WRIA 10: PUYALLUP/WHITE RIVER WATERSHED

BOISE CREEK
WRIA: 10.0057 - WHITE RIVER 2005 - 2006

Boise Creek is a significant tributary to the White River, converging with the White just downstream of the HWY. 410 bridge at RM 23.5. In contrast to most of the Puyallup/ White River watershed which falls within Pierce County, Boise Creek lies within King County and flows south along the city of Enumclaw. Boise Creek is a highly productive tributary, providing 4.5 linear miles of suitable habitat for several anadromous and resident species including spring and fall chinook, coho, pink, sockeye, steelhead and cutthroat trout. Although rare, chum have been observed, prior to 2002, in the lower 0.5 miles of the creek. In August of 2003, the city of Tacoma removed its 99 year old concrete pipeline crossing located at RM 23 on the White River. The concrete and rebar structure had long been suspected of injuring salmon and limiting upstream migration of weaker swimmers like chum salmon. The removal of the old concrete A bedrock falls at structure may result in increased numbers of chum salmon being RM 4.5 marks the able to access Boise Creek in the future. upper extent of A bedrock falls at RM 4.5 adult salmon and marks the upper extent of adult A flag-tailed female s t e e l h e a d salmon and steelhead migration chinook salmon sitting on migration. a redd in Boise Creek. (left). Cutthroat trout have been observed above the falls; although, no data is available on the size or range of the population. Below the falls, Boise flows through a step-pool channel within dense second growth forest for approximately 0.2 miles, with numerous

River miles surveyed: 0.0 to 4.5 Dates surveyed: 8/22/05 to 6/16/06 Species surveyed: Chinook, Coho, Pink Chum, Steelhead Access Mile 4.5: Hwy 410 East of Enumclaw golf course to Boise trail. Mile 2.2: 268th St. (Blake St.) in Enumclaw (halfway) crosses Boise south of town.

DESCRIPTION

PUYALLUP TRIBAL FISHERIES
2005 - 2006 ANNUAL SALMON, STEELHEAD AND BULL TROUT REPORT.

1

WRIA 10: PUYALLUP/WHITE RIVER WATERSHED
tailouts and quality gravel, spawning densities are often high within this section. Continuing downstream of the forested area is a lower gradient reach flowing for approximately 0.5 miles within the county golf course in the city of Enumclaw. The riparian zone here is very sparse, the banks are merely rip raped and bordered by maintained turf grass, blackberry and small deciduous trees. There is, however, a short section located within the golf course below RM 4.0 with an intact hardwood riparian zone. Spawning is noticeably reduced throughout the entire reach of the creek flowing within the open range of the golf course. Downstream from the golf course Boise Creek begins The riparian zone (above) along to flow through residential and Boise Creek throughout most of agricultural lands. This more the county golf course is very developed reach extends from sparse. approximately RM 3.7 down to RM 0.3, much of the stream along this stretch is incised to depths of 20 feet or more (top left). Extensive tracts of land bordering Boise Creek below RM 3.5 are primarily used for maintaining cattle and other livestock (top right, center left). Although spawning activity for all species occurs throughout the entire 4.5 miles, approximately 65 - 70% of chinook, coho, and pink spawning occurs above RM 2.4. From 1999 to 2006, an average of 63.8% (range 53.5%-83.3%) of steelhead spawned above RM 2.4. During the 2005 season, the first significant numbers of chum salmon were observed in Boise Creek as high as RM 1.5. Boise has continued to supported a large number of chinook spawners over the past several seasons (2000-2005). Carcass sampling data shows that a significant number of chinook, as high as 58%, returning to Boise Creek are hatchery origin fall chinook. This corresponds with DNA sampling studies of chinook in the White River showing an approximately 60% fall and 40% spring chinook component. The pink salmon returns to Boise in 2005 were unprecedented. Estimate calculations put the actual escapement at nearly 16,000 fish. Spawning opportunities for all species is dramatically reduced in the lower 0.3 miles of the creek. The gradient throughout this short stretch Steelhead poaching is steeper, the banks are confined by Much of the stream from RM 3.7 high steep walls, and the substrate down to RM 0.3 is incised to consists of mostly boulders and large depths of 20 feet or more. cobble. Chinook, coho and steelhead are especially vulnerable to poaching and harassment in this urban stream (lower left). Surrounding agricultural land use continues to impact channel conditions in Boise Creek. Tremendous improvements to riparian conditions are This poacher left in a hurry, leaving possible but require willing land owners, technical expertise behind over 10 pounds of skeined and funding. Despite its many habitat related shortcomings, coho eggs and 12 carcesses. Boise Creek continues to support a healthy Pink salmon spawning in Boise Creek . and stable population of wild steelhead, a remarkable fact in light of the basin-wide declines.

PUYALLUP TRIBAL FISHERIES
2005 - 2006 ANNUAL SALMON, STEELHEAD AND BULL TROUT REPORT.

2

WRIA 10: PUYALLUP/WHITE RIVER WATERSHED

2005 BOISE CREEK CHINOOK COUNTS
160 LIVE DEAD 140 REDDS

120

NUMBER OBSERVED

100

80

60

40

20

0 8/22/05 8/31/05 9/9/05 9/19/05 9/28/05
DAT E SURVEYED

10/6/05

10/13/05

10/24/05

11/9/05

BOISE CREEK CHINOOK SEASON COMPARISONS (1994 - 2005)
1000

AUC: ESCAPEMENT ESTIMATE DEAD REDDS
903 617

LIVE
900

800

700
NUMBER OBSERVED

600

351

344

400

300
229 215 221

150

153

147

100

160

200

170 155

315

100

318

397 81 75 63 44 67 70 41 11 10 35 24 46 30

440

500

0 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
SEASON SURVEYED

PUYALLUP TRIBAL FISHERIES
2005 - 2006 ANNUAL SALMON, STEELHEAD AND BULL TROUT REPORT.

