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Six Phases of systems Analysis & Design

Six phases of system development life cycle:

A system is defined as a collection of related components that interact to perform a task
in order to accomplish a goal. The point of system analysis & design is to ascertain how a
system works and then take steps to make it better.
A system Analyst is an information specialist who performs system analysis, design,
and implementation.
Six phases of System Analysis & Design: -
This is a six-phase problem solving procedre for examining an information system and
improving it. The !"#$, system development life cycle is defined as the step-by-step
process that many organi%ations follow dring system analysis and design.
&reliminary investigation
!ystem analysis
!ystem design
!ystem development
!ystem implementation
!ystem maintenance
First phase: conduct a preliminary investigation: -
The ob'ective of phase (, preliminary investigation, is to condct a preliminary analysis
&rpose alternative soltions, describe costs and benefits and sbmit preliminary plan -
)n this first phase again we have for steps those are* -
$ondct preliminary analysis
&ropose alternative soltions.
"escribe costs and benefits of each soltions
!bmit preliminary plan with recommendations.
(.conduct preliminary analysis:
This incldes stating the ob'ective defining the natre and scope of the
"etermine the preliminary*
To define the ob'ectives of the organi%ation, yo can do the following.
+ead internal docment abot the organi%ation*
These can inclde original corporate characters, prospectors, annal reports, and
procedres manals
+ead external docments abot the organi%ation*
These can inclde new articles, acconts in the bsiness press, reports by
secrities analyst, adits by independent acconting firms, and similar docments.
Interview important executives:
,ith in the company with in the particlar area yo are concerned with, yo can
also interview key sers. !orce of this may be done face
(. Determine the nature & scope of the prolems:
This may derive from the very fact that yo have been asked to do a systems analysis and
design pro'ect.
-. Propose Alternative solutions: -
)n this other possible soltions can come from interviewing people inside the
organi%ation clients on cstomers affected by it, sppliers, and consltants. ,ith this data
yo have . choices.
#eave the system as is
)mprove the system
"evelop a new system
.. Descrie !osts & "enefits: -
,hich ever of the three alternatives is chosen, it will have costs and benefits. $osts may
depend on benefits, which may after savings. )npt errors or redndant otpt may be
redced. !ystems and sbsystem may be better integrated. $stomers or sppliers may
interact better with the system. !ecrity may be improved costs may be ct.
/. Sumit a preliminary plan: -
)n this step yo need to wrap p all yor findings in a written report. The readers of
this report will be the exectives, who are a position to decide in which direction to
proceed-wake changes, and how mch to allow the pro'ect.
)f magnet approves the feasibility stdy, then the system analysis phrase can begin.
!econd phase* "o Analysis of the system* -
!ystem analysis is to gather data, analysis the data, and write a report. !ystem analysis
describes what a system shold do to satisfy the needs of the sers.
#ather Data: -
)n gathering data, there are a handfl of tools that systems analysis se, most of them not
terribly technical. They inclde
$ritten documents: -
,ritten docments means reports, forms, manals, memos, bsiness plans, policy
statements, and soon. An organi%ation want shows levels of management and formal lines
of athority.
Interviews: -
)nterviews with managers, workers, clients, sppliers, and competitions will also give
yo insights.
Structured interviews:-
!trctred interviews means inclde only 0estion yo have planned and written ot in
advance. 1y sticking e
this script and not asking other 0estions . 2nstrctred
interviews means yo can vary from the line of 0estions and prpose other sb'ects if it
several prodction.
%uestionnaires: -
3estionnaires are sefl for getting information form large grops of people when yo
cannot get arond interviewing every one.
&servation: -
4bservation throgh observation yo can experience the conflicts and responsibilities of
the people yo are working with
Sampling: -
)f yor data gathering please involves a large nmber of events5people, if may simplify
things 'st to stdy a sample.
Analy'e the data:-
6odeling tools enable a system analyst to present graphic, on pictorial, representations of
a system. 7xample of these is
Dataflow diagrams:-
A "8" graphically shows the flow of data throgh a system. A data dictionary defines all
the elements of data that make p the date flow.
