You are on page 1of 8

5/11/2014 Pescetarianism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pescetarianism 1/8
Pescetarianism
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Pescetarianism /psktrin/ (also spelled pescatarianism) is the practice of following a diet that includes fish
or other seafood, but not the flesh of other animals. A pescetarian diet typically shares many of its components with
a lacto-ovo vegetarian diet and may include vegetables, fruit, nuts, grains, beans, eggs, dairy, and insect byproducts
(such as honey, carmine, or shellac), but a vegetarian diet excludes meat. The Merriam-Webster dictionary dates
the origin of the term pescetarian to 1993 and defines it as: "one whose diet includes fish but no other meat."
[1]
Contents
1 Etymology
2 Rationale
2.1 Health considerations
2.2 Ethics
2.3 Abstinence among Catholics
3 Comparisons to other diets
4 List of pescetarians
5 See also
6 References
7 External links
Etymology
Pescetarian is probably a neologism formed as a blend of the Italian word pesce ("fish") and the English word
"vegetarian".
[1]
The Italian word is pronounced [pee], while the English neologism is commonly /psktrin/,
with a /sk/ sound, thus differing from pronunciations of similar terms in English and Italian.
Pesce in turn derives from the Latin piscis,
[1]
which has the form pisci- when it serves as a prefix, as it often does in
scholarly terms (e.g. "pisciculture" /pskltr/ or "piscivore" /psvr/). Note that a piscivore, as a type of
carnivore, eats a diet primarily of fish, whereas the neologism pescetarian refers to persons who consume plant
derivatives as well as fish. A similar term is vegequarian.
Rationale
Health considerations
5/11/2014 Pescetarianism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pescetarianism 2/8
Japanese nigiri-sushi. Many cultures
offer pescetarian-friendly cuisine.
One of the most commonly cited reasons is that of health, based on findings that red meat is detrimental to health in
many cases due to non-lean red meats containing high amounts of saturated fats,
[2][3]
choline and carnitine.
[4]
Eating
certain kinds of fish raises HDL levels,
[5][6]
and some fish are a
convenient source of omega-3 fatty acids,
[7]
and have numerous
health benefits in one food variety.
[8]
A 1999 meta-analysis of five
studies comparing vegetarian and non-vegetarian mortality rates in
Western countries found that in comparison with regular meat-eaters,
mortality from ischemic heart disease was 34% lower in pescetarians,
34% lower in ovo-lacto vegetarians, 26% lower in vegans and 20%
lower in occasional meat-eaters.
[9]
Concerns have been raised about consuming some fish varieties
containing toxins such as mercury and PCBs,
[10]
though it is possible to select fish that contain little or no mercury
and moderate the consumption of mercury-containing fish.
[11][12]
Ethics
Similarly to vegetarianism, some pescetarians adopt the diet on the basis of ethics, either as a transition to
vegetarianism, not treating fish on the same moral level as other animals, or as a compromise to obtain nutrients not
found in plants as easily.
[13]
Abstinence among Catholics
Adhering to a diet closely resembling pescetarianism as a form of penitence among Catholics. Such an approach is
mandatory for Catholics on all Fridays of the year, except in places such as the United States, where the United
States Conference of Catholic Bishops made the practice optional but recommended. It is still mandatory on Ash
Wednesday and every Friday during Lent, and some traditionalist Catholics choose to abstain from meat during the
entire 40-day Lent period, as was common practice in earlier times.
[14]
Comparisons to other diets
Pescetarianism is similar to many traditional diets emphasizing fish as well as fruits, vegetables and grains. Many
coastal populations tend to eat this way and these features characterize the traditional Mediterranean diet and the
diets of many parts of Asia, Northern Europe, and the Caribbean. These traditional diets tend to also include meat
although it is peripheral. In common with some vegetarians, pescetarians often eat eggs and/or dairy products, in
addition to fruits, vegetables, nuts, and grains.
Pescetarians are sometimes described as vegetarian or pesco-vegetarian, but vegetarians commonly do not
consider the pescetarian diet to be vegetarian. For example, the Vegetarian Society, which initiated popular use of
the term vegetarian as early as 1847, does not consider pescetarianism to be a vegetarian diet.