27

28

58

100

89

89

3

WRIA 10: PUYALLUP/WHITE RIVER WATERSHED

BOISE CREEK CHINOOK RUN TIMING (2000-2005)
500 450 400
NUMBER OF CHINOOK OBSERVED

2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000

350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0
Aug 15-25 Aug 26-Sept 5 Sept 6-Sept 15 Sept 16-Sept 25 DAT E Sept 26-Oct 5 Oct 6-Oct 15 Oct 16-Oct 25

Oct 26-Nov 5

BOISE CREEK CHINOOK CARCASS SAMPLING (2002-2005)
600 551
CARCASSES SAM P L ED CHIN OOK W ITH CODED W IRE TAG & ADIP OSE CL IP (FAL L /HATCHERY ORIGIN ) CHIN OOK W ITH ADIP OSE CL IP ON L Y (FAL L /HATCHERY ORIGIN ) W IL D UN M ARKED CHIN OOK

500

400
NUMBER OF CHINOOK

300 225 200

290 260 236

115 110 100

118

107

12 0

8

1

3 2003
SAMP LIN G SEASON

1 2004

11 2005

2002

PUYALLUP TRIBAL FISHERIES
2005 - 2006 ANNUAL SALMON, STEELHEAD AND BULL TROUT REPORT.

4

WRIA 10: PUYALLUP/WHITE RIVER WATERSHED

2005 BOISE CREEK COHO COUNTS
1200 LIVE DEAD 1000

800
NUMBER OBSERVED

600

400

200

0 9/9/05 9/19/05 9/28/05 10/6/05 10/13/05 10/24/05
DAT E SURVEY ED

11/9/05

11/18/05

11/28/05

12/8/05

12/19/05

BOISE CREEK COHO SEASON COMPARISONS (1993 - 2005)
3,500 LIVE DEAD 3,000 REDDS 3,285 251 2005 233

2,500

NUMBER OBSERVED

2,000 1,513 1,500 1,083 1,000 697 558 608 366 335 483 347 327 282 270 500 222 12 112 208 174 394 99 20 59 0 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

2,155

SEASON SURVEYED

PUYALLUP TRIBAL FISHERIES
2005 - 2006 ANNUAL SALMON, STEELHEAD AND BULL TROUT REPORT.

21

30 97

51

90

43

40

108 263

230

152

158

5

WRIA 10: PUYALLUP/WHITE RIVER WATERSHED

2005 BOISE CREEK PINK COUNTS
14000 LIVE DEAD 12000

10000
NUMBER OBSERVED

8000

6000

4000

2000

0 8/22/05 8/31/05 9/9/05 9/19/05 9/28/05 10/6/05 10/13/05 10/24/05 11/9/05 11/18/05

DAT E SURVEYED

BOISE CREEK PINK SEASON COMPARISONS (2001 - 2005)
45000 LIVE DEAD
36,335 39,744

AUC: ESCAPEMENT ESTIMATE

40000

35000

30000
NUMBER OBSERVED

25000

20000

15000

0

2001

6

2003
SEASON SURVEYED

1,200

5000

4,392

2005

PUYALLUP TRIBAL FISHERIES
2005 - 2006 ANNUAL SALMON, STEELHEAD AND BULL TROUT REPORT.

6,519

10000

6

WRIA 10: PUYALLUP/WHITE RIVER WATERSHED

2006 BOISE CREEK STEELHEAD COUNTS
50 48 46 44 42 40 38 36 34 32
NUMBER OBSERVED

L IV E DEAD REDDS

30 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 3/16/06 3 /2 7/06 4/6/06 4/17/06 4/26/06 5/5/06 5/17 /0 6 6/12/05
D ATE SURVEYED

BOISE CREEK STEELHEAD REDDS SEASON COMPARISONS (1995 - 2006)
100 90
79 74

STEELHEAD REDDS
88

80 70

63 NUMBER OBSERVED

60 50

56

44

40
32

30 20
18 18

30 27

16

10 0 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

YEAR SURVEYED

PUYALLUP TRIBAL FISHERIES
2005 - 2006 ANNUAL SALMON, STEELHEAD AND BULL TROUT REPORT.

7

WRIA 10: PUYALLUP/WHITE RIVER WATERSHED

2005 BOISE CREEK CHUM COUNTS
12 LIVE DEAD 10

8
NUMBER OBSERVED

6

4

2

0 11/18/05 11/28/05
DATE SURVEYED

12/8/05

12/19/05

PUYALLUP TRIBAL FISHERIES
2005 - 2006 ANNUAL SALMON, STEELHEAD AND BULL TROUT REPORT.

8

WRIA 10: PUYALLUP/WHITE RIVER WATERSHED

BUCKLEY: USACE FISH TRAP
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ WRIA: 10.0031 - USACE FISH TRAP -WHITE RIVER 2005 - 2006

DESCRIPTION
Salmon, steelhead and char migrating to the upper White River and its headwaters, enter the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ (USACE) fish trapping facility located at RM 24.3 near Buckley (left photo). The Corps’ trapping facility is uniquely integrated into a diversion dam and flume intake that was, up until January 2004, used to divert water from the White River to generate power. Since PSE ceased power production, some measure of water has continued to be diverted from the White River to maintain the water levels and water quality in lake Tapps. The USACE facility offers unparalled access to significant numbers of salmonids, which has been invaluable tool Chinook are examined for fin clips and wanded for for research, salmon recovery and escapement estimates. During cwt’s. the months that salmon, steelhead and char return to the upper White River, the USACE empties the trap daily, the trap is hoisted to a tank truck and fish are released from the trap into the truck (center left photo). Fish are then transported above Mud Mountain Dam and released back into the White River at RM 33.6, four miles above the dam and about one mile below the confluence with the Clearwater River. Species of salmonids captured in the trap include spring and fall chinook, coho, pink, sockeye, chum, steelhead and char. Puyallup Tribe Fisheries staff sample the contents of the trap once a week throughout the entire year. Species sampled regularly include chinook, steelhead, sockeye and char. During the spring chinook/sockeye/char run (late May- early October) PTF staff sample the trap 1 to 5 days per week, which is dependent on the number of fish captured throughout the entire run. Steelhead are sampled regularly by PTF staff from late January through June. All fish sampled are dip-netted from the trap and placed into a 30 gallon stainless steel bin and anesthetized with MS-222. All fish are examined for fin–clips and chinook are wanded for coded-wire tags (cwt) with a metal detector. Additioanl sampling includes measuring each fish for fork length and collection of DNA and scale samples from chinook, sockeye and char. DNA sampling involves removing a small amount of the anal fin and preserving it in 95% ethenol for later analysis. In addition to DNA and scale samples, char are floy Bull Trout/Char Steelhead tagged and transported above Mud Mountain dam. Wild steelhead are also transported above Mud Mountain dam, while hatchery steelhead are returned back into the White River below the USACE trap as per agreement with the Muckleshoot Indian Tribe and the State of

PUYALLUP TRIBAL FISHERIES
2005 - 2006 ANNUAL SALMON, STEELHEAD AND BULL TROUT REPORT.

