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NPIC

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XVII.

karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

Design of Two-Way Slabs

1> esckIepIm Introduction


kMralxNGacRtUv)anBicarNaCaGgt;eRKOgbgMEdlmankMras; h tUcCagRbEvg L nigTTwg S .
TMrg;dsamBarbs;kMralxNKWkMralxNEdlRtUv)anRTedayTMrQmKa Edlvapl;nUvPaBdabcMbgkg
TismYy EdleKeGayeQaHfa kMralxNmYyTis (one-way slab). karKNnakMralxNmYyTisman
niyayenAkgemeronTI 9.
enAeBlkMralxNRtUv)anRTedayRCugTaMgbYn nigmanpleFobbeNay L elITTwg S tUcCag
BIr ehIykMralxNdabBIrTis elIsBIenHbnkenAelIkMralxNRtUv)anbBaneTATMrTaMgbYnRCug. kMral
xNEbenHRtUv)aneKeGayeQaHfa kMralxNBIrTis (two-way slab). m:Um:g;Bt; nigPaBdabenAkgkM
ralxNEbbenHtUcCagenAkgkMralxNmYyTis kMralxNdUcKaGacRTbnk)aneRcInCagenAeBlEdl
vamanTMrTaMgbYnRCug. bnkenAkgkrNIenHRtUv)anRTBIrTis ehIym:Um:g;Bt;kgTisnImYytUcCagm:Um:g;
Bt;enAkgkMralxNRbsinebIbnkrbs;vaRtUv)anRTkgTisEtmYy. kartMerob rt-Fwm-kMralxN (slabbeam-girder) KMrUnkMralxNmYyTis nigBIrTisRtUv)anbgajenAkgrUbTI 17>1.
2> RbePTkMralxNBIrTis
Types of Two-Way Slabs
kMralxNebtugBIrTisGacRtUv)ancat;cMNat;fak;dUcxageRkam

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karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

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kMralxNBIrTisenAelIFwm (two-way slab on beam) krNIenHekItmanenAeBlEdlkMral


xNBIrTisRtUv)anRTedayFwmenAelIRCugTaMgGs;rbs;va rUbTI17>1. bnkBIkMralxNRtUv
bBaneTATMrFwmTaMgbYnrbs;va EdlnwgbBanbnkbneTAssr.
b. Flat slab CakMralxNBIrTisEdlRtUv)anBRgwgBIrTisedayKanFwmRT ehIybnkRtUv)anbBan
pal;eTAssrTMr. ssrcg;TMluHkMralxN EdlRtUv)ankarBaredaybIviFIxageRkam rUbTI
17>2 nig 17>3
- edayeRbI drop panel CamYynwg column capital.
- edayeRbI drop panel EdlKan column capital. ebtugEdlBTCMuvij column capital KYr
EtRkas;RKb;RKan;edIm,ITb;Tl;nwgkugRtaMgTajGgt;RTUgEdlekItBIkMlaMgkat; punching
shear.
- edayeRbI column capital edayKan drop panel EdlCaviFImYyminFmta.
c. Flat-Plate floor CaRbBnkMralxNBIrTisEdlmankMras;kMralxNesI nigsitenABIelIssr
edaypal;edayKanFwm b column capital rUbTI 17>2 a. kgkrNIenHssrcg;TMluHkMral
xNedaykugRtaMgTajGgt;RTUg. dUcenH CaTUeTAeKRtUvkarbegInkMras;kMralxN bdak;Edk
Biess.
d. Two-way ribbed slabs nig waffle slab system kMralxNRbePTenHekItBIkMralxNEdl
manpleFobbeNayelITTwgtUcCag 2. CaTUeTAkMras;rbs;kMralxNsitenAcenaH 5cm eTA
10cm nigRtUv)anRTedayrnUt (rib or joist) TaMgBIrTis. rnUtRtUv)antMerobkgTisnImYyCa
mYyKMlatRbEhlBI 50cm 75cm EdlbegItragkaer bctuekaNEkg rUbTI 17>2 c. rnUt
kGacRtUv)antMerobedaymMu 45o b 60o BIGkSrbs;kMralxN EdlbegInesaPNPaBsabtkm. sMrab; two-way ribbed slabs RbBnepSgGacRtUv)anTTYlyk
- RbBnrnUtBIrTisCamYynwgRbehagcenaHrnUtEdlTTYledayeRbIBum<Biess EdlCaTUeTA
manragkaer. rnUtRtUv)anRTedayrtTaMgbYnRCugEdlsitenABIelIssr. kMralxNRbePT
enHRtUv)aneKeGayeQaHfa two-way ribbed (joist) slab system .
- RbBnrnUtBIrTisCamYyeRKOgbMeBj (filler) enAcenaHrnUtEdleFVIeGayBidanerobesI.
eKOgbMeBj (filler) CagRbehag nigeFVIBIebtugTMgn;Rsal bTMgn;Fmta bBIsMParTMgn;
RsalepSgeTot. rnUtRtUv)anRTedayrtenARCugTaMgbYnEdlRtUv)anRTbnedayssr.
a.

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kMralxNRbePTenHkRtUv)aneKeGayeQaHfa two-way ribbed slab system b hollowblock two-way ribbed system .


- RbBnrnUtBIrTisCamYyRbehagcenaHrnUt nigKanrt bFwmRTrnUt. vaQrenAelIssreday
pal;CamYynwgbnHebtugtan;. kMralxNRbePTenHRtUv)anehAfa waffle slab.

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3> kareRCIserIsRbBnkMralxNebtugEdlmanlkNesdkic

NPIC

Economical

Choice of Concrete Floor Systems

RbBnkMralxNCaeRcInRbePTRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;GKarTUeTA dUcCa eKhdan kariyaly nigGKar


rd)alepSg. kareRCIserIsRbBnkMralxNEdlmanlkNkMralxN nigRKb;RKan;GaRsyelIRbePT
GKar/ rUbragsabtkm/ esaPN nigRbEvgElVgEdlenAcenaHssr. CaTUeTA bnkGefrenAelIGKar
ERbRbYlcenaHBI 3.8kN / m 2 7.2kN / m 2 . karENnaMTUeTAsMrab;kareRbIR)as;RbBnkMralxNEdl
manlkNesdkicRtUv)ansegbdUcxageRkam
- Flat plate saksmbMputsMrab;ElVgEdlmanRbEvgcenaHBI 6m 7.5m nigbnkGefrERb
RbYlBI 2.9kN / m 2 4.8kN / m 2 . GtRbeyaCn_nkarTTYlyk flat plate rYmmankarcM
NayelIBum<Gs;fefak TTYl)anBidanrabesI nigkarsagsg;qab;. Flat plate manlTPaB
Tb;kMlaMgkat;TTWgTab nigPaBrwgRkajtUc EdleFIVeGaymanPaBdabFM;. Flat plate RtUv)an
eRbIy:agTUlMTUlayenAkgGKarCakMralxNBRgwgedayEdk bkebtugeRbkugRtaMg.
- Flat slab saksmbMputsMrab;ElVgEdlmanRbEvgBI 6m 9m nigsMrab;bnkGefrERbRbYlBI
3.8kN / m 2 7.2kN / m 2 . vaRtUvkarBum<eRcInCag flat plate CaBiesssMrab; column capital.
kgkrNICaeRcIn eKeRbIEt drop panel edayKan column capital .
- Waffle slab saksmsMrab;ElVgEdlmanRbEvgBI 9m 14.5m nigsMrab;bnkGefrERbRbYl
BI 3.8kN / m 2 7.2kN / m 2 . vaRTbnk)aneRcInCag flat plate nigmanBidanKYreGayTak;
TajEtBum<mantMlf.
- kMralxNelIFwm (slab on beam) salsmbMputsMrab;ElVgcenaH 6m 9m nigbnkGefrBI
2.9kN / m 2 5.7 kN / m 2 . FwmbegInPaBrwgRkajrbs;kMralxNEdleFVIeGaymanPaBdab
tUc. eKRtUvkarBum<bEnmsMrab;Fwm.
- kMralxNmYyTisenAelIFwm (one-way slab on beam)saksmbMputsMrab;ElVgEdlmanRb
EvgBI 3m 6m nigbnkGefrcenaHBI 2.9kN / m 2 4.8kN / m 2 . vaGacRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;
ElVgFMCagenHCamYynwgtMlfCag elIsBIenHeKnwgTTYl)anPaBdabFM. eKRtUvkarBum<bEnm
sMrab;Fwm.

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saksmbMputsMrab;ElVgEdlmanRbEvgBI 6m 9m nigman
bnkGefrcenaH 3.8kN / m 2 5.7kN / m 2 . edaysarEtrnUteRCA brimaNebtug nigEdkKWtic
EtkarcMNayelIBum<Gs;eRcIn. Bidanrbs;kMralxNGacnwgemIleTAKYreGayTak;Taj.
One-way joist floor system

4> eKalKMnitkgkarKNna Design Concept


karviPaKdsuRkitsMrab;kMlaMg nigbMlas;TIenAkgkMralxNBIrTisKWsKsaj edaysarEtPaB
minkMNt;x<s;. vaBitCasKsajebIeTaHbICa\TiBl creep nig nonlinear behavior rbs;ebtugRtUv)an
ecalkeday. viFI numerical method dUcCa finite element kGacRtUv)aneRbI b:uEnviFIdsamBadUcEdl
GVI)anbgajeday ACI Code saksmbMputsMrab;karKNnasMrab;karGnuvtn_. ACI Code, Chapter
13 snt;fakMralxNeFVIkarCaFwmTUlay Etrak;begItCaeRKagrwg (rigid frame) CamYynwgssrEdlenA
BIeRkam nigBIelIva. karsnt;nkarEckeRKagCaeRKagsmmUlRtUv)anepgpat;eLIgvijedaykarsikSa
RsavRCavCalkNviPaK nigBiesaFn_ (analytical and experimental research). va)anbgajfa lTPaBRTbnkcugeRkay (ultimate load capacity) nkMralxNBIrTisCamYynwgkarTb;tamRCug
restrained boundary) KWesI RbEhlBIdgnlTPaBRTbnkcugeRkayEdlKNnaedaykarviPaKtam
RTwsI edaysarkarEbgEckm:U- m:g;eLIgvijdFMEdlekIteLIgenAkgkMralxNmunnwg)ak;. enAeBlbnk
FM bMlas;TI nigPaBdabFMRtUv)anrMBwgTuk dUcenHeKRtUvkarkMras;kMralxNGb,brmaedIm,IrkSaPaBdab
niglkxNeRbHRKb;RKan; eRkambnkeFVIkar.
ACI Code kMNt;viFIsaRsBIrsMrab;KNnakMralxNBIrTis
- viFIKNnaedaypal; (direct design method DDM, ACI Code, Section 13.6) CaviFIRbhak;
RbEhl (approximate procedure) sMrab;karviPaK nigkarKNnakMralxNBIrTis. RtUv)ankM
Nt;sMrab;RbBnkMralxNEdlrgnUvbnkBRgayesI nigssrmanKMlatesIKa besIresIKa. viFI
enHeRbInUvsMnuMemKuNedIm,IkMNt;m:Um:g;KNnaenARtg;muxkat;eRKaHfak;. RbBnkMralxNEdlmin
RtUvKanwgkarkMNt;rbs; ACI Code, Section 13.6.1 RtUv)anviPaKedayviFIsaRsKNnaEdl
manlkNsuRkitCag.
- viFIeRKagsmmUl (equivalent frame method EFM, ACI Code, Section 13.7) CaviFImYy
EdlGKarbITMhM (3D) RtUv)anEckecjCaesrIneRKagsmmUlBIrTMhM (2D) edaykat;GKar