[15]
The definitions
of vegetarian in mainstream dictionaries sometimes include fish in the diet.
[16]
List of pescetarians
5/11/2014 Pescetarianism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pescetarianism 3/8
See also: List of vegans and List of vegetarians
This is a list of notable people who are or were pescetarians.
Nicole Anderson
[17]
Mira Aroyo
[18]
Brigitte Bardot
[19]
Kari Byron
[20]
Tracy Chapman
[21]
Parvesh Cheena
[22]
Common
[23]
CM Punk
[24]
Chuck D
[25]
Ted Danson
[26]
Alan Davies
[27][28]
Sierra Deaton
[29]
Nick Diaz
[30][31]
Wendy van Dijk
[32]
David Duchovny
[33]
Susie Essman
[34]
Johnny Galecki
[35][36]
Ben Gibbard
[37]
Ariana Grande
[38]
Lee Hyori
[39]
Steve Jobs
[40]
Alex Kinsey
[41]
Kristin Kreuk
[42]
Lousewies van der Laan
[43]
Harvey Levin
[44]
Wendie Malick
[45]
Dannii Minogue
[46]
Mary Tyler Moore
[47]
Cam Newton
[48]
Conor Oberst
[49]
Amanda Palmer
[50]
5/11/2014 Pescetarianism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pescetarianism 4/8
See also
Semi-vegetarianism - other forms of semi-vegetarianism that include occasional meat consumption
References
Amanda Palmer
[50]
A$AP Rocky
[51]
Andy Serkis
[52][53]
Queen Sofa of Spain
[54]
Tom Scharpling
[55]
Hal Sparks
[56]
Howard Stern
[57]
Ben Stiller
[58]
Sonny Strait
[59]
Hayley Westenra (former)
[60]
Grigory Rasputin
[61]
1. ^
a

b

c
Pescetarian (http://www.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/dictionary?book=Dictionary&va=pescetarian),
Merriam Webster. Retrieved September 27, 2012.
2. ^ E Giovannucci, EB Rimm, MJ Stampfer, GA Colditz, A Ascherio and WC Willett, "Intake of fat, meat, and fiber
in relation to risk of colon cancer in men" (http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/54/9/2390).
Cancer Research 54, 2390-2397. 1994-05-01.
3. ^ Frank B. Hu, MD, PhD, JoAnn E. Manson, MD, PhD, and Walter C. Willett, MD, DrPh, "Types of Dietary Fat
and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: A Critical Review" (http://www.jacn.org/cgi/content/abstract/20/1/5). Journal
of the American College of Nutrition, vol. 20, no. 1, 5-19. 2001.
4. ^ http://news.discovery.com/human/health/red-meat-heart-disease-130408.htm
5. ^ Paul J Nestel, "Fish oil and cardiovascular disease: lipids and arterial function"
(http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/abstract/71/1/228S). American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 71, no. 1, 228S-
231S. January 2000.
6. ^ Sacks FM, Hebert P, Appel LJ, Borhani NO, Applegate WB, Cohen JD, Cutler JA, Kirchner KA, Kuller LH, Roth
KJ, et al., "Short report: the effect of fish oil on blood pressure and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels in
phase I of the Trials of Hypertension Prevention" (http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/abstract/71/1/228S). Journal of
Hypertension, 209-13. 1994-02-12.
7. ^ Frank B. Hu, MD; Leslie Bronner, MD; Walter C. Willett, MD; Meir J. Stampfer, MD; Kathryn M. Rexrode,
MD; Christine M. Albert, MD; David Hunter, MD; JoAnn E. Manson, MD, "Fish and Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake
5/11/2014 Pescetarianism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pescetarianism 5/8
and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Women" (http://jama.highwire.org/cgi/content/abstract/287/14/1815).
JAMA. 287:1815-1821. 2002.
8. ^ Get Hooked on Fish! by Sue Gilbert, MS, Nutritionis
(http://health.ivillage.com/eating/ewmeat/0,,79sxz0k6,00.html)
9. ^ "Mortality in vegetarians and nonvegetarians: detailed findings from a collaborative analysis of 5 prospective
studies" (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10479225). American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 70:516S-524S.