9

NUMBER OF COHO TRANSPORTED
1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000

NUMBER OF CHINOOK

0

10,000

15,000

20,000

25,000

5,000

0
1941

1,101 5,431 4,603 3,736 2,584 3,692

1941
1943 1945 1947 1949 1951 1953 1955

14 18

1943

1945

1,467 717 1,003

1947 12,484

3,811 4,992

1,469

1949

6,739

1,470 1,841 1,370 1,849

1951 9,698

3,623

7,500

1953

5,671

719 842 931 633 1,893 794

1955
1957 1959 1961 1963 1965 1967 1969 1971 Y EA R 1973 1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999

1957

PUYALLUP TRIBAL FISHERIES
374 245 261 528 505 164 447 658

1959

1961

1963

1965

1967

1969

1971

Y EAR

1973

1975

1977

1979

1981

2005 - 2006 ANNUAL SALMON, STEELHEAD AND BULL TROUT REPORT.

1983

1985

1987

1989

1991

1993

1995

USACE Trap Counts: Chinook Transported Above Mud Mountain Dam (1941 - 2005)

USACE Trap Counts: Coho Transported Above Mud Mountain Dam (1941 - 2005)

Adults acclimation: 466 Adults wild: 1291 Jacks acclimation: 74 Jacks wild: 248

1997

1999

1,961 3,403 2,094 2,031 3,448 1,398 1,098 1,992 1,429 4,090 1,810 3,756 2,506 1,639 1,537 1,688 1,818 2,972 796 1,081 546 833 1,090 493 320 335 1,237 522 408 403 1,349 599 1,746 3,231 820 5,840 4,558 1,264 1,379 6,503 2,733 927 7,988 1,782 1,065

969 639 684 465 534 557 393 392 137 388 488 229 66 140 72 61 175 20 26 10 27 6 117 127 111 221 277 406 409 392 605 702 422 402
21,591

1,292 1,546
2001

2001

6,022 6,370 16,476 14,341 13,894

2,002 803
2003 2005

Breakdown of 2005 chinook passed above Mud Mountain Dam (See Appendix E).

2003

1,551 2,372 2,079

WRIA 10: PUYALLUP/WHITE RIVER WATERSHED

10

2005

NUMBER OF STEELHEAD

NUMBER OF ADULTS TRANSPORTED
1000 1500 2000 2500 500 0 1941
1902 437 1155 1021 1662 2166 1031 1381 1364 1298 1122 822 1304 1211 205 535 368 156 162 280 203 458 264 347 683 906 828 447 476 482 726 477 228

100000
1943 1945 1947 1949 1951 1953 1955 1957 1959 1961 1963 1965 1967 1969 1971
Y EAR

10000

1000

100

10

1 378

1980

1982

19

1984

PUYALLUP TRIBAL FISHERIES
Sockeye
114
1973 1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001
683 624 896 691 638 1971 1234

1986

5

59

1988

15

12

1990

20

1992

63

USACE Trap Counts:

YEAR

Pink

39

1994

13

Chum

9 223

2005 - 2006 ANNUAL SALMON, STEELHEAD AND BULL TROUT REPORT.
351 260 192 220 381 249 279 286 326 274 960 912

1996

21

39

1998

16

5

2000

39

16

USACE Trap Counts: Steelhead Transported Above Mud Mountain Dam (1941 - 2006)

2002 13,190

15

21

2004

14

41 33,346

An additional 27 steelhead were captured and utilized for broodstock in 2006, bringing the total escapement to 163.

Adult Sockeye, Pink And Chum Transported Above Mud Mountain Dam (1980 - 2005)
2003 2005

WRIA 10: PUYALLUP/WHITE RIVER WATERSHED

4

28

460 433 367 405 373 328 253 369 435 524 162 183 152 136

11

WRIA 10: PUYALLUP/WHITE RIVER WATERSHED

USACE Trap Counts: Bull Trout Captured and Transported above Mud Mountain Dam (1999 - 2006)
30
28

2006 Char counts are only through August 31.

25
23

21 21 20

20 NUMBER OF CHAR

1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

1 6 1 5 1 5 1 4 13 1 2 1 1 1 0

15

10

9

9

7 6 5 5 4 4 3 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 3 3 2 2 5 6

5

0
M ARCH APRIL M AY JUNE JULY AUGUST SEPTEM BER OCTOBER NOVEM BER

MONTH SAMPLED

PUYALLUP TRIBAL FISHERIES
2005 - 2006 ANNUAL SALMON, STEELHEAD AND BULL TROUT REPORT.

12

WRIA 10: PUYALLUP/WHITE RIVER WATERSHED

CANYON CREEK
WRIA: 10.**** - PUYALLUP RIVER 2005 - 2006
Chum salmon spawning in Canyon Creek.