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tamExSrcenaHssr. lTplrbs;eRKagRtUv)anBicarNadac;edayELkBIKatamTisbeNay
nigTisTTwgrbs;GKar nigRtUv)anKitBImYyCan;eTAmYyCan; dUcEdlbgajenAkgrUbTI 17>4.
viFIsaRsKNnatam ACI Code BIrKWQrelIelIlTplnkarviPaKeGLasic (elastic analysis) n
eRKOgbgMTaMgmUledayeRbIbnkemKuN. viFIEdlEktMrUv (modified approach) viFI direct design
method RtUv)anbgajenAkg commentary n code qaM 1989 CaviFIPaBrwgRkajEktMrUv (modified
stiffness method MSM). vaQrkarbBalemKuNEbgEckdkMNt;mYyCaGnuKmn_npleFobPaB
rwgRkaj ec sMrab;KuNnwgm:Um:g;saTicsrubenAkgElVgxagcug. viFIenHRtUv)anBnl;enAeBleRkay.
bEnmBIelI viFIrbs; ACI Code eKenAmanviFIepSgCaeRcIneTotsMrab;KNna nigviPaKkMralxN.
CalTpl kMralxNnwgmanbrimaNEdkticCag beRcInCag. viFIviPaK (analytical method) GacRtUv
cat;cMNat;fak;kgRkumnTMnak;TMngeKalrvagbnk nigbMlas;TI CaeGLasic/ )asic nig nonlinear .
- enAkgkarviPaKeGLasic (elastic analysis) kMralxNebtugRtUv)anKitCakMraleGLasic.
karBt;kMlaMgkat;TTwg nigPaBdabRtUv)anKNnaedaysmIkarDIepr:g;EslTI4 (fourth
differential equation) EdlTak;TgbnkeTAnwgPaBdabsMrab;kMralesIgCamYynwgbMlas;TItUc
dUcEdl)anbgaj eday Timoshenko. dMeNaHRsay finite difference solution kdUcCadM
eNaHRsay finite element solution RtUv)anesIeLIgedIm,IviPaKkMralxN. enAkgviFI finite
element method kMralxNRtUv)an EbgEckCasMNaj;ragRtIekaN bragkaer (mesh of
triangles or quadrilateral). GnuKmn_bMlas;TIn cMnuc (node) Edlkat;KaedaycMnucsMNaj;
(intersecting mesh point) RtUv)anbegIteLIgCaTUeTA ehIym:aRTicnPaBrwgRkaj (stiffness
matrices) RtUv)anbegItsMrab;karviPaKedaykMuBTr.
- sMrab;karviPaK)asic eKmanbIviFI. viFI yield line method RtUv)anbegIteLIgeday Johansen
edIm,IkMNt;sanPaB (limit state) nkMralxNedayBicarNafa yield line EdlekItmanenA
kgkMralxNCaemkanicnkar)ak; (collapse mechanism). viFIcMerok (strip method) RtUv)an
begIteday Hillerborg. kMralxNRtUv)anEckecjCacMerok (strip) ehIybnkenAelIkMral
xNRtUv)anEbgEckTisedABIrEkgKa. cMerokRtUv)anviPaKCaFwmsamBa. viFITIbICaviFI optimal
analysis method sMrab;eFVIeGaybrimaNEdlTTYl)anmantMlGb,brmaedayQrelIkarvi
PaK)asic. dMeNaHRsay optimal solution KWsKsajkgkarviPaK nigTTYl)ankarBRgay
srsEdlmYydsKsaj.
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- karviPaK nonlinear analysis KitlkNbMlas;TIeRkambnkBitnkMralxNebtugGarem: enA


eBlEdlviFI finite element method KitBicarNaEpk nonlinear nTMnak;TMngkugRtaMg-bMEr
bMrYlrageFob (stress-strain relationship) nGgt;mYydac;edayELkBIKa. kgkrNIenH
dMeNaHRsaykayCasKsaj RbsinebITMnak;TMngEdl)anBIkarBiesaFn_edayTTYl)ankar
sMrYlminRtUv)ansnt;eTenaH.
viFIEdl)anerobrab;xagelI RtUv)anbgajedIm,IENnaMGksikSanUvviFIepSgnkarviPaKkMralxN.
kargarBiesaFn_elIkMralxNminRtUv)anGPivDeTkgb:unanqaMcugeRkayenH b:uEnkarsikSaCaeRcInRbEhlCaRtUvkaredIm,IsMrYldMeNIrkarKNnabcb,nCamYysuvtiPaB karbMerIkargar niglkNesdkic.
5> cMerokelIssr nigcMerokkNal Column and Middle Strips
rUbTI 17>5 bgajkMralxagkgnkMralxNBIrTisEdlRtUv)anRTenAelIssr A / B / C nig
D . RbsinebIkMralRTbnkBRgayesI kMralxNnwgdabBIrTis CamYyPaBdabGtibrmarnAtMbn;kNal
O . cMnucx<s;bMputsitenAelIssr A / B / C nig D dUcenHEpknkMralxNEdlenACMuvijssrnwg
manrage)a:g (convex shape). karpas;brrUbragrbs;kMralxNbnicmg BIPaBe)a:genAelIssreTA
rkPaBptenAkNalkMral eFVIeGayExSkaMnImYykat;Rtg;cMnucrbt;. muxkat;Rtg; O / E / F / G nig
H nwgmanm:Um:g;Bt;viCman b:uEnenAmMbrievNssrnwgmanm:Um:g;Bt;GviCmanGtibrma. edayBicarNacM
eroktambeNay AFB cMeroknwgekagdUcFwmCab; rUbTI 17>5 b edaymanm:Um:g;GviCmanenARtg; A
nig B nigmanm:Um:g;Bt;viCmanRtg; F . cMerokenHlatsnwgenAcenaHssrBIr A nig B nigCab;enAelI
RCugTaMgsgagnkMral EdlbegIt)anCacMErokelIssr (column strip).
dUcKasMrab;cMeroktambeNay EOG nwgmanm:Um:g;Bt;GviCmanenARtg; E nig G ehIym:Um:g;
viCmanenARtg; O EdlbegItCacMerokkNal. cMerokTIbItambeNay DHC nwgeFVIkarRsedogKanwgcM
erok AFB . dUcenH bnHkMralGacnwgRtUv)anEbgEckbIcMerokKW 1enAkNaltambeNay EOG Edl
eKeGayeQaHfacMerokkNal nigBIreTotsgagtambeNay AFB nig DHC EdleKeGayeQaHfa
cMerokelIssr rUbTI 17>5 a. cMeroknImYyeFVIkarCaFwmCab;. tamviFIdUcKa bnHkMralkRtUv)anEbg
EckCabIcMroksMrab;TisedAmYyeTotKW cMerokkNalmYytambeNay FOH nigcMerokelIssrBIreTot
tambeNay AED nig BGC erogKa rUbTI 17>5 e.

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tamryrUbTI 17>5 a eyIgeXIjfacMerokkNalRtUv)anRTedaycMerokelIssr EdlbBan


bnkbneTAssr A / B / C nig D enAkgbnHkMralenH. dUcenHcMerokssrRTbnkeRcInCagcMerok
kNal. dUcenH m:Um:g;Bt;viCmanenAkgcMerokelIssrnImYy enARtg; E / F / G nig H mantMl
FMCagm:Um:g;Bt;viCmanenARtg; O EdlsitenAcMerokkNal. dUcKa m:Um:g;GviCmanenAelIssr A / B /
C nig D enAkgcMerokelIssrmantMlFMCagm:Um:g;GviCmanenARtg; E / F / G nig H enAkgcMerok
kNal. Epknm:Um:g;KNnaEdlRtUv)ankMNt;enAmuxkat;eRKaHfak;nImYyncMerokssr nigcMerok
kNalRtUv)anbgajenAkgEpkTI 8.

TMhMncMerokelIssr nigcMerokkNslnImYyenAkgbnHkMralRtUv)ankMNt;eday ACI Code,


Section 13.2. cMerokelIssr x EdlRtUv)ankMNt;edayTTwgkMralxNenAelIRCugnImYynGkS
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ssr esInwgmYyPaKbYnnTMhMbnHkMral l1 nig l2 mYyNaEdltUcCageK rYmbBalTaMgFwmRbsinebI


man.
l1 = RbEvgElVg KitBIGkSeTAGkS kgTisedAEdlm:Um:g;nwgRtUv)ankMNt;
l 2 = RbEvlElVg KitBIGkSeTAGkS kgTisedAEkgnwg l1
EpknbnHkMralcenaHcMerokelIssrkMNt;cMerokkNal.
6> kMras;kMralGb,brmaedIm,IkMritPaBdab

Minimum Slab Thickness to

Control Deflection

kMNt;kMras;kMralxNsMrab;kMralxNBIrTisedIm,IkMritPaBdab.
TMhMnPaBdabrbs;kMralxNGaRsynwgGefrCaeRcInEdlrYmbBalTaMgPaBrwgRkajTb;karBt;
(flexural stiffness) rbs;kMralxNEdlbBalCaGnuKmn_nkMras;kMralxN h . enAeBlbegInkMras;
kMralxN enaHPaBrwgRkajTb;karBt;rbs;kMralxNk ekIneLIg ehIyPaBdabrbs;kMralxNnwgRtUv
kat;bny. edaysarkarKNnaPaBdabsMrab;kMralxNBIrTismanPaBsKsaj nigedIm,IeCosvagPaB
dabFM ACI Code kMNt;kMras;kMralxNTaMgenHedayTTYlykkarkMNt;Edl)anBIkarBiesaFn_bI. Rb
sinebIkarkMNt;rbs;eyIgminsitenAkgEdnkMNt;TaMgbIenHeT eKcaM)ac;RtUvKNnaPaBdab.
a. sMrab; 0.2 fm 2 /
ACI Code, Section 9.5.3

fy

l n 0.8 +
1400

h=
36 + 5 ( fm 0.2)

b.

b:uEnminRtUvtUcCag 125mm
sMrab; fm > 2
fy

l n 0.8 +

1400

h=
36 + 9

c.

!&>!

b:uEnminRtUvtUcCag 90mm
sMrab; fm < 0.2
h = kMras;kMralxNGb,brmaedayKanFwmxagkg tarag 17>1
Edl ln = clear span sMrab;TisEvgEdlvas;BIpQmKarbs;ssr
= pleFobn clear span EvgelI clear span xI

karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

!&>@

!&>#

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tMlmFmn f sMrab;RKb;FwmnRCugTaMgGs;rbs;bnHkMral
f = CapleFobnPaBrwgRkajTb;karBt;nmuxkat;Fwm Ecb I b lIPaBrwgRkajTb;
karBt;nkMralxN Ecs I s EdlBTCMuvijedayGkSbnHkMralenABIelIFwmRCug
nImYy.
E I
!&>$
f = cb b
E cs I s
Edl Ecb nig Ecs Cam:UDuleGLasicrbs;ebtugenAkgFwm nigkMralxN erogKa.
I b = m:Um:g;niclPaBTaMgmUlnmuxkat;FwmeFobGkSTIRbCMuTMgn; muxkat;FwmrYmTaMg
beNaykMralxNenAelIRCugTaMgsgagrbs;FwmEdlesInwgkMBs;FwmBIelI bBI
eRkamkMralxN ykmYyNaEdlFMCageK b:uEnminRtUvFMCagbYndgkMras;kMral
xN.
I s = m:Um:g;niclPaBnmuxkat;kMralxNTaMgmUl.
b:uEn kMras;kMralxNminKYrtUcCagtMlxageRkam
- sMrab;kMralxNEdlman fm < 2.0 125mm
- sMrab;kMralxNEdlman fm > 2 90mm
fm =

tarag 17>1 kMras;kMralxNGb,brmaedayKanFwmxagkg


Yield
Stress
fy *
280
420

edayKan Drop Panel**


man Drop Panel***
bnHkMralxageRkA
bnHkMralxageRkA
bnHkMralxagkg
bnHkMralxagkg
KanFwmxag manFwmxag
KanFwmxag manFwmxag
ln
33
ln
30

ln
36
ln
33

ln
36
ln
33

ln
36
ln
33

ln
40
ln
36

ln
40
ln
36

sMrab;EdkEdlman Yield Stress cenaH 280 nig 420 kMras;Gb,brmaTTYl)anBI linear interpolation.
** Drop panel RtUv)ankMNt;enAkg ACI Sections 13.3.7.7 nig 13.3.7.2
*** kMralxNEdlmanFwmcenaHssrtambeNayxagkg. tMln f sMrab;FwmminKYrmantMltUcCag 0.8 .
*

RbsinebIFwmminRtUv)aneRbI dUckgkrNI flat plate enaH f = 0 nig fm = 0 . smIkar ACI


Code sMrab;KNnakMras;kMralxN h )anKit\TiBlrbs;RbEvgElVg/ TMrg;bnHkMral/ yield stress rbs;
karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

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Edk f y nigPaBrwgRkajTb;karBt;rbs;Fwm. enAeBlFwmEdlmanlkNrwgxaMgRtUv)aneRbI smIkar !&>!