1999.
10. ^ Committee on the Toxicological Effects of Methylmercury, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology,
National Research Council, "Toxicological Effects of Methylmercury" (http://www.nap.edu/catalog/9899.html).
2000. ISBN 0-309-07140-2.
11. ^ Experts Say Consumers Can Eat Around Toxins In Fish
(http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2003/02/030210080251.htm) - Science Daily
12. ^ Mercury: Are fish safe to eat? by Gloria Tsang, RD (http://www.healthcastle.com/fish-safe-eat.shtml)
13. ^ Rohrer, Finlo (5 November 2009). "The rise of the non-veggie vegetarian"
(http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/magazine/8341002.stm). BBC News. Retrieved 22 July 2013.
14. ^ http://catholicism.about.com/od/catholicliving/p/Abstinence.htm
15. ^ "Vegetarians do not eat fish!" (http://www.vegsoc.org/fish/) The "fish campaign" webpage of the Vegetarian
Society
16. ^ Shorter Oxford English Dictionary 2 (6th ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2007. p. 3506. defines
"vegetarian" (noun) as "A person who on principle abstains from animal food; esp. one who avoids meat but will
consume dairy produce and eggs and sometimes also fish (cf. VEGAN noun)." Shorter Oxford English Dictionary
2 (5th ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2002. p. 3511. has the same definition.
17. ^ "Twitter / Nicole Anderson: @xdemidragon I'm a pesceta"
(http://twitter.com/HeyItsNicoleA/status/14568799143/). Twitter.com. 2010-05-23. Retrieved 2011-09-19.
18. ^ Morley, Cat (2008-09-13). "Ladytron | Issue 11 - Speak Your Mind Issue | Snippets Zine"
(http://www.cutoutandkeep.net/snippets/issue11/ladytron/). Cutoutandkeep.net. Retrieved 2011-09-19.
19. ^ Brigitte Bardot - Le carr de Pluton, 1999, ISBN 978-2-246-59501-4
20. ^ Suicide Girls (March 30, 2011). "Interviews > Kari Byron" (http://suicidegirls.com/interviews/Kari%20Byron/).
Retrieved 2011-03-30.
21. ^ Vivinetto, G., 2000. Chapman giggles; reporter hatches heckling plan. St. Petersburg Times, [internet] 14
September. Available at http://www.sptimes.com/News/091400/Weekend/Chapman_giggles_repor.shtml
[Accessed 10 June 2009]
22. ^ "Fame Bites - Parvesh Cheena" (http://eatocracy.cnn.com/2011/02/10/fame-bites-parvesh-cheena/). CNN. 2011-
02-10.
23. ^ Pechin, Pauline (October 15, 2008). "Common Predicts Movie Stardom for Himself"
(http://www.blackbookmag.com/article/common-predicts-movie-stardom-for-himself/4533). BlackBook.
BlackBook Media. Retrieved April 17, 2010.
24. ^ "CM Punk personal tweet" (https://twitter.com/#!/CMPunk/status/185198024455241728). Twitter. 2012-03-28.
Retrieved 2012-03-28.
25. ^ "PETA2 // Out There // Fight the Power With Chuck D" (http://www.peta2.com/outthere/o-chuckd.asp).
5/11/2014 Pescetarianism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pescetarianism 6/8
25. ^ "PETA2 // Out There // Fight the Power With Chuck D" (http://www.peta2.com/outthere/o-chuckd.asp).
Peta2.com. Retrieved 2012-05-08.
26. ^ Late Night with Conan O'Brien, 2007. [TV programme] Broadway Video, Conaco, Universal Media Studios,
NBC, 27 September 2007.
27. ^ "Dave - The Home of Witty Comedy Banter : Dave" (http://dave.uktv.co.uk/hall-of-fame/daves-mates/alan-
davies/). Dave.uktv.co.uk. Retrieved 2011-09-19.
28. ^ Ready Steady Cook, 2008. [TV programme] BBC2 27 May 2008.
