr 85 % passing #200
U.S. Sieve
15 2000
Limestone, Ground Average 100 microns 58 2500
Magnetite ------ 100 5000
Phosphate Rock,
Ground
Average 100 microns 69 2500
Polyethylene "3/16 inch cubes" 30 3000
Polyethylene "Pellets" 33-35 4300
Sand, Coarse "Rough Size" 98 6000
Salt (NaC1) 5 % passing #100
U.S. Sieve
85 5500
Soda (Dense) 66 % passing #140
U.S. Sieve
65 3000
Sodium Sulphate 100 % passing #35
U.S. Sieve
80-90 3000
Sugar "Granulated" 54 4800
Uranium Dioxide 100 % passing #35
U.S. Sieve
220 4200

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8.7.12 Appendix 12

Table 8-14

DENSE PHASE CONVEYING VELOCITY FOR VARIOUS MATERIALS


Material

Average
Particle Size
Bulk
Density
(#/ft
3
)
Solids to
Air Wt.
Ratio
Velocity
At Pickup
(ft/min)
Alumina, hydrated s44 microns 56-68 46 2200
Asbestos, Pellets 1/4" dia. x 3/4" 50 15 3000
Calcium Carbonate 3-4 microns 25 32 1400
Cement Fines 90-100 137 1500
Feldspar, Ground 20 microns 75 54 1900
Magnesite 20-200 mesh 90 17 2200
Perlite Fines -- 136 600
Polyvinyl Chloride Powder 30 20 1600
Quartz, dry Powder 70-75 14 3400
Silica Davison #56:
0.024"
Davison #952:
0.0021

17-18

9

2700
Urea s 1/16" 40-48 20 3200

Caution: Do not use above data for Dilute Phase Calculation Methods.

Use Zenz Calculation Method to calculate system pressure drop for
Dense Phase conveying.

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8.7.13 Appendix 13: Sieves


Table 8-15

U.S. SIEVE SERIES

Meshes
per Inch
Sieve No. Sieve Opening
(Inches)
Diameter of Wire
(Inches)
2.58 2-1/2 0.315 0.073
3.03 3 0.265 0.065
3.57 3-1/2 0.223 0.057
4.22 4 0.187 0.05
4.98 5 0.157 0.044
5.81 6 0.132 0.04
6.80 7 0.111 0.036
7.89 8 0.0937 0.0331
9.21 10 0.0787 0.0299
10.72 12 0.0661 0.0272
12.58 14 0.0555 0.0240
14.66 16 0.0469 0.0213
17.15 18 0.0394 0.0189
20.16 20 0.0331 0.0165
23.47 25 0.028 0.0146
27.62 30 0.0232 0.0130
32.15 35 0.0197 0.0114
38.02 40 0.0165 0.0098
44.44 45 0.0138 0.0087
52.36 50 0.0117 0.0074
61.93 60 0.0098 0.0064
72.46 70 0.0083 0.0055
85.47 80 0.0070 0.0047
101.01 100 0.0059 0.0040
120.48 120 0.0049 0.0034
142.86 140 0.0041 0.0029
166.67 170 0.0035 0.0025
200 200 0.0029 0.0021
238.10 230 0.0024 0.0018
270.26 270 0.0021 0.0016
323 325 0.0017 0.0014



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Table 8-16

TYLER STANDARD SCREENS

Meshes per Inch Size of Aperture
(Inches)
Diameter of Wire
(Inches)
1.050 0.149
0.742 0.135
0.525 0.105
0.371 0.092
3 0.263 0.070
4 0.185 0.065
6 0.131 0.036
8 0.093 0.032
10 0.065 0.035
14 0.046 0.025
20 0.0328 0.0172
28 0.0232 0.0125
35 0.0164 0.0122
48 0.0116 0.0092
65 0.0082 0.0072
100 0.0058 0.0042
150 0.0041 0.0026
200 0.0029 0.0021


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Table 8-17

I.M.M SCREENS

Meshes per Inch Size of Aperture
(Inches)
Diameter of Wire
(Inches)
5 0.10 0.10
8 0.062 0.063
10 0.05 0.05
12 0.0416 0.0417
16 0.0312 0.0313
20 0.025 0.025
30 0.0166 0.0167
40 0.0125 0.0125
50 0.01 0.01
60 0.0083 0.0083
70 0.0071 0.0071
80 0.0062 0.0063
90 0.0055 0.0055
100 0.005 0.005
120 0.0042 0.0041
150 0.0033 0.0033
200 0.0025 0.0025

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Table 8-18

BRITISH STANDARD SIEVES

Nominal Meshes per Inch
for Wire Screens
Size of Aperture
(Inches)
Wire Diameter of Width
of Bridge (Inches)
5 0.1320 0.068
6 0.1107 0.056
7 0.0949 0.048
8 0.0810 0.044
10 0.0660 0.034
12 0.0553 0.028
14 0.0474 0.024
16 0.0395 0.023
18 0.0336 0.022
22 0.0275 0.018
25 0.0236 0.0164
30 0.0197 0.0136
36 0.0166 0.0112
44 0.0139 0.0088
52 0.0116 0.0076
60 0.0099 0.0068
72 0.0083 0.0056
85 0.0070 0.0048
100 0.0060 0.0040
120 0.0049 0.0034
150 0.0041 0.0026
170 0.0035 0.0024
200 0.0030 0.0020
240 0.0026 0.0016
300 0.0021 0.0012

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8.7.14 Appendix 14: Not used

8.7.15 Appendix 15: Not used

8.7.16 Appendix 16: Not used

8.7.17 Appendix 17A: Airlock Size and RPM Calculation

To determine the feed rate for a rotary airlock the following method should be used.

Design Conveying Rate____________________
Airlock displacement_____________________ft
3
/rev
*Material bulk density___________________lbs/ft
3
*Expected efficiency of A/L______________%

_________lbs/hr divided by 60 min =_______#/min. divided

_________lbs/ft
3
=________________ft/
3
/min

_________ft
3
/min divided by __________ft
3
/rev = _________RPM
@ 100 % fill.

_________ RPM @ 100 % ____________ % = ____________ design RPM.

Airlock Displacement
Heavy Duty High Efficiency
8 x 6 = .17 ft
3
/rev 7 x 7 = .10 ft
3
/rev
10 x 8 = .34 ft
3
/rev 9 x 9 = .20 ft
3
/rev
12 x 10 = .60 ft
3
/rev 12 x 12 = .60 ft
3
/rev
16 x 12 = 1.17 ft
3
/rev 15 x 15 = 1.20 ft
3
/rev
20 x 15 = 2.29 ft
3
/rev

**A/L eff: H = 90 %
M = 80 %
L = 70 %

*From material factors page or from MAC test report.
**Airlock efficiency ratings are somewhat subjective as they can vary from one
application to another. For best results contact the factory.

8.7.17B Appendix 17B: Airlock Loss - Approximate

All airlocks, rotary valves rotary feeders, etc., of the clearance type loose or
"leak" air in two ways: 1) Air at conveying line pressure is released through
empty pockets as the rotor turns, and 2) Leakage through the machined clearance
between the rotor tips and the housing bore. The equations given below are

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based on an empty airlock, material flow in most cases would provide some
sealing effect reducing the air leakage. Unfortunately, there are so many
variables that it is extremely difficult to quantify the sealing effect. Corrections
for the sealing effect are therefore very subjective and should be applied with
caution.

Pocket Loss:

CFM =
( )
7 . 14
DN P 7 . 14 +

where:

P = Pressure: PSIG + L
O

Vacuum: PSIG + L
I

D = Airlock Displacement in ft
3
/rev
N = RPM

Clearance Loss:

CFM = 30
75 . 0
PX 2454
144
A

where:

A = Average Area (in
2
) of clearance
X = Factor based on pressure differential and specific heats of air (k
= 1.39 @ 100
o
F +)


A (IN
2
)
AIRLOCK CLI CLII CLIII
7x7 .163 .282 .446
9x9 .180 .342 .540
12x12 .278 .479 .757
15x15 .334 .577 .911
8x6 .169 .292 .461
10x8 .213 .368 .581
12x10 .257 .444 .701
16x12 .313 .541 .854
20x15 .390 .674 1.064

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X
P X P X P X
.5 .0090 5.5 .0545 10.5 .0653
1.0 .0168 6.0 .0565 11.0 .0656
1.5 .0236 6.5 .0582 11.5 .0659
2.0 .0295 7.0 .0597 12.0 .0659
2.5 .0347 7.5 .0610 12.5 .0660
3.0 .0392 8.0 .0620 13.0 .0661
3.5 .0432 8.5 .0630 13.5 .0662
4.0 .0466 9.0 .0637 14.0 .0661
4.5 .0496 9.5 .0644
5.0 .0522 10.0 .0649

This diagram taken from "Pneumatic Conveying Engineering Manual, Dilute
Phase" by MAC Equipment Inc.

Airlock Loss: Example Calculation

Use an HE 9x9 Class II operating at 22 rpm on a positive pressure system with a
P of 7.3.

a) Determine "Pocket Loss"

CFM =
( )
7 . 14
DN P 7 . 14 +


where:

P = 7.3
D = .2
N = 22

CFM =
( )
7 . 14
22 * 2 . * 3 . 7 7 . 14 +
= 6.6 CFM or 7 CFM


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b) Determine "Clearance Loss"
CFM = 30
75 . 0
PX 2454
144
A


where:

A = .342
P = 7.3
X = .061

CFM = 30
75 0
061 3 7 2454
144
342
.
. * . *
.
= 31.4 or 32 CFM

c) Total Loss = 7 CFM + 32 CFM = 39 CFM Airlock Loss

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8.7.17C Appendix 17C: Rotary Valve Leakage Chart* (Flotronics) (Leakage in Scfm)

Rotary
Valve
Model No
Operating
Speed
(rpm)
Theoretical
Brake Hp
(Hp)
Motor
Size
(Hp)
Pressure Differential
Static Leakage Dynamic Leakage Total Leakage

2 5 8 10 2 5 8 10 2 5 8 10
FTA 0.3 15 0.13 - 0.22 1/3 - 1/2 11 18 22 25 5 6 7 7 16 24 29 32
25 0.22 - 0.36 1/2 - 1/2 11 18 22 25 8 9 11 12 19 27 33 37
35 0.30 - 0.50 1/2 - 3/4 11 18 22 25 11 13 15 17 22 31 37 42
FTA 0.6 10 0.17 - 0.25 1/2 - 1/2 14 23 29 32 6 7 8 9 20 30 37 41
20 0.33 - 0.50 1/2 - 3/4 14 23 29 32 12 14 16 18 26 37 45 50
30 0.50 - 0.75 3/4 - 1 14 23 29 32 18 21 24 26 32 44 53 58
FTA 1.2 10 0.25 - 0.33 1/2 - 3/4 18 28 36 40 14 16 19 20 32 44 55 60
20 0.50 -0.67 3/4 - 1 18 28 36 40 27 32 37 40 45 60 73 80
30 0.75 - 1.0 1 - 1-1/2 18 28 36 40 41 48 55 60 59 76 91 100
FTA 2.0 10 0.60 - 1.0 1 - 1-1/2 23 36 46 51 23 27 31 34 46 63 77 85
15 0.90 - 1.5 1-1/2 - 2 23 36 46 51 35 41 47 51 58 77 93 102
25 1.5 - 2.5 2 - 3 23 36 46 51 50 68 78 86 73 104 124 137
FTA 4.0 10 1.2 - 1.6 2 - 3 29 45 57 64 47 56 64 70 76 101 121 134

15 1.8 - 2.4 3 29 45 57 64 71 84 96 105 100 129 153 169

25 3.0 - 4.0 5 29 45 57 64 117 140 160 175 146 185 217 239


This chart was taken from "Pneumatic Conveying Design Manual," by Flotronics, Inc.


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8.7.18 Appendix 18A: Diverter Valve Application Chart
(a)




Air
Leakage

Contamination
Pressure
Rating
Abrasion
Resistance
Material
Size
Flapper Poor Good Low Poor Coarse
Tunnel Poor Good Low Poor Coarse
Double Ball Valve Good Poor High Good Coarse/Fine
Pinch Good Poor High Good Coarse/Fine
Sliding Disc Good Poor High Good Coarse/Fine
Notes:
(a) This chart was taken from the lecture notes by Lawrence G. Caldwell presented in a Pneumatic
Conveying seminar at the Center for Professional Advancement.


8.7.18B Appendix 18B: Line Diverter Valve Leakage Chart (Leakage in Scfm)
(b)



Pressure Differential
Diverter
Size
Tunnel Blade Flapper
2 5 10 2 5 10 2 5 10
2 2.2 3.5 - - - - - - -
3 3.4 5.3 7.5 3.1 5.0 7.0 1.8 2.8 4.0
4 4.5 7.2 10.1 4.0 6.5 9.0 2.2 3.5 5.0
5 5.8 9.3 13.2 5.0 7.8 11.0 2.8 4.5 6.3
6 7.2 11.3 16.0 5.5 8.5 12.0 3.4 5.3 7.5
8 9.0 14.1 20.0 6.5 10.0 14.0 - - -
10 11.6 18.5 26.2 8.3 13.0 18.5 - - -
1200 14.0 22.0 31.1 9.4 15.0 21.0 - - -


Notes:
(a) This chart was taken from "Pneumatic Conveying Design Manual," by Flotronics Inc.



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8.7.19 Appendix 19A: Filter Air-to-Cloth Ratio Selection A:C = (AxBxCxDxE):1


MATERIAL FACTOR - TABLE A
FACTOR 15 12 10 9 6
M

A

T

E

R

I

A

L

S


CAKE MIX
CARDBOARD DUST
COCOA
FEEDS
FLOUR
GRAIN
LEATHER DUST
SAWDUST
TOBACCO
ASBESTOS
BUFFING DUST
FIBROUS &
CELLULOSTIC
MATERIAL
FOUNDRY SHAKEOUT
GYPSUM
LIME (HYDRATED)
PERLITE
RUBBER CHEMICALS
SALT
SAND
SANDBLAST DUST
SODA ASH
TALC
ALUMINA
ASPIRIN
CARBON BLACK
(FINISHED)
CEMENT
CERAMIC PIGMENTS
CLAY & BRICK DUST
COAL
FLOURISPAR
GUM, NATURAL
KAOLIN
LIMESTONE
PERCHLORATES
ROCK DUST, ORES
& MINERALS
SILICA
SORBIC ACID
SUGAR
AMMONIUM
PHOSPHATE-
FERTILIZER
COKE
DIATOMACEOUS
EARTH
DRY PETRO-
CHEMICALS
DYES
FLY ASH
METAL POWDER
METAL OXIDES
PIGMENTS,
METALLIC &
SYNTHETIC
PLASTICS
RESINS
SILICATES
STARCH
STEARATES
TANNIC ACID
ACTIVATED CARBON
CARBON BLACK
(MOLECULAR)
DETERGENTS
FUMES AND OTHER
DISPERSED
PRODUCTS DIRECT
FROM REACTIONS
POWDERED MILK
SOAPS
IN GENERAL,
PHYSICALLY &
CHEMICALLY
STABLE
MATERIALS

ALSO INCLUDES THOSE SOLIDS THAT ARE
UNSTABLE IN THEIR PHYSICAL OR CHE-MICAL
STATE DUE TO HYGROSCOPIC NATURE,
SUBLIMATION AND/OR POLYMERI-ZATION

APPLICATION FACTOR - TABLE B
APPLICATION FACTOR B
NUISANCE VENTING
Relief of transfer points,
conveyors, pacing stations, etc.


1.0
PRODUCT COLLECTION
Air conveying - venting mills,
flash driers, classifiers, etc.


0.9
PROCESS GAS FILTRATION
Spray driers, Kilns, reactors,
etc.

0.8

PARTICLE SIZE FACTOR - TABLE D
FINENESS FACTOR D
OVER 100 MICRON 1.2
50 TO 100 MICRON 1.1
10 TO 50 MICRON 1.0
3 TO 10 MICRON 0.9
UNDER 3 MICRON 0.8


This diagram taken from "Dust Collection Engineering Manual" by MAC Equipment Inc.



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Guidelines for Calculating Air-to-Cloth Ratios

Operating experience is unquestionably the best reference for determining air-to-
cloth ratios (A.C.R.). However, the information below may be used as guideline:

A.C.R. = Material
x Process
x Particle Size/Temperature

Step 1

To determine the Material Factor, find your material and select the appropriate
value from the Material Factor Table below:

TABLE A MATERIAL FACTOR TABLE

MATERIAL
FACTOR
9 8 7 6 5
M
A
T
E
R
I
A
L
GRAIN KAOLIN ALUMINA COKE ACTIVATED CARBON
PAPER SAND METALLIC ORE PIGMENTS CALCIUM
SAWDUST GYPSUM CEMENT FLYASH CARBON BLACK
TOBACCO LIME COAL DETERGENTS GRAPHITE
SALT FLOUR LEAD OXIDE CHARCOAL
SODA ASH FERTILIZER SUGAR METALLURGICAL
FUME
TALC LIMESTONE ZINC OXIDE
ABRASIVES

Step 2

Material Loading is expressed in grains per cubic foot.

The Process Factor is a function of the inlet grain loading and type of process.
First determine the material loading which is expressed in grains per cubic foot
(gr/cf).

To calculate gr/cf from lbs/min:

Multiply:
CFM
lb/min x gr/lb 7,000
= gr/cf

Next, establish the process curve which most closely defines your application.
The following applications are listed as guidelines:

The applications are defined by:

- Process Gas Filtration: Dryers, Kilns, Reactors
- Product Collection: Air Conveying, Size Reduction, Classifying


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- Nuisance Venting: Bulk Material Handling

To determine the Process Factor, use either:

- Graph B1, if your grain loading is > 10 gr/cf
- Graph B2, if your grain loading is < 10 gr cf

On the graph, find your grain loading and move horizontally to the appropriate
application curve. Move vertically to the bottom of the graph to obtain Process
Factor.

Step 3

The air-to-cloth ratio is also affected by temperature and particle size. Graph C
is used to determine your Particle Size/Temperature Factor. Locate the
temperature of your application and move horizontally to the appropriate particle
size curve. Then move vertically to the bottom of the graph to obtain the Particle
Size/Temperature Factor.

Step 4

Calculate the air-to-cloth ratio:

A.C.R. = A x B x C

Example

Ventilating a belt conveyor bucket elevator and screen handling, silica sand at
ambient temperature with an estimated inlet loading of 2 lb/min. Air volume is
5,000 CFM. Average particle size is greater than 10 microns.

A.C.R. = 8 x 1.1 x 1.0
= 8.8 : 1

A filter's design and cleaning mechanisms affect the final filter ratio. This
additional equipment factor must be considered and is noted on the specific
Technical Data Sheet of the dust collector being considered. Consult your Sly
representative or Sly at 1-800-334-2957.




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8.719B Appendix 19B: Comparative Air-Filter Characteristics

Unit Filters
Automatic Filters Viscous Type Dry Type
Cleanable Throwaway Throwaway Cleanable
Dust capacity 1. Well adapted for heavy dust loads (up to 2 grams
1000 cu. ft.) due to high dust capacity
1. Well adapted to light or moderate dust loads of
less than 1 grain/1000 cu. ft.
1. Well adapted for heavy dust
loads up to 2 grains 1000 cu.
ft. since it is serviced
automatically
Filter size 1. Common size of unit filter is 20- x 20-in. face area handling 800 cu. ft/min at rated capacity.
2. Face velocity is generally 300 - 400 ft/min for all types.
1. Automatic viscous units
supplied to handle 1000 cu.
ft/min and over
2. Face velocity is 350-
750 ft/min.
Air velocity 1. Rated velocity
2. Entrainment of oil may occur at very high
velocities
1. Rated velocity is 10-50 ft/min through the
medium. (Some dry glass types run as high as
300 ft/min)
2. Higher velocities may result in rupture of filter
medium.
1. Rated velocity is 350-
750 ft/min through the filter
medium for viscous types.
For dry types, it is 10-
50 ft/min.
Resistance 1. Resistance ranges from 0.05-0.30 in when clean to 0.4-0.5 in when dirty.
2. When the resistance exceeds a given value, the cells should be replaced or reconditioned.
3. Cycling cells in large installation will serve to maintain a nearly constant resistance.
1. Resistance runs about 0.3-
0.4 in water.
4. High resistance due to excessive dust loading
results in channeling and poor efficiency.
4. Excessive pressure drops resulting from high
dust loading may result in rupture of filter
medium.

Efficiency 1. Commercial makes are found in a variety of
efficiencies, these depending roughly on filter
resistance for similar types of medium.
2. Efficiency decreases with increased dust load and
increases with increased velocity up to certain
limits.
1. In general, give higher efficiency than viscous
type, particularly on fine particles.
2. Efficiency increases with increased dust load
and decreases with increased velocity.

Operating cycle 1. Well adapted for short-period operations (less
than 10 hr/day) due to relatively low investment
cost.
1. Well adapted for continuous
operation
2. Operating cycle is 1-2 months for general
"average" industrial air conditioning
2. Operating cycle is 2-4 weeks for general
"average" industrial air conditioning

Method of
Cleaning
1. Washed with steam,
hot water, or solvents
and given fresh oil
coating
1. Filter cell replaced. Life may in some cases be
lengthened by shaking or vacuum cleaning, but
this is not often successful.
1. Vacuum cleaned,
blown with com-
pressed air, or dry
cleaned
1. Automatic. Filter may clog
in time and cleaning by
blowing with com-pressed
air may be necessary.
Space
requirement
1. Well adapted for low headroom requirements.
2. Form of banks can be chosen to fit any shaped space
3. Space should be allowed for a man to remove filter cells for cleaning or replacement.
1. Have a high headroom
requirement
2. Take up less floor space than
other types
4. Requires space for
washing, reoiling, and
draining tanks
4. Requires space for
mechanical loader in
some cases

Type of filter
medium
1. Crimped, split, or woven metal, glass fibers, wood
shavings, hair-all oil coated
1. Cellulose pulp, felt, cotton gauze, spun glass
2. Dry medium cannot stand direct wetting. Oil-
impregnated medium are available to resist
humidity and prevent fluff entrainment
1. Metal screens, packing, or
baffling. One type uses
cellulose pulp
Character of
dust
1. Not well suited for linty materials 1. Not well suited for
handling oily dusts
1. Not suited for linty material
if of viscous types
2. Well adapted for make-up air granular materials 2. Well adapted for linty material
3. Better adapted for fine dust than other types

Temperature
limitations
1. All metal types may be used up as high as 250 F
if suitable oil or grease is used. Those utilizing
cellulosic materials are limited to 180 F.
1. Limited to 180 F except for glass types which
may be used up to 700 F, if suitable frames
and gaskets are used.
1. Viscous may be used up to
250 F if suitable oil is used.
Dry type limited to 180 F.