Gacpl;nUvkMras;kMralxNtUc ehIysmIkar !&>@ Gaclub. sMrab; flat plate nig flat slab enAeBl
EdlFwmxagkgminRtUv)aneRbI kMras;kMralxNGb,brmaGacRtUv)ankMNt;edaypal;BItarag 9>5 c n
ACI Code EdlRtUv)anbgajenATIenHKWtarag 17>1.
karkMNt;rbs; ACI Code epSgeTotRtUv)ansegbdUcxageRkam
- sMrab;bnHkMralEdlmanxagminCab;; FwmxagcugEdlman = 0.8 RtUv)aneRbI ebImindUcenHeT
kMras;kMralxNGb,brmaRtUv)anKNnatamsmIkar !&>! nig !&>@ RtUv)anbegIn 10% y:ag
tic ACI Code, Section 9.5.3 .
- enAeBl drop panel RtUv)aneRbIedayKanFwm kMras;kMralxNGb,brmaKYrRtUv)anbnyeday
10% . drop panel KYrRtUv)anlatsnwgRKb;TisBIGkSrbs;TMredaycMgayminticCagRbEvg
ElVgelI 6 RKb;TiscenaHGkSeTAGkSnTMr nigTMlak;cuHeRkamkMralxNy:agtic h / 4 . kar
bnyenH)anrYmbBaleTAkgtaragTI 17>1.
- edayminKittMlEdlTTYl)anBIsmIkar !&>! nig !&>@
kMras;kMralxNBIrTisminRtUvtUcCagkrNIdUcteTA ! 125mm sMrab;kMralxNEdlKanFwm
b drop panel. @ 100mm sMrab;kMralxNKanFwmEtman drop panel. # 90mm sMrab;
kMralxNmanFwmenAelIRCUgTaMgbYnCamYynwg fm 2 nig 125mm sMrab; fm 2 ACI
Code, Section 9.5.3.
CMhanxageRkamsegbBIkarKNnaTaMgenH
!> sMrab;kMralxNEdlKanFwmxagkg flat plate nig flat slab
a. KNnakMras;kMralxNedaypal;BItarag 17>1. b:uEnsmIkar !&>! nig !&>@ kGacRtUv)aneRbI
ehIyCaTUeTA smIkar !&>! lub. kMras;kMralxNGb,brmaKYrFMCag besInwg 125mm
sMrab;kMralxNEdlKan drop panel nigFMCagbesI 100mm sMrab;kMralxNEdlman drop
panel.
b. enAxagEdlminCab; FwmxagEdlman f 0.8 KYrRtUv)aneRbI. ebImindUecaHeT kMras;kMral
xNGb,brmaRtUv)anKNnaedaysmIkar !&>! nig !&>@ KYrRtUv)anbegIneday 10% . kar
begIn 10% RtUv)anbBaleTAkgCYrQrTI 2 kgtaragTI 17>1 rYcehIy.
karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

450

NPIC

T.Chhay

RbsinebI drop panel RtUv)aneRbIenAkg flat slab kMras;kMralxNGb,brmaRtUv)anbnyeday


10% enAkgkrNIEdl drop panel latsnwgenARKb;TisBIGkSnTMrCamYycMgaymintUcCag
1 / 6 RbEvgElVg nigTMlak;eRkamkMralxNy:agtic h / 4 . karbnyenH)anbBaleTAkgem
KuNntarag 17>1.
@> sMrab;kMralxNEdlmanFwmenARKb;RCug fm > 0
a. KNna fm nigbnab;mkKNnakMras;kMralxNGb,brmaBIsmIkar !&>! nig !&>@. kgkrNI
CaeRcInsmIkar !&>@ lub.
b. kMras;kMralxNKYrFMCag besInwg 125mm sMrab;kMralxNEdlman fm < 2.0 nigKYrFMCag
besInwg 90mm sMrab;kMralxNEdlman fm 2.0 .
#> sMrab;RKb;kMralxN kMrs;kMralxNEdltUcCagkMras;Gb,brmaEdleGayenAkgCMhan !> nig @>
GacRtUv)aneRbI RbsinkarKNnabgajfaPaBdabminFMCagkarkMNt;rbs; ACI Code, Table 9.5
b EdlBnl;enAkgemeronTI 6.
]TahrN_17>1 RbBnkMral flat plate EdlmanTMhM 7.5 6m RtUv)anRTenAelIssrkaer 500mm .
edayeRbIsmIkar ACI Code kMNt;kMras;kMralxNGb,brmacaM)ac;sMrab;bnHkMralxagkg nigbnHkM
ralkac;RCug dUcbgajenAkgrUbTI 17>6. FwmxagminRtUv)aneRbI. eKeGay f 'c = 28MPa nig
f y = 420MPa .
c.

dMeNaHRsay
1>

ln
f y = 420MPa
sMrab;bnHkMralxNkac;RCugelx ! kMras;Gb,brmaKW 30
nigKanFwmxagRtUv)aneRbI emIltarag 17>1.

l n1 = 7500 500 = 7000mm


7000
250mm
hmin =
= 233mm
30

yk
ma:gvijeTot smIkar !&>! nig !&>@ GacRtUv)aneRbIedIm,IKNnakMras;Gb,brmaCamYy
f = fm = 0 .
2> sMrab;bnHkMralxagkgelx #> CamYy f y = 420MPa kMras;kMralxNGb,brmaKW
l
hmin = n = 212mm yk 220mm
33
ma:gvijeTot smIkar !&>! nig !&>@ GacRtUv)aneRbI.
karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

451

NPIC

T.Chhay

RbsinebIRKb;bnHkMralxNTaMgGs;eRbIkMras;dUcKa enaHeKGacyk hmin = 250mm .

]TahrN_17>2 RbBnkMralxNdUcbgajenAkgrUbTI 17>7 EdlpSMeLIgedaykMraltan; nigFwmenA

elITaMgBIrTisEdlRTedayssrkaerEdlmanRCug 500mm . edayeRbIsmIkar ACI Code kMNt;kMras;


kMralxNGb,brmacaM)ac;sMrab;bnHkMralxagkg. eKeGay f 'c = 21MPa nig f y = 420MPa .

dMeNaHRsay

1> edIm,IeRbIsmIkar !&>! fm RtUv)anKNnamun. dUcenH eKcaM)ac;kMNt; I b / I s nig f sMrab;


Fwm nigkMralxNtamTisEvg nigTisxI.
2> m:Um:g;niclPaBrbs;FwmTaMgmUl I b RtUv)anKNnasMrab;muxkat;dUcbgajenAkgrUbTI 17>7 b
EdlRtUv)anbegIteLIgedayFwm nigEpksgagxHrbs;kMralxN x = y b:uEnminRtUvFMCag 4
bYndgkMras;kMralxN. snt; h = 18cm ehIyvaRtUv)anepgpat;enAeBleRkay enaH
x = y = 56 18 = 38cm < 18 4 = 72cm . dUcenH be = 40 + 38 2 = 116cm nigmuxkat;

karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

452

NPIC

T.Chhay

GkSr T RtUv)anbgajenAkgrUbTI 17>7 c . kMNt;TIRbCMuTMgn;rbs;muxkat;edayKitm:Um:g;eFob


kMBUlrbs;sab
RkLapsab = 18 116 = 2088cm 2
RkLapRTnug = 40 38 = 1520cm 2
RkLapsrub 3608cm 2
2088 9 + 1520 37 = 3608 y
y = 20.8cm
116
(18)3 + 2088(11.8)2 + 40 383 + 1520(19 2.8)2 = 928924.6cm 4
Ib =

12
12

3> m:Um:g;niclPaBnkMralxNtamTisedAEvgKW
bh 3
Il =
Edl b = 600cm nig h = 18cm
12
Il =

600 3
18 = 291600cm 4
12

karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

453

NPIC

T.Chhay

928924.6
b
tamTisedAEvg = EI
=
= 3.19
EI s
291600
4> m:Um:g;niclPaBnkMralxNtamTisedAxIKW

fl

Is =

760 3
18 = 369360cm 4
12
EI
928924.6
= b =
= 2.51
EI s
369360

tamTisedAxI
5> fm CatMlmFmn fs nig fl
fs

3.19 + 2.51
= 2.85
2
7.6 0.5
=
= 1.29
6 0.5

fm =

6>
7> kMNt; hmin edayeRbIsmIkar !&>@ ln = 7.1m
hmin

420

7.1 0.8 +

1400

=
= 0.148m
36 + 5 1.29(2.82 0.2)

b:uEn tMlenHminRtUvtUcCag h EdleGayedaysmIkar !&>@ fm > 2.0


h=

7.81
= 0.164m
36 + 9 1.29

ma:geTot hmin = 90cm .


dUcenH h = 16.4cm lub.
eKGacTTYlykkMras;kMralxNEdl)ansnt; h = 18cm .
cMNaMfa enAkgkrNIGnuvtn_CaeRcIn smIkar !&>@ manlkNlub.
7> ersIusg;kMlaMgkat;TTwgrbs;kMralxN Shear Strength of Slabs
sMrab;RbBnkMralxNBIrTis bnHkMralRtUvEtmankMras;RKb;RKan;edIm,ITb;nwgm:Um:g;Bt;TaMgBIr
nigkMlaMgkat;TTwgenARtg;muxkat;eRKaHfak;. edIm,IGegtlTPaBTb;kMlaMgkat;TTwgnkMralxNBIrTis
krNIxageRkamRtUv)anBicarNa.

7>1> kMralxNBIrTisEdlRTedayFwm

Two-Way Slabs Supported on Beams

muxkat;eRKaHfak;rbs;kMralxNBIrTisEdlRTedayFwmKWsitenAcMgay d BIpnFwmTMr ehIy


lTPaBTb;kMlaMgkat;TTwgnmuxkat;nImYyKW Vc = f 'c bd / 6 . enAeBlEdlFwmmanlkNrwg
nigGacbBanbnkkMraleTAssr vaRtUv)ansnt;eGayRTbnkEdleFVIGMeBImkelIpkMralxNEdlBT
karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

454

NPIC

T.Chhay

edaybnat; 45o EdlKUsecjBIRCugEkg dUcbgajenAkgrUbTI 17>8. bnkenAelIpctuekaNBaynwg


RtUv)anRTedayFwmEvg AB nig CD b:uEnbnkenAelIpRtIekaNnwgRtUv)anRTedayFwmxI AC nig
BD .

kMlaMgkat;TTwgkgmYyktaTTwgrbs;kMralmantMlx<s;bMputenAcenaH E nig F tamTis


TaMgBIr ehIy Vu = wu (l2 / 2) Edl wu CabnkemKuNBRgayesIkgmYyktap.
RbsinebIEdkTb;kMlaMgkat;TTwgminRtUv)andak; kMlaMgkat;TTwgenAcMgay d BIpnFwm
Vud RtUvEtesInwg
Vud Vc

f 'c bd
6

Edl Vud = wu l22 d

7>2> kMralxNBIrTisEdlKanFwm

Two-Way Slabs Without Beams

nig flat slab KanFwmeT dUcenHkMralxNRtUv)anRTedayssredaypal;. sMrab;kM


ralxNEbbenHkugRtaMgkMlaMgkat;TTwgBIrRtUv)aneFVIkarGegt TImYyKWkMlaMgkat;TTwgmYyTis bkMlaMg
kat;TTwgFwm (one-way shear or beam shear). muxkat;eRKaHfak;RtUv)anykenAcMgay d BIpn
ssr ehIykMralxNRtUv)anBicarNadUcFwmEdlmanTTwgFMsitenAcenaHTMr dUckgkrNIFwmmYyTis
Flat plate

karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

455

NPIC

T.Chhay

. lTPaBTb;kMlaMgkat;TTwgnmuxkat;ebtugKW Vc = f 'c bd / 6 . RbePTTIBIrn


kMlaMgkat;TTwgEdlRtUvsikSaKWkMlaMgkat;TTwgBIrTis bkMlaMgkat;pug (two-way shear or punching
shear) dUcEdl)anerobrab;enAkgkarKNnaeCIgtag. Kar)ak;edaykMlaMgkat;ekItmantambeNaykM
Nat;ekaN bkMNat;BIra:mIt (truncated cone or pyramid) CMuvijssr. muxkat;eRKaHfak;sitenAcM
gay d / 2 BIpssr/ column capital/ b drop panel rUbTI 17>9 a. RbsinebIEdkkMlaMgkat;TTwg
minRtUv)andak; ersIusg;kMlaMgkat;TTwgrbs;ebtugKWtMlEdltUcCageKkgcMeNamsmIkar !&>%
nig !&>^
f 'c bo d
1 1
f ' c bo d
!&>%
Vc = +
3
6 3
Edl bo = brimaRtnmuxkat;eRKaHfak;
= pleFobnRCugEvgrbs;ssrelIRCugxI bRkLapbnk

d
!&>^
Vc = s + 2 f 'c bo d
12 b
(one-way beam)

Edl s esI 40 sMrab;ssrxagkg/ esI 30 sMrab;;ssrxag nigesI 20 sMrab;ssrkac;RCug.


enAeBlEdlEdkkMlaMgkat;TTwgRtUv)andak; ersIusg;kMlaMgkat;TTwgminKYrelIs

Vc
f 'c bo d
!&>&
2

7>3> EdkkMlaMgkat;TTWgenAkgkMralxNBIrTisEdlKanFwm

Shear Reinforcement in

Two-Way Slabs Without Beams

enAkgRbBnkMralxN flat plate nig flat slab kMras;kMralxNEdl)aneRCIserIsGacnwgmin


RKb;RKan;edIm,ITb;nwgkugRtaMgkMlaMgkat;TTwgEdlGnuvteT. kgkrNIenH eKGacbegInkMras;kMralxN
bdak;EdkTb;kMlaMgkat;TTwg. ACI Code GnuBaatkareRbIEdkTb;kMlaMgkat;TTwgCa shearhead nig
anchored bar b wire.
Shearhead pSMeLIgedayEdkragGkSr I bGkSr C EdlpSarExVgCabYn nigRtUv)andak;enAkgkM
ralxNBIelIssr rUbTI 17>9 c, d . karKNna Shearhead minGnuvtsMrab;ssrxageRkA Edlm:U
m:g;Bt; nigm:Um:g;rmYlmantMlFMEdlRtUv)anbMElgcenaHkMralxN nigssr. ACI Code, Section
11.12.4 bgajfaenARtg;muxkat;eRKaHfak; ersIusg;kMlaMgkat; nominal Vn minKYelIs f 'c bo d / 3
b:uEnRbsin ebIEdk shearhead RtUv)andak; Vn minKYrelIs 7 f 'c bo d / 12 . edIm,IkMNt;TMhMrbs;
shearhead, ACI Code, Section 11.12.4 pl;nUvkarkMNt;dUcteTA
karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