29. ^
http://www.zimbio.com/The+X+Factor/articles/GmTf0OAFb9g/X+Factor+USA+Season+3+Groups+Mentored+Simon
30. ^ "Nick Diaz Diet." (http://news.menshealth.com/work-out-like-ufc-fighter-nick-diaz/2012/02/03/). Men's Health.
July 6, 2011.
31. ^ "Nick Diaz Diet.(2)" (http://sports.yahoo.com/mma/news?slug=dm-mmavegetarians021711). Yahoo! Sports.
July 6, 2011.
32. ^ "Afl. 5: Breda beste getest door Mystery Guest"
(http://www.rtl.nl/(/reality/mijntentistop2/home/)/reality/mijntentistop2/components/nieuws/articles/0403_samenvatt
ing_5.xml) (in Dutch). RTL. 2008-03-04. Retrieved 2008-04-26.
33. ^ David Hochman. "The X-Man Cometh" (http://www.menshealth.com/celebrity-fitness/the-x-man-cometh).
Men's Health. Retrieved 2011-12-17.
34. ^ Home Box Office, Inc. ca. 2009. Susie Essman - Susie talks about life on the set and why there are so few
female stand-up comics. [Online] (Updated 2009) Available at
http://www.hbo.com/larrydavid/interviews/Essman_2.html [Accessed 10 June 2009]
35. ^ "24/7 Chicago interviews Galecki" (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9mTFMSHUX38). YouTube. 2009-04-
13. Retrieved 2011-09-19.
36. ^ Dr. Mark Liponis (2010-01-03). "Start Getting Healthier Right Now"
(http://www.parade.com/health/2010/01/03-start-getting-healthier-right-now.html). Parade.com. Retrieved 2011-
09-19.
37. ^ IGN: Death Cab For Cutie (http://music.ign.com/articles/436/436818p1.html), 4 September 2003. Retrieved 21
March 2009.
38. ^ "Twitter / Ariana Grande: I'm very excited to announ" (http://twitter.com/ArianaGrande/status/18399308844).
Twitter.com. 2010-07-12. Retrieved 2011-09-19.
39. ^ by Kingpolo (2011-02-24). "Lee Hyori has officially become a vegetarian" (http://www.allkpop.com/2011/02/lee-
hyori-has-officially-become-a-vegetarian). Allkpop.com. Retrieved 2011-09-19.
40. ^ Altucher, James (October 6, 2011). "10 Unusual Things I Didn't Know About Steve Jobs"
(http://www.forbes.com/sites/jamesaltucher/2011/10/06/10-unusual-things-i-didnt-know-about-steve-jobs/).
Forbes. Retrieved July 8, 2013.
41. ^
http://www.zimbio.com/The+X+Factor/articles/GmTf0OAFb9g/X+Factor+USA+Season+3+Groups+Mentored+Simon
42. ^ "Kelly & Michael: Kristin Kreuk New Series "Beauty and the Beast"" (http://www.recapo.com/live-with-kelly-
ripa/live-with-kelly-interviews/kelly-michael-kristen-kreuk-new-series-beauty-and-the-beast/). recapo.com.
Retrieved 2012-10-11.
5/11/2014 Pescetarianism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pescetarianism 7/8
Retrieved 2012-10-11.
43. ^ Nieuwenhuis, Marcia (2006-02-16). "Fractievoorzitter van D66 Lousewies van der Laan interviewt stand-up
comedian Jan Jaap van der Wal" (http://www.lousewiesvanderlaan.nl/item.cfm?id=62D8186B-CB69-BD0A-
5EF3306D72687AEA) (in Dutch). lousewiesvanderlaan.nl. Retrieved 2008-04-16. "V: "Ben je vegetarisch?" A:
"Nee, ik ben eigenlijk pescatarisch, een vegetarir die vis eet." (Q: "Are you a vegetarian?" A: "No, actually I am
a pescetarian, a vegetarian who eats fish.")"
44. ^ Harvey Levin (20 October 2009). TMZ Live, "Balloon, Mel and Manson Madness"
(http://www.tmz.com/tmzlive?autoplay=true&mediaKey=b5f94598-4ab9-488b-8e1f-da905168e346). Los Angeles,
California: TMZ Productions, Inc. Event occurs at 21:14. Retrieved 7 December 2009. "YeahI'm not a
vegetarian; I'm a pescetarian, and I'm trying."