DESCRIPTION
Canyon Creek is a small tributary to Clear Creek (10.0022). Little stream complexity exists within Canyon Creek, and seasonal flows are rarely adequate to allow access for chinook or steelhead to spawn. However, it is highly likely that River miles surveyed: 1.0 to 1.2 juveniles from adult spawners in Clear and Swan Creeks Dates surveyed: 11/22/05 to 2/3/06 utilize Canyon Creek, especially for overwintering. Chum Species surveyed: Chum are the only species observed spawning in significant Access numbers from late November through January. Adult coho Mile 0.5: Intersection of Canyon and are periodically seen in the same reach as chum, but no Pioneer. surveys are conducted for coho by the Puyallup Tribe. There is approximately 160 yards of suitable spawning habitat in Canyon Creek, this section flows along Canyon road Chum carcasses upstream of Pioneer Way. The gradient increases above Pioneer, in Canyon Creek, but there are several short stretches of gravel between Pioneer looking upWay and the culvert crossing under Canyon Road. The culvert stream from doesn’t appear to be an impediment to chum, since they are often Canyon Road. observed spawning on the fine gravel within the culvert. However, the steep gradient above the culvert does impede chum, as no fish are observed above the culvert during the peak of the run. The main channel above the culvert has been engineered with the placement of log weirs to retain gravel. They appear to be only moderately effective because the amount of fines in the entire reach is excessive. Downstream of Pioneer, the channel substrate consists of fine sand and extremely compacted small gravel. Storm and ground water run off along the East side of Canyon Road flows into Canyon Creek next to the downstream end of the culvert. Large numbers of chum are often drawn up this small drainage channel during high water events, only to be stranded in thick deep mud when the water recedes (left).

PUYALLUP TRIBAL FISHERIES
2005 - 2006 ANNUAL SALMON, STEELHEAD AND BULL TROUT REPORT.

13

WRIA 10: PUYALLUP/WHITE RIVER WATERSHED

2005 CANYON CREEK CHUM COUNTS
300 LIVE DEAD 250

200
NUMBER OBSERVED

150

100

50

0 11/22/05 12/1/05 12/12/05 12/22/05 1/3/05 1/13/06 1/23/06 2/3/06

DATE SURVEYED

CANYON CREEK CHUM SEASON COMPARISONS (2001 - 2005)
600

LIVE DEAD

500

488

400
NUMBER OBSERVED 343 292

393

300

280

200

172

100
43 21 46

66

0 2001 2002 2003
SEASON SURVEY ED

2004

2005

PUYALLUP TRIBAL FISHERIES
2005 - 2006 ANNUAL SALMON, STEELHEAD AND BULL TROUT REPORT.

14

WRIA 10: PUYALLUP/WHITE RIVER WATERSHED

CANYONFALLS CREEK
WRIA: 10.0410 - PUYALLUP RIVER 2005 - 2006

Short reach along McCutcheon road providing excellent spawning opportunities.

DESCRIPTION
Canyonfalls Creek is a small tributary entering the Puyallup River at approximately RM 16.2. Canyonfalls is primarily a spring fed stream that flows with relative clarity and consistency, even in late summer. Above the culvert on McCutcheon Rd. at RM 0.5 the gradient quickly increases but there are several River miles surveyed: 0.3 to 0.6 Dates surveyed: 8/25/05 to 5/17/06 pockets of usable spawning gravel. In 2003, a large Species surveyed: Chinook (N/O) Coho, cement box culvert replaced the old culvert under Chum, Steelhead McCutcheon Road. Downstream of the road, the Pink substrate is a combination of sand and gravel within a Access Mile 0.5: Follow Highway 162 into McMillin low gradient pool-rifle channel. The riparian area is and turn east onto 128th Street. The first primarily alder and salmonberry. The vegetation along stream crossing after the Puyallup River the right bank is limited due to the extremely close bridge is Canyon falls. proximity of McCutcheon Rd. However, the reach directly below the road does contain a large amount of sand and fine sediment. In the summer of 2002, 220 cubic yards of 1 to 3 inch spawning quality drain rock was deposited directly downstream of the McCutcheon road culvert. The rock was distributed along an approximately 0.2 mile stretch of the creek. The rock was deposited as a result of a settlement agreement between the PuyallupTribe and Fennel Resources which In 2003, a large cement has a gravel mining operation located on Fennel Creek. box culvert replaced the old culvert under Chinook, coho and chum are the most prevalent species McCutcheon Road. observed spawning in the creek. In addition to these key species, pink salmon were also observed in strong numbers in 2003 and 2005. In the past, steelhead have been documented spawning in the creek, yet as with many streams within the Puyallup watershed, none have been observed for the past several years. In 2004, a beaver dam below the survey reach prevented chinook from accessing the upper section of Canyonfalls.

PUYALLUP TRIBAL FISHERIES
2005 - 2006 ANNUAL SALMON, STEELHEAD AND BULL TROUT REPORT.

15

WRIA 10: PUYALLUP/WHITE RIVER WATERSHED

CANYONFALLS CREEK CHINOOK SEASON COMPARISONS (1997 - 2005)
10 9 LIVE DEAD REDDS

8
7

7
NUMBER OBSERVED 6 6

6 5
4 4

4
3 3

3
2 2 2 2

2
1 1 1

1 0
1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 SEASON SURVEYED 2002 2003 2004 2005

PUYALLUP TRIBAL FISHERIES
2005 - 2006 ANNUAL SALMON, STEELHEAD AND BULL TROUT REPORT.

16

WRIA 10: PUYALLUP/WHITE RIVER WATERSHED

2005 CANYONFALLS CREEK PINK COUNTS
25 L IV E DEAD

20

NUMBER OBSERVED

15

10

5

0 9/16/05 9/27 /05 10/6/05
D ATE SU R VEYED

1 0/14/05

10/24/0 5

CANYONFALLS CREEK PINK SEASON COMPARISONS (2001 - 2005)
70
65

AUC: ESCAPEMENT ESTIMATE LIVE

60

DEAD

50
NUMBER OBSERVED

40

30

28

30 27

20

10
1

0 2001 2003
SEASON SURVEYED

2005

PUYALLUP TRIBAL FISHERIES
2005 - 2006 ANNUAL SALMON, STEELHEAD AND BULL TROUT REPORT.

17

WRIA 10: PUYALLUP/WHITE RIVER WATERSHED

2005 CANYONFALLS CREEK COHO COUNTS
25 LIVE DEAD

20

NUMBER OBSERVED

15

10

5

0 9/27/05 10/6/05 10/14/05 10/24/05 11/3/05 11/10/05 11/29/05 12/8/05 12/19/05 12/29/05

DAT E SURVEYED

CANYONFALLS CREEK COHO SEASON COMPARISONS (1999 - 2005)
70 LIVE DEAD REDDS 60

50
NUMBER OBSERVED

46

44 39 35

40

30

28

28 24 22

20

10

10
4 1

9 6 7

9 5

0 1999 2000 2001 2002
SEASON SURVEYED

2003

2004

2005

PUYALLUP TRIBAL FISHERIES
2005 - 2006 ANNUAL SALMON, STEELHEAD AND BULL TROUT REPORT.