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8.7.19C Appendix 19C - Fabric Temperature Limits
e


Fabrics are generally selected based upon their temperature limits and their
chemical properties. Listed below are the more commonly used felted fabrics in
order of their temperature properties. A brief description of each fabric with its
chemical properties follows.


MAXIMUM RECOMMENDED OPERATING TEMPERATURE
DEGREES F FOR CONTINUOUS SERVICE

Polypropylene 225 degrees
Nylon 225 degrees
Acrylic 260 degrees
Polyester 275 degrees
Acrylic (homopolymer) 284 degrees
Nomex 375 degrees
Teflon 450 degrees
Fiberglass 500 degrees


Chemical Properties:

Polypropylene. Polypropylene is second only to nylon in its resistance to both
abrasion and its relative tensile strength. It is superior to nylon in its resistance to
acids. It also exhibits high resistance to attack by alkali.

Nylon. Nylon is the best of the fibers for its overall strength and resistance to
abrasion. It is excellent for use with alkaline dust, however, it is extremely
vulnerable to acid attack and will fail rapidly in the presence of any acid. Its low
temperature resistance of 225 degrees F, limits its use as an industrial filter
fabric.

Acrylics. Acrylics exhibits a good resistance to both acid and alkaline service.
In general acrylics are difficult to stabilize and since their temperature limits are
similar to the polyesters, polyester is normally the fabric of choice.

Polyester. Polyesters are currently the work horse of the filter fabrics. They
exhibit good acid and alkali resistance. The fabric is relatively stable and thus it
covers a broad range of applications. Polyesters do tend to hydrolyze in a hot

1
This chart taken from "Dust Collection Engineering Manual" by MAC Equipment Inc.


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moist atmosphere and thus care should be taken where both high moisture and
heat are encountered.

Nomex. Nomex is chemically a high temperature nylon. It exhibits the same
chemical characteristics as standard nylon. It is extremely strong and abrasion
resistant, but it will deteriorate rapidly in an acid atmosphere. Nomex is
substantially more expensive than the fabrics discussed previously.

Teflon. Teflon for practical purposes is chemically inert. It is somewhat difficult
to stabilize Teflon fabric and it is difficult to build a cake on Teflon bags due to
the slippery nature of the material. Teflon is the most expensive of any fabric
discussed here and is rarely used except in those applications where the
chemistry demands an inert filter fabric.

Fiberglass. Fiberglass is the fabric of choice for many high temperature
applications. It is normally used in the form of a heavy woven fabric which
operates very much like a felt. Fiberglass is always furnished with a finish.



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8.7.19D Appendix 19D: Fibers for Dry-Filtration fabrics




Fiber



Manufacturer


Tensile
Strength:



Abrasion
Resistance
+
+

Recommended Max.
Operating Temp.:
Exposure Time
in Degrees F

Chemical
Resistance


Flammability:
Will Support
Combustion?



Special
Properties


General
Chemical
Classification
Long
(Months)
Short
(Hours)

Acids

Alkalies
Acrilan Monsanto C C 250 300 D D Yes Polyacrylonitrile
(acrylic)
Arnel Celanese Corp.
of America
E E 250 300 D D Yes A modified cellulose,
has improved heat and
bacterial resistance
Tracetate
Cotton Natural fiber C B 160 250 D A Yes Cellulose
Dacron E.I. du Pont de
Nemours
A A 275 350 B C-D Yes More rapid
degradation may occur
in the presence of heat
and moisture. Holds
crease.
Polyester
Darvan B.F. Goodrich
Chemical
C E 310 320 B D Yes
Melts above 330
o
F.
Has excellent
dimensional stability
at 300
o
F.
Nytril
Dynel Union Carbide
Chemical Co.
C C 180 240 B A No Will soften and distort
if exposed to temp.
above 180
o
F unless
heat-set
Copolymer of
acrylonitrile and
vinyl chloride
Glass Pittsburgh Plate
Glass Co.;
Owens Corning
Fiberglass
Corp.; Libby
Owens; Ford
Glass Fiber Co.
A E 500 650 C E No Limited by poor flex-
abrasion qualities.
Finishes limit max.
temp. range
Glass
Kodel Eastman
Chemical
Products, Inc.
C C 275 350 B-C C-D Yes Excellent stability
under heat
Polyester
Nylon 66 E.I. du Pont de
Nemours,
Monsanto
A A 200 250 E A Yes Stays soft and pliable
when exposed to heat
Polamide
Nylon 6 American
Enka; Industrial
Rayon; Allied
Chemical
A A 200 250 E B Yes Polamide
Orlon 42 E.I. du Pont de
Nemours
C B 260 300 C D Yes Best all-around high-
temperature fiber
Polyacrylonitrile
(acrylic)
Polyethylene Union Carbide
Chemical Co.
A A 150 212
(heat-set)
A A Yes Affected by some
organic solvents. Can
be heat-set to operate
at about 212
o
F. If
subjected to load for a
long time, it will
continue to stretch.
Lighter than water.

Polyethylene


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Fiber



Manufacturer


Tensile
Strength:



Abrasion
Resistance
+
+

Recommended Max.
Operating Temp.:
Exposure Time
in Degrees F

Chemical
Resistance


Flammability:
Will Support
Combustion?



Special
Properties


General
Chemical
Classification
Long
(Months)
Short
(Hours)

Acids

Alkalies
Polypropylene Hercules,
Alamo
Polymer,
National plastic
products

A B-C 190 190 A A Yes Strong, excellent
chemical resistance
Polyolefin
Q957 Dow Chemical C X 220 240 B B No Fibers made from
film. They are flat
ribbons
Vinylidene
chloride
Saran Saran Yarn Co.
and others
D C 150 200 A B
(ammonia,
F)
No Fibers made from
film. They are flat
ribbons. Outstanding
chemical resistance,
but severe temp.
limitation.
Vinylidene
chloride
Teflon
(multifilame
nt)







E.I. du Pont de
Nemours
C D 450 550 A A No Expensive. Best
chemical resistance,
good heat resistance.
When exposed to
temp. in excess of
400
o
F, toxic fumes
are given off. Strength
decreases rapidly at
high temp.
Polyfluoroethylene
Nomex E.I. du Pont de
Nemours
A-B A-B 425 450 D A No Outstanding
temperature resistance
Nylon aromatic
polyamide
Verel Eastman
Chemical
Products, Inc.
C E 200 250 C D No Verel FR has better
flame resistance than
wool.
Modified acrylic
Wool Natural fiber Wet, E
Dry, D
Wet, C
Dry, C
200 250 E E No When wet has
excellent elastic
recovery. Can be
felted.
Protein
Zefran Dow Chemical C C 220 270 C D Yes Acrylic alloy

Courtesy of the Globe Albany Corp. This company offers information as best currently available: no obligation or liability whatsoever is
assumed in connection with its use. Data apply only to staple fibers, although continuous-filament yarns are also made. Teflon is excepted, as test
fabric was made from filament yarn.

A= excellent B = above average C = good, average D = fair E = poor, X = unknown

This chart taken from Perry's Chemical Engineering Handbook.







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8.7.19E Appendix 19E: Selection Criteria for Dry Filter and Wet Scrubber Selection


Appropriate for most applications Appropriate for some applications Generally not appropriate
Dry Filter Selection Wet Scrubber Selection
Cartridge
Filter
Envelope
Filter
Tube
Filter
Impingement
Baffle Plate
Packed
Tower
Venturi
Particle Size: > 10
Inlet loading:
Light - <1 gr/cf



Medium - 1-4 gr/cf



Heavy - 5-10 gr/cf




Very Heavy - > 10 gr/cf




Particle Size: < -PM 10

Inlet loading:

Light - <1 gr/cf



Medium - 1-4 gr/cf



Heavy - 5-10 gr/cf




Very Heavy - >10 gr/cf




Particle Size: <1 -Sub Micron

Inlet loading:

Light - <1 gr/cf




Medium - 1-4 gr/cf




Heavy - 5-10 gr/cf




Very Heavy - >10 gr/cf




Temperature: <275
o
F
<375
o
F


>375
o
F


Dewpoint: Ambient

Process Moisture Added


Saturated




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(Appendix 19E Cont'd)

Appropriate for most applications Appropriate for some applications Generally not appropriate
Dry Filter Selection Wet Scrubber Selection
Cartridge
Filter
Envelope
Filter
Tube
Filter
Impingement
Baffle Plate
Packed
Tower
Venturi
Hygroscopic


Granular



Fluffy/Fibrous




Sticky




Abrasive




Corrosive


Vapor



Mists


Condensing/Cooling



Odors




Sly Inc. sells three basic
styles of dry collectors:
cartridge, envelope and
tubular bag filters.

Sly Inc. sells three basic styles of
wet scrubbers; the Impinjet;
Impingement baffle plate; Packed
Towers and Venturi

This diagram taken from Dust Collection Engineering Manual by MAC Equipment Inc.



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8.7.19F Appendix 19F: Size and Characteristics of Air - Borne Solids






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8.7.20 Appendix 20: Properties of Common Vapors and Gases

GAS CHEMICAL
FORMULA
MOLECULAR
WEIGHT
SPECIFIC
GRAVITY
AIR=1
DENSITY
LBS PER
CUFT
VOLUME
CUFT
PER LB
Cp/Cv
(k)
Acetylene
C
2
H
2

26.0156 .912 .0736 13.587 1.296
Air ------ ------ 1.0000 .080716 12.389 1.406
Ammonia NH
3
17.031 .5963 .0481 20.790 1.317
Argon A 39.944 1.3787 .1113 8.985 1.667

Benzene C
6
H
6
78.0468 ------ ------ ------ 1.10
Butane C
4
H
10
58.076 ------ ------ ------ 1.108

Carbon Dioxide CO
2
44.000 1.5290 .1234 8.104 1.30
Carbon Disulfide CS
2
76.12 ------ ----- ------ 1.205
Carbon Tetrachloride C Cl
4
153.828 ------ ------ ------ 1.18
Carbon Monoxide CO 28.000 .9671 .0781 12.804 1.403
Chlorine C1
2
70.914 2.486 .2007 4.983 1.336

Dichloromethane CH
4
Cl
2
84.929 ------ ------ ------ 1.18

Ethane C
2
H
6
30.047 1.0493 .0847 11.806 1.224
Ethyl Chloride C
2
H
5
Cl 64.496 ------ ------ ------ 1.13
Ethylene C
2
H
4
28.0312 .9749 .0787 12.706 1.255

Helium He 4.002 .1381 .0111 90.090 1.66
Hexane C
6
H
14
86.109 ------ ------ ------ 1.08
Hydrogen H
2
2.0156 .06952 .0056 178.571 1.408
Hydrogen Chloride H Cl 36.4648 1.2678 .1023 9.775 1.405
Hydrogen Sulphide H
2
S 34.0756 1.190 .0961 10.406 1.324

Isobutane C
4
H
10
58.078 2.068 .1669 5.992 1.111

Krypton Kr 83.70 2.868 .2315 4.319 1.666

Methane CH
4
16.031 .554 .0447 22.371 1.316
Methyl Chloride CH
3
Cl 50.486 1.785 .1441 6.940 1.20

Neon Ne 20.183 .696 .0562 17.794 1.642
Nitric Oxide N O 30.008 1.0366 .0837 11.947 1.394
Nitrogen N
2
28.016 .9672 .0781 12.804 1.41
Nitrous Oxide N
2
O 44.016 1.529 .1234 8.104 1.303

Oxygen O
2
32.0000 1.1053 .0892 11.211 1.40

Pentane C
5
H
12
72.0936 ------ ------ ------ 1.086
Propane C
3
H
8
44.0624 1.562 .1261 7.930 1.153
Propylene C
3
H
6
42.0468 1.453 .1173 8.525 ------

Sulfur Dioxide SO
2
64.06 2.2638 .1827 5.473 1.256

Water Vapor H
2
O 17.0156 ------ ------ ------ 1.30

Xenon X 131.30 4.52 .3648 2.741 1.666
This diagram taken from "Pneumatic Conveying Engineering Manual, Dilute Phase" by MAC Equipment Inc.


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8.7.21 Appendix 21: Altitude - Pressure - Temperature - Density Table of air


ALTITUDE
(FEET)
PRESSURE
(IN. HG. ABS)
TEMPERATURE
DEGREES F.
DENSITY
LBS/FT
3
0 29.92 70.0 .0750
500 29.38 68.1 .0740
1000 28.85 66.1 .0730
1500 28.33 64.2 .0719
2000 27.82 62.3 .0709
2500 27.31 60.4 .0698
3000 26.81 58.4 .0687
3500 26.33 56.5 .0676
4000 25.84 54.6 .0666
4500 25.37 52.6 .0657
5000 24.89 50.7 .0648
5500 24.43 48.8 .0638
6000 23.98 46.9 .0628
6500 23.53 45.0 .0619
7000 23.09 43.0 .0610
7500 22.65 41.0 .0600
8000 22.12 39.0 .0590
8500 21.80 37.1 .0581
9000 21.38 35.2 .0573
9500 20.98 33.3 .0564
10000 20.57 31.3 .0555
11000 19.75 28.5 .0538
12000 19.03 23.6 .0521
13000 18.29 19.7 .0505
14000 17.57 15.8 .0488
15000 16.88 12.0 .0473
20000 13.70 -12.6 .0405
25000 11.10 -30.1 .0337
30000 8.88 -47.5 .0281
35000 7.03 -65.6 .0233
40000 5.54 -69.8 .0185
45000 4.36 -69.8 .0145
50000 3.43 -69.8 .0114

This diagram taken from "Pneumatic Conveying Engineering Manual, Dilute Phase" by MAC
Equipment Inc.



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PNEUMATIC CONVEYING
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8.7.22 Appendix 22: Economics

It has become almost trite to detail the ways in which money can be saved by
replacing an individual package system with a bulk handling system.

To be trite:
- Bags are a continuously recurring expense, adding nothing to the value of the
product (unless you happen to handle plastic beads in plastic bags and can
dump the bag and beads into the extruder hopper).
- Bags often burst (or worse) causing product loss and high clean-up expense.
- Bags take up more room than comparable bulk volume - usually must be
stored inside.
- Bags must be handled - either physically or by mechanical loading and
unloading devices - which is time consuming.

All this is covered in the available Pneumatic Conveying literature. It may not
make good reading but it does make good sense.

Let us look at it a little closer.

Most companies face the recurring problem of rising material and labor costs.
There is really very little that can be done about this except on a temporary basis,
which leaves only the expense items as a possible area for cost reduction to
minimize price increases.

Material handling is an expense which is necessary to synthesize the finished
product but which adds on value to it. It should, therefore, be an area which is
closely scrutinized for possible cost savings.
It is one place where a manager can do something about his costs.

How?

Specifically by:

a) reducing or eliminating the physical labor of material movement into the
plant and to the process point.
b) reducing the cost of raw material by eliminating the package.
c) releasing storage space for productive work
d) speeding up the physical distribution process, to provide the material at the
right place at the right time.



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All these things aid immeasurably in speeding up production, quite apart from
the direct savings which result.

To realize the benefits, however, certain conditions must be met. These include:

1) A raw material usage sufficient to offset the cost of bulk handling equipment.
If it takes 10 years to pay for the equipment from the savings of bulk over
bags it's obviously not worth the expense.
2) A soundly engineered system requiring minimum maintenance. Maintenance
people are higher priced than bag handlers and if labor is saved in handling,
it shouldn't have to be applied to maintenance.

It is difficult to give specific figures for minimum usage levels to approach the
break even point as this depends, among other things, upon the product and the
accepted amortization period.

A hypothetical case might, however, be something like this:

MATERIAL
Annual Usage
PLASTIC PELLETS
1,000,000 lb
(10 tons/week)


1. Transportation saving bag to
bulk
5/LB
$ 50,000.00/yr

2. Bag saving 75/100 lb $ 7,500.00/yr

3. Unloading labor saving 2 men @ 1 hr ea per 20,000 lb
@ $10.00/hr
$ 1,000.00/yr

4. Unloading equipment saving Fork lift truck @ $20.00/hr
1 hr 20,000 lb
$ 1,000.00/yr

5. In plant transfer labor saving 1 man @ 2 hrs per 4000 lb
@ $10.00/hr
$ 5000.00/yr
1 man @ 1 hr per 4000 lb
@ $10.00/hr
$ 2500.00/yr
Fork lift truck hr per 4000 lb
@ $20.00/hr
$ 2500.00/yr

6. Space saving 20,000 lb of bags @
2000 lb/sq ft 250 sq ft @
$15.00 per sq ft
$ 3750.00/yr

TOTAL YEARLY SAVING $ 73250.00/yr


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The labor saved is, of course, not usually eliminated, merely transferred, but it is
usually transferred to productive work rather than expense work.

(Pushing a button to unload material is productive?)

A complete bulk handling system for this usage of polyethylene could
conceivably cost less than the $73,250.00 yearly saving, resulting in an enviable
amortization period. Many systems are not as clear cut as this and must be
assessed on their individual merits, but as a general rule, weekly usage of
20,000 lb or above, usually justifies a bulk handling system.

But why a Pneumatic Conveying System? Why not a conventional screw
conveyor/bucket elevator complex to transfer material into storage and from
storage to the plant?

Usually because it is cleaner, neater, more flexible, lower in maintenance and for
distances above 50'0, less expensive.

Not always of course. You can't unload grain from a boat at anything
approaching the speed of a "grain leg" with a Pneumatic Conveyor. Nor can you
load coal into a boat at a comparable rate to a high speed belt conveyor.

But you can go around corners and round existing machinery with a Pneumatic
Conveying line. It takes very little to support it and very little to extend it. It is
completely dust tight and with most products self cleaning, so you can put all
kinds of products through one line without risking contamination.

And while you are at it you can do a little product cooling - if you are so inclined.

All these things make a Pneumatic Conveyor an attractive proposition for a great
many products and certainly worth careful investigation for any dry material.

As we said, you can't do everything with it - but you would be surprised at what
you can do.

Why don't you consider pneumatic conveying?

Although many of the questions asked about Pneumatic Conveyors are naturally
related to a specific product, some are very sufficiently broad in scope to apply to
Pneumatic Conveying generally.








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The following is a sampling of the most frequently asked general information
questions - with, in some cases, rather opinionated answers.

Question. How far can a dry bulk product be blown?

Answer. This is almost as hard to answer as "how high is up." It depends
upon the volume of air available, the pressure potential of the
blower and the size of the pipeline. For example - 15 PSI blower
delivering 650 CFM through a 4" line will use up its full
pressure potential just moving air through a line 3000 feet long.
So, for a 4" line under 3000 feet, some of the pressure will be
available to move product as well as air. The shorter the line, the
lower the pressure required to move the air - leaving the balance
to move the product. However, if the line size is increased to
(say) 6", only 9 PSI is required to move air at the same velocity
as in the 4" line through 3000 feet. Therefore, it 15 PSI is
available, product can be introduced into the line without
exceeding the pressure potential of the blower. In fact, with the
6" line the distance would increase to 5000 feet before all the
pressure were used to move air only.

And so it goes on.

Some mile system are in use, operating in high pressure (50 - 60 PSI) but as a
general rule the 15 PSI system has a possible limit of 1500 feet and a practical
limit of about 1000 feet.

Question. Can a product be stopped in a conveying line and restarted?

Answer. Some products can - plastic pellets, for example, providing the
conveying distance is not excessive and the conveying rate not
too high.

As a General rule (again!) however, systems should be designed
to clear the product from the line before the air flow is cut off.


Question. What is the maximum lump size which can be conveyed?

Answer. As an example, limestone which will pass through a 1" screen
and sometimes results in 1" x 1" x 3" lumps, is blown
successfully through a 5" line.

It is a good rule of thumb to limit the particle size in smaller
lines to one quarter the pipe diameter with an upper limit of
approximately a 2" cube.


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Question. Can the same system be used for a variety of products?

Answer. Usually - although often with less than perfect results. Air flows
for optimum performance in a fixed size line will vary with
individual products. If two products with different
characteristics are to be conveyed with the same fixed speed
blower, a compromise air flow will be used, which is not ideal
for either.

Unless the products are poles apart in properties, however, (sand
and sawdust?) satisfactory fixed air flow systems can be
designed to suit them.

Question. Why limit conveying system to 15 PSI?

Answer. Mainly because this coves the bulk of normal requirements.
Also, because 15 PSI is the limit above which pressurized
containers must be certified coded vessels.

Also because 15 PSI is the practical limit for most rotary positive
blowers and rotary air locks. High pressure systems up to
100 PSI are in operation for long distance conveying. These are
usually limited to products which fluidize easily - such as cement
- except where plug flow is used - and that's another story.

Question. How long do pipe lines last?

Answer. It depends on the product being conveyed. Sharp sand can wear
out horizontal runs of schedule 80 steel pipe in 6 months with a
usage of 40 tons per day. Brewers malt may take 8 years to wear
a horizontal run of schedule 40 steel pipe with a usage of
250 tons per week.

Question. Should outdoor conveying lines be insulated?

Answer. Normally no. It's better to blow air through the lines for a short
period of time before conveying begins, to dry up any
accumulated moisture, than to try to eliminate moisture with
insulation.

Question. Which is noisier - a blower or an exhauster - and how noisy are
they anyway?

Answer. Exhausters are usually noisier than blowers, for the simple
reason that they often discharge the displaced air into the room
where they are located.


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A blower discharges the air down a closed line. Exhausters
should have better discharge mufflers than blowers for this
reason.

How noisy is noisy - an impossible question to answer - but
objectionable noise can be eliminated with suitable mufflers.

Question. Should conveying air be dried before being used to convey
hygroscopic materials?

Answer. It can be - and often is, but is probably better to provide a dry air
purge of the material in bulk storage.

In a 100 foot line at normal conveying velocities product
particles are not in the line more than two seconds - not very
long to pick up moisture.

They usually sit around much longer than this in storage, both
before and after being conveyed.

Question. Can dry bulk products be stored outside?

Answer. It depends on the product, the turnover period, and the size of
lump which can be tolerated.