456

T.Chhay

karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

NPIC

457

T.Chhay

karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

NPIC

458

NPIC

T.Chhay

!> pleFob v rvagPaBrwgRkaj Es I rbs;d shearhead nigPaBrwgRkajnmuxkat;EdleRbH


smasEdlmanTTWg c2 + d minRtUvtUcCag 0.15 .
@> sabrgkarsgt;nEdkragminRtUvmanTItaMgenAmM 0.13d nprgkarsgt;rbs;kMralxN.
#> kMBs;rbs;EdkragminRtUvFMCag 70 nkMras;RTnug.
$> lTPaBTb;m:Um:g;)asic M P ndnImYyrbs; shearhead RtUv)anKNnaeday
V
c

ACI Code, Eq. 11.37


!&>*
M P = u hv + v l v + 1
2n
2

Edl

= 0.9

kMlaMgkat;TTwgemKuNCMuvijbrievNnpssr
n = cMnYnd
hv = kMBs;rbs; shearhead
l v = RbEvg shearhead Edlvas;BIGkSssr
%> muxkat;kMralxNeRKaHfak;sMrab;kMlaMgkat;TTWgRtUvEtkat;d shearhead enAcMgayesInwg
(3 / 4)(l v c1 / 2) BIpssreTcugndrbs; shearhead dUcbgajenAkgrUbTI 17>9 c.
muxkat;eRKaHfak;RtUvEtmanbrimaRtGb,brma bo b:uEnvaminRtUvenACitCag d / 2 BIprbs;sse.
^> Shearhead RtUv)anBicarNaeGaycUlrYmkgkarEbgEckm:Um:g;eLIgvij
M v eTAcMerokkMralxNelIssrnImYydUcxageRkam

c
vVu l v 1
ACI Code, Eq. 11.38
!&>(
Mv =
2n
2
b:uEnvaminRtUvtUcCagtMltUcCageKkgcMeNam 30% nm:Um:g;emKuNEdlcaM)ac;enAkgcMerok
elIssr/ karpas;brm:Um:g;cMerokelIssrelIRbEvg lv b M p EdleGayenAkgsmIkar !&>*.
kareRbI anchored bent bar b wire kRtUv)anGnuBaateday ACI Code, Section 11.12.3. Edk
Edldak;enAxagEpkxagelIrbs;ssr niglTPaBkartMerobEdkRtUv)anbgajenAkgrUbTI 17>9 e.
enAeBlEdl bar b wire RtUv)aneRbICaEdkTb;kMlaMgkat;TTwg enaHersIusg;kMlaMgkat;TTWg nominal
KW
f ' c bo d Av f y d
V n = Vc + V s =
+
!&>!0
6
s
Edl Av CaRkLapEdkkgsrub nig bo CaRbEvgnmuxkat;eRKaHfak;nkMlaMgkat;BIrTisenA
cMgay d / 2 BIpssr. ersIusg;kMlaMgkat; nominal Vn minRtUvFMCag f 'c bo d / 2 .
Vu =

karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

459

NPIC

T.Chhay

kareRbIEdkkMlaMgkat;enAkg flat plate kat;bnykMras;kMralxN nigenAEtrkSaPaBrabesI


rbs;BidanedIm,Ikat;bnyfBum<. TMrg; stirrup cage sMrab;EdkkMlaMgkat;TTwgRtUv)anbgajenAkgrUbTI
17>9 f . RbePTm:ageTotnEdkkMlaMgkat;pSMeLIgeday studded steel strip rUbTI 17>9 g.
Steel strip RtUv)andak;CamYy bar chair nigRtUv)anPab;eTAnwgBum< edayCMnYs stirrup gage . ersIusg;
yalrbs;Edk stud RtUv)ankMNt;enAcenaH 280MPa nig 420MPa edIm,ITTYl)an anchorage eBj
eljenAeBlbnkemKuN.
8> karviPaKnkMralxNBIrTisedayviFIKNnaedaypal;

Analysis of Two-Way

Slabs by the Direct Design Method

CaviFIRbhak;RbEhl (approximate method) RtUv)anbegIteLIgeday


ACI Code edIm,IKNnam:Um:g;KNnaenAkgkMralxNBIrTisEdlRTbnkBRgayesI. edIm,IeRbIviFIenH kar
kMNt;xHRtUv)anelIkeLIgeday ACI Code, Section 13.6.1.
Direct design method

8>1> karkMNt;

Limitations

!> vaRtUvmankMralxNCab;Kay:agticbIkgTismYy
@> kMralxNRtUvEtkaer bctuekaNEkg. pleFobElVgEvgelIElVgxIrbs;kMralminRtUvFMCagBIr
#> ElVgEdlenAEk,rkgTisnImYyminRtUvxusKaedayFMCagmYyPaKbInElVgEvgCag.
$> ssrminRtUvlyecjBIGkSssrdTCaeRcIneTotedaytMlGtibrma 10% nRbEvgElVg
enAkgTislyecj.
%> bnkTaMgGs;RtUvEtBRgayesI ehIypleFobnbnkGefrelIbnkefrminRtUvFMCag 2 .
^> RbsinebImanFwmenARKb;RCug pleFobnPaBrwgRkajEdlTak;TgkgTisEkgTaMgBI
f 1l 22 / f 2 l12 minRtUvtUcCag 0.2 nigFMCag 5.0 .

8>2> m:Um:g;saTicemKuNsrub

Total Factored Static Moment

RbsinFwmTMrsamBaRTbnkBRgayesI w kN / m enaHm:Um:g;Bt;viCmanGtibrmaekItmanenA
kNalElVgnigesInwg M o = wl12 / 8 Edl l1 CaRbEvgElVg. RbsinebIRtUv)anbgb;cugTaMgsgag b
Cab;CamYynwg m:Um:g;GviCmanesIKaenAcugTaMgsgag enaHm:Um:g;srub
M o = M p m:Um:g;viCmanenAkNalElVg + M n m:Um:g;GviCmanenAelITMr = wl12 / 8 rUbTI 17>10.

karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

460

NPIC

T.Chhay

\LvRbsinebIFwm AB RTbnk W BIkMralxNEdlmanTTwg l2 Ekgnwg l1 enaH W = wu l2


ehIy m:Um:g;srubKW M o = (wl2 )l12 / 8 Edl wu = GaMgtg;sIuetbnkKitCa kN / m 2 . kgsmIkarenH
m:Um:g;BitR)akdEdlekItmanenAeBl l1 esInwg clear span cenaHTMr A nig B . RbsinebI clear span
RtUv)ankMNt;eday ln enaH
l n2
M o = (wu l 2 )
8

(ACI Code, Eq. 13.3)

RtUv)anvas;BIpeTApTMrkgTisedAEdlm:Um:g;RtUv)anBicarNa b:uEnminRtUvticCag
0.65 dgRbEvgElVgBIGkSeTAGkSTMr. pnTMrEdlmanm:Um:g;GviCmanKYrRtUv)anKNna RtUv)anbgaj
enAkgrUbTI 17>11. RbEvg l2 RtUv)anvas;kgTisedAEkgnwg ln ehIyesITisedAcenaHGkSeTAGkS
rbs;TMr TTwgkMralxN. m:Um:g;srub M o EdlKNnakgTisedAEvgRtUv)anKitCa M ol nigkgTisedA
xIRtuv)anKitCa M os .
enAeBlm:Um:gsrub M o RtUv)anKNnakgTisedAmYy vaRtUvEbgEckCam:Um:g;viCman M p nigm:U
m:g;GviCman M n GBawgehIyeTIb M o = M p + M n rUbTI 17>10. enaHm:Um:g;nImYy M p nig
M n RtUv)anEbgEckqgkat;TTwgkMralxNcenaHcMerokssr nigcMerokkNal dUcEdl)anBnl;y:agxI.
Clear span l n

8>3> karEbgEckm:Um:g;tambeNaykgkMralxN

Longitudinal Distribution of

Moment in Slabs

enAkgkMralxagkg m:Um:g;saTicsrub M o RtUv)anEbgEckenAkgm:Um:g;BIr m:Um:g;viCman M p enA


kNalElVgesInwg 0.35M o nigm:Um:g;GviCman M n enATMrnImYyesInwg 0.65M o dUcbgajenAkgrUbTI
17>12. tMlm:Um:g;TaMgenHQrelIkarsnt;fakMralxagkgCab;kgTisTaMgBIr ehIymanRbEvgElVg
karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

461

NPIC

T.Chhay

nigbnkRbhak;RbEhlesIKa dUcenHtMNxagkgKanmMurgVilFMeT. elIsBIenHeTot m:Um:g;mantMl


RbEhlnwgm:Um:g;rbs;Fwmbgb;cugTaMgBIrEdlrgbnkBRgayesI Edlm:Um:g;GviCmanenAelITMresIBIrdg
m:Um:g;GviCmanenAkNalElVg. enAkgrUbTI 17>12 RbsinebI l1 > l2 / enaHkarEbgEckm:Um:g;enAkg
TisedAEvg nigTisedAxIKW

l n21
8
l2
= (wu l1 ) n 2
8

M ol = (wu l 2 )

M pl = 0.35M ol

M n1 = 0.65M ol

M os

M ps = 0.35M os

M ns = 0.65M os

RbsinebITMhMnm:Um:g;GviCmanenAelITMrxagkgmantMlxusKaedaysarRbEvgElVgminesIKa
ACI Code kMNt;eGayeRbIm:Um:g;EdlFMCagsMrab;KNnasrsEdk.
enAkgbnHkMralxageRkA bnkkMralxNEdlGnuvtelIssrxageRkA)anmkEtBIRCugmag
bNaleGayekItmanm:Um:g;minesI (unbalanced moment) nigmMurgVilenAtMNxageRkA. dUcenH m:Um:g;
viCmanenAkNalElVg nigm:Um:g;GviCmanenAelITMrxagkgTImYynwgekIneLIg.TMhMnmMurgVilntMNxag
eRkAkMNt;nUvkarelIneLIgnUvm:Um:g;kNalElVg nigm:mU :g;enAelITMrxagkg. ]TahrN_ RbsinebIRCugxag
karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

462

NPIC

T.Chhay

eRkACaTmrsamBa dUckgkrNIkMralxNenAelICBaaMg rUbTI 17>13 m:Um:g;kMralenARtg;pCBaaMgesI


0 m:Um:g;viCmanenAkNalElVgGacykesInwg M p = 0.63M o nigm:Um:g;GviCmanenATMrxagkgKW
M s = 0.75M o . tMlTaMgenHbMeBjlkxNsmIkarsaTic
M o = M p + 12 M n = 0.63M o +

1
2

(0.75M o )

sMrab;RbBnkMral-ssr (slab-column floor system) tMNxageRkAmankarTb; (restraint) xH


Edlpl;edayPaBrwgRkaJTb;karBt;nkMralxN nigedayPaBrwgRkajTb;karBt;nssrxageRkA.
eyagtam ACI Code, Section 13.6.3 m:Um:g;saTicsrub M o enAkgElVgcugRtUv)anEbgEckeday
pleFobepSgKaedayeyagtamtarag 17>2 nigrUbTI 17>14. emKuNm:Um:g;enAkgCYrQrTI 1 sMrab;
RCugEdlminmankarTb;KWQrelIkarsnt;fa pleFobnPaBrwgRkajTb;karBt;rbs;ssrelIPaBrwg
RkajTb;karBt;smasrvagkMralxN nigFwmenARtg;tMN ec KWesIsUn. emKuNnCYrQrTI 2 KWQr
karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

463

T.Chhay

NPIC

elIkarsnt;fapleFob ec esInwgGnn. emKuNm:Um:g;enAkgCYrQrTI 3/ TI4 nigTI5 RtUv)anbegIt


eLIgedaykarviPaKRbBnkMralCamYynwglkxNragFrNImaRt niglkxNTMrepSgKa.

karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

464

NPIC

T.Chhay

taragTI 17>2 karEbgEckm:Um:g;enAkgbnHkMralxagcug


kMralxN
EdlmanFwm
enAcenaHRKb;
TMr
Tb;eBj
#
@

RCugxageRkA
minRtUv
)anTb;
!
m:Um:g;emKuNGviCmanxageRkA
m:Um:g;emKuNviCman
m:Um:g;emKuNGviCmanxageRkA

kMralxNEdlKan
FwmenAcenaHTMrxagkg
manFwm KanFwm
xageRkA xageRkA
$
%

0.65

0.16

0.30

0.26

0.63

0.35

0.57

0.50

0.52

0.75

0.65

0.70

0.70

0.70

8>4> karEbgEckm:Um:g;tamTTwgkgkMralxN

Transverse Distribution of Moment

in Slabs

m:Um:g;tambeNayEdl)anBnl;xagelIKWsMrab;TTwgTaMgmUlrbs;eRKagGKarsmmUl.
TTwgeRKag enHCaplbUknTTwgcMerokelIssrBIr
CamYynwgTTwgcMerokkNalBIrnbnHkMralBIrEk,rKa dUcbgaj enAkgrUbTI 17>15.
karEbgEcktamTTwgnm:Um:g;tambeNayeTAcMerokkNal nigcMerokelIssrKW
CaGnuKmn_npleFob l2 / l1
E I
beam stiffness
f = cb b =
!&>!@
E I
slab stiffness
cs s

E C
torsional rigidity of edge beam section
t = cb =
2 E cs I s flexural rigidity of a slab of width equal to beam span length

!&>!#
3
Edl C = torsional constant = 1 0.63y x x3y

!&>!$

Edl x nig y CaTTwg nigbeNayrbs;muxkat;ctuekaN. PaKrynm:Um:g;KNnanImYyEdl


nwgRtUvEbgEckeTAcMerokelIssr nigcMerokkNalsMrab;bnHkMralxagkg nigbnHkMralxageRkA
RtUv)aneGayenAkgtarag 17>3 dl; 17>6. enAkgbnHkMralKMrUxagkg EpkxHnm:Um:g;KNna
EdlminRtUv)andak;eTAkgcMerokelIssr tarag 17>3 RtUv)anTb;edaycMerokkNalBak;
kNalEdlRtUvKa. kareFVI linear interpolation sMrab;tMl l2 / l1 EdlenAcenaH 0.5 nig 2.0
nigsMrab;tMl f 1l2 / l1 EdlenAcenaH 0 nig 1 RtUv)anGnuBaateday ACI Code. BItarag
karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

465

T.Chhay

NPIC

17>3 eyIgGacemIleXIjfa enAeBlFwmminRtUv)aneRbI dUckgkrNI flat plate nig flat slab


f 1 = 0 . PaKrycugeRkaynm:Um:g;enAkgcMerokelIssr nigcM erokkNalCaGnuKmn_n M o
RtUv)aneGayenAkgtaragTI 17>4.
sMrab;kMralxageRkA Epknm:Um:g;KNnaEdlminRtUv)andak;enAkgcMerokelIssr tarag
17>5 RtUv)anTb;edaycMerokkNalBak;kNalEdlRtUvKa. mgeTot kareFVI linear
interpolation cenaHtM lEdlbgajenAkgtarag 17>5 RtUv)anGnuBaateday ACI Code,
Section 13.6.4.2. enAeBlEdl FwmminRtUv)aneRbIenAkMralxageRkA dUckrNI flat plate nig flat
slab edayKanFwmxag (spandrel beam) f 1 = 0 / C = 0 nig t = 0 . enHmannyfacugssr
pl;nUvkarTb;sMrab;cugkMralxageRkA. tMlGnuvtn_ntarag 17>5 sMrab;krNIBiessenHRtUv)an
bgajenAkgtarag 17>6 nigrUbTI 17>15.

karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

466

NPIC

T.Chhay

tarag 17>3 PaKrynm:Um:g;tambeNayenAkgcMerokelIssr sMrab;bnHkMralxagkg (ACI


Code, Section 13.6.4)

pleFob l2 / l1

f 1l 2 / l1

m:Um:g;GviCmanenAelITMrxagkg
m:Um:g;viCmanenAEk,rkNalElVg

0 .5

1 .0

2 .0

75

75

75

1 .0

90

75

45

60

60

60

1 .0

90

75

45

tarag 17>4 PaKrynm:Um:g;enAkgkMralxNxagkgBIrTisEdlKanFwm (


m:Um:g;KNnasrub

= 0)

l n21
n!
M o = (wu l 2 )
8 r!(n r )!

m:Um:g;GviCman

m:Um:g;viCman

m:Um:g;tambeNayenAkgkMralmYy
cMerokelIssr

0.65M o

0.35M o

0.75( 0.65M o ) = 0.49 M o

0.60(0.35M o ) = 0.21M o

cMerokkNal

0.25( 0.65M o ) = 0.16 M o

0.40(0.35M o ) = 0.14 M o

tarag 17>5> PaKrynm:Um:g;tambeNayenAkgcMerokelIssr sMrab;bnHkMralxageRkA (ACI


Code, Section 13.6.4)

f 1l 2 / l1

m:Um:g;GviCmanenAelITMrxageRkA

m:Um:g;GviCmanenAelITMrxagkg

karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

pleFob l2 / l1
0 .5

1 .0

2 .0

0
2 .5
0

75
90
60

75
75
60

75
45
60

2 .5

90

75

45

60

60

60

1 .0

90

75

45

75

75

75

1 .0

90

75

45

0
1 .0

m:Um:g;viCmanenAEk,rkNalElVg

467

NPIC

T.Chhay

tarag 17>6> PaKrynm:Um:g;tambeNayenAkgcMerokelIssr nigcMerokkNal sMrab;pleFob


l / l edayeGay = = 0
2

f1

m:Um:g;GviCmanenAelITMrxageRkA
m:Um:g;viCman 0.6 0.52M o
m:Um:g;GviCmanenAelIMTMrxagkg
0.75 0.70M o

m:Um:g;cugeRkayCaGnuKmn_n
M o nig ec
cMerokelIssr cMerokkNal
cMerokelIssr

100

0.26M o

60

0.312M o

0.208M o

75

0.52M o

0.175M o

0.65

M o
(1 + 1 ec )

0.28
M
0.63
(1 + 1 ec ) o

0.10
0.75
M o
(1 + 1 ec )

BItarag 17>6 eyIgeXIjfaenAeBlEdlFwmxagminRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;kMralxageRkA t = 0


nig m:Um:g;KNna 100% RtUv)anTb;edaycMerokelIssr. cMerokkNalnwgminTb;m:Um:g;NamYyeT
dUcenHbrimaNEdkGb,brmaRtUv)andak;. ACI Code, Section 13.6.4.3 kMNt;faenAeBlTMrxag
eRkACassr bCBaaMgEdlRtUv)anBntsMrab;cMgayesInwgbIPaKbYnRbEvgElVgTTwg l2 EdleRbIedIm,I
kMNt; M o m:Um:g;GviCmanxageRkAEdlRtUv)anEbgEckesIkat;tam l2 . enAeBlEdlFwmRtUV)andak;
tam beNayGkSssr ACI Code, Section 13.6.5 tMrUvfam:Um:g;RtUvEtsmamaRtedIm,IkarBarm:Um:g;
85% enAkgcMerokelIssr RbsinebI f 1 (l 2 / l1 ) 1.0 . sMrab;tMl f 1 (l 2 / l1 ) enAcenaH 1.0
nig 0 m:U m:g;EdlmankgFwmRtUv)ankMNt;edayeRbI linear interpolation . m:Um:g;kRtUVEtsmamaRt
edIm,IkarBar m:Um:g;bEnmEdlekItedaybnkTaMgGs;EdlGnuvtedaypal;eTAelIFwm edaybBal
TaMgTMgn;rbs;tYrFwm EdlKitBIeRkamkMral. Epknm:Um:g;Edlmin)andak;eTAkgFwmRtUv)anTb;eday
kMralxNenAkgcMerok elIssr.

8>5> karpl;rbs; ACI sMrab;\TiBlrbs;KMrUnkardak;bnk ACI Provisions for Effects


of Pattern Loading

enAkgrcnasm<nCab; m:Um:g;Bt;FGtibrma nigGb,brmaenARtg;muxkat;eRKaHfak;RtUv)anTTYl


eday kardak;bnkGefrtamKMrUkMNt;mYyedIm,IbegIttMlx<s;bMput. kardak;bnkGefrenARKb;ElVg

karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

468

NPIC

T.Chhay

TaMgGs; nwgminbegItm:Um:g;Bt;viCman bm:Um:g;Bt;viCmanGtibrmaeT.m:Um:g;Gtibrma nigGb,brma


GaRsyCacMbg nwgkrNIxageRkam
!> pleFobnbnkGefrelIbnkefr. pleFobx<s;nwgbegIn\TiBlrbs;KMrUnkardak;bnk
(patter loading).
@> pleFobPaBrwgRkajssrelIFwm. pleFobtUcnwgbegIn\TiBlrbs;KMrUnkardak;bnk.
#> KMrUnkardak;bnk. m:Um:g;viCmanGtibrmaenAkgElVgrg\TiBltictYcBIKMrUnkardak;bnk.
edIm,IkMNt;m:Um:g;emKuNKNnaenAkgrcnasm<nCab; ACI Code, Section 13.7.6 kMNt;dUc
xageRkam
!> enAeBlKMrUnkardak;bnkRtUv)ansal; eRKagsmmUlKYrRtUv)anviPaKsMrab;bnkenaH.
@> enAeBlbnkGefrERbRbYl b:uEnminFMCagbIPaKbYnnbnkefr wL 0.75wD benAeBl
EdlRKb;kMralTaMgGs;RtUv)andak;bnkGefrkgtMNalKa karviPaKeRKagEdlmandak;bnk
GefremKuNeBjeRKagRtUv)anGnuBaat.
#> sMrab;lkxNnkardak;bnkepSgeTot eKGnuBaateGaysnt;fa m:Um:g;emKuNviCman
Gtibrma enAEk,rkNalElVgekItmanCamYynwg 0.75 nbnkGefremKuNeBjenAelIkMral
nigenAelIkM ralqas;. sMrab;m:Um:g;emKuNGviCmanGtibrmaenAkgkMralxNelITMr RtUv)an
eKGnuBaateGay snt;fa 0.75 nbnkGefremKuNGnuvtEtenAelIkMralEk,r.
$> m:Um:g;emKuNminKYryktUcCagm:Um:g;EdlekIteLIgCamYybnkGefremKuNeBjenAelIkMral
EdlCab;TaMgGs;eT.

8>6> karlMGitsrsEdk

Reinforcement Details

eRkayeBlPaKryTaMgGs;nm:Um:g;saTicenAkgcMerokelIssr nigcMerokkNalRtUv)ankMNt;
brimaNsrsEdkkGacRtUv)anKNnasMrab;m:Um:g;viCman nigGviCmanenAkgcMeroknImYy dUc
Edl)aneFVIsMrab;FwmenAkgemeronTI4
a

M u = As f y d = Ru bd 2
!&>!%
2

KNna Ru nigkMNt;PaKryEdk edayeRbItarag]bsm<n B beRbIsmIkarxageRkam


f y

!&>!^
Ru = f y 1
1.7 f '

karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

469

T.Chhay

NPIC

Edl = 0.9 . RkLapmuxkat;EdkKW As = bd . enAeBlEdlkMras;kMralxNRtUvnwgkarkMNt;


kMras;kMralxNEdl)anerobrab;kgEpkTI 4> enaHeK minRtUvkarEdkrgkarsgt;eT. rUbTI 13>3>8
n ACI Code bgajRbEvgGb,brmanEdk nigkar lMGitsrsEdksMrab;kMralEdlKanFwm ehIy
vakRtUvbgajenATIenHEdr rUbTI 17>16. KMlatEdkenAkgkMralxNminRtUvFMCaglImIt
Gtibrmarbs; ACI EdlmanKMlat 450mm bBIrdgkMras; kMralykmYyNaEdltUcCageK.

karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

470

NPIC

T.Chhay

8>7> viFIPaBrwgRkajEdlRtUv)anEktMrUvsMrab;ElVgcug

Modified Stiffness Method

for End Spans

enAkgviFIenH PaBrwgRkajrbs;FwmxagcugkMral nigrbs;ssrxageRkARtUv)anCMnYsedayPaB


rwgRkajnssrsmmUl K ec . PaBrwgRkajTb;karBt;nssrsmmUl K ec GacRtUv)anKNnaBI
smIkarxageRkam
1
1
1
Kc
=
+
K ec =
b
!&>!&
1 + Kc / Kt
K ec K c K t
K ec = PaBrwgRkajTb;nwgkarBt;rbs;ssrsmmUl
Edl
K c = PaBrwgRkajTb;nwgkarBt;rbs;ssrBitR)akd
K t = PaBrwgRkajTb;karrmYlrbs;Fwmxag
plbUknPaBrwgRkajrbs;ssrxagelI nigxageRkamkMralxNGacRtUv)anykdUcxag
eRkam
I
I
!&>!*
K c = 4 E c1 + c 2
L
L

c1

c2

Edl I c1 nig Lc1 Cam:Um:g;niclPaB nigRbEvgrbs;ssrxagelInIv:UkMralxN nig I c2 nig


Lc 2 Cam:Um:g;niclPaB nigRbEvgrbs;ssrxageRkamnIv:UkMralxN. PaBrwgRkajTb;nwgkarrmYl
rbs;Fwmcug K t GacRtUv)ankMNt;dUcxageRkam
9 E cs C
!&>!(
Kt =
3
c
l 2 1 2
l2