18

WRIA 10: PUYALLUP/WHITE RIVER WATERSHED

2005 CANYONFALLS CREEK CHUM COUNTS
160

140

2004 Canyonfalls Creek chum graphs were generated using survey data collected by WDFW.

L IV E DEAD

120

100
NUMBER OBSERVED

80

60

40

20

0 11/10/05 11/29/05 12/8/05 12/19/05 12/29/05 1/4/06 1/12/06 1/19/06
DATE SURVEYED

CANYONFALLS CREEK CHUM SEASONAL COMPARISONS (2001 - 2005)
1200 LIVE DEAD 1000
981

800
NUMBER OBSERVED

600

407

398

400
289 246 232 178 96 108 69

200

0 2001 2002 2003
SEASON SURVEYED

2004

2005

PUYALLUP TRIBAL FISHERIES
2005 - 2006 ANNUAL SALMON, STEELHEAD AND BULL TROUT REPORT.

19

WRIA 10: PUYALLUP/WHITE RIVER WATERSHED

CARBON RIVER
WRIA: 10.0413 - PUYALLUP RIVER 2005 - 2006
River miles surveyed: 0.0 to 8.5 Dates surveyed: 11/20/05 to 6/23/06 Species surveyed: Chinook, Coho, Pink, Chum, Steelhead Access R.M. 8.5: Take Hwy. 162 through Orting. Turn on 177th St, follow approximately 2 miles to end. Put-in suitable for raft only. R.M. 0.0: Take Hwy. 162 and turn East on 128th Street. Turn South on McCutcheon road and then West at the first driveway, Known as the “Dollar launch”.

DESCRIPTION
The Carbon River is a major tributary of the Puyallup River, entering the Puyallup at RM 17.9. The Carbon River provides excellent spawning and rearing opportunities for salmon and steelhead. In the past, steelhead have been documented as high as the Mt. Rainier National Park boundary. However, the majority of the spawning for all species occurs in the lower 11 miles. The lower 3 miles of the Carbon River are constrained by earthen dikes. The channel varies considerably in width, but averages approximately 300 ft. The resulting channel is only moderately diverse with a pool riffle character. Spawning gravel exists in limited quantities and is utilized by all species of salmonids present, although not in the numbers observed in the upper reaches. From the mouth of South Prairie Creek at RM 6.0, downstream to RM 3.0, the river is only leveed along the South Side. There are large natural bluffs to the north and the river is able to migrate over a channel of up to 0.5 miles wide. This reach contains multiple channels and many woody debris jams throughout its length. The spawning and

PUYALLUP TRIBAL FISHERIES
2005 - 2006 ANNUAL SALMON, STEELHEAD AND BULL TROUT REPORT.

20

WRIA 10: PUYALLUP/WHITE RIVER WATERSHED
rearing habitat is excellent here and the highest spawning densities of all species are observed along this stretch of river. The reach above South Prairie Creek from RM 6.0 to 8.5 is again constrained by both dikes and bluffs on the North side. This reach has a slightly higher gradient than the lower river and as a result contains less spawning habitat. There are portions that are utilized by chinook and steelhead but, not in the densities observed in the reach above Voights Creek. Above RM 8.5 the Carbon River flows through a narrow canyon for several miles before becoming unconstrained below the Mt. Rainier Upper Carbon river near the boarder of Mt. Rainier National Park National Park boundary. This canyon RM 23 (right of bridge). This picture shows the large active, and braided channel of the upper river. reach supports both chinook and steelhead spawning. Chum and pink salmon have not been observed above RM 8.0 The Mt. Rainier National Park boundary is located at RM 23. Up to approximately RM 26 the gradient remains low enough to provide some spawning opportunities in channel margins and pool tailouts. Several small and moderate debris jams occur throughout this reach. Above this, the gradient gradually increases to the terminus of the Carbon glacier. There is less braiding in this section and the substrate is considerably larger providing few if any spawning opportunities. Winter steelhead stocks have been in serious decline for the past several years. Tribal and state fisheries managers are currently working on a recovery plan to improve future steelhead returns and hope to implement this plan in early 2006. Continuing efforts are being made by the tribe and WDFW to increase and expand the survey coverage area in order to improve escapement estimates. During the 2005 From the mouth of South Prairie Creek at RM 6.0, steelhead survey season, WDFW and Puyallup downstream to RM 3.0, the river is only leveed along Tribe fisheries staff increased the survey the South Side (below). There are large natural bluffs coverage along the Carbon by making regular to the north and the river is able to migrate over a channel of up to 0.5 miles wide. helicopter surveys of the river from the NPS boundary at RM 23, to its confluence with the Puyallup River.
A number of side channels are utilized heavily by chum salmon along the carbon river. Most of the chum spawning occurs below South Prairie Creek.

PUYALLUP TRIBAL FISHERIES
2005 - 2006 ANNUAL SALMON, STEELHEAD AND BULL TROUT REPORT.

21

WRIA 10: PUYALLUP/WHITE RIVER WATERSHED

2005 CARBON RIVER CHUM COUNTS
400 LIV E D EA D 350

300

250
NUMBER OBSERVED

200

150

100

50

0 11/20/05 1 2/9/05
D A TE SU RV EYED

12/20/05

1/4 /05

CARBON RIVER CHUM SEASON COMPARISONS (1991 - 2005)
3,225 3,500 3,289 AUC: ESCAPEMENT ESTIMATE LIVE DEAD 2,625 2,707

3,000

2,865

2,149

2,226

2,500

2,498

2,509

NUMBER OBSERVED

2,123

2,000 1,503

1,091 1,124

1,234

1,500

1,868 1,044 660 565 811 944 849 855 899 1,083 2004 2005 647 624 541 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 260 217 2000 2001 2002 599 2003
SEASON SURVEY ED

1,000

500

0

PUYALLUP TRIBAL FISHERIES
2005 - 2006 ANNUAL SALMON, STEELHEAD AND BULL TROUT REPORT.