45. ^ "Wendie Malick's Diet Tips" (http://www.andersoncooper.com/2011/12/06/wendie-malicks-diet-tips/).
December 7, 2011. Retrieved 2012-02-18.
46. ^ Nissim, Mayer (2009-11-25). "Ten Things You Never Knew About Dannii Minogue"
(http://www.digitalspy.co.uk/showbiz/news/a188427/ten-things-you-never-knew-about-dannii-minogue.html).
Digital Spy. Retrieved 2011-09-19.
47. ^ Mary Tyler Moore (2001-05-07). (Transcript). Interview with Larry King. Larry King Live. CNN
http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0507/01/lkl.01.html. Retrieved 2008-03-19. Missing or empty |title=
(help)
48. ^ http://espn.go.com/blog/carolina-panthers/post/_/id/2449/newton-scales-back-for-thanksgiving-meal?
ex_cid=espnapi_public
49. ^ "Conor Oberst and pescetarian" (http://vegetarianstar.com/tag/conor-oberst-and-pescetarian/).
Vegetarianstar.com. 2008-09-11. Retrieved 2011-09-19.
50. ^ "blog amanda palmer" (http://blog.amandapalmer.net/post/52529919/the-who-killed-amanda-palmer-stage-
show-an). Blog.amandapalmer.net. Retrieved 2011-09-19.
51. ^ Kathy Griffin X A$AP Rocky - Back & Forth - Ep. 22 Part 1/2 http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=afwMC5IL5co; 3:00 mark
52. ^ Watkins, G., 2009. 5-Minute Time Out: Andy Serkis. Babble, [internet] 30 January. Available at
http://www.babble.com/Andy-Serkis-The-Inkheart-star-on-being-Gollum-King-Kong-and-a-father-of-
three/index2.aspx [Accessed 15 June 2009]
53. ^ Renaud, J., 2009. Andy Serkis. Geek Monthly, [internet] 7 January. Available at http://geekmonthly.com/blog/?
p=188 [Accessed 15 June 2009]
54. ^ MARGO C. POPESenior Writer (2001-04-02). "A majestic day"
(http://www.staugustine.com/stories/040201/new_04020100011.shtml). StAugustine.com. Retrieved 2011-09-19.
55. ^ Best Show on WFMU archives: "November 5, 2002 episode (http://wfmu.org/listen.ram?
show=5613&archive=4965)"; 1 hour, 39 minutes, 50 second mark, Scharpling states: "See, I eat fish, right? But I
haven't eaten meat in I guess like eight years now. I'm not a vegan, though."
56. ^ "FAQ" (http://halsparks.com/faq/). Hal Sparks. Retrieved 2011-09-19.
57. ^ "Mother Nature Network" (http://www.mnn.com/health/fitness-well-being/blogs/howard-stern-goes-
pescetarian).
58. ^ Conan, 2012. [TV program] TBS, 26 July 2012.
5/11/2014 Pescetarianism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pescetarianism 8/8
External links
What is a pescetarian? (http://vegetarian.about.com/od/glossary/g/Pescatarian.htm)
Pescetarian Life (http://pescetarianlife.com)
Type of Vegetarian Diet, Body Weight, and Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes
(http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/32/5/791.full)
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pescetarianism&oldid=606709543"
Categories: Semi-vegetarianism Diets
This page was last modified on 2 May 2014 at 01:07.
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia is a registered trademark
of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.
58. ^ Conan, 2012. [TV program] TBS, 26 July 2012.
59. ^ "Sonny Strait.biz: FAQ" (http://sonnystrait.biz/f-a-q).
60. ^ "Hayley Westenra 'I'm a tough chick' " (http://www.nzherald.co.nz/section/1501119/story.cfm?
c_id=1501119&objectid=10436564&pnum=0). New Zealand Herald. 2007-04-28. Retrieved 2007-06-17.
61. ^ Edvard Radzinsky, 2000. ". ". In English: The Rasputin File