Most food products (sugar, salt, starches, flour for example) will
lump when exposed to varying ambient conditions. Many
industrial chemicals do the same. But grains, plastic pellets,
resins and many fertilizers are usually stored outside
successfully. One way or another outdoor bulk storage is
practical for most dry products.

8.7.23 Appendix 23: Fundamental Burning Velocities of Selected Gases and Dusts

Basic information along with Appendix 26 associated with narrative Section 8.5 -
Safety Considerations in Pneumatic Conveying.



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Table C-1 Fundamental Burning Velocities of Selected Gases and Vapors



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8.7.24 Appendix 24: Fire Hazard Properties of Selected Liquids, Gases and Volatile
Solids

"Low-density gases seldom produce hazardous mixtures in zones close to grade"
--- upper and lower limits are usually expressed in terms of percentage by
volume of gas or vapor in air or oxygen at standard atmospheric temperature and
pressure.

Vapor density is determined by comparing the weight of a volume of pure vapor
or gas to the weight of an equal volume of dry air at the same temperature and
pressure. A vapor density greater than 1.0 indicates that the substance is heavier
than air; a value less than 1.0 means that the substance is lighter than air.

Lighter-than-air gases will usually dissipate rapidly because of their relatively
low densities. Unless released in confined, poorly ventilated spaces, low-density
gases seldom produce hazardous mixtures in zones close to grade where most
electrical equipment is located.

In the case of hydrocarbons - most of which are heavier than air - the problem is
not to establish the existence of a Class I location but to define the limits of the
Division 1 and Division 2 areas. Anywhere that hydrocarbons are handled, used,
or stored, there is a high degree of probability that flammable liquids, gases, and
vapors will be released in sufficient quantities to constitute a hazard. Vapor can
disperse in all directions as governed by the vapor density and air movement in
the area. A very mild breeze can extend the limits of the hazardous location quite
far in the direction of air movement, but the combustible mixture will not be
dispersed significantly.

A Class I, Division 1 location is an area in which one or more of these conditions
exist:
- Hazardous concentrations of flammable gases or vapors exist continuously or
intermittently under normal operating conditions.
- Hazardous concentrations of flammable gases or vapors may exist frequently
because of leakage or repair or maintenance operations.
- Breakdown or faulty operation of equipment might release hazardous
concentrations of flammable gases or vapors and might also cause
simultaneous failure of electrical equipment.

A Class I, Division 2 location is an area in which one or more of these conditions
prevail:
- Volatile flammable liquids or flammable gases are handled, processed, or
used, but are confined in closed containers or systems from which they can
escape only in case of accidental rupture of the container or breakdown of the
system, or in the event of abnormal equipment operation.


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- Hazardous concentrations of gases or vapors are normally prevented from
forming by positive mechanical ventilation, and ignitable concentrations can
form only if the ventilation system fails.
- The area is adjacent to a Class I, Division 1 area from which hazardous
concentrations might spread because of inadequate or unreliable ventilation
supplied from a source of uncontaminated air.

Because maximum explosion pressures and same operating temperatures vary
widely for hazardous-location electrical installations, the electrical equipment
must be approved for the specific flammable material responsible for the
hazardous location designation. Combustible atmospheres are categorized into
seven groups - A through G.f Substances that can contribute to a Class I
atmosphere fall into Groups A through D; approximately 70 such substances are
given in Table 500-2 of the National Electrical Code. Among the more common
substances listed by group in Table 500-2 are:

Group A acetylene
Group B - hydrogen or equivalent vapors and gases, such as manufactured gas.
Group C - ethyl-ether vapors, ethylene, cyclopropane, and similar substances.
Group D - gasoline, naphtha, benzene, hexane, butane, propane, alcohol, acetone,
lacquer-solvent vapors, natural gas, and similar substances.

Electrical equipment installed in hazardous locations must be approved not only
for the class and division, but also for the group associated with the substance
responsible for the location classification.


f
See "Defining the Limits of Hazardous (Classified) Locations for Compliance with National Electrical Code - General
Considerations," PE 9/14/78, p 145, file #0501.


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FIRE HAZARD PROPERTIES OF SELECTED LIQUIDS, GASES, AND VOLATILE SOLIDS
1


Description

Flash
Point,
F

Ignition
Temperature,
F
Flammable Limits,
Percent by Volume

Vapor
Density
(Air=1)

Remarks

Lower Upper


Acetaldehyde CH
3
CHO (Acetic Aldehyde) -36 347 4.0 60 1.50 Polymerizes
Acetic Acid Glacial CH
3
COOH
109

869

5.4
16.0
@212 F

2.1

Acetone CH
3
COCH
3
(Dimethyl Ketone)
0

869
2.4
212 F

12.8

2

Acetonitrile CH
3
CN (Methyl Cyanide) 42 975 4.4 16.0 1.4
Acetyl Chloride CH
3
COCL (Ethanol Chloride) 40 734 - - 2.7
Acetylene CHCH (Ethine) Gas 581 2.5 100 0.9 Low Pressure
Acrolein CH
2
CHCHO (Acrylic Aldehyde) -15 455 2.8 31 1.9 Unstable
Acrylonitrile CH
2
CHCN (Vinyl Cyanide) 32 898 3 17 1.8 Polymerizes
Allylamine CH
2
CHCH
2
NH
2
(2-Propenylamine) -20 705 2.2 22 2.0
Allyl Chloride CH
2
CHCH
2
CL (3-Chloropropene) -25 905 2.9 11.1 2.6
Ammonia, Anhydrous NH
3
Gas 1204 16 25 0.6
Amyl Acetate CH
3
COOC
5
H
11
(1-Pentanol Acetate) 77 680 1.1 7.5 4.5
Amyl Alcohol CH
3
(CH
2
)
3
CH
2
OH (1-Pentanol) 91 572 1.2 10.0
@212 F
3.0
Aniline C
6
H
5
NH
2
(Aminobenzene) (Phenylamine) 158 1139 1.3 - 3.2
Benzaldehyde C
6
H
5
CHO (Artificial Almond Oil) 148 377 3.7
Benzol C
6
H
6
(Benzene) 12 1040 1.3 7.1 2.8
Benzyl Chloride C
6
H
5
CH
2
CL (a-Chlorotoluene) 15.30 1085 1.1 4.4
Butane CH
3
CH
2
CH
2
CH
3
Gas 761 1.9 8.5 2.0
Butene CH
3
CHCHCH
3
(a-Butylene) Gas 725 1.6 10.0 1.9
Butyl Acetate CH
3
COOC
4
H
9
72 797 1.7 7.6 4.0
Butyl Alcohol CH
3
(CH
2
)
2
CH
2
OH
(1-Butanol) (Propylcarbinol)
84 689 1.4 11.2 2.6
Butylamine C
4
H
9
NH
2
(1-Amino Butane) 10 594 1.7 9.8 2.5
Butylbenzene C
6
H
5
C
4
H
9
160 770 0.8 5.8 4.6
Butyl Chloride C
4
H
9
CL 15 860 1.8 10.1 3.2
Butyl Formate HCOOC
4
H
9
(Formic Acid) 64 612 1.7 8.2 3.5
Butyric Acid CH
3
(CH
2
)
2
COOH 161 842 2.0 10.0 3.0
Carbon Disulfide CS
2
-22 194 1.3 50.0 2.6
Chlorobenzene C
6
H
5
CL (Chlorobenzol)
(Phenyl Chloride)
84 1184 1.3 7.1 3.9
2-Chloroethanol CH
2
CLCH
2
OH
(2-Chloroethyl Alcohol)
140 797 4.9 15.9 2.8
1-Chloropropylene CH
3
CHCHCL <21 4.5 16 2.63
O-Cresol CH
3
C
6
H
4
OH (Cresylic Acid)

178 1110 1.4
@300 F
3.7
Cumene C
6
H
5
CH(CH
3
)
2
(Cumol)(
2
-Phenyl Propane) 111 797 0.9 6.5 4.1
Cyclohexane C
6
H
12
(Hexamethylene) -4 473 1.3 8 2.9
Cyclopropane (CH
2
)
3
(Trimethylene) Gas 932 2.4 10.4 1.5
Decane CH
3
(CH
2
)
8
CH
3
115 410 0.8 5.4 4.9
Deuterium D
2
(Heavy Hydrogen) Gas 5 75
Diacetone CH
3
COCH
2
C(CH
3
)
2
OH 148 1118 1.8 6.9 4
Diborane B
2
H
6
Gas 100-125 0.8 88 1.0 Ignites
spontaneous-ly in
moist air


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FIRE HAZARD PROPERTIES OF SELECTED LIQUIDS, GASES, AND VOLATILE SOLIDS
1


Description

Flash
Point,
F

Ignition
Temperature,
F
Flammable Limits,
Percent by Volume

Vapor
Density
(Air=1)

Remarks

Lower Upper

Diethyl peroxide C
2
H
5
OOC
2
H
5
2.3 7.7 Explodes on
heating
Diethyl Sulfate (C
2
H
5
)
2
SO
4
(Ethyl Sulfate) 220 817 Decomposes
giving ethyl ether
2,2-Dimethyl Propane (CH
3
)
4
C Gas 842 1.4 7.5 2.5
Dimethyl Sulfate (CH
3
)
2
SO
4
(Methyl Sulfate) 182 370 4.4
___hane CH
3
CH
3
Gas 959 3.0 12.5 1.0
Ethyl Acetate CH
3
COOC
2
H
5
(Acetic Ether) 24 800 2.2 11.0 3.0
Ethyl Alcohol C
2
H
5
OH (Grain Alcohol) (Ethanol) 55 689 3.3 19 1.6
Ethylamine C
2
H
5
NM
2
(Aminoethane) <0 725 3.5 14.0 1.6 70% aqueous
solution
Ethyl Bromide C
2
H
5
Br (Bromoethane) <-4 952 6.7 11.3 3.80
Ethyl Chloride C
2
H
5
CL (Chloromethane) -58 966 3.8 15.4 2.20
Ethylene H
2
CCH
2
(Ethene) Gas 914 2.7 36.0 1.0
Ethyl Formate HCO
2
C
2
H
5
(Formic Acid) Ethyl Ester -4 851 2.8 16.0 2.60
Ethyl Mercaptan C
2
H
5
SH (Ethanethol <80 572 2.8 18.0 2.10
Ethyl Nitrite C
2
H
5
ONO (Nitrous Ether) -31 194 3.0 50.0 2.60 Decomposes
Ethyl Propyl Ether C
2
H
5
OC
3
H
7
<-4 1.7 9.0
Formaldehyde HCHO Gas 806 7.0 73 1.0
Formic Acid HCOOH 100% Solution 156 1114 1.6
Fuel Oil No. 1 (Kerosene, Coal Oil) 100 410 0.70 5 Flash point may
vary
Furan CH-CHCH-CHO (Furfuran) <32 2.3 14.3 2.3
Furfural OCH-CHCH-CHCHO 140 600 2.1 19.3 3.3
Gas, Blast Furnace 35 74
Gas, Coal Gas 5.3 32
Gas, Natural 900-1170 3.8-6.5 13-17
Gas, Oil Gas 4.8 32.5
Gas, Water 7.0 72
Gasoline-56-60 Octane
100 Octane
-45
-36
536
24
1.4
1.3
7.6
7.1

3-4
Values may vary
for different
grades of gasoline
Heptane CH
3
(CH
2
)
5
CH
3
25 419 1.05 6.7 3.5
Hexane Ch
3
(CH
2
)
4
CH
3
(Hexyl Hydride) -7 437 1.1 7.5 3.0
Hydrazine H
2
NNH
2
100 4.7 10.0 1.1 Ignition tem-
perature may vary
in con-tact with
iron rust, black
iron, stainless
steel, glass
Hydrocyanic Acid 96
o
HCN (Prussic Acid)
0 1000 5.6 40.0 0.9
Hydrogen H
2
Gas 752 4.0 75 0.1
Hydrogen Sulfide H
2
S
Isobutane (CH
3
)
3
CH (2-Methylpropane) Gas 860 1.8 8.4 2.0
Isobutylbenzene (CH
3
)
2
CHCH
2
C
6
H
5
131 806 0.8 6.0 4.6
Isoprene CH
2
-2C(CH
3
)CH-CH
2
-65 428 2.0 12 2.1
Isopropyl Alcohol (CH
3
)
2
CHOH (2-Propanol) 53 750 2.0 12 2.1
Lubricating Oil, Mineral
(Paraffin Oil, Motor Oil)
300-
450
500-
700

Methane CH
4
(Marsh Gas) Gas 1004 5.0 15.0 0.6
Methyl Acetate CH
3
COOCH
3
(Acid Acetic Methyl
Ester)
14 935 3.1 16 2.8


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FIRE HAZARD PROPERTIES OF SELECTED LIQUIDS, GASES, AND VOLATILE SOLIDS
1


Description

Flash
Point,
F

Ignition
Temperature,
F
Flammable Limits,
Percent by Volume

Vapor
Density
(Air=1)

Remarks

Lower Upper

Methyl Alcohol CH
3
OH (Methanol) 52 725 6.7 36 1.1
Methyl Chloride CH
3
CL (Chloromethane) Gas 1170 10.7 17.4 1.8
Methyl Ether (CH
3
)
2
O (Dimethyl Ether) (Methyl Oxide) Gas 662 3.4 27.0 1.6
Methyl Formate CH
3
OOCH (Formic Acid) -2 869 5.0 23.0 2.1
2-Methylpropene CH
2
-C(CH
3
)CH
3
(Isobutylene) Gas 869 1.8 9.6 1.9
Naphtha V.M & P 50 Flash .50 450 0.9 6.7 4.1 Values may vary
depend-ing on the
manufacturer
Naphthalene C
10
H
8
(White Tar) 174 979 0.9 5.9 4.4
Nitrobenzene C
6
H
5
NO
2
(Oil of Mirbane) 190 900 1.8
@200F

Nitroethane C
2
H
5
NO
2
82 778 3.4 2.6
Nitroglycerine C
3
H
5
(NO
3
)
3
518 Explodes
Nitromethane CH
3
NO
2
95 785 7.3 2.1 May detonate
under high
temperature and
pressure
conditions
Nonane C
9
H
20
88 401 0.8 2.9 4.4
Octane CH
3
(CH
2
(
6
CH
3
56 428 1.0 6.5 3.9
Paraldehyde (CH
3
CHO)
3
96 460 1.3 4.5
Pentane CH
3
(CH
2
)
3
CH
3
<-40 500 1.5 7.8 2.5
Petroleum Ether (Benzine) (Naphtha, Petroleum) <0 550 1.1 5.9 2.5
Phenol C
6
H
5
OH (Carbolic Acid) 175 1319 3.2
Phthalic Acid C
6
H
4
(COOH)
2
334 5.73
Propane CH
3
CH
2
CH
3
Gas 842 2.2 9.5 1.6
Propylene CH
2
-CHCH
3
(Propene) Gas 860 2.0 11.1 1.5
Propyne CH
3
C-CH (Methylacetylene) Gas 1.7 1.4
Styrene C
6
H
5
CH-CH
2
(Phenylethylene) 90 914 1.1 6.1 3.6
Sulfur Chloride S
2
CL
2
245 453 Decomposes in
water
Tartaric Acid (CHOHCO
2
H)
2
410 797 1.76
Toluol C
6
H
5
CH
3
(Methylbenzene) (Toluene) 40 896 1.2 7.1 3.1
Transformer Oil 295
Triethylene Glycol 350 700 0.9 9.2
Turpentine 95 488 0.8
Vinyl Acetate CH
2
CHOOCCH
3
18 800 2.6 13.4 3.0
Vinyl Chloride CH
2
CHCL (Chloroethylene) Gas 882 3.6 33.0 2.2
Vinyl Ethyl Alcohol CH
2
CH(CH
2
)
2
OH 100 4.7 34 2.49

1. Abstracted from Volume 13 of National Fire Code



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8.7.25 Appendix 25: Defining the Limits of Hazardous (Classified) Locations For
Compliance with National Electrical Code

Class II and III Locations

Class II hazardous locations are those locations where combustible dusts are
present or likely to become present. A potential dust-explosion hazard exists
wherever combustible dusts accumulate, are handled, or are processed. Many
dusts fall into the "combustible" category; some of the most common are given in
Table I. The significance of the factors used as headings in Table I is:
- Ignition temperature is the minimum temperature required for ignition. It
varies with oxygen concentration in the air, humidity, atmospheric pressure,
venting and external air flow, and size and shape of dust particles.
Minimum igniting energy defines the minimum electric spark required for
ignition.
- Minimum explosive concentration is the least amount of dust that will ignite
with a continuous spark igniting source.
- Relative explosion hazard is a function of the ease of ignition and the
severity of the resulting explosion. The severity of the explosion is
determined by the maximum pressure and the rate of pressure development.

Like all classified locations, Class II locations have two divisions.g A Class II,
Division 1 location is one that meets one or more of these criteria:
- Combustible dust is or may be present in suspension in air continuously or
intermittently in the course of normal operations in quantities sufficient to
produce explosive or ignitable mixtures.
- Mechanical failure or abnormal operation of machinery or equipment might
create explosive or ignitable dust mixtures and might also provide a source of
ignition through simultaneous failure of electrical equipment, operation of
protective devices, etc.
- Combustible electrically conductive dusts may be present.

Following are some examples of Class II, Division 1 hazardous locations:

- Working areas of grain handling and storage plants

Areas near dust-producing machinery and equipment in grain-processing

3
See "Defining the Limits of Hazardous (Classified) Locations for Compliance with National Electrical Code - General
Considerations," PE 9/14/78. p 145, file #0501, and "Class I locations," PE 10/12/78, p. 191, file #0501.


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plants, starch plants, sugar-pulverizing plants, flour mills, malting plants,
hay-grinding plants.

- Areas in which metal dusts and powders are produced, processed, handled,
packed, or stored.
- Coal bunkers, coal-pulverizing plants, and areas in which coke, carbon black,
and charcoal are processed, handled, or used.

In a Class II, Division 2 location, ignitable concentrations of combustible dusts
are not expected to be found in the course of normal operations; but, abnormal
conditions may allow combustible dusts to accumulate in sufficient quantities
and dust/air concentrations to permit ignition. Abnormal conditions could
include failure of dust-control equipment, process equipment, or containers,
chutes, or other handling equipment. The following are usually considered to be
Class II, Division 2 locations:

- Areas containing only closed bins or hoppers, and enclosed spouts and
conveyors.
- Areas containing machines and equipment from which appreciable quantities
of dust would escape only under abnormal conditions.
- Warehouses and shipping rooms in which dust-producing materials are
handled or stored only in bags or containers.
- Areas adjacent to Class II, Division 1 locations.

Because dust that is carbonized or excessively dry is susceptible to spontaneous
ignition, electrical equipment installed in Class II locations should be capable of
operating at full load without developing surface temperatures high enough to
cause excessive dehydration or carbonization and dust deposits that might form.

Electrical equipment installed in Class II locations must be approved for class
and division and the applicable group. For purposes of equipment approval,
dusts are classified into three groups:

- Group E - metal dusts
- Group F - carbon black, charcoal, coal, coke dust
- Group G - flour, starch, grain dust

Class III locations are those in which easily ignitable fibers or flyings are present,
but are not likely to be in suspension in air in quantities sufficient to produce an
ignitable atmosphere. Single fibers of organic materials such as lint, cotton tufts,


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and fluffy fabrics, however, are quite vulnerable to a localized heat source such
as an electric spark. In purge oxygen, single fibers of cotton can be ignited by a
0.02 joule spark.

Textiles such as those used in clothing can be ignited and burned with repetitive
or sustained high-energy electric sparks. Cotton and wool fabrics can be ignited
in pure oxygen with a spark of 2.3 joules; in normal air, a spark of 193 joules or
more is required for ignition. Silk and polyester fibers are more difficult to ignite
than cotton or wool.

Fibers contaminated with greasy substances can be ignited with much weaker
sparks than clean fibers. Typically, only one ten-thousandth of the energy
required to ignite a clean fabric is required for an oily sample of the same fabric.
In general, the burning characteristics of fibers will be affected by the specific
gravity of the substance, size and shape of the sample, air circulation in the area,
oxygen concentration, and relative humidity. The burning characteristics of
some common fibers whose presence can cause an area to be designated as
Class III are given in Table II.

A Class III, Division 1 location is one in which easily ignitable fibers or
materials that produce combustible flyings are manufactured, handled, or used.
This classification usually includes:

- Plants that produce combustible fibers
- Portions of rayon, cotton, or other textile mills.
- Flax-processing plants
- Clothing manufacturing plants
- Woodworking plants

A Class III, Division 2 location is one in which easily ignitable fibers are stored
or handled, but are not manufactured or processed. An example is a textile
warehouse.

There are no group designations associated with Class III locations, and electrical
equipment installed in Class III locations need only be approved for the
applicable class and division. The maximum equipment surface temperature
under normal conditions shall not exceed 329 F (165 C) for equipment not
subject to overloading, and 248 F (120 C) for equipment such as transformers
and motors that are subject to
overloading.