2,513

22

WRIA 10: PUYALLUP/WHITE RIVER WATERSHED

CARBON RIVER STEELHEAD SEASON COMPARISONS (1995 - 2006)
60
54

STEELHEAD REDDS

50

49

40
NUMBER OBSERVED

30

29

21

20

12

10
5 4

8

7

8 6

0 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
SEASON SURVEYED

PUYALLUP TRIBAL FISHERIES
2005 - 2006 ANNUAL SALMON, STEELHEAD AND BULL TROUT REPORT.

23

WRIA 10: PUYALLUP/WHITE RIVER WATERSHED

CLARKS CREEK
WRIA: 10.0027 - PUYALLUP RIVER
Chum salmon spawning in the upper extent of Clarks Creek.

2005 - 2006

DESCRIPTION
Clarks Creek is a tributary to the Puyallup River, entering the Puyallup at RM 5.8. Clarks has two small tributaries; Diru and Rody Creeks. Clarks is a low gradient spring-fed stream with a pool-riffle character. Salmonberry, maple and alder dominate the riparian zone. The upper extent of the Clarks Creek (RM 3.4 to 3.7) provides abundant spawning opportunities for all species. The remaining stream below the survey reach contains little gravel and the substrate consists of fine sand and mud. Little or no spawning has been observed below RM 3.4. Upstream fish migration is blocked by a dam at RM 3.7. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) operates a fish hatchery near the barrior dam on Clarks. The state hatchery raises trout for stocking local lakes. Gravel was introduced into the channel from RM 3.5 to 3.7 in the fall of 1997 and again in the summer of 1999. This greatly enhances the spawning opportunities for chinook, coho and chum salmon. However, increased spawning densities have resulted in a high amount of redd superimposition throughout this short reach. Several log weirs have been placed above the interpretive bridge to aid in gravel retention. The Puyallup tribe completed construction of a chinook salmon hatchery on Clarks Creek (RM 1.0) in the spring of 2004. The hatchery was constructed in order to address several fish management issues, one of which includes minimizing the straying of adult fall chinook reared by the tribe and released from Diru Creek. Extremely low summer flows in Diru Creek prevent adult chinook from returning to the hatchery.

River miles surveyed: 3.4 to 3.7 Dates surveyed: 8/22/05 to 4/26/06 Species surveyed: Chinook, Coho, Chum, Steelhead (N/O) Access Mile 3.4: From W. Pioneer Avenue, turn south on 14th St. S.W. Drive to a sharp right turn in the road and there is a WDFW hatchery on your right. Turn right on 15th Avenue just past the hatchery and park at the gate. Be sure to let the hatchery staff know you intend to walk the creek.

Chum carcasses litter the survey reach during late December and January. The gravel deposited in 1997 and 1999 supports a large number of chinook and chum spawners.

PUYALLUP TRIBAL FISHERIES
2005 - 2006 ANNUAL SALMON, STEELHEAD AND BULL TROUT REPORT.

24

WRIA 10: PUYALLUP/WHITE RIVER WATERSHED

2005 CLARKS CREEK CHINOOK COUNTS
1 00 L IV E DEAD 90 RED D S

80

70

NUMBER OBSERVED

60

50

40

30

20

10

0 8/ 17 / 0 5 8 / 2 6/ 0 5 9/ 6/ 05 9 / 1 6/ 0 5 9/ 22 / 0 5
D AT E SUR VE Y ED

9 / 2 9/ 0 5

10 / 7 / 0 5

10 / 1 7/ 05

1 0/ 26 / 0 5

CLARKS CREEK CHINOOK SEASON COMPARISONS (1994 - 2005)
350
319

LIVE DEAD REDDS

300

250
NUMBER OBSERVED

200

131

150

145

116

191

289

100

87

100

93

96

74

58

63 59

78

50

78

101 103

103

34

35

30

42

50
16 10 10 12

46 38

27 18

22

50

0 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005

10

SEASON SURVEYED

PUYALLUP TRIBAL FISHERIES
2005 - 2006 ANNUAL SALMON, STEELHEAD AND BULL TROUT REPORT.

11

25

WRIA 10: PUYALLUP/WHITE RIVER WATERSHED

CLARKS CREEK CHINOOK RUN TIMING (2000-2005)
180

2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000

160

140

120
NUMBER OF CHINOOK

100

80

60

40

20

0
Aug 15-25 Aug 26-Sept 5 Sept 6-Sept 15 Sept 16-Sept 25 DAT E Sept 26-Oct 5 Oct 6-Oct 15 Oct 16-Oct 25 Oct 26-Nov 5

CLARKS CREEK CHINOOK CARCASS SAMPLING (2003-2005)
160 CARCASSES SAMPLED CHINOOK W ITH CODED W IRE TAG & ADIPOSE CLIP (FALL/HATCHERY ORIGIN) CHINOOK W ITH ADIPOSE CLIP ONLY (FALL/HATCHERY ORIGIN) 120 101
NUMBER OF CHINOOK

140

W ILD UNMARKED

100

80

70

60 40 40 31

50

32 26 11 3 3 2004
SEASON SAMP LED

20

15

0 2003 2005

PUYALLUP TRIBAL FISHERIES
2005 - 2006 ANNUAL SALMON, STEELHEAD AND BULL TROUT REPORT.

26

WRIA 10: PUYALLUP/WHITE RIVER WATERSHED

2005 CLARKS CREEK COHO COUNTS
10 9 LIVE DEAD

8 7
NUMBER OBSERVED

6 5

4 3

2 1

0 10/6/05 10/14/05 10/2405 11/3/05 11/14/05 11/22/05 12/1/05 12/12/05

DATE SURVEYED

CLARKS CREEK COHO SEASON COMPARISONS (1993 - 2005)
120 107

LIVE DEAD REDDS

100

80 NUMBER OBSERVED

60

43

40

39

26 27

27

24

22

14

9

11

15

16

20

19

24

46

82

8

7

8

6

5

8

9

4

4

3 4

4

2

2 2

0

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2

2004

SEASON SURVEYED

PUYALLUP TRIBAL FISHERIES
2005 - 2006 ANNUAL SALMON, STEELHEAD AND BULL TROUT REPORT.