TMhMrbs;ssrctuekaNEkg bctuekaNEkgsmmUl/ capital column b


bracket Edlvas;enAelIElVgTTwgnRCugnImYyrbs;ssr.
Ecs = m:UDuleGLasicrbs;ebtugkMral
C = efrrmYl (torsion constant) EdlkMNt;BIsmIkarxageRkam

x x 3 y
C = 1 0.63
!&>@0
y 3
Edl

c2 =

Edl x CaTMhMTTwgrbs;ctuekaN nig y CabeNayrbs;ctuekaN. kgkarKNna C


vimaRt rbs;muxkat;ctuekaNRtUv)aneRCIserIsy:agNaedIm,IeFVIeGay)antMl C FMCageK.

karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

471

NPIC

T.Chhay

smIkarxagedImEdl)anENnaMenATIenH nwgRtUv)anykmkeRbIenAkgEpk 12 Equivalent


Frame Method .
RbsinebIkMralmanFwmRsbKanwgm:Um:g;EdlRtuvKNna enaHPaBrwgRkajTb;karrmYl K t
EdleGaykgsmIkar !&>!( RtUv)anCMnYseday K ta EdlmantMlFMCag ehIy K ta RtUv)an
KNnadUcxag eRkam
K ta = K t

I sb
Is

l2 h 3
Is =
=
12

m:Um:g;niclPaBrbs;kMralxNEdlmanTTwgesInwgTTwgeBjcenaHGkS
kMral edayminrYmbBalEpkrbs;tYrFwmEdlbnayeTAelI beTAeRkamkMralxN.
I sb = I s / edaybBalTaMgtYrFwmEdlbnayeTAelI beTAeRkamkMralxN.
muxkat;nGgt;rgkarrmYlxHEdlmanPab;mkCamYyRtUv)anbgajenAkgrUbTI 17>17.
enAeBlEdl K ta RtUv)anKNna enaHpleFobPaBrwgRkaj ec RtUv)anTTYldUcxageRkam
K ec
ec =
!&>@!
(K + K )
Edl

Edl

4 Ecs I s
l1
4 Ecb I b
Kb =
l1
Ks =

=PaBrwgRkajTb;karBt;rbs;kMralxN

=PaBrwgRkajTb;karBt;rbs;Fwm
I b = m:Um:g;niclPaBTaMgmUlrbs;muxkat;FwmbeNay
karEbgEcknm:Um:g;saTicsrub M o enAkgkMralxageRkARtUv)aneGayCaGnuKmn_n ec
dUcxageRkam

0 .1
M
Interior negative factored moment = 0.75
(1 + 1 / ec ) o

0.28
M
Positive factored moment = 0.63
(1 + 1 / ec ) o

0.65
Exterior negative factored moment =
M o
(1 + 1 / ec )

tMlTaMgenHRtUv)anbgajenAkgkMralxageRkAKMrUkgrUbTI 17>18. emKuNTaMgenHRtUv)an


BicarNaBI\TiBlrbs;PaBrwgRkajrbs;ssrxageRkAkdUcCa\TiBlrbs;PaBrwgRkajrbs;FwmcugkM
ral EdleFVIeGaykarEbgEckm:Um:g;manlkNRKb;RKan;.
karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

472

T.Chhay

karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

NPIC

473

NPIC

T.Chhay

8>8> segbviFIKNnaedaypal;

Summary of the Direct Design Method (DDM)

krNITI1 kMralKanFwm
!> RtYtBinittMrUvkarnkarkMNt;Edl)anBnl;enAkgEpk 8>1. RbsinebIvaminRtUvnwgkar
kMNt;eT eKminGaceRbIviFI DDM )aneT.

karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

474

NPIC

T.Chhay

@> kMNt;kMralxNGb,brma hmin edIm,IRKb;RKgPaBdabedayeRbItMlenAkgtarag 17>1.


kM ralxageRkAEdlKanFwmxageGay hmin x<s;bMput ln / 30 sMrab; f y = 420MPa .
vaCa karGnuvtFmtaEdleRbIkMras;kMralxNesIKasMrab;RKb;kMralxageRkAnigxagkg.
#> KNnabnkemKuN Wu = 1.2WD. + 1.6WL
$> epgpat;kMras;kMralxN h edIm,IkarBarkMlaMgkat;TTwgmYyTis nigkMlaMgkat;TTwgBIr
Tis. RbsinebIkMras;kMralxN h minRKb;RKan; eKRtUvbegInkMras; h bdak;EdkTb;
kMlaMgkat;TTWg.
%> KNnam:Um:g;saTicsrub M o sMrab;TisedATaMgBIr smIkar !&>!!
^> kMNt;emKuNEbgEcksMrab;m:Um:g;viCman nigm:Um:g;GviCmanenAkgTisedAbeNay
nigTisedA TTwgsMrab;cMerokelIssr nigcMerokkNalnImYyTaMgenAkgkMralxagkg
nigkMralxageRkA dUcxageRkam
a. sMrab;kMralxagkg eRbIemKuNm:Um:g;EdleGayenAkgtarag 17>4 brUbTI 17>15
b. sMrab;kMralxageRkAEdlKanFwmxag emKuNm:Um:g;kMralRtUv)aneGayenAkgtarag
17>2 brUbTI 17>14 krNITI5. sMrab;karEbgEckm:Um:g;enAkgTisedATTwg
eRbIta rag 17>6 brUbTI 17>15 sMrab;GRtacMerokelIssr.
cMerokkNalnwgTb;Epknm:Um:g; EdlminRtUv)andak;eTAkgcMerokssr.
c. sMrab;kMralxageRkAEdlmanFwmxag emKuNm:Um:g;kMralRtUv)aneGayenAkgtarag
17>2 brUbTI 17>14 krNITI4. sMrab;karEbgEckm:Um:g;enAkgTisedATTwg
eRbIta rag 17>5 sMrab;cMerokelIssr. cMerokkNalnwgTb;lMnwgnm:Um:g;kMral.
&> kMNt;brimaNEdksMrab;RKb;muxkat;eRKaHfak;;ncMerokelIssr nigcMerokkNalTaMgGs;
nigBntsrsEdkeBjkMralxN rUbTI 17>16
*> KNna unbalanced moment nigRtYtBinitemIlfaetIkarbMElgm:Um:g; unbalanced
moment edaykarBt;RKb;RKan;bGt;. RbsinebIGt;RKb;RKan;eT kMNt;brimaNEdk
bEnmEdlcaM)ac;enAkgTTwgeRKaHfak; eyagtamEpkTI 10.
(> RtYtBinitemIlfaetIkarbMElgm:Um:g; unbalanced moment edaykMlaMgkat;TTwgRKb;
RKan; bGt;. RbsinebIGt;eT begIn h bdak;EdkTb;kMlaMgkat;TTwg. eyagtamEpkTI
10
karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

475

NPIC

T.Chhay

krNITI2 kMralEdlmanFwmxagkg nigFwmxageRkA


!> RtYtBinittMrUvkarnkarkMNt;Edl)anBnl;enAkgEpk 8>1.
@> kMNt;kMralxNGb,brma hmin edIm,IRKb;RKgPaBdabedayeRbItMlenAkgsmIkar
TI !&>! Dl; !&>#. kgkrNICaeRcIn smIkarTI !&>@ lub. smIkarTI !&>! KYrRtUv)an
KNnadMbUgdUcbgajenAkg]TahrN_TI 17>1.
#> KNnabnkemKuN Wu = 1.2WD. + 1.6WL
$> epgpat;kMras;kMralxN h tamrykMlaMgkat;TTwgmYyTis nigkMlaMgkat;TTwgBIrTis.
CaTUeTA kMlaMgkat;TTWgminmanlkNeRKaHfak;sMrab;kMralxNEdlRTedayFwmeT.
%> KNnam:Um:g;saTicsrub M o sMrab;TisedATaMgBIr smIkar !&>!!
^> kMNt;emKuNEbgEcksMrab;m:Um:g;viCman nigm:Um:g;GviCmanenAkgTisedAbeNay nigTis
edA TTwgsMrab;cMerokelIssr nigcMerokkNalnImYyTaMgenAkgkMralxagkg nigkMral
xageRkA dUcxageRkam
a. sMrab;kMralxagkg eRbIemKuNm:Um:g;kgrUbTI 17>14 krNITI 3 brUbTI 17>12.
sMrab;karEbgEckm:Um:g;kgTisedATTwg eRbItaragTI 17>3 sMrab;cMerokelIssr. cM
erokkNalnwgTb;Epknm:Um:g;Edlmin)andak;eTAkgcMerokelIssr. KNna 1 BI
smIkar !&>!@.
b. sMrab;kMralxageRkA eRbIemKuNm:Um:g;kMralenAkgtarag 17>2 brUbTI 17>14
krNI TI3. sMrab;karEbgEckm:Um:g;enAkgTisedATTwg eRbItarag 17>5 sMrab;cM
erokelIssr. cMerokkNalnwgTb;lMnwgnm:Um:g;kMral.
c. kgkrNITaMgBIr (a) nig (b) FwmRtUvTb; 85% nm:Um:g;enAkgcMerokssr enAeBl
Edl f 1 (l2 / l1 ) 1.0 b:uEnGRtaERbRbYlcenaH 85% nig 0% enAeBl
f 1 (l 2 / l1 ) ERbRbYlcemaHBI 1.0 nig 0 .
&> kMNt;brimaNEdksMrab;RKb;muxkat;eRKaHfak;;ncMerokelIssr/ Fwm nigcMerokkNal
TaMgGs; bnab;mkBntsrsEdkeBjkMralxN rUbTI 17>16
*> KNna unbalanced moment nigbnab;mkRtYtBinitemIlkarbMElgnm:Um:g; edaykar
Bt; nigkMlaMgkat;TTwg eyagtamEpkTI 10.
karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

476

T.Chhay

NPIC

]TahrN_TI17>3

edayeRbIvIFI direct design method KNnakMral flat plate xagkgKMrU dUcEdl)anbgajenAkgrUb


TI 17>6 nig 17>19. RbBnkMralpSMeLIgeday kMralbYnenARKb;Tis EdlkMralmYymanTMhM
7.5 6m . kMralTaMgGs;RtUv)anRTedayssrTMhM 50 50cm manRbEvg 3.6m . kMralxNRT
bnkGefreFVIkar BRgayesI 4.8kN / m 2 nigbnkefreFVIkarEdlrYmman kMralkargarbegIy (floor
finish) 1.5kN / m 2 rYmTaMgbnkpal;rbs;kMral. eKeGay f 'c = 28MPa nig f y = 420MPa .

karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

477

NPIC

T.Chhay

dMeNaHRsay

1> kMNt;kMras;kMralxNGb,brmaedayeRbItarag 17>1 sMrab; flat plate. BI]TahrN_TI


17>1 kMras;kMralxNKW 25cm .
2> KNnabnkemKuN
wD = 1.5 + weight of slab = 1.5 + 0.25 25 = 7.75kN / m 2

wu = 1.2 7.75 + 1.6 4.8 = 17kN / m 2

3> RtYtBinitkMlaMgkat;TTwgmYyTis nigkMlaMgkat;TTwgBIrTis


a. RtYtBinitkMlaMgkat;pugenAcMgay d / 2 BIpssr GMeBIBIrTis.
Edaysnt;kMras;ebtugkarBarEdk 2cm nigeRbIEdk DB16 . enaH d mFmKW
25 2 1.6 = 21.4cm nig bo = 4(50 + 21.4) = 285.6cm emIlrUbTI 17>19 c
Vu = [l1l 2 (71.4 71.4)] wu = (750 600 5098) 17 10 4 = 756.3kN
0.75

Vc =
f 'c bo d =
28 2.856 0.214 10 3 = 808.5kN
3
3

EdlFMCag Vu
b. KNnakMlaMgTTwgFwmenAcMgay d BIpssr. d mFmKW 21.4cm . BicarNacMerok
1m rUbTI 17>19 d CamYyRbEvgcMerokKW
x = 3.75 0.25 0.214 = 3.286m

Vu = wu (1 3.286) = 17 3.286 = 55.862kN


0.75

Vc =
f 'c bd =
28 1 0.214 10 3 = 141.5kN
6
6

EdlFMCag Vu . Kugkardak;bnkFmta kMlaMgkat;TTwgmYyTisGt;lub.