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TABLE I, EXPLOSIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIOUS DUSTS
*


Type of Dust
Ignition
Temperature of
Dust Cloud, C
Minimum
Igniting Energy,
Joules
Minimum Explosive
Concentration
Oz per cu ft
Relative
Explosion
Hazard
Agricultural:
Alfalfa

530

0.320

0.105

Moderate
Cereal grass 550 0.800 0.250 Weak
Cinnamon 440 0.030 0.060 Strong
Citrus pee 730 0.045 0.065 Moderate
Cocoa 500 0.120 0.065 Moderate
Coffee 720 0.160 0.085 Weak
Corn 400 0.040 0.055 Strong
Corn cob 480 0.080 0.040 Strong
Corn dextrine 410 0.040 0.040 Severe
Cornstarch 390 0.030 0.040 Severe
Cotton linters 520 1.920 0.500 Moderate
Cottonseed 530 0.120 0.055 Moderate
Egg white 610 0.640 0.140 Weak
Flax shive 430 0.080 0.080 Moderate
Garlic 360 0.240 0.100 Moderate
Grain, mixed 430 0.030 0.055 Strong
Grass seed 490 0.026 0.290 Weak
Guar seed 500 0.060 0.040 Strong
Gum, Manila (copal) 360 0.030 0.030 Severe
Hemp hurd 440 0.035 0.040 Severe
Malt, brewers 400 0.035 0.055 Strong
Milk, skim 490 0.050 0.050 Strong
Pea flour 560 0.040 0.050 Strong
Peanut hull 460 0.050 0.045 Strong
Peat, sphagnum 460 0.050 0.045 Strong
Pecan nutshell 440 0.050 0.030 Strong
Pectin 410 0.035 0.075 Severe
Potato starch 440 0.025 0.045 Severe
Pyethrum 460 0.080 0.100 Moderate
Rauwolfia vomitoria root 420 0.045 0.055 Strong
440 0.050 0.050 Strong
Safflower 460 0.025 0.055 Strong
Soy flour 550 0.100 0.060 Moderate
Sugar, powdered 370 0.030 0.045 Strong
Walnut shell, black 450 0.050 0.030 Strong
Wheat flour 440 0.060 0.050 Strong
Wheat, untreated 500 0.060 0.065 Strong
Wheat starch 430 0.025 0.045 Severe
Wheat straw 470 0.050 0.055 Strong
Yeast, torula 520 0.050 0.050 Strong


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TABLE I, EXPLOSIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIOUS DUSTS
*

TABLE I, EXPLOSIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIOUS DUSTS
*
(Continued)
Carbonaceous:
Asphalt, resin, volatile content 57.5 510 0.025 0.025 Severe
Charcoal, hardwood mix, volatile content
27.1%

530

0.020

0.140
Strong
Coal, Colo., Brookside, volatile
content 38.7%

530

0.060

0.045
Strong
Coal, III., No. 7, volatile content 48.6% 600 0.050 0.045 Strong
Coal, Ky., Breek, volatile content 40.6%: 610 0.030 0.050 Strong
Coal, Pa., Pittsburgh, volatile
content 37.0%
610 0.060 0.055 Strong
Coal, Pa., Thick Freeport, volatile
content 35.6%

595

0.060

0.060
Moderate
Coal, Wyo., Laramie No. 3, volatile
content 43.3%

575

0.050

0.050
Strong
Gilsonite, Utah, volatile
content 86.5%

580

0.025

0.020
Severe
Lignite, Calif., volatile
content 60.4%

450

0.030

0.030
Severe
Pitch, coal tar, volatile
content 58.1%

710

0.020

0.035
Severe
Metals:
Aluminum 650 0.015 0.045 Severe
Antimony 420 1.920 0.420 Weak
Boron 470 0.060 0.100 Moderate
Cadmium 570 4.000
Chromium 580 0.140 0.230 Moderate
Cobalt 760 ----- ----- Fire
Copper 900 ----- ----- Fire
Iron 420 0.020 0.100 Strong
Lead 710
Magnesium 520 0.020 0.020 Severe
Molybdenum 720 ----- ----- Fire
Nickel 950+
Selenium 950+
Silicon 780 0.080 0.100 Severe
Tantalum 630 0.120 0.200 Moderate
Tellurium 550
Thorium 270 0.005 0.075 Severe
Tin 630 0.080 0.190 Moderate
Titanium 460 0.010 0.045 Severe
Tungsten 950
Uranium 20 0.045 0.060 Severe
Vanadium, 86 percent 500 0.060 0.220 Weak
Zinc 600 0.640 0.480 Weak
Zirconium 20 0.005 0.045 Severe


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TABLE I, EXPLOSIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIOUS DUSTS
*


TABLE I, EXPLOSIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIOUS DUSTS
*
(Continued)
Alloys and compounds:
Aluminum-cobalt 950 0.100 0.180 Moderate
Aluminum-copper 930 1.920 0.280 Weak
Aluminum-iron 550 0.720 0.500 Weak
Aluminum-magnesium 430 0.020 0.020 Severe
Aluminum-nickel 940 0.080 0.0190 Moderate
Aluminum-silicon, 12 percent Si 670 0.060 0.040 Strong
Calcium silicide 540 0.130 0.060 Strong
Ferrochromium, high-carbon 790 ----- 2.000
Ferromanganese, medium carbon 450 0.080 0.130 Moderate
Ferrosilicon, 75 percent Si 860 0.400 0.420 Weak
Ferrotitanium, low-carbon 370 0.080 0.140 Strong
Ferrovanadium 440 0.400 1.300
Thorium hydride 260 0.003 0.080 Severe
Titanium hydride 440 0.060 0.070 Strong
Uranium hydride 20 0.005 0.060 Severe
Zirconium hydride 350 0.060 0.085 Strong
Plastics:
Acetal resin (polyformaldehyde) 440 0.020 0.035 Severe
Acrylic polymer resin
Methyl methacrylateethyl acrylate

480

0.010

0.030

Severe
Alkyd resin
Alkyd molding compound

500

0.120

0.155

Weak
Alkyl resin
Allyl alcohol derivative, CR-39

500

0.020

0.035

Severe
Amino resin
Urea-formaldehyde molding compound

450

0.080

0.075

Strong
Cellulostic fillers
Wood flour

430

0.020

0.035

Severe
Cellulosic resin
Ethyl cellulose molding compound

320

0.010

0.025

Severe
Chlorinated polyester resin
Chlorinated polyester alcohol

460

0.160

0.045

Moderate
Cold-molded resin
Petroleum resin

510

0.030

0.025

Severe
Coumarone-indene resin 520 0.010 0.015 Severe
Epoxy resin 530 0.020 0.020 Severe
Fluorocarbon resin
Fluoroethylene polymer

600

-----

-----

Fire
Furane resin
Phenol furfural

520

0.010

0.025

Severe
Ingredients
Hexamethylenetetramine

410

0.010

0.015

Severe
Miscellaneous resins
Petrin acrylate monomer

220

0.020

0.045

Severe
Natural resin
Rosin, DK

390

0.010

0.015

Severe
Nylon polymer resin 500 0.020 0.030 Severe
Phenolic resin
Phenol-formaldehyde
molding compound


500


0.020


0.030


Severe


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TABLE I, EXPLOSIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIOUS DUSTS
*

Polycarbonate resin 710 0.020 0.025 Severe
Polyester resin
Polyethylene terephthalate

500

0.040

0.040

Strong

Polyethylene resin

410

0.010

0.020


Severe

Polymethylene resin
Carboxypolymethylene

520

0.640

0.115
Moderate
Polypropylene resin 420 0.030 0.020 Severe
Polyurethane resin
Polyurethane foam
510 0.020 0.025 Severe
Rayon
Rayon (viscose) flock
520 0.240 0.055 Moderate
Rubber
Rubber, synthetic
320 0.030 0.030 Severe
Styrene polymer resin
Polystyrene latex
500 0.020 0.020 Severe
Vinyl polymer resin
Polyvinyl butyral
390 0.010 0.020 Severe

*Source: Bureau of Mines U.S. Department of Interior









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8.7.26 Appendix 26: Explosion Properties of Dusts

The values presented in the following tables are intended as a general guide, and
are based on a selection of materials and available data on explosion and fire
properties. The variation inherent in many of the materials, and also resulting
from different test methods for measuring the same explosion property, mean that
the quoted values should strictly be applied only to the sample actually tested,
taking account of the method of test. In the tables references are given which
enable further details to be obtained but, for many practical purposes, guideline
are all that are required. If further information is required for a particular sample
of a material, direct testing of that material is usually necessary. Significant
variation in explosion properties with a material can arise from differences in
particle size, particle shape, moisture content, dispersability, and from variations
in composition inevitable with many materials of natural origin.

The tabulated values originated from publications in the United Kingdom, the
United States, and the Federal German Republic and the methods of test are those
in use in the country of origin of data. Further information can be obtained from
studying the references and Chapter 3.

Where more than one set of data has been published for a material, preference
has been given in the selection of data to that combining the most comprehensive
and the most hazardous values indicated. As many identifiable dusts as possible
have been included, but mixtures that are not generally reproducible, and many
co-polymers, have been excluded.

Because of the different methods of test in the three countries, the values for
minimum ignition temperature of dust clouds may differ somewhat. The
minimum ignition temperature of dust layers is measured in the United States
using a sample 1.3 cm deep and 2.5 cm diameter, in the Furnace Apparatus, but
in the Federal German Republic a 0.5 cm deep layer on a hotplate is used
(Chapter 3). The results from the two methods are not directly comparable
(Chapter 4). The values of maximum explosion pressure and maximum rate of
pressure rise are the highest quoted for a given material and are not necessarily
measured for the same dust concentration. In the test for the maximum oxygen
concentration to prevent ignition, the use of the Furnace Apparatus has been
taken throughout (Chapter 3), and the inert gas was carbon dioxide for data
originating from the United States and nitrogen for data originating from the
United Kingdom, unless stated otherwise. The relative effectiveness of the two
inert gases is discussed in Chapter 4.

(-) indicates that no value was available, but should not be taken to mean that the
property was not measurable





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The references are as follows:

1) Dorsett, H.G. and Nagy, J. (1968), US Bureau of Mines RI 7132.
2) Freytag, H.H. (Ed). (1965), Handbuch der Raumexplosionen. Verlag
Chemie. Wenheim.

3) Jacobson, M., Cooper, A.R. and Nagy, J. (1964), US Bureau of Mines
RI 6516.
4) Jacobson, M., Nagy, J. and Cooper, A.R. (1962), US Bureau of Mines
RI 5971.
5) Jacobson, M., Nagy, Cooper, A.R. and Ball, F.J. (1961), US Bureau of Mines
RI 5753.
6) Nagy, J., Cooper, A.R. and Dorsett, H.G. (1968), US Bureau of Mines
RI 7208.
7) Nagy, J., Dorsett, H.G. and Cooper, A.R. (1965), US Bureau of Mines
RI 6597.
Raftery, M.M. (1968), Explosibility tests for industrial dusts. Ministry of
Technology and Fire Offices' Committee. Fire Research Technical Paper
No. 21, HMSO, London.


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Dust
Minimum
Ignition
temperature
o
C
Cloudlayer
Minimum
Explosible
concen-
tration
g/l
Minimum
Ignition
energy
mJ
Maximum
Explosion
pressure
lb/in
2

Maximum
rate of
pressure
rise
lb/in
2
s
Maximum
oxygen
concen-
tration
to prevent
ignition
% by
volume References Notes

Acetamide 560 - - - - - - 8 Group (b) dust
Aceto acetailide 560 - 0.030 20 90 4,800 4
Acetoacet-p-phenetedide 560 - 0.030 10 87 >10,000 1
Acetoacet-o-toluidine 710 - - - - - - 1
2 Acetylamino-5-nitro
thiazole
450 450 0.160 40 137 9,000 - 1
Adipic acid 550 - 0.035 60 95 4,000 - 4,8
Alfalfa 460 200 0.100 320 88 1,100 - 5
Almond shell 440 200 0.065 80 101 1,400 - 5
Aluminium, atonized 650 760 0.045 50 84 >20,000 - 3
Aluminium, flake 610 320 0.045 10 127 >20,000 - 3
Aluminium-cobalt alloy 950 570 0.180 100 92 11,000 - 3
Aluminium-copper alloy - 830 0.100 100 95 4,000 - 3
Aluminium-iron alloy 550 450 - 36 300 - 3
Aluminium-lithium alloy 470 400 <0.1 140 96 6,000 - 3
Aluminium-magnesium alloy 430 480 0.020 80 86 10,000 - 3
Aluminium-nickel alloy 950 540 0.190 80 96 10,000 - 3
Aluminium-silicon alloy 670 - 0.040 60 85 7,500 - 3
Aluminium acetate 560 640 - 59 950 - 1 Guncotton
ignition source in
pressure test.
Aluminium octoate 460 - - - - - - 8
Aluminium stearate 400 380 0.015 10 86 >10,000 - 1
2 Amino-5-nitrothiazole 460 460 0.075 30 110 5,600 - 1
Anthracene 505 Melts - - 68 - - 2,8
Antrhanilic acid 580 - 0.030 35 84 6,500 - 1
Anthraquinone 670 - - - - - - 8
Antimony 420 330 0.420 1,920 28 300 - 3
Antipyrin 405 Melts - - 53 - - 2
Asphalt 510 500 0.025 25 94 4,800 - 7
Aspirin 550 Melts 0.015 16 87 7,700 - 8
Azelaic acid 610 - 0.025 25 76 4,700 - 4
aa' Azo isobutyronitrile 430 350 0.015 25 134 8,000 - 4
Barley 370 - - - - - - 8
Benethonium chloride 380 410 0.020 60 91 6,700 - 1
Benzoic acid 600 Melts 0.011 12 95 10,300 - 8
Benzotriazole 440 - 0.030 30 103 9,200 - 1


Benzoyl peroxide - - - 21 - - - 8


Beryllium 910 540 - - Did not
ignite
Did not
ignite
- 3 Contained 8
percent oxide
Beryllium acetate, basic 620 - 0.080 100 87 2,200 15 1 Inert gas carbon
dioxide
Bis (2-hydroxy-5-
chlorophenyl)-methane
570 - 0.040 60 70 2,000 13 1 Inert gas carbon
dioxide

Bis (2-hydroxy-3,5,6,-
trichlorophenyl)-methane

Did not
ignite

450 -

-


-


-


-


1






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Dust
Minimum
Ignition
temperature
o
C
Cloudlayer
Minimum
Explosible
concen-
tration
g/l
Minimum
ignition
energy
mJ
Maximum
Explosion
pressure
lb/in
2

Maximum
rate of
pressure
rise
lb/in
2
s
Maximum
oxygen
concen-
tration
to prevent
ignition
% by
volume References Notes
Bone meal 490 230 - - 11 100 - 6 Guncotton
ignition source in
pressure test
Boron 730 390 Did not
ignite
- 41 200 - 3 Guncotton
ignition source in
pressure test.
Bread 450 - - - - - - 8

Brunswick green 360 - - - - - - 8
P-t-butyl benzoic acid 560 - 0.020 25 88 6,500 - 4
Cadmium 570 250 - 4,000 7 100 - 3
Cadmium Yellow 390 - - - - - - 8
Calcium carbide 555 325 - - 13 - - 2
Calcium citrate 470 - - - - - - 8 Group (b) dust
Calcium gluconate 550 - - - - - - 8 Group (b) dust
Calcium DL Pantothenate 520 - 0.050 80 105 4,600 - 1
Calcium propionate 530 - - - 90 1,900 - 8
Calcium silicide 540 540 0.060 150 86 20,000 - 3
Calcium stearate 400 - 0.025 15 97 >10,000 - 1
Caprolactam 430 - 0.07 60 79 1,700 8 8
Carbon, activated 660 270 0.100 - 92 1,700 - 7 Guncotton
ignition source in
min. expl. conc.
and max. expl.
pressure tests.
Carbon, black 510 - - - - - - 7
Carbon methyl cellulose 460 310 0.060 140 130 5000 - 4
Carboxy methyl hydroxy
ethyl cellulose

380

-

0.200

960

83

800

-

4


Carboxy polymethylene 520 - 0.115 640 76 1200 - 4
Casein 460 - - - 89 1200 - 8
Cellulose 410 300 0.045 40 117 8000 - 4
Cellulose acetate 340 - 0.035 20 114 6500 5 4,8 Inert gas nitrogen
Cellulose acetate butyrate 370 - 0.025 30 81 2700 7 4
Cellulose proprionate 460 - 0.025 60 105 4700 - 4
Cellulose triacetate 390 - 0.035 30 107 4300 - 4,8
Cellulose tripropionate 460 - 0.025 45 88 4000 - 4
Charcoal 530 180 0.140 20 100 1800 - 7
Chloramine-T 540 150 - - 7 150 - 1 Guncotton
ignition source in
pressure test.
o-Chlorobenzmalono nitrile - - 0.025 - 90 >10000 - 1
p-Chloroaceto acetanilide 640 - 0.035 30 94 3900 - 1
0-Chloroaceto acetanilide 650 - 0.035 20 85 5500 - 1
Choloroamino toluene
sulfonic acid

650
-
-

-

-

-

-

-

8

4-Chloro-2 nitro aniline 590 120 <0.750 140 123 3500 - 1


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Dust
Minimum
ignition
temperature
o
C
Cloudlayer
Minimum
explosible
concen-
tration
g/l
Minimum
ignition
energy
mJ
Maximum
explosion
pressure
lb/in
2

Maximum
rate of
pressure
rise
lb/in
2
s
Maximum
oxygen
concen-
tration
to prevent
ignition
% by
volume References Notes
p-Chloro o-toluidine
hydrochloride

650
- - - - - - 8
Chocolate crumb 340 - - - - - - 8

Chromium
580 400 0.230 140 56 5000
-

3

Cinnamon 440 230 0.060 30 121 3900 - 5
Citrus peel 500 330 0.060 100 51 1200 - 5
Coal, brown 485 230 - - - - - 2 See also Lignite
Coal, 8 % volatiles 730 - - - - - - 7
Coal, 12 % volatiles 670 240 - - - - - 7
Coal, 25 % volatiles 605 210 0.120 120 62 400 - 7
Coal, 37 % volatiles 610 170 0.055 60 90 2300 - 7 Standard
Pittsburgh coal
Coal, 43 % volatiles 575 180 0.050 50 92 2000 - 7
Cobalt 760 370 - - - - - 3
Cocoa 500 200 0.065 120 69 1200 - 5
Coconut 450 280 - - - - - 2
Coconut shell 470 220 0.035 60 115 4200 - 5
Coffee 360 270 0.085 160 38 150 10 5,8 Inert gas carbon
dioxide
Coffee, extract 600 - - - 47 - - 2
Coffee, instant 410 350 0.280 Did not
ignite
68 500 - 5
Coke >750 430 - - - - - 2
Coke, petroleum,
13 % volatiles

670
-
-

1.00

-

36

200

-

7
Guncotton
ignition source in
min. expl. conc.
and max. expl.
pressure tests.
Colophony 325 Melts - - - - - 2
Copal 330 Melts - - 68 - - 2 See also gum
manila
Copper 700 - - Did not
ignite
Did not
ignite
Did not
ignite
- 3
Copper-zinc, gold bronze 370 190 1.00 - 44 1300 - 3
Cork 460 210 0.035 35 96 7500 - 6
Corn cob 450 240 0.045 45 127 3700 - 5
Corn dextrine 410 390 0.040 40 124 7000 - 5
Cornflour 390 - - - - - - 8
Cornstarch 390 - 0.040 30 145 9500 - 5
Cotton flock 470 - 0.050 25 94 6000 - 4
Cotton linters 520 - 0.50 1920 73 400 5 5
Cottonseed meal 530 200 0.055 80 89 2200 - 5
Coumarone-indene resin 550 - 0.015 10 93 11000 11 4
Crystal violet 475 Melts - - - - - 2
Cyclohexanone peroxide - - - 21 84 5600 - 8
Dehydroacetic acid 430 - 0.030 15 87 8000 - 1
Dextrin 410 440 0.050 40 99 9000 - 6


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Dust
Minimum
ignition
temperature
o
C
Cloudlayer
Minimum
explosible
concen-
tration
g/l
Minimum
ignition
energy
mJ
Maximum
explosion
pressure
lb/in
2

Maximum
rate of
pressure
rise
lb/in
2
s
Maximum
oxygen
concen-
tration
to prevent
ignition
% by
volume References Notes
Dextrose monohydrate 350 - - - - - - 8
Diallyl phthalate 480 - 0.030 20 90 8500 - 1
Diamino stilbene disulfonic
acid

550

-

-

-

-

-

-

8

Group (b) dust
Diazo aminobenzene 550 - 0.015 20 114 10000 - 1
Di-t-Butyl-p-cresol 420 - 0.015 15 79 13000 9 4
Dibutyl tin maleate 600 - - - - - - 8
Dibutyl tin oxide 530 - - - - - - 8
Dichlorophene 770 - - - 72 3000 - 1
2,4-Dichlorophenoxy ethyl
benzoate

540

-

0.045

60

84

2200

-

1

Dicyclopentadiene dioxide 420 - 0.015 30 89 9500 - 4
Dihydrostreptomycin
sulphate

600

230

0.520

-

42

200

7

1

3-3' Dimethoxy 4-4' diamino
diphenyl

-

-

0.030

-

82

>10000

-

1

Dimethylacridan 540 - - - - - - 8
Dimethyl diphenyl urea 490 - - - - - - 8
Dimethyl isophthalate 580 - 0.025 15 84 8000 - 4
Dimethyl terephthalate 570 - 0.030 20 105 12000 6 4
S-S'-Dimethyl xanthogene-
thylene bis dithiocarbamate

400

-

0.300

3200

84

1500

-

1

Dinitro aniline 470 - - - - - - 8
3,5-Dinitrobenzamide 500 Melts 0.040 45 163 6500 - 1
3,5-Dinotrobenzoic acid 460 - 0.050 45 139 4300 - 1
Dinitrobenzoyl chloride 380 - - - - - - 8
Dinitrocresol 340 Melts 0.03 - - - - 1,2
4,4'-Dinitro-sym-diphenyl
urea

550

-

0.095

60

102

2500

-

1

Dinitro stilbene disulphonic
acid

450

-

-

-

-

-

-

8

Dinitrotoluamide 500 - 0.050 15 153 >10000 - 6
Diphenyl 630 - 0.015 20 82 3700 - 1
4,4'-Diphenyl di
sulphonylazide
590 140 0.065 30 143 5500 - 1
Diphenylol propane
(bisphenol-A)

570

-

0.012

11

81

11800

5

4,8

Inert gas
nitrogen
Egg white 610 - 0.14 640 58 500 - 5
Epoxy resin 490 - 0.015 9 94 8500 - 4,8
Esparto grass - - - - 94 7300 - 8
Ethyl cellulose 340 330 0.025 15 112 7000 - 4
Ethylene diamine tetra
acetic acid

450

-

0.075

50

106

3000

-

1

Ethyl hydroxyethyl cellulose
390

-

0.020

30

94

2200

-

6

Ferric ammonium
ferrocyanide

390

210

1.500

-

17

100

-

1




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Dust
Minimum
ignition
temperature
o
C
Cloudlayer
Minimum
explosible
concen-
tration
g/l
Minimum
ignition
energy
mJ
Maximum
explosion
pressure
lb/in
2

Maximum
rate of
pressure
rise
lb/in
2
s
Maximum
oxygen
concen-
tration
to prevent
ignition
% by
volume References