3

2005

5

27

WRIA 10: PUYALLUP/WHITE RIVER WATERSHED

2005 CLARKS CREEK CHUM COUNTS
1600 L IV E DEAD 1400

1200

1000
NUMBER OBSERVED

800

600

400

200

0 1 1/3/05 11/14/05 11/22/05 12 /1/05 12/12/05 12/22/05 1/3/05 1/13/06 1/23 /06 2 /3/06
D ATE SURVEYED

CLA CLARKS CREEK CHUM SEASON COMPARISONS (1991 - 2005)
3,000 AUC: ESCAPEMENT ESTIMATE DEAD 2,500 2,433
2,686

LIVE

2,000
NUMBER OBSERVED

1,500
1,174 1,207

866

1,000
675

936

531

411

479

528

633

403

374

352

311

255

246

254

352

500

215

163

0 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005

97

136

SEASON SURVEYED

PUYALLUP TRIBAL FISHERIES
2005 - 2006 ANNUAL SALMON, STEELHEAD AND BULL TROUT REPORT.

198

237

390

628

794

1,552

2,067

28

WRIA 10: PUYALLUP/WHITE RIVER WATERSHED

CLARKS CREEK STEELHEAD SEASON COMPARISONS (1995 - 2006)
7 STEELHEAD REDDS 6 6

5

NUMBER OBSERVED

4

3

2 2

1

0 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

SEASON SURVEYED

PUYALLUP TRIBAL FISHERIES
2005 - 2006 ANNUAL SALMON, STEELHEAD AND BULL TROUT REPORT.

29

WRIA 10: PUYALLUP/WHITE RIVER WATERSHED

PUYALLUP TRIBE OF INDIANS CLARKS CREEK SALMON HATCHERY
WRIA: 10.0027 - PUYALLUP RIVER 2005 - 2006

Puyallup Tribe Fish Hatchery Facility River mile: 1.0 Species: Fall And Spring Chinook

DESCRIPTION
The Puyallup Tribe of Indians Clarks Creek Salmon Hatchery is located at RM 1 on Clarks Creek (10.0027), a tributary to the Puyallup River. The Clarks Creek hatchery was constructed in order to address several fish management, and water supply issues including; minimizing the straying of adult fall chinook reared by the tribe; providing space for rearing and acclimating White River spring chinook; creating an independent and self sustaining fall and spring chinook program for the tribe, and providing a reliable water supply to rear and expand fish production. Water is supplied from five vertical turbine pumps, each 20-horsepower. Each pump has a flow capacity of 1,600 gpm. Each pump is capable of supplying one of four ponds with approximately 3.6 cfs. Each of the four ponds has approximately 12,000+ cubic feet of water volume, two ponds are concrete lined and designed to hold adult and juveniles , while the other two are natural acclimation ponds (bottom). In addition, the Puyallup Tribe operates seven acclimation ponds in the Puyallup Watershed. Three of the acclimation ponds are used for reintroducing fall chinook and coho into a 30-mile reach in the Upper Puyallup River above Electron Dam. The Electron Diversion Dam had been an anadromous barrier for 97 years. A fish ladder was constructed and completed in fall of 2000. Four other acclimation ponds are located in the Upper White River drainage. These ponds are used for reintroducing White River spring chinook back into their endemic range. All ponds have approximately 10,000 cubic feet of rearing space and between 1 to 3 cubic feet per second flow. The Puyallup Tribe’s restoration goal is to rebuild depressed chinook stocks and remove them from ESA listing. Using acclimation ponds, limiting harvest, and making substantial gains in habitat restoration, the tribe will be able to One of the two 10,000 accomplish this task. Levee setbacks, oxbow reconnections cubic foot cement lined both inter tidal and upland, Commencement Bay cleanup, holding ponds. and harvest cutbacks have already been initiated. Only the jump-starting of chinook in habitat areas devoid of fish has remained one of our biggest challenges. Acclimation ponds are a proven method in increasing fish numbers on the spawning grounds. Hatchery rearing 200,000 fall chinook for release on station and 200,000 for acclimation ponds in the upper Puyallup River for a combined 6,857 pounds of fish. Historically, fall chinook have been reared since 1980

PUYALLUP TRIBAL FISHERIES
2005 - 2006 ANNUAL SALMON, STEELHEAD AND BULL TROUT REPORT.

30

WRIA 10: PUYALLUP/WHITE RIVER WATERSHED
with a variety of stocks, goals, and objectives. Spring Chinook Hatchery Production The four-acclimation ponds the Puyallup Tribe operates are satellite facilities to the White River and Minter Creek Hatcheries. The acclimation ponds are located in the upper The incubation building White River watershed on the houses 32 incubator stack, Clearwater River, Cripple and each capable of holding up to Huckleberry Creeks. 77,000 chinook eggs, for a Once fish are ready to be moved from Production levels hover total capacity of the incubators, they can be place in one approximately 2.5 million around 400,000+ smolts; of the 16 aluminum raceway-troughs eggs. however, numbers fluctuates and hand feeding can begin. The troughs are 16 feet in length with a flow based on available brood stock. They have a rearing rate of up to 25 gpm. capacity of approximately 837,000 zero age smolts. Current Fall Chinook Hatchery Production In 2004, the Puyallup Tribal Fisheries Department began acclimating and releasing fall chinook from the Clarks Creek facility, discontinuing all chinook releases from the Diru Creek hatchery. In early 2005, construction of a new incubation building was completed at Clarks Creek. The incubation 2005 Clarks Creek Chinook Rack Return Timing 60 building houses 32 Male incubator stack, each 51 50 Female capable of holding up to Jacks 77,000 chinook eggs, for a total capacity of 40 approximately 2.5 million eggs. Once fish are ready to 30 25 be moved from the 21 21 incubators, they can be 20 20 18 place in one of the 16 13 12 aluminum raceway-troughs 9 10 and hand feeding can begin. 7 6 4 4 The troughs are 16 feet in 2 2 2 0 0 length with a flow rate of up 0 9-Sep-05 21-Sep-05 28-Sep-05 5-Oct-05 12-Oct-05 19-Oct-05 to 25 gpm. When the fish Date are approximately 500/lbs., CLARKS CREEK HATCHERY FALL CHINOOK RELEASES they are transferred to one of Fall Chinook the cement lined ponds. 523,000 Holding the chinook in the cement pond is only temporary until they are up to a large enough size, usually in late April, to be massed marked with an 240,680 automated tagger. Once tagged, the fish are planted 163,880 in one of the two natural acclimation ponds until they are released in late May or early June.
Number of Chinook
600,000 500,000

Number of fish released

400,000

300,000

200,000

100,000

0

2004

2005

2006

Year Released

PUYALLUP TRIBAL FISHERIES
2005 - 2006 ANNUAL SALMON, STEELHEAD AND BULL TROUT REPORT.