System flowcharts:-
A system chart diagrams the ma'or inpts, otpts, and process of a system.
!onnectivity diagrams:-
$onnectivity diagrams are sed to map network connections of people, data, and
activities at varios locations.
#rid charts:-!hows the relationship between data on inpt docments and data on
otpt docments.
Decision tales:- !hows the decision rles that apply when certain conditions occr and
what actions to take.
..$rite a reports:-
4nce yo have completed the analysis, yo need to docment this please. This report to
management shold have three parts.
)t shold explain how the existing system works.
!econd it shold explain the problems with the existing
8inally, it shold describe the re0irements for the new
systems & make recommitment on what to do next.
The third phase* "esign the system
The ob'ective of phase., system design is to do a preliminary design and then a detail
design, and write a report.
Do a preliminary design: -
A preliminary design, often called a logical design, describes the general fnctional
capabilities of a proposed information system. )t reviews the system re0irements and
then considers ma'or components of the system.
!ame tools that may be sed in the design are case tools and pro'ect management
!AS( )&&*S: - $ase 9for compter aided software engineering : tools are programs
that atomate varios activities of the !"#$ in several phases.
&rototyping refers to sing workstations, case tools and other s5w applications to
bild working models of systems components so that they can be 0ickly tested and
evalated ths, a prototype is a limited working system developed to test ot design
P+&,(!) -A.A#(-(.) S/$:
This s5w consists of programs sed to plan, schedle, and control the people,
costs, and resorces re0ired to complete a pro'ect on time. This will often ses - charts
-;a cratt chart ses lines and bars to indicate the dration of a serios of tasks.
A pert 9program evalation review techni0e: chart slows not timing bt also r< slips
among the tasks of a pro'ect.
D& A D()AI* D(SI#.:
A detail design, also called a physical design, describes how a proposed
information system will deliver the general capabilities described in the preliminary
design. The detail design sally consider the following parts of the system in this order
4t pt re0irement
)npt re0irement
!torage re0irement
&rocessing re0irement
!ystem control and backp
$+I)( A +(P&+):
All the work of the preliminary and detail design will end p in a large, detailed
F&0+)1 P1AS(:
D(2(*&P )1( S3S)(-:
)n phase /, systems development, the systems analysis 5 others )n the
organi%ation, ac0ire the s5w, ac0ire the h5w, and then test the system.
A%0I+( )1( S&F)$A+(:
)n the make-on-by decision, yo decide whether yo have to create a program-
have if cstom-written-or by it, meaning simply prchasing an existing s5w package
-; Ac0ire h5w
-;Test the system
-;2nit testing also called modlar testing
-;!ystem testing* parts are linked together & test it
FIF)1 P1AS(:
I-P*(-(.) )1( S3S)(-:
!ystem implementation, consists of converts the hardware, software, and files to
the new system and training the sers
!&.2(+) )& )1( .($ S3S)(-:
$onversion, the process of converting from an old information system to anew
one, individals converting h5w, s5w, and files there are for strategies for handling
-;"irect approach
-;&arallel approach
-;&hased approach
-;&ilot approach
!&-PI*( FI.A* D&!0-(.)A)I&.:
"eveloping good docment at is an ongoing process dring all phases of !"#$.
T+A)= T>7 2!7+!*
Training is done with veracity of tools. !ome times is done by the organi%ations
own staffers? at other times it is contracted ot.
)1( SI4)1 P1AS(: -AI.)AI. )1( S3S)(-
!ystems maintenance, ad'st and improves the system by having systems adits,
ser feed back, and periodic evalation and by making changes based on new conditions
two tools that are some times considered part of maintenance part phase are
6eans an independent review of an organi%ation information system to see if all
records and systems are as they shold be often a system analyst will an adit trial
Aditing, which is sally done by an acconting, is one evalation
These are sir phases of !"#$.