Notes
Ferric dimethyl dithio
carbamate

280

150

0.055

25

86

6300

-

1

Ferric ferrocyanide 370 - - - 82 1000 - 1
Ferrochromium 790 670 2.00 - - - - 3
Ferromanganese 450 290 0.130 80 62 5000 - 3
Ferrosilicon (45 % Si) 640 - - - - - - 2
Ferrosilicon (90 % Si) Did not
ignite
980 0.240 1280 113 3500 - 3
Ferrotitanium 370 400 0.140 80 55 9500 - 3
Ferrous ferrocyanide 380 190 0.400 - - - - 1
Ferrovanadium 440 400 1.300 400 - - - 3
Fish meal 485 - - - - - - 2
Fumaric acid 520 - 0.085 35 103 3000 - 4
Garlic 360 - 0.10 240 57 1300 - 5
Gelatin, dried 620 480 <0.5 - 78 1200 - 1
Gilsonite 580 500 0.020 25 78 4500 - 7
Graphite 730 580 - - - - - 7
Grass - - - - 56 400 - 8
Gum arabic 500 260 0.060 100 117 3000 - 4
Gum Karaya 520 240 0.100 180 116 2500 - 4
Gum manila (copal) 360 390 0.030 30 89 6000 - 4
Gum tragacanth 490 260 0.040 45 123 5000 - 4
Hexa methylene tetramine 410 - 0.015 10 98 11000 11 4
Horseradish - - <0.100 - 96 1600 - 6
Hydrazine acid tartrate 570 - 0.175 460 30 200 - 1
p-Hydroxy benzoic acid 620 - 0.040 - 37 - - 1
Hydroxyethyl cellulose 410 - 0.025 40 106 2600 - 6
Hydroxyethyl methyl
cellulose

410

-

-

-

-

-

-

8

Hydroxy propyl cellulose 400 - 0.020 30 96 2900 - 6
Iron 430 240 - - - - - 2
Iron, carbonyl 420 230 0.105 100 47 8000 - 3
Iron pyrites 380 280 1.00 8200 5 100 - 3
Isatoic anhydride 700 - 0.035 25 80 4900 - 1
Isinglass 520 - - - Nil Nil - 8
Isophthalic acid 700 - 0.035 25 78 3100 - 4
Kelp 570 220 Did not
ignite
Did not
ignite
19 200 - 5
Lactalbumin 570 240 0.040 50 97 3500 - 4
Lampblack 730 - - - - - - 7
Lauryl peroxide - - - 12 90 6400 - 8
Lead 790 290 - Did not
ignite
3 100 - 3 Flame ignition
source in pressure
test
Leather 390 - - - - - - 8
Lignin 450 - 0.040 20 102 5000 7 4
Lignite 450 200 0.030 30 94 8000 - 7
Lycopodium 480 310 0.025 40 75 3100 9 5


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Dust
Minimum
ignition
temperature
o
C
Cloudlayer
Minimum
explosible
concen-
tration
g/l
Minimum
ignition
energy
mJ
Maximum
explosion
pressure
lb/in
2

Maximum
rate of
pressure
rise
lb/in
2
s
Maximum
oxygen
concen-
tration
to prevent
ignition
% by
volume References

Notes
Magnesim 560 430 0.030 40 116 15000 3
Maize husk 430 - - - 75 700 - 8
Maize starch 410 - - - - - - 2
Maleic anhydride 500 Melts - - - - - 2
Malt barley 400 250 0.055 35 95 4400 - 5
Manganese 460 240 0.125 305 53 4900 - 3
Manganese ethylene bis
dithio carbamate
270 - 0.07 35 - - - 8
Manioc 430 - - - - - - 8
Mannitol 460 - 0.065 40 97 2800 - 1
Melamine formaldehyde
resin
410 - 0.02 50 93 1800 - 4,8
DL Methionine 370 360 0.025 35 119 5700 7 1
1-Methylamino
anthraquinone
830 Melts 0.055 50 71 3300 - 1
Methyl cellulose 360 340 0.030 20 133 6000 - 4
2,2-Methylene bis-4-ethyl-6-t-
butyl phenol

310

-

-

-

76

7300

-

8

Milk 440 - - - - - - 8
Milk, skimmed 490 200 0.050 50 95 2300 - 5
Milk sugar 450 Melts - - 31 - - 2
Molybdenum 720 360 - - - - - 3
Molybdenum disulfide 570 290 - - - - - 6
Monochloracetic acid 620 - - - - - - 8
Monosodium salt of trichloro
ethylphosphate
540 - - - - - - 8 Group (b) dust
Moss, Irish 530 230 Did not
ignite
Did not
ignite
21 300 - 5
Naphthalene 575 Melts - - 87 - - 2
b-Naphthalene-azo-dimethyl
aniline

510

Melts

0.020

50

70

2300

-

1

b-Naphthol 670 - - - - - - 8
Naphthol yellow 415 395 - - - - - 2
Nigrosine hydrochloride 630 - - - - - - 8
p-Nitro-o-anisidene 400 - - - - - - 8
p-Nitro-benzene arsonic
acid

360
-
280

0.195

480

77

900

-

1

Nitrocellulose - - - 30 >256 >20900 - 8
Nitro diphenylamine 480 - - - - - - 8
Nitro furfural semi
carbazone

240

-

-

-

>143

8600

-

8

Nitropyridone 430 Melts 0.045 35 111 >10000 - 1
p-Nitro-o-toluidine 470 - - - - - - 8
m-Nitro-p-toluidine 470 - - - - - - 8
Nylon 500 430 0.030 20 95 4000 6 4
Oilcake meal 470 285 - - - - - 2
Onion, dehydrated 410 - 0.130 Did not
ignite
35 500 - 5


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PROCESS MANUAL

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Dust
Minimum
ignition
temperature
o
C
Cloudlayer
Minimum
explosible
concen-
tration
g/l
Minimum
ignition
energy
mJ
Maximum
explosion
pressure
lb/in
2

Maximum
rate of
pressure
rise
lb/in
2
s
Maximum
oxygen
concen-
tration
to prevent
ignition
% by
volume References

Notes
Paper 440 270 0.055 60 96 3600 - 6
Para formaldehyde 410 - 0.040 20 133 13000 - 4
Peanut hull 460 210 0.045 50 116 8000 - 5
Peat 420 295 - - - - - 2
Peat, sphagnum 460 240 0.045 50 104 2200 - 5
Pectin 410 200 0.075 35 132 8000 - 5
Penicillin, N-ethyl piperidine,
salt of

310

-

-

-

-

-

-

8

Penta erythritol 450 - 0.030 10 90 9500 7 4
Phenol formaldehyde 450 - 0.015 10 107 6500 - 8,4
Phenol furfural resin 530 - 0.025 10 88 8500 - 4
Phenothiazine 540 - 0.030 - 56 3000 - 1
p-Phenylene diamine 620 - 0.025 30 94 11000 - 4
Phosphorus, red 360 305 - - - - - 2
Phosphorus pentasulfide 280 270 0.050 15 64 >10000 - 1
Phthalic acid 650 Melts - - 62 - - 2
Phthalic anhydride 605 Melts 0.015 15 72 4200 11 2,4
Phthalimide 630 - 0.030 50 89 4800 - 1
Phthalodinitrile >700 Melts - - 43 - - 2
Phytosterol 330 Melts 0.025 10 76 >10000 - 1
Piperazine 480 - - - 72 1400 - 1
Pitch 710 - 0.035 20 88 6000 - 7
Polyacetal 440 - 0.035 20 113 4100 - 4
Polycrylamide 410 240 0.040 30 85 2500 - 4
Polyacrylonitrile 500 460 0.025 20 89 11000 - 4
Polycarbonate 710 - 0.025 25 96 4700 - 4
Polyethylene 390 - 0.020 10 80 7500 - 4,8
Polyethylene oxide 350 - 0.030 30 106 2100 5 4
Polyethylene terephthalate 500 - 0.040 35 98 5500 - 4
Poly isobutyl methacrylate 500 280 0.020 40 74 2800 - 4
Poly methacrylic acid 450 290 0.045 100 97 1800 - 4
Polymethyl methacrylate 440 - 0.020 15 101 1800 7 4
Polymonochlorotrifluoro
ethylene

600

720
Did not
ignite
Did not
ignite
Did not
ignite
Did not
ignite
- 4
Polypropylene 420 - 0.020 30 76 5500 - 4
Polystyrene 500 500 0.020 15 100 7000 - 4
Polytetrafluoro ethylene 670 570 Did not
ignite
Did not
ignite
Did not
ignite
Did not
ignite
- 4
Polyurethane foam 510 440 0.030 20 87 3700 - 4
Polyurethane foam, fire
retardant

550

390

0.025

15

86

3700

-

4

Polyvinylacetate 450 - 0.040 160 69 1000 11 4,8 Inert gas carbon
dioxide
Polyvinyl alcohol 450 Melts - - 78 - - 2
Polyvinyl butyral 390 - 0.020 10 84 2000 5 4
Polyvinyl chloride 670 - Did not
ignite
Did not
ignite
38 500 - 4 Flame ignition
source
Polyvinylidene chloride 670 - - - - - - 8 Group (b) dust


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PROCESS MANUAL

PIPING HYDRAULICS AND
SPECIFICATION BOOK 1

PNEUMATIC CONVEYING
SECTION 8.0

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DATE 8-94


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Dust



Minimum
ignition
temperature
o
C
Cloudlayer



Minimum
explosible
concen-
tration
g/l




Minimum
ignition
energy
mJ




Maximum
explosion
pressure
lb/in
2




Maximum
rate of
pressure
rise
lb/in
2
s
Maximum
oxygen
concen-
tration
to prevent
ignition
% by
volume







References







Notes
Polyvinyl pyrrolidone 465 Melts - - 15 - - 2
Potassium hydrogen tartrate
520

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

Potassium sorbate 380 180 0.120 60 79 9500 - 1
Potato, dried 450 - - - 97 1000 - 8
Potato starch 430 - - - - - - 2
Provender 370 - - - 93 1400 - 8
Pyrethrum 460 210 0.100 80 95 1500 - 1
Quillaia bark 450 - - - - - - 8
Rape seed meal 465 - - - - - - 2
Rayon, viscose 420 - - - - - - 8
Rayon, flock - - 0.03 - - - - 8
Rice 440 240 0.050 50 105 2700 - 5
Rosin 390 - 0.015 10 87 1200 - 4
Rubber 380 - - - - - - -8
Rubber, crude, hard 350 - 0.025 50 80 3800 13 4
Rubber, crumb 440 - - - 84 3300 - 8
Rubber, vulcanized 360 - - - 40 - - 2
Rye flour 415 325 - - 335 - - 2
Saccharin 690 - - - - - - 1
Salicylanilide 610 Melts 0.040 20 73 4800 - 1
Salicylic acid 590 - 0.025 - 84 6800 - 4,8
Sawdust 430 - - - 97 2000 - 8
Sebacic acid - - - - 74 400 - 8
Senna 440 - 0.010 105 49 300 - 8
Shellac 400 - 0.020 10 73 3600 9 4
Silicon Did not
ignite
760 <0.10 80 94 13000 - 3
Soap 430 600 0.085 100 77 2800 - 6
Sodium acetate 590 - 0.030 35 90 4600 - 1
Sodium amatol 580 680 0.050 80 91 800 - 1
Sodium benzoate 560 680 0.050 80 91 3700 - 1
Sodium carboxmethyl
cellulose
320 - 1.10 440 49 400 5 8
Sodium 2-chloro-5 nitro-
benzene sulphonate

550

440

-

-

-

-

-

1

Sodium 2,2-dichloro
propionate

500

-

0.260

220

68

500

-

1

Sodium dihydroxy
naphthalene disulfonate

510

-

-

-

-

-

-

8

Group (b) dust.
Sodium glucaspaldrate 600 - - - - - - 8
Sodium glucoheptonate 600 - - - - - - 8
Sodium monochloracetate 550 - - - - - - 8
Sodium m-nitrobenzene
sulphonate

-

-

-

-

92

400

-

1

Sodium m-nitrobenzoate - - - - 87 2900 - 1
Sodium pentachlorophenate Did not
ignite
360 - - Did not
ignite
Did not
ignite
- 1


FLUOR DANIEL

PROCESS MANUAL

PIPING HYDRAULICS AND
SPECIFICATION BOOK 1

PNEUMATIC CONVEYING
SECTION 8.0

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Dust



Minimum
ignition
temperature
o
C
Cloudlayer



Minimum
explosible
concen-
tration
g/l




Minimum
ignition
energy
mJ




Maximum
explosion
pressure
lb/in
2




Maximum
rate of
pressure
rise
lb/in
2
s
Maximum
oxygen
concen-
tration
to prevent
ignition
% by
volume







References







Notes
Sodium propionate 479 - - - 70 700 - 8
Sodium secobarbital 520 - 0.100 960 76 800 - 1
Sodium sorbate 400 140 0.050 30 87 6500 - 1
Sodium thiosulfate 510 330 - - 11 <100 - 1 Guncotton
ignition source in
pressure test.
Sodium toluene sulphonate 530 - - - - - - 8
Sodium xylene sulphonate 490 - - - - - - 8
Soot >690 535 - - Did not
ignite
Did not
ignite
- 2
Sorbic acid 440 460 0.020 15 106 >10000 5 1,8 Inert gas nitrogen
L-Sorbose 370 - 0.065 80 76 4700 - 1
Soya flour 550 340 0.060 100 94 800 9 5
Soya protein 540 - 0.050 60 87 6500 9 5
Starch 470 - - - - - - 8
Starch, cold water 490 - - - - - - 8
Stearic acid 290 - - 25 80 8500 - 1
Steel 450 - - - - - - 8
Streptomycin sulphate 700 - - - - - - 8
Sucrose 420 Melts 0.045 40 86 5500 - 1
Sugar 370 400 0.045 30 109 5000 - 5
Sulphur 190 220 0.035 15 78 4700 - 1
Tantalum 630 300 <0.20 120 55 4400 - 3
Tartaric acid 350 - - - - - - 8
Tea 500 - - - 93 1700 - 8
Tea, instant 580 340 Did not
ignite
Did not
ignite
48 400 - 5
Tellurium 550 340 - - - - - 3
Terephthalic acid 680 - 0.050 20 84 8000 - 4
Tetranitro carbazole 395 Melts - - - - - 2
Thiourea 420 Melts - - 29 100 - 1
Thorium 270 280 0.075 5 79 5500 - 3
Thorium hydride 260 20 0.080 3 81 12000 - 3
Tin 630 430 0.190 80 48 1700 - 3
Titanium 375 290 0.045 15 85 11000 Ignites in
carbon
dioxide
2,3
Titanium hydride 480 540 0.070 60 121 12000 3 3
Tobacco 485 290 - - - - - 2
Tobacco, dried 320 - - - 85 1000 - 8
Tobacco, stem 420 230 Did not
ignite
Did not
ignite
53 400 - 5
Tribromosalicyl anilide 880 Melts - - - - - 1
Trinitro toluene - - 0.070 75 63 2100 - 6
s-Trioxane 480 - 0.143 - 85 600 - 1
o, o'-Trithiobis (N,N-
dimethyl-thioformamide)

280

230

0.060

35

96

6000

-

1



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PIPING HYDRAULICS AND
SPECIFICATION BOOK 1

PNEUMATIC CONVEYING
SECTION 8.0

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DATE 8-94


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Dust



Minimum
ignition
temperature
o
C
Cloudlayer



Minimum
explosible
concen-
tration
g/l




Minimum
ignition
energy
mJ




Maximum
explosion
pressure
lb/in
2




Maximum
rate of
pressure
rise
lb/in
2
s
Maximum
oxygen
concen-
tration
to prevent
ignition
% by
volume







References







Notes
Tung 540 240 0.07 240 74 1900 - 5
Tungsten 730 470 - - Did not
ignite
Did not
ignite
- 3
Uranium 20 100 0.060 45 69 5000 - 3
Uranium hydride 20 20 0.060 5 74 9000 - 3
Urea 900 - Did not
ignite
Did not
ignite
Did not
ignite
Did not
ignite
- 4,8 Group (b) dust.
Urea formaldehyde
molding powder

460

-

0.085

80

89

3600

9

4

Urea formaldehyde resin 430 - 0.02 34 110 1600 - 8
Vanadium 500 490 0.220 60 57 1000 10 3
Vitamin B1 mononitrate 380 190 0.035 35 120 9000 - 1
Vitamin C 460 280 0.070 60 88 4800 - 1
Walnut shell 420 210 0.035 60 121 5500 - 5
Wax, accra 260 - - - - - - 8
Wax, carnauba 340 - - - - - - 8
Wax, paraffin 340 - - - - - - 8
Wheat, flour 380 360 0.050 50 109 3700 - 5
Wheat, grain dust 420 290 - - 43 - - 2
Wheat starch 430 - 0.045 25 100 6500 - 5
Wood 360 - - - 90 5700 5 8
Wood, bark 450 250 0.020 60 103 7500 - 4
Wood, flour 430 - 0.050 20 94 8500 7 4
Wood, hard 420 315 - - 66 - - 2
Wood, soft 440 325 - - 63 - - 2
Yeast 520 260 0.050 50 123 3500 - 5
Zinc 680 460 0.500 960 70 1800 - 3
Zinc ethylene dithio-
carbamate

480

180

-

-

45

300

-

1

Zinc stearate 315 Melts 0.020 10 80 >10000 - 1,2
Zirconium 20 220 0.045 5 75 11000 Ignites in
carbon
dioxide
3
Zirconium hydride 350 270 0.085 60 90 9500 3 3



FLUOR DANIEL

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SPECIFICATION BOOK 1

PNEUMATIC CONVEYING
SECTION 8.0

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8.7.27 Appendix 27: Equipment Data Sheets - Process Input

Rotary Blowers 2 Pages

Rotary Valves 2 Pages

Diverter Valves 2 Pages

Cyclones 1 Page

Dust Collectors 6 Pages


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FLUOR DANIEL

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FLUOR DANIEL

PROCESS MANUAL

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DATE 8-94

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8.7.28 Appendix 28: Sample Specification

The following pages show a typical specification for a dilute phase pneumatic
conveying system, used for low linear density polyethylene. (Contract 468200,
Specification SP-4682-48-7, Pneumatic Conveying Systems).

This plant was built in Saudi Arabia and worked very well.

A similar plant for polypropylene was built in Cologne, Germany where a dense
phase conveying system was used, manufactured by Buhler Miag. Double rotary
feeders were used in tandem to suit the higher pressures (up to 25 psig).

Specification SP-4682-48-7

PNEUMATIC CONVEYING SYSTEMS
1.0 SCOPE

1.1 This specification sets forth and defines the design, engineering, materials of construction
and fabrication requirements for pneumatic conveying systems handling Linear Low
Density Polyethylene pellets and granules at Al-Jubail, Saudi Arabia.

1.2 All systems will conform to the design basis described in Paragraph 3.0

1.3 The word VENDOR used in this specification refers to the prime manufacturer receiving
this specification; any and all subsuppliers or material and/or equipment furnished to the
VENDOR shall be required to meet all of the requirements of these specifications. It
shall be VENDOR's responsibility to see that subsuppliers and sub-supplied materials
conform to these specifications. The word PURCHASER used in this specification refers
to Fluor Corporation or its agent.

1.4 Any change in or exception to any part of this specification by the VENDOR must be
defined by the VENDOR in his proposal. Except for the exceptions listed in the
VENDOR's proposal, the content of this specification and all related specifications and/or
attachments fully meet the understanding and acceptance of the VENDOR. No change in
design, engineering, materials of construction, fabrication and/or supply of any system or
component thereof shall be made without the written approval and acceptance of the
PURCHASER.

2.0 GENERAL

2.1 As a minimum requirement of the VENDOR, the design, fabrication and supply of each
system shall include all items specifically listed herein. The fact that certain items may
not be listed or described in detail (such as injector tees, water cooled air coolers,
blowers, rotary feeders, line filters, line mufflers, bag filters, diverter gates and valves, air
regulators, filters, oil lubricators and the like), shall net relieve the VENDOR of the full
responsibility of designing, fabricating and supplying such items and/or material in order
to make and guarantee each component and system to be a complete operating unit.
Refer to the following paragraph for specific items furnished by the PURCHASER.

FLUOR DANIEL

PROCESS MANUAL

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DATE 8-94

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Generally, instruments will be furnished by PURCHASER. Instrumentation normally
supplied by a manufacturer as part of a packaged or integral unit, shall be furnished by
the VENDOR. The manufacturer, type, units of measurements and like data related to
such instruments must meet with the written approval of the PURCHASER and be in
accordance with Fluor Specification SP-4682-70-7, Instrumentation Provided by
Equipment VENDORS.

2.2 Motor drivers for blowers, rotary feeders and other motor drivers for equipment items
shall be furnished by the PURCHASER.

PURCHASER will be selecting a specific motor supplier, and VENDOR will be required
to purchase drivers only from this supplier. However, if a motor is specially
manufactured for a piece of equipment, an exception may be made. VENDOR must
submit a description of the special motor for PURCHASER'S approval. Mounting of all
motors will be by the VENDOR.

2.2.1 Unless specifically noted herein, all starters and controls will be supplied by the
PURCHASER.

2.2.2 VENDOR shall supply motor support base plate as part of the blower base if it is
designed as an integral part of the blower base. All other drive components, such
as chain and/or "V" belt drives, motor slide rails, bases, guards, and drive sheaves
shall be furnished by the VENDOR. Drive guards shall provide protection but
allow a clear view of the drive without removing the guard.

2.2.3 All blowers shall be furnished complete with their own bed plates or fabricated
plates or cast frames as may be the case. The bed plate or frame shall be sized to
act as a common base for the motor, silencers, and belt or coupling guards.
VENDOR shall mount the blower, silencers, filters, motor, drive and belt guard
(with belts) and ship complete as an assembled unit.

NOTE: Motors shall be designed for continuous operation at the rated load;
operation at rated conditions shall not utilize the service factor of the motor (if
any). V-Belt drives shall be designed on the basis of supplied motor power
before taking in account belt service factor.

2.3 All system control panels, panel mounted and remote initiating devices and indicating
lights complete with wiring to all local and panel mounted devices and lights will be
furnished by the PURCHASER.

2.4 All pneumatically operated valves complete with solenoids (where applicable), air
cylinders, filters, lubricators, speed control regulators and position switches to actuate
local and panel mounted devices and lights shall be furnished by the VENDOR. All such
devices shall be designed for continuous duty in the high humidity, sandy, seaport
conditions of Al-Jubail, Saudi Arabia.