4> KNnam:Um:g;saTicsrubenAkgTisedAEvg nigTisedAxI
wu l 2 l n21 17
kgTisedAEvg M ol = 8 = 8 6 7 2 = 624.75kN .m
2

kgTisedAxI M os = wu l81ln2 = 178 7.5 5.52 = 482.11kN .m


edaysarEt l2 < l1 TTwgnBak;kNalcMerokelIssrenAkgTisedAEvgKW
0.25 6m = 1.5m ehIyTTwgncMerokkNalKW 6 2 1.5 = 3m . TTwgnBak;kNal
cMerokelIssrkgTisedAxI KW 1.5m ehIyTTwgncMerokkNalKW 7.5 2 1.5 = 4.5m .
edIm,IKNnakMBs;RbsiTPaB d kgTisedAnImYy snt;faEdkenA kgTisedAxIRtUvBIelIEdk
karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

478

NPIC

T.Chhay

enAkgTisedAEvg. dUcenH d (long direction) = 25 2 0.8 = 22.2cm nig


d (short direction ) = 25 2 1.6 0.8 = 20.6cm . sMrab;karGnuvtn_ d (average) =
25 3.5 = 21.5cm GacRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;Tis edATaMgBIr.
dMeNIrkarKNnaGacRtUv)anerobcMCaTMrg;tarag dUcbgajenAkgtarag 17>7 nig 17>8.
karlMGitsMrab;kareRCIserIssrsEdkRtUv)anbgajenAkgrUbTI 17>20 edayeRbIRbBn
EdkRtg;. eKRtUveKarBkardak;RbEvgGb,brmarbs;EdkdUcEdl)anbgajenAkgrUbTI
17>16.
Gksagsg;cUlciteRbIEdkRtg; nigEdkEdlmanersIusg; f ' y = 420MPa .
of panel 3000
=
= 375mm
KMlatGtibrma = width
8
no. of bars

taragTI17>7 karKNnabnHkMral flat platexagkg kgTisEvg

M o = 624.75kN .m
M n = 0.65M o = 406.1kN .m

TisEvg
karEbgEckm:Um:g; %

M p = +0.35M o = 218.66kN .m

cMerokelIssr
GviCman
viCman
75

60

0.75M n = 304.6 0.6 M p = 131.2

M u (kN .m)

TTwgcMerok b(mm)

cMerokkNal
GviCman
viCman
25

40

0.25 M n = 101.5

0.6 M p = 87.5

3000

3000

3000

3000

222

222

222

222

2.06

0.89

0.69

0.59

PaKryEdk (%)

0.57

0.24

0.19

0.16

As = bd (mm 2 )

3796.2

1598.4

1265.4

1065.6

1350

1350

1350

1350

20 DB16

8DB16

12DB12

12DB12

150

375

250

250

kMBs;RbsiTPaB d (mm)
Ru =

Mu
bd 2

( MPa)

As (min) = 0.0018bhs (mm 2 )

EdkEdleRCIserIs Rtg;
KMlat 2h = 500mm
s

karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

479

NPIC

T.Chhay

taragTI17>8 karKNnabnHkMral flat platexagkg kgTisxI


M o = 482.11kN .m
M n = 0.65M o = 313.4kN .m

TisEvg
karEbgEckm:Um:g; %

M p = +0.35M o = 168.7kN .m

cMerokelIssr
GviCman
viCman
75

60

0.75 M n = 235.05 0.6 M p = 101.2

M u (kN .m)

TTwgcMerok b(mm)

cMerokkNal
GviCman
viCman
25

40

0.25 M n = 78.35

0.6 M p = 67.5

3000

3000

4500

4500

206

206

206

206

1.85

0.79

0.41

0.35

PaKryEdk (%)

0.51

0.21

0.11

0.09

As = bd (mm 2 )

3151.8

1297.8

1019.7

834.3

1350

1350

2025

2025

16 DB16

8DB16

18 DB12

18 DB12

187.5

375

250

250

kMBs;RbsiTPaB d (mm)
Ru =

Mu
bd 2

( MPa)

As (min) = 0.0018bhs (mm 2 )

EdkEdleRCIserIs Rtg;
KMlat 2h = 500mm
s

KMlatEdkenAkgcMerokelIssrkgTisxIKW 250mm . vamanlkNRKb;RKan; edaysarva


tUcCag 2hs = 500mm nigtUcCag 450mm EdlkMNt;eday ACI Code.
cMNaMfa PaKryEdkTaMgGs;KWticCag max = 0.0182 . dUcenH = 0.9 .

]TahrN_TI17>4

edayeRbIviFI direct design method KNnakMral flat plate xageRkAEdlmanTMhM bnk ersIusg;ebtug
nigersIusg;EdkdUcKanwgGVIEdl)aneGayenAkg]TahrN_TI 17>3. FwmminRtUv)aneRbI rUbTI 17>21.

dMeNaHRsay

1> kMNt;kMras;kMralxNGb,bramedayeRbItarag 17>1 sMrab; flat plate. BI]TahrN_TI


17>1 kMras;kMralxNKW 25cm .

karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

480

NPIC

T.Chhay

2> KNnabnkemKuN wu = 17kN / m 2


3> RtYtBinitkMlaMgkat;TTwgmYyTis nigkMlaMgkat;TTwgBIrTis eyagtam]TahrN_TI 17>3
nigrUbTI 17>9.

a.
b.
c.

RtYtBinitkMlaMgkat;pugenAssrxagkg Vu = 756.3kN < Vc = 808.5kN


RtYtBinitkMlaMgkat;TTwgmYyTis Vu = 55.862kN < Vc = 141.5kN
RtYtBinitkMlaMt;pugenAssrxageRkA d = 21.4cm
x = 50 +

karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

21.4
= 60.7cm
2

481

NPIC

T.Chhay

y = 50 + 21.4 = 71.4cm

karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

482

NPIC

T.Chhay

bo = 2 x + y = 192.8cm
750

Vu = 600
+ 25 60.7 71.410 4 17 = 400.6kN

Vc =
d.

f ' c bo d = 545.8kN > 400.6kN

RtYtBinitkMlaMgkat;pugenAssrkac;RCug d = 21.4cm
x = y = 50 +

21.4
= 60.7cm
2

bo = x + y = 121.4cm
600

750

Vu =
+ 25
+ 25 60.7 60.7 10 4 17 = 214.7 kN
2

Vc =

f ' c bo d = 343.7 kN > 214.7 kN

4> KNnam:Um:g;saTicsrub BI]TahrN_TI 17>3


M ol (long direction ) = 624.7 kN .m

d = 22.2cm

M os (short direction) = 482.11kN .m

d = 20.6cm

TTwgrbs;cMerokelIssrKW 300cm nigTTwgcMerokkNalKW 450cm


5> KNnam:Um:g;KNnaenAkgTisedAEvg l1 = 7.5m eyagtamtarag 17>5 brUb 17>15.
karEbgEckm:Um:g;srub M ol enAkgcMerokelIssr nigcMerokkNalKWRtUv)anKNnadUcxag
eRkam
a. cMerokelIssr
m:Um:g;GviCmanxagkg = 0.525M o = 0.525(624.75) = 328kN .m
m:Um:g;viCmanenAkgElVg = 0.312M o = 0.312(624.75) = 195kN .m
m:Um:g;GviCmanxageRkA = 0.26M o = 0.26(624.75) = 162.4kN.m
b. cMerokkNal
m:Um:g;GviCmanxagkg = 0.175M o = 0.175(624.75) = 109.3kN .m
m:Um:g;viCmanenAkgElVg = 0.208M o = 0.208(624.75) = 129.9kN .m
m:Um:g;GviCmanxageRkA = 0

karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

483

NPIC

T.Chhay

6> KNnam:Um:g;KNnaenAkgTisedAxI ls = 6m . vaRtUv)anKitdUckMralxagkgEdr BIeRBaHva


Cab;TaMgsgag. eyagtamtarag 17>4 brUbTI 17>15 karEbgEckm:Um:g;srub M os enA
kgcMerokelIssr nigcMerokkNalRtUv)anKNnadUcxageRkam
a. cMerokelIssr
m:Um:g;GviCman = 0.49M o = 0.49(482.11) = 236.2kN.m
m:Um:g;viCman = 0.21M o = 0.21(482.11) = 101.2kN .m
b. cMerokkNal
m:Um:g;GviCman = 0.16M o = 0.16(482.11) = 77.1kN.m
m:Um:g;viCman = 0.14M o = 0.14(482.11) = 67.5kN .m
dMeNIrkarKNnaRtUv)antMeroby:aggayRsYlenAkgtarag 17>9. karlMGitsMrab;kar
eRCIserIssrsEdkRtUv)anbgajenAkgrUbTI 17>22 edayeRbIRbBnEdkRtg;;enAkgTis
Evg. karlMGitsrsEdkenAkgTisxImanlkNRsedogKanwgkarBRgaysrsEdkenA
kgrUbTI 17>20 edayeRbIkareRCIserIssrsEdkenAkgtarag 17>9.
cMNaMfa RKb;PaKryEdkTaMgGs;tUcCag max = 0.0182 . dUcenH = 0.9 .

karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

484

NPIC

T.Chhay

tarag 17>9 karKNnakMral flat platexageRkAsMrab;]TahrN_TI 17>4 d = 22.2cm


cMerokelIssr
cMerokkNal
TisEvg
xageRkA viCman xagkg xageRkA viCman xagkg
162.4

195

328

129.9

109.3

3000

3000

3000

3000

3000

3000

1.10

1.32

2.22

0.88

0.74

PaKryEdk (%)

0.30

0.36

0.62

0.24

0.20

As = bd (mm 2 )

1998

2398

4129

1598

1332

As (min) = 0.0018bhs (mm 2 )

1350

1350

1350

1350

1350

1350

22DB16

12DB12

18DB12

12DB12

136

250

167

250

M u (kN .m)

TTwgcMerok b(mm)
Ru =

Mu
bd 2

( MPa)

EdkEdleRCIserIs Rtg;
KMlat 2h = 500mm
TisxI
s

10DB16 12DB16
300

250

cMerokelIssr

cMerokkNal

236.2

101.2

77.1

67.5

TTwgcMerok b(mm)

3000

3000

4500

4500

kMBs;RbsiTPaB d (mm)

206

206

206

206

1.86

0.79

0.40

0.35

PaKryEdk (%)

0.52

0.21

0.11

0.09

As = bd (mm 2 )

3214

1298

1020

834.3

As (min) = 0.0018bhs (mm 2 )

1350

1350

2025

2025

16DB16

8DB16

18DB12

18DB12

187.5

375

250

250

M u (kN .m)

Ru =

Mu
bd 2

( MPa)

EdkEdleRCIserIs Rtg;
KMlat 2h = 500mm
s

]TahrN_TI17>5

eFVI]TahrN_TI 17>4 elIgvij edayeRbIviFI modified stiffness method. eKRtUvkarKNnaRsedogKa


sMrab;viFI equivalent frame method, EpkTI 12.
karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

485

NPIC

T.Chhay

dMeNaHRsay

1> GnuvtRsedogKasMrab;CMhanTI 1 dl; 4 dUckg]TahrN_TI 17>4


2> KNnaPaBrwgRkajssrsmmUl/ K ec
1
1
1
=
+
K ec K c K t

eyIgGacsnt;faEpkncMerokkMralEdlenAcenaHssrxageRkAeFVIkarCassrTb;nwgkarrmYl.
muxkat;rbs;kMralxN-ssrKW 50cm TTWgrbs;ssr 25cm kMras;kMralxN dUcEdl
bgajkgrUb.
a. kMNt;PaBrwgRkajTb;karrmYl K t BIsmIkar !&>@0

x x3 y
x = 250mm
y = 500mm
C = 1 0.63
y 3

250 250 3 500

C = 1 0.63
= 17.84 10 8 mm 4

500
3

Kt =

9Ec C
c
l 2 1 2
l2

9 E c 17.84 10 8
500

60001

6000

= 3.47 E c 10 6

sMrab;kMralxNEk,rKaBIr enAelIRCugTaMgsgagrbs;ssr EdleFVIkarCaFwmTTwg


K t = 2 3.47 E c 10 6 = 6.94 E c 10 6

b.

KNnaPaBrwgRkajrbs;ssr K c / kMBs;ssr Lc = 3.6m


Kc =

4 Ec I c
4 E c 500 4
=

= 5.79 E c 10 6
Lc
3600
12

sMrab;ssrBIrenABIelI niBIeRkamkMralxN
K c = 2 5.79 E c 10 6 = 11.58 E c 10 6

c.