31

WRIA 10: PUYALLUP/WHITE RIVER WATERSHED

CLEAR CREEK
WRIA: 10.0022 - PUYALLUP RIVER 2005 - 2006

Anadromous blockage in the form of a cement dam at RM 1.9 that ensures pathogen free water for the trout farm.

River miles surveyed: 1.7 to 1.9 Dates surveyed: 8/22/05 to 1/27/06 Species surveyed: Chinook, Coho N/O Chum Access Mile 1.7: Clear Creek crosses Pioneer Way at theTroutlodge facility, a private trout farm . The survey begins where the stream curves to the North away from the road and ends at an artificial dam. Ed Mcleary, of Trout lodge, has requested that surveyors remain in the stream channel and contact him prior to surveying the site. He can be reached at 253-922-0667.

DESCRIPTION Clear Creek is a tributary to the lower Puyallup River, converging with the Puyallup at RM 2.9. Clear Creek has three main tributaries which include; Swan Creek (10.0023) entering at RM 0.2 on the left bank, Squally Creek (10.0024) entering at RM 1.4 on the left bank, and an unnamed tributary (10.0026) entering at RM 3.05 on the right bank. Only Swan and Squally Creeks are accessible to salmon. Clear Creek flows as a moderate gradient pool-riffle stream above Pioneer Way before paralleling the road for several hundred feet. The upper reach has good spawning gravel from RM 1.7 to 1.9. Although the riparian area is not intact, there are undercut banks and moderate amounts of in-stream cover. A high density of canary reed grass and other vegetation chokes approximately 100 meters of the channel every summer, trapping a lot of fine sediment which covers the available spawning gravel by several inches. The vegetative growth and the lack of water though this reach, often prevent chinook from accessing and spawning successfully. There is an anadromous blockage in the form of a cement dam at RM 1.9 that ensures pathogen free water for hatchery raised rainbow trout at the Troutlodge facility, a private trout farm. The reach above the dam has not been surveyed. Large numbers of chum spawn (center left) each year in the 0.2 miles of available habitat below the man made dam at RM 1.9. Relatively few, if any coho or steelhead are observed in this segment of the creek.

PUYALLUP TRIBAL FISHERIES
2005 - 2006 ANNUAL SALMON, STEELHEAD AND BULL TROUT REPORT.

32

WRIA 10: PUYALLUP/WHITE RIVER WATERSHED

2005 CLEAR CREEK CHINOOK COUNTS
10 LIVE DEAD 9 REDDS

8

7

NUMBER OBSERVED

6

5

4

3

2

1

0 8/22/05 8/30/05 9/16/05 9/28/05 10/6/05 10/14/05 10/24/05 11/3/05

DATE SURVEYED

CLEAR CREEK CHINOOK SEASON COMPARISONS (1999 - 2005)
30

LIVE DEAD
26

REDDS

25 22 21 20 NUMBER OBSERVED 17

15

14

10 10 8 7 5 5 3 1 0 1999 2000 2001 2002 SEASON SURVEYED 2003 2004 2005 1 8 8 8 9

PUYALLUP TRIBAL FISHERIES
2005 - 2006 ANNUAL SALMON, STEELHEAD AND BULL TROUT REPORT.

33

WRIA 10: PUYALLUP/WHITE RIVER WATERSHED

CLEAR CREEK CHINOOK RUN TIMING (2002-2005)
2005 14 2004 2003 2002 12

NUMBER OF FISH OBSERVED

10

8

6

4

2

0
Aug 15-25 Aug 26-Sept 5 Sept 6-Sept 15 Sept 16-Sept 25 DATE Sept 26-Oct 5 Oct 6-Oct 15 Oct 16-Oct 25 Oct 26-Nov 5

CLEAR CREEK CHINOOK CARCASS SAMPLING (2002-2005)
16

CARCASSES SAM PLED CHINOOK W ITH COD ED W IRE TAG & ADIPOSE CLIP (FALL/HATCHERY ORIGIN) CHINOOK W ITH ADIPOSE CLIP ONLY (FALL/HATCHERY ORIGIN)

14

12

W ILD UNM ARKED

NUMBER OF CHINOOK

10 8 8

6

5

5 4

4 3

2

1

0 2003 2004 SAMP LIN G SEASON 2005

PUYALLUP TRIBAL FISHERIES
2005 - 2006 ANNUAL SALMON, STEELHEAD AND BULL TROUT REPORT.

34

WRIA 10: PUYALLUP/WHITE RIVER WATERSHED

2005 CLEAR CREEK CHUM COUNTS
250 L IV E DEAD

200

NUMBER OBSERVED

150

100

50

0 11 /22/05 12/1/05 12 /12 /05 12 /22 /05
D ATE SU RV EYED

1/3 /06

1 /20 /06

2/3/06

CLEAR CREEK CHUM SEASON COMPARISONS (1994 - 2005)
1200 AUC: ESCAPEMENT ESTIMATE LIVE DEAD 1000
1088 788

800
NUMBER OBSERVED

642

680
566

600
478

460

303

340

400 260

426

122

131

200

163

83

110

4

0

1994

0

1995

1996

29

1997

50

1998

114

1999

196

2000

201

2001

2002

233

2003

2004

2005

SEASON SURVEYED

PUYALLUP TRIBAL FISHERIES
2005 - 2006 ANNUAL SALMON, STEELHEAD AND BULL TROUT REPORT.

276

35