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2.5 Valving will be electrically interlocked by the PURCHASER so that operating errors will
be reduced in critical systems. Multiple contact position switches shall be furnished by
the VENDOR.

2.6 VENDOR shall furnish all gasket and bolting materials where VENDOR furnished
equipment and/or material connects to equipment and/or material furnished by others.

2.7 VENDOR shall supply certified dimensional outline drawings, cross sections, operating
instructions, parts lists, design data, shop and erection drawings covering each system for
all component parts. This includes equipment items such as blowers, rotary feeders,
injector tees, line mufflers, bag filters and shaker mechanisms, line filters, diverter gates
and diverter valves, water cooled air coolers, air regulators, oil lubricators and the like,
instruments and related controls (where applicable and as qualified in this Section),
product receivers, gaskets and insulating material for flanged pipe joints, motor drives,
motor drive components, butterfly valves, slide gates, transition pieces, conveying and
return air piping and the like. All equipment items and component parts of each separate
conveying system shall be identified with a metal tag showing all of the following data:

2.7.1 The PURCHASER's respective line number of which the particular item is a part
and VENDOR's detailed "spool" isometric,
i.e., "Line 22-21 ALC-10" - SHT1-MK5."

2.7.2 The PURCHASER's respective equipment item number or specialty item
number, if any; i.e., "Item No. C-301" or SP 52310 (see data sheets).

2.7.3 The VENDOR's respective "piece mark number."

IMPORTANT: VENDOR must follow the tagging instructions noted in 2.7.1,
2.7.2 and 2.7.3 above. If metal tag is not practical, then the minimum
requirement will be to dye stain the above data physically on the respective part.

2.8 All shop piping (cutting and/or spool) drawings prepared by the VENDOR shall conform
to the general arrangement shown on the PURCHASER's final drawings. When
applicable, equipment outline drawings shall show anchor bolt diameter and location plus
load requirements for the design of reinforced concrete foundations and other supports.
Outline drawings shall also show any special space requirements for maintenance or
routine operations.

2.9 Specifications and/or drawings transmitted as attachments are applicable and shall be
considered a part of this specification. The fact that certain detail shown on these
drawings or called for in these specifications is not specifically referred to in this
specification does not relieve the VENDOR from including such detailed material and/or
equipment in his supply. In the absence of specific mention to the contrary, it will be
assumed that the VENDOR's proposal is all inclusive and, as such, fully meets with the
full compliance of this specification and/or drawings and specifications included as
attachments.


FLUOR DANIEL

PROCESS MANUAL

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BOOK 1

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SECTION 8.0

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DATE 8-94

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2.10 In addition to the specific items noted elsewhere in this specification, the following will
also be furnished by the PURCHASER:

2.10.1 Electrical wiring to all limit switches, motors, controls and electro-pneumatically
controlled solenoid valves and slide gates.

2.10.2 Motor starters.

2.10.3 All product storage tanks and product weigh tanks including product blenders.

2.10.4 Target boxes.

2.10.5 Local and main control panels including all motor control centers.

2.10.6 All instruments, except as qualified in Section 2.1.

2.10.7 Instrument and plant air piping.

2.10.8 Foundations for equipment and structural supports, all structural steel and/or
aluminum supporting structures. Integral type equipment supporting steel or
aluminum to be furnished by VENDOR. All filters, line coolers, cyclones, etc.
shall have tabs or connection points designed for the attachment of supports.
Such tabs shall be provided by VENDOR.

2.11 A complete list of all sub-suppliers shall be furnished to the PURCHASER by the
VENDOR.

2.12 All equipment that requires lubrication and is shipped without such lubricant in place
shall be clearly marked to warn personnel that the addition of lubricant is required before
the operation of the equipment.

2.13 Equipment furnished under this specification shall conform to applicable requirements of
the following Fluor specifications:

2.13.1 SP-4682-40-3 Spare Parts Requirements

2.13.2 SP-4682-40-4 Lubrication Requirements

2.13.3 SP-4682-46-11 AC Motors

2.13.4 Deleted

2.13.5 SP-4682-60-2 Electrical Requirements for Packaged Mechanical
Equipment

2.13.6 SP-4682-70-7 Instrumentation Provided by Equipment VENDORs


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2.13.7 SP-4682-80-2 Painting

2.13.8 SP-4682-90-11 Commercial Quality Welding

2.13.9 SP-4682-100-1 Noise Limits for Mechanical Equipment

2.13.10 SP-4682-100-20 Metrication

2.14 Climatic Operating Conditions

Ambient Temperature Range: 0
o
C - 50
o
C

Relative Humidity: 100 Percent Design

Environment: Salt laden corrosive atmosphere, and extended
thunderstorms, sandstorms.

Elevation: Sea Level

Maximum Wind Velocity: 140 km/hr

2.15 Utilities

Electrical: For controls, 120 volt, 1 phase, 60 cycle

For motors, see Fluor Specification
SP-4682-46-11 "induction Motors"

Plant and Instrument Air: Clean, dry air at 6.2 barg

Cooling water: Seawater; supply pressure 4.1 barg, supply
temperature 10 to 37
o
C.
















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2.16 Product Properties

Material Classification LLDPE LLDPE
Material Form GRANULES PELLETS
Specific Gravity (g/ml) 0.91 to 0.93 0.91 to 0.93
Bulk Density (kg/m
3
)
Settled 384 to 513 528 to 560
Fluidized 288 to 384 528 to 560
Moisture Content Nil Nil
Product Temperature (C) --- ---
Maximum Temperature Allowed (C) 60 60
Characteristics Corrosive No No
Abrasive Mildly Mildly
Hygroscopic No No
Flowability Fair, Aid
not Nec.
Fair
Angle of Repose (Degrees) 30 - 50 30 - 50
Eff. Internal Friction Angle (Degrees) 30 - 37 39.00
Wall Friction Angle with Aluminum (Degrees) 10 - 13 25.00
Nominal Particle Size (mm) 1.0 Cyl., 3.2.D x
3.2L
U.S. Standard Series #10 15 - 25
Screen Analysis % Retained (Typical) #18 35 - 25
#35 33 - 27
#45 8 - 11
#60 6 - 7
#120 2 - 5
#200 1 - Fl
PAN FF1 - FF1


2.17 Electrical Items and Controls

2.17.1 For motor starters, supplementary control devices and intermediate wiring refer
to Fluor Specification SP-4682-60-2, Electrical Requirements for Packaged
Mechanical Equipment.

2.17.2 All instruments and controls shall be in accordance with Fluor Specifica-tion SP-
4682-70-7, Instrumentation Supplied by Equipment VENDORs, and the
requirements specified herein.

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2.17.3 All required interface connection points for equipment supplied by others shall
be in accordance with Fluor Specification SP-4682-60-2, Electrical Requirements
for Packaged Mechanical Equipment.

2.18 Identification

2.18.1 Marking

Each assembly shall have its Equipment Tag Number as indicated by the
Purchase Order and/or specification (data) sheet, impression stamped on a
nameplate permanently attached to the assembly.

2.18.2 Tagging

Each item shall be identified with its Purchase Order number and Item number.
In addition, manufacturer's part number shall be match marked to a
corresponding drawing for installation purposes. Tags shall be corrosion
resistant metal (not aluminum) and impression stamped. (Also see Section 2.7 of
this specification).


2.19 Preparation for Shipment and Long Term Storage

2.19.1 Equipment shipped to the jobsite will be exposed to Saudi Arabia's Al-Jubail area
climatic construction conditions for several months prior to installation.
Provisions shall be made by the supplier for long term protection of this
equipment against damage which may be caused by wind, dust, salt laden
atmosphere, sand, and rain.

2.19.2 After inspection and prior to shipment, all unpainted and unmachined exterior
surfaces shall be primed and painted. All machined or threaded exterior surfaces
shall not be primed but rather coated with Esso Rust-Ban 324 or 385. Internal
machined or threaded surfaces shall be coated with Rust-Ban 339. Provision of
strong air tight sealed enclosure containing silica gel or other desiccant is
acceptable as an alternate to the above. Painting shall be in accordance with
Specification SP-4682-80-2.

2.19.3 VENDOR shall be solely responsible for the adequacy of the "Preparation for
Shipment" provisions employed with respect to materials and application to
provide equipment to its destination in an "ex-works" condition.







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3.0 DESIGN BASIS

3.1 The polyethylene product that is to be transferred by each pneumatic conveying system
will have the approximate characteristics as per Section 3.16 of this specification.

3.2 See the attached plot plan drawings, system descriptions, and preliminary isometric
drawings for definition, capacity, and routings of the conveying systems.

3.3 A primary consideration in the design, fabrication and operation of each system will be to
ensure product cleanliness and the prevention of any cross-contamination between
transfers of different grades of products. All piping interiors of piping runs that actually
carry product shall be without internal projections (such as welds at pipe joints). Internal
diameters of mating parts shall be the same or tapered if required; internal surface
alignment must be maintained to avoid creating any internal discontinuity. Care shall be
taken to prevent misalignment of pipe joints that would result in an intake of air, dust,
and the like from internal negative pressure. Gaskets for any joint shall be so cut to avoid
internal projection after installation.

3.4 All piping that will be used to physically convey and transfer product shall be "treated" or
"prepared" internally over the entire perimeter and length of each piece of pipe after
fabrication. This internal "treatment" or "preparation" is required to minimize the
creation of product "smears," "fluff," and/or "streamers" during product transfer. If
sandblasting is used, treatment shall be equivalent to sandblasting with #6 flint.
VENDOR shall submit sample of treated pipe for approval prior to fabrication.

3.5 System components such as valves, feeders, etc., shall be furnished with circular cross
sections and circular late flanges. Square flanges are not prohibited, but shall be used
only when the square flange and transition is proven necessary for design purposes or
where a particular piece of equipment is only manufactured with a square flange.

3.6 Pressure drop in that portion of pipe before product entering the conveying line shall be
minimized. In general, the "air only" piping shall be one pipe diameter larger than the
"conveying" piping, unless the pipe run is quite short.

3.7 System capacities as shown in the attached system description sheets are stated as the
average transfer rate which must be realized over the entire transfer period, from start of
the first blower in the system until the lines are cleared of the pellet "dribble" at the end
of the transfer. Transfer quantities for rating purposes will be he complete contents of
storage silos.

3.8 Product pick-up velocity shall be 18.4 m/s (3600 FPM) for pellet only systems and
21 m/s (4100 FPM) for any system handling granules plus or minus 0.5 m/s. After taking
into account air losses through rotary feeder and diverter valve leakages, air terminal
velocities for pellet service shall not exceed 30.5 m/s (6000 FPM) to minimize creation of
fines, streamers and the like.



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3.9 For each system a table shall be prepared giving the following process data as a
minimum:

Capacity

Line Size

Pick-up Point(s)

Terminal Point(s)

Product Pick-up Air Velocity (Actual)

Product Pick-up Air Temperature

Terminal Air Velocity (Actual)

Terminal Air Flow (Actual and Standard)

System Pressure Drop (Calculated and Design)

Motor KW Required at Calculated Pressure Drop

Motor KW Provided

3.10 Each conveying System shall be designed such that temperature of the conveying air will
not exceed 50C (40C alternate). Coolers shall be provided and shall be designed for
rated air flow and a temperature rise across the blower at its maximum pressure rating at
maximum ambient air temperature. Ambient air conditions and utilities available are
shown on the pneumatic line heat exchanger data sheets.

3.11 All conveying lines and equipment shall be bonded and grounded to dissipate static
electricity. Where flexible connections are used, these shall be "jumpered" with bonded
conductors.

3.12 Control schemes for the various systems will be shown on the Mechanical Flow
Diagrams. In general, when the pick-up point is a storage silo, transfer rate will be
controlled by regulating the slide valve at the silo discharge based on "push" blower
pressure in the pull-push system.

3.13 Filters shall be furnished for all systems under the following general classifications:

Product Dust Filters installed on the intake side of blowers at the terminal end of "pull" or
"vacuum" blowers and on the discharge side of pellet receivers on "push systems, to
remove product dust exhaust to atmosphere.


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Vacuum System Intake Filters installed at the inlet end of "vacuum" or "pull" systems to
remove air-borne particles from the conveying air.

Line Filters installed at the discharge side of "push" blowers remove air-borne particles
from the conveying air.

Intake Filter Silencers installed at the intake of "push" blowers to remove air-borne
particles from entering the blower and to reduce blower noise levels.

Product Filter-Receivers installed at transfer points from pull systems to push systems to
act as both a receiver and a filter.

Bin and Silo Vent Collector installed on bins and silos to remove product dust from
exhaust air.

3.14 Every effort shall be made to maximize interchangeability of filter bags and elements
throughout the system.

4.0 ENGINEERING

4.1 The basic arrangement of all equipment for each conveying system will be provided by
PURCHASER. Drawings shall show the preferred routing of all air and conveying lines,
pick-up and discharge points and location of major pieces of equipment. These drawings
are intended as the basis of design by the VENDOR. The VENDOR may propose
corrections and/or changes to the general routing and/or equipment shown on the
drawings. Such proposed changes shall be clearly outlined by VENDOR for review and
approval of PURCHASER.

4.2 The successful VENDOR shall submit certified equipment outlines covering equipment
component items offered by the VENDOR for all systems. PURCHASER will then
complete plan and elevation drawings which will then be transmitted to VENDOR.

4.3 The VENDOR shall use these final plans and elevation drawings to establish his design
and layout and fabrication requirements for the ultimate final fabrication and installation
drawings.

4.4 In the event PURCHASER elects to prepare detailed "spool" isometric drawings for
piping systems, these shall be reviewed and approved by VENDOR for full compliance
with his design. These detailed "spool" isometric drawings shall not be released to
VENDOR'S fabricator until they have been checked and signed by the VENDOR.

4.5 If VENDOR is required to prepare the detailed isometric drawings covering all
VENDOR supplied conveying and air lines and other VENDOR supplied equipment
piping, these shall be checked and signed by VENDOR and then submitted to
PURCHASER for review. It shall not be the PURCHASER'S function to check or
approve such drawings and VENDOR shall take responsibility for their accuracy. These

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"spool" isometrics are not to be used by VENDOR'S fabricator until they have been
reviewed by PURCHASER.

4.6 The specification, design and/or drawing functions performed or to be performed by the
PURCHASER shall not be construed as a means of diminishing the VENDOR's
responsibility for the design engineering, guarantee, fabrication and/or supply of any
work,

conveying system or components thereof as outlined in this specification. It shall be the
VENDOR's full responsibility to carry out the design of the pneumatic conveying
systems in accordance with this specification.

4.7 PURCHASER's approval will not relieve the VENDOR of his responsibility, i.e., the
VENDOR shall assume full responsibility for compliance with specific codes, inquiry
and/or purchase order terms and conditions; PURCHASER's approval or review conveys
no responsibility for the accuracy of shop dimensions, satisfactory field fit-up and
erection, design and/or compliance with codes. All these remain the full responsibility of
VENDOR.

NOTE: Information covering errors in fabrication, equipment and/or material supply
which are found by the PURCHASER to be in need of correction will be passed on to
VENDOR immediately as they are found during field erection or start-up. The
VENDOR will be required to take corrective measures within 24 hours from the time
notification is received advising disposition of the matter to the satisfaction of the
PURCHASER. Failing action by the VENDOR in the time stipulated, corrective
measures will be made by the PURCHASER with all charges submitted for the
VENDOR's account.


5.0 EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS

5.1 All equipment and materials of construction shall be in strict accordance with this
specification, referenced specifications, and attached drawings and component sections.

5.2 Metal parts of surfaces in contact with product shall be either aluminum or stainless steel,
except for product material to be discharged to trash bins (see data sheets and isometric
drawings). This includes surfaces which are used in air only piping located downstream
of line filters. No substitution will be permitted unless approved in writing by
PURCHASER. All conveying piping shall be as noted elsewhere in this specification.

5.3 Nonmetallic parts in contact with pellets shall be soft white neoprene, clear plastic which
is compatible with conventional low density polyethylene, or Teflon.

5.4 Except as noted herein and/or in the attached drawings, all storage tanks (supplied by
other's) shall be equipped with an outlet slide valve supplied by pneumatic system
VENDOR. All outlet slide valves shall be required to close and seal tightly against flow
of pellets while conveying systems are operating. Valves shall be set initially for a 10

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second duration of stroke in each direction of travel. Those slide valves requiring
positioners to regulate product flow shall be shown on the attached drawings and/or data
sheets.

5.5 Pressure and vacuum relief valves shall be located on the suction and pressure lines of
each system and shall be furnished and mounted by the VENDOR. Valves shall be set
for either maximum pressure rating of the blower or installed motor KW whichever
governs. Valves shall be sized to allow continuous safe operation of blower while valves
are relieving.

5.6 Each vacuum or pull system shall include a tap for a vacuum gage located immediately
upstream of the blower air inlet flange unless noted elsewhere in the drawings. Heavy
duty, vibration resistant vacuum gages with connecting tubing and pulsation snubbers
shall be furnished by VENDOR mounted on a free standing pedestal that is firmly
connected to he blower package base.

5.7 Each "push" system shall include a tap for a pressure gage located immediately
downstream of the blower air discharge silencer unless noted otherwise in the drawings.
Heavy duty, vibration resistant pressure gages with connecting tubing and pulsation
snubbers shall be furnished by VENDOR mounted on a free standing pedestal that is
firmly connected to the blower package base. On both the intake and discharge of ALL
blowers or associated piping, a spare 3/8 inch coupling with plug shall be provided.

5.8 In cases where a brass body, vacuum or pressure gage tap, temperature indicator or
thermowell is used, an isolating bushing made of stainless steel shall be used between the
tap or indicator and the screwed coupling welded to the air piping.

5.9 Except as noted elsewhere, instrument connections shall be 1"-3000 pounds forged
aluminum screwed half coupling to alloy 6061-T6. Teflon tape is to be used for thread
compound for SS to aluminum screwed joints.

5.10 Product entry to tanks shall be through "target boxes" supplied by others.

5.11 Aluminum piping and flanges shall be isolated from carbon steel bolting and pipe
supports with stainless steel shims.

5.12 Deleted

5.13 The equipment furnished under this specification shall be designed and fabricated by a
manufacturer regularly engaged in the manufacture of pneumatic conveying systems and
auxiliary equipment.

5.14 VENDOR shall bid equipment similar in mechanical design and detail to equipment
previously designed and constructed by the VENDOR which has demonstrated a
minimum of two (2) years of successful operation in similar service.
5.15


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6.0 INSPECTION

Materials furnished by the VENDOR shall be subject to inspection, test and/or rejection by
PURCHASER. Any rejection by the inspector shall be final; however, his inspection and
acceptance shall in no way release the VENDOR from guarantee as to materials, workmanship,
performance or compliance with this specification.

7.0 GUARANTEE

VENDOR shall guarantee equipment and piping proposed and/or furnished against defective
design, material and workmanship as specified.

The VENDOR shall be required to guarantee that all pipe, equipment and components of all
systems covered by this specification will be designed and arranged and be of sufficient capacity
and/or size to perform all of the transfers at the conveying rates as defined in Paragraph 3.7.

VENDOR shall guarantee equipment proposed and/or furnished against defective design,
material and workmanship in accordance with the terms of the "Request for Quotation" and/or
"Purchase Order." In addition, VENDOR shall guarantee the performance of the equipment
proposed and/or furnished with regard to the mechanical design requirements set forth in this
specification.

8.0 EXCEPTIONS

Unless specific exceptions are listed under the heading "Exceptions" in the VENDOR's proposal
with a description of proposed substitution or exception, it shall be mutually understood that the
proposal is based on equipment and piping which fully complies with the requirements and intent
of this specification.

9.0 BLOWER PACKAGES

9.1 Scope

This section covers the requirements for furnishing blowers, inlet filter silencers, and
discharge silencers for dilute phase pneumatic conveying of polyethylene pellets or
granules.

9.2 Service

9.2.1 "Push" type blowers will draw ambient air through intake filters and silencers
and discharge through discharge silencers conveying air to pneumatic conveying
systems.

9.2.2 "Pull" type blowers will draw air from pneumatic conveying systems and
discharge through discharge silencers to atmosphere. Intake silencers shall be
supplied as required to meet noise level of Fluor Specification SP-4682-100-1.


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9.3 Design Requirements

Blowers shall be furnished complete, each with its own bed plate or fabricated plate or
cast iron frame as may be the case. The bed plate or frame shall be sized to act as a
common base for the blower, motor silencers and belt or coupling guards. VENDOR
shall mount motor, blower, sheaves, V-belts, silencers coupling and/or belt guards as a
complete assembly unit. See data sheets attached as part of this specification. The
attachment of intake and discharge silencers shall be sufficiently rigid to project blowers
from the effects of piping forces and moments induced by module sea shipping loads,
dead and live loads, wind or seismic loads, thermal expansion loads, and piping
vibrations, etc. Where intake silencers are not furnished on pull type blowers, allowable
piping loads shall be furnished by VENDOR on dimensional outlines, or PURCHASER's
piping flexibility shall be reviewed and approved by VENDOR.

9.4 Mechanical Design

9.4.1 Blowers shall be positive displacement type machines and shall be furnished
complete with sheaves, V-belt drives and belt guards, or direct coupled drive, to
VENDOR's standard. Gear boxes are not preferred and should be avoided if
possible. Blowers that do require direct drive shall be equipped with thrust
bearing(s). For blowers with motors larger than 150 kW (200 H.P), belt drives
shall not be used.

9.4.2 Blowers shall be designed and rated for continuous operation. Rotors shall be
statically balanced and complete rotor sets shall be dynamically balanced.
Pressure lubrication systems and oil coolers are not preferred and should be
avoided if possible.

9.4.3 All blowers shall be sized so the gear feet per minute shall not exceed 90 percent
of rated maximum and blower r/min shall not exceed 95 percent of rated
maximum conditions.

9.4.4 All blowers shall be equipped with heavy duty seals designed for high
temperature use with intermediate venting to prevent contamination of the air
stream by lubricants, either direct or air-borne. Labyrinth type seals are
acceptable, and mechanical seals should be avoided if possible.

9.4.5 Each vacuum or "pull" system shall include a heavy duty, vibration resistant
vacuum gauge (Ashcroft Duragauge 1279 or equal) and snubber and vacuum
relief valve(s) located immediately upstream of the blower or silencer (if used)
inlet flange.

9.4.6 All blowers shall be timed for service intended.

9.4.7 Vacuum systems shall be equipped with discharge silencers.


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9.4.8 Each pressure or "push" system shall include a heavy duty, vibration resistant
pressure gauge (Ashcroft Duragauge 1279 or equal) and snubber, and relief
valve(s) located downstream of the discharge muffler.

9.4.9 Pressure systems shall be equipped with the discharge silencer immediately
downstream from the blower discharge, and the intake filter and silencer
immediately upstream.

9.4.10 Air intake filters, intake silencers, and discharge silencers shall be selected and
sized by the VENDOR to limit blower noise level to conform with Fluor
Specifica-tion SP-4682-100-1, "Noise Limits for Mechanical Equipment."
Acoustical enclosures shall not be utilized to effect sound attenuation. Pulsation
and vibration affects on downstream or upstream equipment shall also be
considered in silencer design. All silencers shall be welded in accordance with
Section 9 of the ASME code.

9.4.11 Intake filters for blower packages shall be replaceable panel/cartridge type.
VENDOR shall describe the filter proposed and specify an efficiency that will
ensure operation of the blowers and system requirements as defined under the
"Guarantee" portion of this specification. VENDOR shall make every effort to
provide intake filters such that the same basic element(s) can be used on all
blower packages to minimize spares inventory. VENDOR shall furnish and
mount a differential pressure indicator (Midwest Instruments or equal) to indicate
pressure drop across the filter media. Also, an additional 3/8 inch coupling with
plug shall be provided on the clean side of the element(s).

9.4.12 All V-belts shall be static conducting.

9.4.13 All blowers shall have an impact resistant oil level sight glass in an easily viewed
position.

9.4.14 Vacuum and pressure relief valves shall be non-adjustable spring type (Kunkle
or equal) sized to relieve the full volume of the blower. Valve setting shall be set
at the maximum safe continuous value for the blower or the motor, whichever
governs.

9.4.15 Minimum instrumentation for V-belt blowers shall include a high air temperature
switch, pressure or vacuum gages, and on blowers equipped with pressure
lubrication, an oil pressure and temperature indicator and a low oil pressure
switch.

9.4.16 VENDOR shall provide completed PURCHASER instrument data sheets to
PURCHASER for approval prior to instrument ordering.

9.4.17 Drive motors will be furnished by PURCHASER and installed on the base by
VENDOR.


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9.4.18 Assemblies furnished under this section shall be equipped with nameplates of
stainless material showing equipment number, design conditions (pressure and
temperature and air volume), test conditions (pressure) and PURCHASER's
drawing number. In addition, PURCHASER's item number shall be stenciled in
38 mm high (1-1/2 inches) black characters for rapid identification.

9.5 Performance Data

For each blower proposed, VENDOR shall furnish complete performance data. As a
minimum, the data shall include graphs showing operating speed versus power required
and operating speed versus inlet capacity (in m
3
n
/hr). For push blowers, these graphs
should show curves for standard inlet conditions and discharge conditions from 0.14 bar
gage (2 psig) to maximum discharge pressure in 0.14 bar (2 psi) increments. For pull
blowers, the graphs should show curves for discharge to standard atmospheric conditions
and inlet conditions from 50 mm Hg (2 inch) vacuum to maximum vacuum in 50 mm Hg
(2 inch) increments. VENDOR shall also furnish graphs showing "Slip r/min" versus
discharge pressure for push blowers and "Slip r/min" versus inlet vacuum for pull
blowers. "Slip r/min" is defined as the blower speed required to maintain the pressure
differential across the blower without net air movement through the blowers.


10.0 LINE HEAT EXCHANGERS

10.1 Scope

This section covers the requirements for furnishing Heat Exchangers for installation in
dilute phase pneumatic conveying systems for polyethylene pellets or granules.

10.2 Service

Heat Exchangers furnished under this specification will be used in pneumatic conveying
systems to cool discharge air from positive displacement blowers and will be located
between blower discharge silencers and line filters. Liquid coolant will be seawater.

10.3 Design Requirements

Heat Exchangers shall be furnished as complete factory assembled units ready for jobsite
installation. See data sheets attached as part of this specification. VENDOR shall make
every effort to minimize the number of differently sized tube bundles to minimize spares
inventory.

10.4 Mechanical Design

10.4.1 Exchanger shells shall be of aluminum or galvanized carbon steel.

10.4.2 Shell covers and tube or coil bundles shall be readily removable without
disconnection of the pneumatic pipe system.

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10.4.3 Exchangers shall be equipped with high point air vents and large drain couplings.

10.4.4 Connections 50 mm (2 inch) and larger shall be flanged nozzles. Connections 20
mm (3/4 inch) to 38 mm (1-1/2 inches) shall be permanently weld attached
screwed couplings. No connections shall be smaller than 20 mm (3/4 inch).

10.4.5 Supports for exchangers are required and shall be shop welded. Holes for anchor
bolts shall be slotted on one support to allow for expansion if necessary.

10.4.6 Tube coil shall be hydrostatically tested prior to installation, and shell space shall
be hydrostatically tested after installation of the tube coil. Test shall be based on
not less than 1-1/2 times the operating pressures for both air and water side.

10.4.7 Tubes shall be 90 cu/10 ni or admiralty for seawater service with compatible fins.
Tube diameter and wall thickness shall be indicated by VENDOR. Assume a
fouling factor for seawater of .0004 m
2o
C/W (.0025 ft
2o
F hr/btu).

10.4.8 Units shall be constructed per ASME Code. Longitudinal seams shall be spot
checked per UW-52 of ASME Code. A code stamp is not required.

10.4.9 Design water flow velocity shall be 1.22 m/sec minimum and 2.44 m/sec
maximum (4 ft/sec to 8 ft/sec). Discharge air temperature shall not exceed 50C
(122F), with an alternate design using 40C (104F).

10.4.10 Air outlet and inlet nozzles shall be equipped with high quality vibration and
impact resistant air temperature indicators, with stem lengths that protrude into
the air piping half of the pipe diameter.

10.4.11 Side inlet and outlet nozzles of cooler tubes 2 inches and larger shall be equipped
with one X 1 inch and one X 3/4 inch - 3000 pounds forged steel full coupling
for temperature and pressure sensor connections.

10.4.12 In cases where a brass body, vacuum or pressure gauge, temperature indicator or
thermowell is used, an isolating bushing made of stainless steel shall be used
between the gauge or indicator and the aluminum screwed coupling welded to the
air piping.

10.4.13 Assemblies furnished under this specification shall be equipped with nameplates
of stainless material showing item number, drawing number, design conditions
(pressure and temperature) and test conditions (pressure). In addition, drawing
number shall be stenciled in 38 mm (1-1/2 inches) high black characters for rapid
identification.

10.4.14 VENDOR shall furnish two 3/8 inch pipe couplings with plugs in the air ducting,
one on each side of the cooling tube bundle.


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11.0 LINE FILTERS

11.1 Scope

This section covers the requirements for furnishing Pneumatic Line Filters for installation
in dilute phase pneumatic conveying systems for polyethylene pellets or granules.

11.2 Service

The Line Filters will be used to remove air-borne particles in pneumatic conveying
systems and will be installed on the discharge side of the "push" blowers.

11.3 Design Requirements

11.3.1 Line Filters shall employ sufficient effective filtration area so that pressure drop
shall not exceed 64 mm (2-1/2 inches) water column.

11.3.2 Filters shall be 100 percent efficient for removal of air-borne particles of
5 microns and larger.

11.3.3 All filters of this type shall be designed to use the same size and type of dust
bags. See data sheets attached as part of this specification-

11.4 Mechanical Design

11.4.1 Metallic parts of filters in direct contact with air shall be of aluminum or type
300 series stainless steel.

11.4.2 Filters shall be of all welded construction.

11.4.3 Inlet flanges shall be located on the side of the filter body. Outlet flanges shall
be centrally located at the top of the filter body.

11.4.4 Filters shall be equipped with a VENDOR's standard diameter cleanout, centrally
located at bottom of filter. No shaker or backwash device is required.

11.4.5 Bag collars shall be welded to tube sheets and tube sheets shall be welded to
housings.

11.4.6 Filters shall be equipped with not less than two (2) pressure tight, hinged man-
way doors located 90
o
to inlet flange.

11.4.7 Air flow velocity across filter bags shall not exceed 2.43 m/min (8 ft/min).




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11.4.8 Filter material shall be continuous multifilament dacron polyester and shall
conform to the following:

Weight: 105 gm/m
2
(4.7 oz/yd
2
)

Thread Count: 72 x 60 (ends/picks)

Weave: 3 x 1 twill

Air Permeability: 0.12 m
3
/sec-m
2
@ 12 mm H
2
O
(24 ft
3
/min/ft
2
@ 0.5" H
2
O)

11.4.9 Construction of filter bags shall be such that no raw edges are exposed to the
product carrying air stream. All bag attachments to support brackets shall be
made by using polypropylene sash cord completely enclosed by covering seam of
the bag material. All sewing thread shall be of continuous monofilament dacron
or equal.

11.4.10 Item numbers as shown on data sheets shall be stamped on nameplates and
stenciled in 38 mm (1-1/2 inches) high black characters on filter bodies.

11.4.11 Design and construction of tube sheets and other internals shall be of sufficient
strength to withstand a pressure drop equal to maximum blower discharge
pressure.

11.4.12 An internal screen or grate shall be provided on the clean air outlet pipe to
prevent bags that may come loose from entering the conveying system.

11.4.13 VENDOR shall furnish and mount a differential pressure indicator (Midwest
Instruments or equal) to indicate pressure drop across the filter media. Also,
additional 3/8 inch pipe couplings with plugs shall be provided, one on each side
of the element.

11.5 Shop Test and Assembly

11.5.1 All filter units shall be individually tested for air leakage at 15 psig.

11.5.2 The line filters shall be thoroughly cleaned and free of grease, weld spatter, scale,
rust and any other foreign material.

12.0 ROTARY FEEDERS

12.1 Scope

This section covers the requirements for furnishing Rotary Feeders to be installed in
dilute phase pneumatic conveying systems for polyethylene pellets or granules.


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12.2 Service

The Rotary Feeders will be used to feed polyethylene product into pneumatic conveying
systems and gravity chutes, and to discharge collected fines and streamers into waste
containers.

12.3 Design Requirements

12.3.1 Feeders shall be of the rotary lock drop through type with flanged inlet and outlet
per data sheet attached.

12.3.2 Differential pressure across the feeders shall be limited to one bar (15 lbs/in
2
).

12.3.3 Every effort shall be made to minimize the number of different sized feeders. All
feeders for discharging waste material shall be the same size.

12.4 Mechanical Design

12.4.1 Metallic parts of feeders in direct contact with product shall be of machined cast
aluminum or 300 series stainless steel fabrication. Nonmetallic parts in direct
contact with product shall be of Teflon. For feeders discharging to trash bins,
standard packing and iron/steel construction shall be supplied (see data sheets).

12.4.2 Feeder housing shall be stainless steel for product, cast iron for waste (see data
sheets), and shall be ribbed from flange to flange, and shall have motor base
support lugs as an integral part to permit the mounting of the gear motor base
directly to the unit.

12.4.3 Rotors shall be stainless steel for product, carbon steel for waste (see data
sheets), open end type (gussets are acceptable), and shall have not less than a
total of four (4) vanes in contact with the seal between inlet and outlet. Rotor
blade tips for all feeders shall be relieved on all three sides.

12.4.4 Rotors for product and waste shall be tipped with approximately 2.5 mm (0.10
inch) of Ampco Bronze.

12.4.5 Rotor speeds shall not exceed 20 r/min. For variable speed units, speed at normal
rate shall not exceed 20 r/min. For calculating feeder speed, assume that the
feeder pockets are only 65 percent full.

12.4.6 Feeder end plates shall be aluminum for product, cast iron for waste. All
aluminum headplates shall have purge air taps wish lantern rings and
interconnecting piping between both headplates.

12.4.7 Both end plates shall be drilled, tapped and plugged with 25 mm (1 inch)
diameter holes to permit checking rotor clearance.


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12.4.8 Maximum clearance between rotor tips and housing I.D. shall be 150 microns
(0.006 inch).

12.4.9 For product rotor bearings shall be outboard of the stuffing boxes. Stuffing
boxes shall be lubricant free type. For waste, bearings shall be mounted in the
headplates with standard packing material (see data sheets).

12.4.10 Feeders with outboard bearings shall have "Drop-Outs" between rotor shroud and
end cover.

12.4.11 Feeder inlets shall be "raked" to minimize shearing of product. Pellet adaptors
are not acceptable.

12.4.12 All stainless steel feeders used in pneumatic conveying systems shall be supplied
with a vent port(s). If specified on a data sheet, a continuous filter sized for the
maximum expected leakage at maximum allowable rotor to housing wear shall
be included. Feeders discharging to waste do not require a vent (see data sheets).

12.4.13 All internal surfaces shall be free of projections (such as welds) that would tend
to create agglomerates.

12.4.14 Feeders shall be complete with drive gearmotor, chain drive, and guard allowing
visual inspection of the drive without removing the guard.

12.4.15 When specified on data sheets, safety switches (centrifugal type) shall be
provided mounted on the feeder shaft to shutdown other components. The
motion switch shall be single pole double throw with 5 amperes (resistive)
contact rating, and meet electrical area requirements specified in data sheets. The
contacts are to be normally open and switching point shall be fully adjustable.
Complete specifications and adjustment procedure shall be provided in the data
package.

12.4.16 Drive gearmotors shall be rated at least 10 percent above the required KW and in
no circumstance shall motors less than 0.37 KW (l/2 HP) be accepted.

12.4.17 Feeders shall be equipped with nameplates of stainless material. Equipment tag
item numbers shall be stenciled in 38 mm (1-1/'2 inches) high black characters.

12.5 Shop Test and Assembly

12.5.1 Feeders shall be individually shop test run at not less than 1 bar gage (15 psig).

12.5.2 Feeders shall be individually tested for air leakage.

12.5.3 Test results shall be recorded on nameplates. (Leak rate at 1 bar gage (15 psig)).


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12.5.4 The Rotary Feeders and all related equipment shall be thoroughly cleaned and
free of grease, weld spatter, scale, rust, and any other foreign material.


13.0 DIVERTER VALVES

13.1 Scope

This section covers the requirements for furnishing pneumatically operated diverter
valves for installation in dilute phase pneumatic conveying systems for polyethylene
pellets or granules.

13.2 Service

Valves will be used to divert the flow of polyethylene pellets and granules in a pneumatic
conveying system.

13.3 Design Requirements

Diverter valves shall be plug or tunnel type with quick acting operators and flange line
connections.

13.4 Mechanical Design

13.4.1 Metallic parts of diverter valves in direct contact with product shall be of
aluminum or 300 series stainless steel fabrication. Nonmetallic parts in direct
contact with product shall be of white neoprene or of teflon.

13.4.2 Valve bodies, end plates and plug type valves shall be of aluminum. VENDOR
shall furnish "oilite" bronze bushings (plug bearings). Product shall be prevented
from direct contact with bronze bushings by the use of closure seals fabricated of
teflon or equal material.

13.4.3 Clearance between O.D. of plug and I.D. of valve body shall be subject to
PURCHASER's approval. In general the clearance shall be 150 micron (0.006
inch) but shall vary with size.

13.4.4 Valves shall be furnished complete with cushioned type pneumatic operators,
adjustable speed control valves, mounting plate, air pressure regulators,
lubricators and filters.

13.4.5 Solenoid valves furnished as part of the diverter valves shall be double acting,
momentary contact type, with epoxy encapsulated continuous duty coils and
conduit connection box. Solenoid shall be pre-wired in to the junction box of
Paragraph 13.4.6.


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13.4.6 Limit switches shall be proximity type. VENDOR shall furnish complete control
wiring and conduit to a junction box mounted on valve body.

13.4.7 All electrical and control components shall meet area classification of Class II,
Group G, Division 2.

13.4.8 Diverter valves shall be actuated by way of steel rack and spur gearing, or Bettis
operator or equivalent. In the event of a power failure or air pressure loss, no
change in valve position shall occur.

13.4.9 VENDOR shall physically mark or stamp each valve to indicate the direction or
position of the plug (eq. "S") with an arrow indicating the position of the plug
and that flow is straight-through and ("D") with an arrow indicating the position
of the plug and that flow is diverted to the branch line. In either case, the
direction of the diverter valve rack extension shall be related to the directional
arrow.

13.4.10 Diverter valves shall be designed to prevent "pocketing" or trapping of product
while systems are operating and at time of system shutdown.

13.5 Shop Test and Assembly

13.5.1 Complete valve assemblies shall be shop tested for total leakage, leakage across
valve and for functional operation. Leakage tests shall be carried out at 1 bar
gage (15 psig).

Results of leakage tests shall be recorded on nameplate.

13.5.2 VENDOR shall furnish valves complete with nameplates of stainless material.
Item numbers shall be stenciled in black 38 mm (1-1/2 inches) high characters.

14.0 PRODUCT RECEIVERS

14.1 Scope

This section covers the requirements for furnishing Product Receivers (Cyclones) to be
installed in dilute phase pneumatic conveying systems for polyethylene pellets and
granules.

14.2 Service

Vacuum type Product Receivers will be installed in vacuum conveying systems and will
separate product pellets from conveying air. Product will be transferred by way of a
rotary feeder to pressure conveying systems. Conveying air, dust, fines, etc., will be
exhausted to remote bag filters with ultimate air discharge to atmosphere through positive
displacement blowers.


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Pressure type Product Receivers will be installed at the terminal end of pressure
conveying systems and will separate product pellets and granules from conveying air.
Product will be transferred by way of a rotary feeder. Conveying air and entrained dust,
fines, etc., will be exhausted to a bag filter.

14.3 Design Requirements

Product receivers shall be designed to cyclonically separate the product and conveying
air/fines. Cyclone receivers shall be designed to handle both pellets and granules and
shall have a product discharge flange designed to bolt directly to a rotary valve.

14.4 Mechanical Design

14.4.1 Metallic parts of receivers in direct contact with the product shall be aluminum or
300 series stainless steel.

14.4.2 Receivers shall be cylindrical with a 60
o
cone bottom designed so that product
discharge connections shall fit directly on the flange of a rotary feeder without
the use of a transition piece.

14.4.3 Receivers shall be constructed for the design pressure of one bar gage for
pressure service and 250 mm Hg for vacuum service.

14.4.4 Internal design of each item shall be free of projections, welds, etc., that would
tend to create agglomerates.

14.4.5 Internal surfaces of receivers and separators, which are contacted by product,
shall be "treated" by sandblasting to reduce creation of floss.

14.4.6 All receivers and shall have only one (1) product inlet connection. A connection
point for a PURCHASER supplied level device must be supplied complete with a
baffle or other suitable device to prevent nuisance tripping of the level indicator.

14.4.7 Receivers shall be equipped with nameplates of stainless material. Item Numbers
shall be clearly stamped thereon. In addition, Item Numbers shall be stenciled in
38 mm (1-1/2 inches) high black characters.

14.5 Shop Test and Assembly

14.5.1 For pressure service, receivers shall be individually tested for leaks at not less
than 1 bar gage (15 psig) internal air pressure, checking for leaks with a solution
of soap and water. For vacuum service, receivers shall be individually tested at a
vacuum of 250 mm (20 inches) mercury column.





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15.0 KNIFE GATE VALVES

15.1 Scope

This section covers the requirements for furnishing pneumatically operated Knife Gate
Valves for installation at storage bin discharge points.


15.2 Service

Knife Gate Valves will be used to control the flow of product material from bins to
pneumatic conveying systems.

In the fully closed position, valves must isolate the conveyor systems during bin
washdown to prevent the ingress of air, dirt or water.


15.3 Design Requirements

See data sheets attached as part of this specification.

15.4 Mechanical Design

15.4.1 Metallic parts of valves in direct contact with product shall be of machined cast
aluminum or type 304 stainless steel fabrication. Nonmetallic parts in direct
contact with product shall be of teflon or as specified.

15.4.2 Valves shall have manufacturer's standard flanged inlets and outlets.

15.4.3 Valve gates shall be of type 304 stainless steel.

15.4.4 Gland packing shall be square braided asbestos, teflon impregnated, and glands
shall be of cast machined aluminum.

15.4.5 Shaft bearings shall be flanged nylon.

15.4.6 Limit switches shall be proximity type. VENDOR shall furnish complete control
wiring and conduit to a junction box mounted on valve body.

15.4.7 Solenoid valves furnished as part of the Knife Gate Valves shall be single
solenoid four way valves with epoxy encapsulated continuous duty coils and
conduit connection box. Solenoid shall be pre-wired to the junction box of
Paragraph 15.4.6.

15.4.8 Pneumatic cylinders shall be heavy duty, double acting, fully adjustable from 0 to
full stroke length, with cushion control at rod ends.


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15.4.9 VENDOR shall furnish valves complete with speed control. Valves shall be set
initially for a ten (10) second full stroke in each direction.

15.5.10 Valves shall be electrically complete, and equipped with "fail-safe" mechanisms
to close valves in the event of power or air failure. All auxiliary air tanks,
pressure sensors, etc., that make up a complete unit shall be supplied.

15.5.11 Valves that must also function as flow metering devices shall be equipped with
infinitely adjustable Bailey type positioners supplied with pressure gages for
remote stroke adjustment control (input signal will be 0.2 to 1.0 barg) so that
stroke may be limited from fully closed to any designated opening.

15.5.12 500 micron thick (20 mil) polyethylene film shall be fitted between aluminum
and mounted dissimilar metals.

15.5.13 Valves shall be equipped with nameplates of stainless material, 50 mm x 75 mm
(2" x 3"). Item numbers shall be stencilled in 38 mm (1-1/2") high black
characters.

15.5.14 Knife Gate valves shall be electrically connected by VENDOR to a single
junction box mounted on valve unit. Electrical components shall meet area
classification of Class II, Group G, Division 2.

15.5 Shop Test and Assembly

15.5.1 Complete valve assemblies shall be shop tested for functional operation. The
"fail-safe" closing feature on valves so equipped shall also be shop tested and
operation verified for both air and power loss conditions.

15.5.2 The Knife Gate valves and all related equipment shall be thoroughly cleaned and
free of grease, weld spatter, scale, rust and any other foreign material.

16.0 BIN AND SILO VENT COLLECTOR

16.1 Scope

This section covers the requirements for dust collectors which will be used for bin and
silo vent dust collection.

16.2 Service

The filters will separate pneumatic conveying air from dust, fines, and streamers created
by pneumatic conveying of polyethylene pellets and granules.





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16.3 Design Requirements

16.3.1 The dust collector furnished under this specification shall be continuous duty
fabric type, equipped with a reverse et cleaning system. All filters of this type
shall use the same size and type of dust bag. The dust collector shall be designed
for continuous 24 hours per day operation.

16.3.2 Clean pressure drop shall not exceed 50 mm (2 inches) water column.

16.3.3 The particulate emission shall not exceed 3.1 grain per dry normal cubic meter of
air.

16.4 Dust Characteristics

Material: Polyethylene Dust*

Bulk Density: 30 to 60 kg/m
3
(1.9 to 3.8 lbs/ft
3
)

Particle Density: 0.92 g/cm
3


Angle of Repose: 65 to 75 from Horizontal

Temperature: 43C (110F) maximum

Properties: Light chips and shavings, sluggish flowability, slightly
cohesive, generates static electricity.

Typical Particle Size Distribution:

Screen Analysis WT %

+20 Mesh 6*
-20 +30 Mesh 5
-30 +60 Mesh 45
-60 +100 Mesh 17
-100 +140 Mesh 10
-140 +200 Mesh 12
-200 Mesh 5

*Contains varying amounts of streamers (Angel Hair).

16.5 Mechanical Design

16.5.1 Dust collector design shall be suitable for dust tight or operation and outdoor
installation.


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16.5.2 The plenum, housing, and hopper sections shall be aluminum. The bag retainers
shall be type 304 stainless steel. All gasketing shall be white neoprene.

16.5.3 The dust collector shall be designed for continuous operation with automatic
reverse jet bag cleaning devices. VENDOR furnished items shall include
diaphragm valves, solenoid valves, timer, air header and surge tank, and
compressed air shutoff valve.

16.5.4 Filter media shall be 16 ounce polypropylene felt with hi-gloss finish and
complete with stainless steel ground wires for the elimination of electrostatic
charge buildup. Bags shall be equipped with type 304 stainless steel quick
disconnect clamps.

16.5.5 If required for maintenance, the VENDOR shall furnish a service platform and
supports.

16.5.6 Dust tight hinged access door as required for general inspection, maintenance,
and bag replacement shall be furnished by VENDOR.

16.5.7 VENDOR shall furnish and mount a differential pressure indicator (Midwest
Instruments or equal) to indicate pressure drop across the filter media. Also, an
additional 3/8 inch pipe coupling with plug shall be provided on the filter body.

16.5.8 Each unit shall be equipped with grounding wire to ground the bags to prevent
the buildup of electrostatic charges.

16.5.9 The dust collector shall be of factory welded construction with a full size bolting
flange for direct connection to the bin or silo. The air outlet shall be located in
the top or roof of the dust collector and equipped with a weather hood and bird
screen.

16.5.10 A safety grate shall be included just below the bags to prevent personnel, tools,
bags, etc., from falling into the bin or silo.

16.5.11 Air flow velocity across filter bags shall not exceed 2.43 m/min (8 ft/min).

16.6 Shop Tests and Assembly

Completed filter unit shall be shop tested to verify timer and solenoid valve operation.

17.0 PRODUCT DUST FILTERS

17.1 Scope

This section covers the requirements for furnishing Product Dust Filters to be installed in
dilute phase pneumatic conveying systems for polyethylene pellets and granules.


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17.2 Service

Filters will be installed on the intake side of vacuum blowers at the terminal end of "Pull"
conveying systems or on the discharge side of Pellet Receivers of "Push" conveying
systems.

Filters will remove product dust from conveying air, prior to air entering the blower on
"Pull" systems and prior to air discharge to atmosphere on "Push" systems.

The discharge of collected material will be through a rotary air lock to a trash bin.

17.3 Design Requirements

17.3.1 Filters shall be bag type, equipped with reverse air jet cleaning system. All filters
of this type shall use the same size and type of dust bag.

17.3.2 The dust collector shall be designed for continuous 24 hours per day operation.

17.3.3 Filters shall employ sufficient effective filtration area so that clean pressure drop
will not exceed 50 mm (2 inches) water column.

17.3.4 The particulate emission shall not exceed 3.1 grain per dry normal cubic meter of
air.

17.4 Dust Characteristics

Material Classification: Polyethylene Dust

Particle Density: 0.92 g/cm
3
2 percent

Properties: Free flowing, granular slightly cohesive

Temperature Local Ambient

Typical Particle Size Distribution:

Retained On WT %

20 Mesh 13.9
30 Mesh 22.7
60 Mesh 64.0
100 Mesh 82.0
140 Mesh 93.2
200 Mesh 98.8




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17.5 Mechanical Design

17.5.1 Metallic parts of filters may be of epoxy coated carbon steel.

17.5.2 Filter shall be provided with "dust-tight" flanges and shall be equipped with a
suitable rotary discharge valve designed to act as an air lock and also to control
the dust discharge from the collector. Dust discharge valves shall be flanged and
designed for bolting directly to the discharge connection on the hopper.
Discharge side of valves shall not be less than 1060 mm (42 inches) from ground
level. The clear space between support members shall be least 1 m (39 inches).

17.5.3 Outlets shall be centrally located on top of housing.

17.5.4 A minimum of two (2) manway doors shall be provided.

17.5.5 Filters shall be shall be clearly. Numbers shall be black characters provided with
nameplates and Item Numbers stamped thereon. In addition, Item stenciled in
38 mm (1-1/2 inches) high on filter bodies.

17.5.6 The dust collector shall be designed for continuous operation with automatic
reverse jet bag cleaning devices. VENDOR furnished items shall include
diaphragm valves, solenoid valves, timer, air header and surge tank and
compressed air shutoff valve.

17.5.7 Bag collars shall be welded to tube sheets and tube sheets shall be welded to
housing. Tube plate "pinched" between flanges is an acceptable alternative.

17.5.8 Filter material shall be polyester twill and shall conform to the following:

Weight: 224 gm/m
2
(10 oz/yd
2
)

Thread Count: 96 x 60 (ends/picks)

Weave: 3/1 twill

Air Permeability: 0.127 m
3
/sec-m
2
(25 SCFM/ft
2
)

17.5.9 Construction of filter bags shall be such that no raw edges are exposed to the air
stream. All bag attachments to support brackets shall be made by using
polypropylene sash cord completely enclosed by a covering seam of the bag
material. All sewing thread shall be of continuous monofilament "Dacron" or
equal.

17.5.10 Design and construction of tube sheet and other internals shall be of sufficient
strength to withstand a pressure drop equal to maximum blower suction vacuum
in the event of blockage of the tube sheet.


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17.5.11 Each unit shall be equipped with grounding wire to ground the bags to prevent
the buildup of electrostatic charges. A rupture disc or similar explosion relief
device is required.

17.5.12 VENDOR shall furnish and mount a differential pressure indicator (Midwest
Instruments or equal) to indicate pressure differential across the media. Also,
additional 3/8 inch pipe couplings with plugs shall be provided one on each side
of the element.

17.5.13 Air flow velocity across filter bags shall not exceed 1.51 m/min (5 ft/min).


17.6 Shop Test and Assembly

17.6.1 For pressure service, filters shall be individually tested for leaks at not less than 1
bar gage (15 psig) internal air pressure, checking for leaks with a solution of soap
and water. For vacuum service, filters shall be individually tested at a vacuum of
250 mm. (20 inches) mercury column.

17.6.2 Results of above shop tests shall be recorded on nameplate

17.6.3 Filters shall be thoroughly cleaned and free of grease, weld spatter, scale, rust
and any other foreign material.


18.0 VACUUM SYSTEM INTAKE FILTERS

18.1 Scope

This section covers the requirements for furnishing Vacuum System Intake Filters for
installation in dilute phase pneumatic conveying systems for polyethylene pellets or
granules.

18.2 Service

The Intake Filters will be used to remove air-borne particles from supply air at the inlet
end of the vacuum pneumatic conveying pipe systems.

18.3 Design Requirements

18.3.1 Filters shall employ sufficient effective filtration area so that clean pressure drop
shall not exceed 50 mm (2 inches) water column.

18.3.2 Filters shall be 100 percent efficient for removal of air-borne particles of
5 microns and larger.

18.3.3 All filters of this type shall use the same size and type of dust bag.

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18.4 Mechanical Design

18.4.1 Metallic parts of filters in direct contact with air shall be of aluminum or
300 series stainless steel. Shell thickness shall be not less than 5 mm (3/16 inch).

18.4.2 Filters shall be of all welded construction.

18.4.3 Inlets shall be fitted with aluminum bird screens.

18.4.4 Outlet connection shall be located near the top of the filter.

18.4.5 Bag collars shall be welded to tube sheets and tube sheets shall be welded to
housings.

18.4.6 Filters shall be equipped with not less than two (2) quick opening manway doors.

18.4.7 Air flow velocity across filters shall not exceed 2.43 m/min (8 ft/min).

18.4.8 Filter material shall be continuous multifilament dacron polyester fiber and shall
conform to the following:

Weight: 105 gm/m
2
(4.7 oz/yd
2
)

Thread Count: 72 x 60 (ends/picks)

Weave: 3/1 twill

Air Permeability: 0.35 m
3
/sec-m
2
@ 12 mm water column;
(70 SCFM/ft
2
@ 0.5 inch)

18.4.9 Construction of filter bags shall be such that no raw edges are exposed to the air
stream. All bag attachments to support brackets shall be made by using
polypropylene sash cord completely enclosed by a covering seam of the bag
material. All sewing thread shall be of continuous monofilament dacron or
equal.

18.4.10 No shaker or backwash device is required.

18.4.11 Filters shall be equipped with nameplates of stainless material. Item Numbers,
test condition, etc., shall be stamped thereon. In addition, Item Numbers shall be
stenciled in 38 mm (1-1/2 inches) high black characters.

18.4.12 Design and construction of the tube sheet and other internals shall be of sufficient
strength to withstand a pressure drop equal to maximum blower suction vacuum
in the event of blockage of the tube sheet.


FLUOR DANIEL

PROCESS MANUAL

PIPING HYDRAULICS AND SPECIFICATION
BOOK 1

PNEUMATIC CONVEYING
SECTION 8.0

PAGE 301

DATE 8-94

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18.4.13 An internal screen or grate shall be provided on the clean air outlet pipe to
prevent bags that may come loose from entering the pneumatic conveying
systems.

18.4.14 VENDOR shall furnish and mount a differential pressure indicator (Midwest
Instruments or equal) to indicate pressure drop across the filter media. Also, an
additional 3/8 inch pipe coupling with plug shall be provided on the clean side of
the filter.

18.5 Shop Test and Assembly

18.5.1 Filters shall be individually inspected to verify the mechanical design and
assembly.

18.5.2 All filters shall be individually tested for air leakage and vacuum tested to 250
mm (20 inches absolute pressure) mercury column.

18.5.3 The intake filters shall be thoroughly cleaned and free from grease, weld spatter,
scale, rust and any other foreign material.

19.0 PRODUCT FILTER-RECEIVERS

19.1 Scope

This section covers the requirements for furnishing Product Filter Receivers to be
installed in dilute phase pneumatic conveying systems for polyethylene pellets and
granules.

19.2 Service

Filter-Receivers will be installed at the transfer point from vacuum conveying systems to
pressure conveying systems.

Filter-Receivers will remove product dust from conveying air, and act as a transfer point
from vacuum to pressure systems. Product inlet pipe shall tangentially enter the receiver.

The discharge of collected material will be through a rotary air lock to a pressure
conveying system.

19.3 Design Requirements

19.3.1 Filters shall be bag type, equipped with reverse air let cleaning system. All filters
of this type shall use the same size and type of dust bag.

19.3.2 The dust collector shall be designed for continuous 24 hours per day operation.


FLUOR DANIEL

PROCESS MANUAL

PIPING HYDRAULICS AND SPECIFICATION
BOOK 1

PNEUMATIC CONVEYING
SECTION 8.0

PAGE 302

DATE 8-94

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19.3.3 Filters shall employ sufficient effective filtration area so that clean pressure drop
will not exceed 50 mm (2 inches) water column.

19.3.4 Internal design of each receiver shall be free of projections, welds, etc., that
would tend to create agglomerates. Surfaces which will contact the product shall
be sandblasted to reduce the creation of floss.

19.3.5 The particulate emission shall not exceed 3.1 grain per dry normal cubic meter of
air.

19.4 Dust Characteristics

Material Classification: Polyethylene Dust

Particle Density: 0.92 g/cm
3
2 percent

Properties: Free flowing, granular slightly cohesive

Temperature: Local Ambient

Typical Particle Size Distribution:

Retained On WT %
20 Mesh 13.9
30 Mesh 22.7
60 Mesh 64.0
100 Mesh 82.0
140 Mesh 93.2
200 Mesh 98.8

19.5 Mechanical Design

19.5.1 Metallic parts of filters shall be of aluminum or 300 series stainless steel.

19.5.2 Filter shall be provided with "dust-tight" flanges and shall be equipped with a
suitable rotary feeder valve. Rotary feeders shall be flanged and designed for
bolting directly to the discharge connection on the hopper.

19.5.3 Outlets shall be centrally located on top of housing.

19.5.4 A minimum of two (2) manway doors shall be provided.

19.5.5 Filters shall be provided with nameplates and Item Numbers shall be clearly
stamped thereon. In addition, Item Numbers shall be stenciled in 38 mm (1-1/2
inches) high black characters on filter bodies.


FLUOR DANIEL

PROCESS MANUAL

PIPING HYDRAULICS AND SPECIFICATION
BOOK 1

PNEUMATIC CONVEYING
SECTION 8.0

PAGE 303

DATE 8-94

\225-002 Book1 Section 8.doc-10/2/2003 6:08:00 PM
19.5.6 The dust collector shall be designed for continuous operation with automatic
reverse jet bag cleaning devices. VENDOR furnished items shall include
diaphragm valves, solenoid valves, timer, air header and surge tank and
compressed air shutoff valve.

19.5.7 Bag collars shall be welded to tube sheets and tube sheets shall be welded to
housing. Tube plate "pinched" between flanges is an acceptable alternative.

19.5.8 Filter material shall be polyester twill and shall conform to the following:

Weight: 224 gm/m
2
(10 oz/yd
2
)
Thread Count: 96 x 60 (ends/picks)
Weave: 3/1 twill
Air Permeability: 0.127 m
3
/sec-m
2
(25 SCFM/ft
2
)

19.5.9 Construction of filter bags shall be such that no raw edges are exposed to the air
stream. All bag attachments to support brackets shall be made by using
polypropylene sash cord completely enclosed by a covering seam of the bag
material. All sewing thread shall be of continuous monofilament "Dacron" or
equal.

19.5.10 Design and construction of tube sheet and other internals shall be of sufficient
strength to withstand a pressure drop equal to maximum blower suction vacuum
in the event of blockage of the tube sheet.

19.5.11 Each unit shall be equipped with grounding wire to ground the bags to prevent
the buildup of electrostatic charges. A rupture disc or similar explosion relief
device is required.

19.5.12 VENDOR shall furnish and mount a differential pressure indicator (Midwest
Instruments or equal) to indicate pressure differential across the media. Also,
additional 3/8 inch pipe couplings with plugs shall be provided one on each side
of the element.

19.5.13 Air flow velocity across filter bags shall not exceed 1.51 m/min (5 ft/min).

19.6 Shop Test and Assembly

19.6.1 For vacuum service, filters shall be individually tested at a vacuum of 250 mm
(20 inches absolute pressure) mercury column.

19.6.2 Results of above shop tests shall be recorded on nameplate.

19.6.3 Filters shall be thoroughly cleaned and free of grease, weld spatter, scale, rust
and any other foreign material.

FLUOR DANIEL

PROCESS MANUAL

PIPING HYDRAULICS AND SPECIFICATION
BOOK 1

PNEUMATIC CONVEYING
SECTION 8.0

PAGE 304

DATE 8-94


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8.8 INDEXES TO FIGURES AND TABLES (NARRATIVE AND APPENDICES)

8.8.1 Index of Figures

Figure No. Title
8-1 Vertical Conveying Phase Diagram
8-2 Choking Velocity Phenomena
8-3 Schematic of Solid Build-Up From Dilute to Dense Phase
8-4 Horizontal Conveying Phase Diagram
8-4A Flow Regimes and Pressure Drop for Horizontal and Vertical
Pipelines
8-4B Modes of Cocurrent Gas-Solids Flow in Horizontal Pipes
8-5(a) Dilute Phase Flow at Velocities Slightly Above the Conveying
Velocity
8-5(b) Flow at Higher Velocities Where Particles have Formed a
Uniform Suspension
8-6 Positive Low Pressure System (2 to 15 psig)
8-7 Vacuum System
8-8 "Pull-Push" Conveying, One Prime Mover
8-8A "Pull-Push" Conveying System, Vacuum/Pressure with One
Prime Mover
8-9 "Pull-Push" Conveying, Two Prime Movers
8-9A "Pull-Push" Conveying System, Vacuum/Pressure with Two
Prime Movers
8-10 Dense Phase System Transport Mechanism at Low Velocity
8-11 Single Plug Blow Tank
8-12 Material Flowrate Against Time for a Single Plug Blow Tank
System
8-13 Air Supply Proportioned Between the Fluidizing and
Supplementary Air Lines to Improve Control
8-14 Top Discharge Blow Tank Showing Internal Discharge Pipe
Positioned Above Fluidizing Membrane
8-15 Dense Phase ("Air Knife") System, Divides the Stream Into
Discrete Plugs
8-16 Plug Prevention with Injection of Secondary Air
8-17 Plug Elimination Using Bypassing Air
8-18 Plug Prevention by Controlled Secondary Air
8-19 Parallel Blow Tanks
8-20 Continuous Blow Tank Operation with Two Pressure Tanks In
Line Beneath a Supply Hopper
8-21A Screw Feeder with Air Jet
8-21B Air-Swept Double Entry Rotary Feeder
8-22A System Design and Selection
8-22B System Design and Selection
8-22C System Design and Selection
8-22D System Design and Selection

FLUOR DANIEL

PROCESS MANUAL

PIPING HYDRAULICS AND SPECIFICATION
BOOK 1

PNEUMATIC CONVEYING
SECTION 8.0

PAGE 305

DATE 8-94


\225-002 Book1 Section 8.doc-10/2/2003 6:08:00 PM
Figure No. Title
8-22E System Design and Selection
8-22F Design Conditions for Conveying Various Solids Materials
8-23 Conveying Characteristics for Cement Conveyed through a
Pipeline 50 m Long, 75 mm Diameter, Having a Total of Nine
Bends at 90 Degrees
8-24 Experimental Determination of Minimum Conveying Conditions
for Cement Conveyed through a Pipeline 100 m Long, 50 mm
Diameter, Having a Total of 17 Bends
8-25 Algorithm for Pneumatic Conveying System Design Based on
the Use of Test Data
8-26 Algorithm for Pneumatic Conveying System Rating Based on
Use of Test Data
8-27 Influence of Pipeline Bends Expressed as Equivalent Length of
Straight Horizontal Pipeline
8-28 Approximate Operating Pressure Ranges for Conveying Line
Feeding Devices
8-29 Comparison of Material Flowrate Versus Conveying Distance
for Different Types of Feeder
8-30 Rotary Valve
8-31(a) Off-Site Valve
8-31(b) Blow Through Valve
8-32 Gate-Lock Valve
8-33 Suction Nozzle, Used in Negative Pressure Systems Where only
the Top Surface of the Material is Accessible
8-34 The Range of Air Movers Commonly Used in Pneumatic
Conveying
8-35 Air Mover Operating Characteristics
8-36 Particle Size Distribution Before and After Conveying
8-37A Nomograph for Determining Vent Areas Based on ST
Classification
[VDI (1979)]:P
STAT
=0.1 barg.
8-37B ibid 0.2 barg.
8-37C ibid 0.5 barg.
8-38A Nomograph for Determining Vent Areas Based on K
ST
Values
[VDI (1979)]:P
STAT
= 0.1 barg.
8-38B ibid 0.2 barg.
8-38C ibid 0.5 barg.
8-39 Method of Using Nomographs
8-40 An Example of the Comparison of Vent Areas Determined From
ST and K
ST
Nomographs
8-41 The Effect of Vent Ducts on the Pressure in a Vented Vessel
[VDI (1979)]
8-42 Vent on Top of Cyclone
8-43 Vent on Top of Cyclone Vortex Tube


FLUOR DANIEL

PROCESS MANUAL

PIPING HYDRAULICS AND SPECIFICATION
BOOK 1

PNEUMATIC CONVEYING
SECTION 8.0

PAGE 306

DATE 8-94


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Figure No. Title
APPENDICES
8-44 Dilute Phase Conveying Velocities
8-45 Shortcut Method Pressure Drop Chart
8-46 Pressure Drop for Solids Reacceleration in Pneumatic
Conveying Through 90 Elbows in Horizontal-to-Vertical Flow
8-47 ICI/Warren Spring and Surface Tension Particle Classification
Systems for Conveyability (Curves based on ambient air for
motive gas)
8-48 Superficial Velocity vs. Particle Diameter. Definition of the
Constant "C" in Equation 1
8-49 Graphical Solution of ICI/Warren Springs Pressure Drop
Equation
8-50 Minimum Air Rates for Conveying Powders and Granular Solids

8.8.2 Index of Tables

Table No. Title
8-1 Guidelines for the Selection of Material Feeders
8-2 Air Leakage Through Fuller Rotary Valves
8-3 Air Movers for Positive Pressure Systems
8-4 Air Movers for Vacuum Systems
8-5 Dust Explosion Data
8-6 Vent Ratio Data - Small Vessels
8-7 Vent Ratio Data - Large Vessels
8-8 Relative Merits of Inert Gases
APPENDICES
8-9A Typical Solids Loading in Pneumatic Transfer Lines
8-9B Conveying Distance versus Average Velocity
8-10 Standard Pipe Dimensions
8-11 Bulk Solid Material Characteristics (Coefficients of Friction for
Various Materials Sliding on Steel) (Appendix 9)
8-12 Angle of Repose for Various Bulk Materials (Appendix 10)
8-13 Dilute Phase Conveying Velocities for Various Materials
8-14 Dense Phase Conveying Velocity for Various Materials
8-15 U.S. Sieve Series
8-16 Tyler Standard Screens
8-17 I.M.M. Screens
8-18 British Standard Sieves