KNna K ec
1
1
1
=
+
6
K ec 11.58 E c 10
6.94 E c 10 6
K ec = 4.34 E c 10 6

3> KNnaPaBrwgRkajrbs;kMralxN nigemKuN ec


Ks =

4Ec I s
l1

karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

hs = 250mm

l 2 = 6000mm

Is =

l 2 hs3
12

486

NPIC

T.Chhay

4 E c 6000 250 3

= 4.17 E c 10 6
Ks =
7500
12
K ec
ec =
(K s + K b )

Kb = 0

dUcenH

edaysarKanFwm
ec =

4.34 Ec 10 6

4.17 E c 10 6
1
Q = 1+
= 1.96

= 1.04

yk
ec
4> KNnam:Um:g;KNnaenAkgTisedAEvg ll = 7.5m .
karEbgEckm:Um:g;enAkgkMralmYyRtUv)anbgajenAkgrUbTI 17>18.
m:Um:g;GviCmanxagkgKW

0.10
0.10

M ni = 0.75
M ol = 0.75
(624.7) = 436.6kN .m

Q
1.96

m:Um:g;viCmanKW

0.28
0.28

M p = 0.63
M ol = 0.63
(624.7) = 304.3kN .m

Q
1.96

m:Um:g;GviCmanKW
M ne =

0.65
0.65
(624.7 ) = 207.2kN .m
( M ol ) =
Q
1.96

5> KNnakarEbgEckm:Um:g;kMralenAkgTisxIeTAcMerokelIssr nigcMerokkNal. m:Um:g; M ni /


M p nig M ne RtUv)anEbgEckdUcxageRkam eyagtamtarag 17>6
a. m:Um:g;xagkg M nl = 436.6kN .m RtUv)anEbgEck 75% sMrab;cMerokelIssr nig
25% sMrab;cMerokkNal
column strip = 0.75( 436.6 ) = 327.5kN.m
Middle strip = 0.25( 436.6 ) = 109.1kN.m

b.

m:Um:g;viCman M p = 304.3kN .m RtUv)anEbgEck 60% sMrab;cMerokelIssr nig 40%


sMrab;cMerokkNal
column strip = 0.60(304.3) = 182.6kN.m
Middle strip = 0.40(304.3) = 121.7 kN.m

c.

m:Um:g;GviCmanxageRkA M ne = 207.2kN .m RtUv)anEbgEckGaRsytamtarag 17>5

karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

487

NPIC

T.Chhay

t =

Ecb C
C
=
2 Ecs I s 2 I s

ebtugkMralxN nigebtugssrmanm:UDuleGLasicdUcKa

250 3
= 78.125 108 mm 4
12
17.84 10 8
=
= 0.114
2 78.125 108
E I
l
f 1 = cb b = 0
f1 2 = 0
l1
Ecs I s
I s = 6000

l2
= 0 .8
l1

BItarag 17>5 nigedayeFVvI iFanmUlvacar (interpolation) cenaH t = 0 PaKry


=100% nig t = 2.5 PaKry = 75% sMrab; t = 0.114 PaKryKW 98.9% .
m:Um:g;GviCmanxageRkAenAkgcMerokelIssrKW 0.989 ( 207.2) = 204.92kN.m
nigenAkgcMerokkNalKW 2.28kN.m . kgkrNIenHeKGacKitfacMerokelIssrRTm:Um:g;
M ne 100% KWesInwg 207.2kN.m
6> kMNt;srsEdkEdlcaM)ac;enAkgTisedAEvgkgtaragEdlmanlkNRsedogKanwg]TahrN_
TI 17>4. lTplEdlTTYl)anmanlkNERbRbYlticbMputxusBItarag 17>9.
7> eRbobeFoblTplrvag]TahrN_TI 17>4 nig 17>5 eyIgeXijfam:Um:g;xageRkAenAkgcMerok
elIssr 207.2kN.m FMCagcMelIyEdlTTYl)ankg]TahrN_TI 17>4 162.4kN.m
eday 27.6% b:uEnm:Um:g;viCman 182.6kN.m RtUv)ankat;bnyeday 6.8% eFobnwg
195kN.m tMldTeTotesIrEtRtUvKa.

]TahrN_TI17>6

KNnakMralxagkgnRbBnkMralBIrTisEdl)anbgajenAkgrUbTI 17>7. kMralpSMeLIgedaykMral


EdlmanTMhM 7.6 6m cMnYn 6 kgTisnImYy. kMralTaMgGs;RtUv)anRTedayssrEdlmanTMhM
50 50cm RbEvg 3.6m . kMralRtUv)anRTedayFwmtambeNayGkSssrEdlmanmuxkat;dUcbgaj
kgrUb. bnkGefreFVIkarRtUv)anyk 4.8kN / m 2 nigbnkefreFVIkarpSMeLIgeday 1kN / m 2 sMrab;kar
garbegIybEnmBIelITMgn;pal;rbs;kMral. cUreRbI f 'c = 21MPa / f y = 420MPa nigviFI direct
design method.

dMeNaHRsay

1> eKRtUveFVItamkarkMNt;rbs; ACI Code. kMNt;kMras;kMralxNGb,brmaedayeRbIsmIkar


17>1 nig 17>2. kMras;kMralxNRtUv)anKNnarYcCaeRscenAkg]TahrN_TI 17>2 ehIy

karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

488

NPIC

T.Chhay

eyIgTTYlykkMras; 18cm . CaTUeTA kMras;kMralxNenAkgRbBnkMralRtUv)anRKb;RKgeday


kMralkac;RCugdUcCakarKNna hmin kMralxageRkApl;nUvkMras;kMralFMCagsMrab;kMralxagkg.
2> KNnabnkemKuN
wD = 1 + 0.18 25 = 5.5kN / m 2

wu = 1.2 5.5 + 1.6 4.8 = 14.28kN / m 2

3> kugRtaMgkMlaMgenAkgkMralxNminmanlkNeRKaHfak;eT. muxkat;eRKaHfak;mancMgay d BI


pFwm. sMrab;TTwg 1m
1
0.4

0.15 = 37.84kN
Vu = wu 3 beam width d = 14.28 3
2
2

0.75 21

Vc =
f 'c bd =
1000 150 10 3 = 85.9kN
6
6

4> KNnam:Um:g;saTicsrubenAkgTisEvg nigTisxI

wu
14.28
l 2 (l n1 )2 =
6(7.1)2 = 539.9kN .m
8
8
w
14.28
= u l1 (l n 2 )2 =
7.6(5.5)2 = 410.4kN .m
8
8

M ol =
M os

5> KNnam:Um:g;KNnaenAkgTisEvg ll = 7.6m


a. karEbgEckm:Um:g;enAkgkMral
m:Um:g;GviCman M n = 0.65M ol = 0.65 539.9 = 350.9kN .m
m:Um:g;viCman M p = 0.35M ol = 0.35 539.9 = 189kN .m
b. karEbgEckm:Um:g;kMralkgTisTTwgeTAFwm/ cMerokelIssr nigcMerokkNal
EI
l2
6
=
= 0.79
f 1 = s = b = 3.19 BI]TahrN_TI 17>2
EI
l
7 .6
1

f1
c.

l2
= 3.19 0.79 = 2.52 > 1
l1

karEbgEckm:Um:g;GviCman M n . Epknm:Um:g;GviCmanxagkgedIm,IkarBaredaycMerokelI
ssrRtUv)anTTYlBItarag 17>3 edayeFVI interpolation nigesInwg 81.3% sMrab;
l 2 / l1 = 0.79 nig f 1 (l 2 / l1 ) > 1.0 .
cMerokelIssr = 0.813M n = 0.813 350.9 = 285.3kN .m
cMerokkNal = 0.187M n = 0.187 350.9 = 65.6kN .m

karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

489

NPIC

T.Chhay

edaysarEt f 1 (l2 / l1 ) > 1/ ACI Code, Section 13.6.5 bgajfa 85% nm:Um:g;
kgcMerokelIssrRtUv)anEckeGayeTAFwm nigenAsl; 15% RtUv)anEckeGayeTAkM
ralcMerokelIssr.
Fwm = 0.85 285.3 = 242.5kN.m
cMerokelIssr = 0.15 285.3 = 42.8kN.m
cMerokkNal = 65.6kN.m
d. karEbgEckm:Um:g;viCman M p .
Epknm:Um:g;viCmanxagkgEdlRtUv)anTb;edaycMerokelIssrRtUv)anTTYlBItarag 17>3
edayeFVI interpolation nigesInwg 81.3% sMrab; l2 / l1 = 0.79 nig f 1 (l2 / l1 ) > 1.0 .
cMerokelIssr = 0.813M n = 0.813 189 = 153.7kN .m
cMerokkNal = 0.187M n = 0.187 189 = 35.3kN .m
edaysarEt f 1 (l2 / l1 ) > 1/ ACI Code, Section 13.6.5 bgajfa 85% nm:Um:g;
kgcMerokelIssrRtUv)anEckeGayeTAFwm nigenAsl; 15% RtUv)anEckeGayeTAkM
ralcMerokelIssr.
Fwm = 0.85 153.7 = 130.6kN.m
cMerokelIssr = 0.15 153.7 = 23.1kN.m
cMerokkNal = 35.3kN.m
karlMGitm:Um:g;RtUv)anbgajenAkgrUbTI 17>23.
6> KNnam:Um:g;KNnaenAkgTisxI ElVg = 6m . viFIKNnaRsedogKanwgCMhanTI5>
m:Um:g;GviCman M n = 0.65M os = 0.65 410.4 = 266.8kN .m
m:Um:g;viCman M p = 0.35M os = 0.35 410.4 = 143.6kN .m
EbgEck M n / M p eTAFwm/ cMerokelIssr nigcMerokkNal
EI
l 2 7 .6
=
= 1.27
f 1 = s = b = 2.51 BI]TahrN_TI 17>2
EI
l
6
1

f1

l2
= 2.51 1.27 = 3.19 > 1
l1

PaKrynm:Um:g;GviCman nigGviCmanenAkgcMerokelIssrRtUv)anTTYlBItarag 17>3 eday


kareFVI interpolation. sMrab; l2 / l1 = 1.27 nig f 1 (l2 / l1 ) > 1.0 PaKryEbgKW 67% .
karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

490

T.Chhay

NPIC

m:Um:g;GviCmancMerokelIssr = 0.67M n = 0.69 266.8 = 178.8kN .m


m:Um:g;GviCmancMerokkNal = 0.33M n = 0.33 266.8 = 88kN .m
eday f 1 (l2 / l1 ) > 1.0 / 85% n 178.8kN.m RtUv)andak;eTAkgFwm. dUcenH
m:Um:g;GviCmanelIFwm = 0.85 178.8 = 152kN.m
m:Um:g;GviCmancMerokelIssr = 0.15 178.8 = 26.8kN.m
m:Um:g;viCmanelIFwm = 0.85 0.67 143.6 = 81.8kN.m
m:Um:g;viCmancMerokelIssr = 0.15 0.67 143.6 = 14.4kN.m
m:Um:g;viCmancMerokkNal = 0.33 143.6 = 47.4kN.m
7> brimaNEdkcaM)ac; nigcMnYnEdkRtUv)anbgajenAkgtarag 17>10.
cMNaMfaPaKryEdkTaMgGs;tUcCag max = 0.00137 . dUcenH = 0.9 .

karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

491

NPIC

T.Chhay

tarag 17>10 karKNnankMralxNmanFwmBIrTisxagkg


TisEvg
cMerokelIssr

cMerokkNal

M u (kN .m)

42.8

23.1

65.6

35.3

TTwgcMerok b(mm)

3000

3000

3000

3000

150

150

150

150

( MPa)

0.63

0.34

0.97

0.52

PaKryEdk (%)

0.17

0.09

0.26

0.14

As = bd (mm 2 )

765

405

1170

630

As (min) = 0.0018bhs (mm 2 )

972

972

972

972

9DB12

9DB12

11DB12

9DB12

kMBs;RbsiTPaB d (mm)
Ru =

Mu
bd 2

EdkEdleRCIserIs

TisxI
cMerokelIssr

cMerokkNal

M u (kN .m)

26.8

14.4

88

47.4

TTwgcMerok b(mm)

3000

3000

4600

4600

kMBs;RbsiTPaB d (mm)

140

140

140

140

( MPa)

0.46

0.24

0.98

0.53

PaKryEdk (%)

0.12

0.06

0.27

0.14

As = bd (mm 2 )

504

252

1739

902

As (min) = 0.0018bhs (mm 2 )

972

972

1490

1490

9DB12

9DB12

16DB12

14DB12

Ru =

Mu
bd 2

EdkEdleRCIserIs Rtg;

]TahrN_TI17>7 edayeRbIviFI direct design method kMNt;m:Um:g;viCman nigGviCmancaM)ac; sMrab;

karKNnankMral xageRkA elx @ nRbBnkMralBIrTisEdlmanFwmdUcEdlbgajenAkgrUbTI


17>7. eRbIbnk nig TinnyEdleGayenAkg]TahrN_TI 17>6.
karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

492

NPIC

T.Chhay

dMeNaHRsay

1> karkMNt;EdlTamTarbs; ACI Code RtUv)anbMeBjenAkg]TahrN_enH.


kMNt;kMras;kMralGb,brma hs edayeRbIsmIkar !&>! nig !&>@ nigCMhanbnbnab;.
snt; hs = 18cm . muxkat;rbs;Fwmxagkg nigxageRkARtUv)anbgajenAkgrUbTI 17>7.
cMNaMfa karbnykMralxNe nARKb;RCugrbs;FwmKW x = y = 38cm
2> a. m:Um:g;niclPaBrbs;Fwm nigkMralxagkgEdlRtUv)anKNnaenAkg]TahrN_TI 17>2 KW
TaMgBIrTis I b = 928924.6cm 4
TisEvg I s = 291600cm 4
I s = 369360cm 4
TisxI
b. KNna I b nig I s sMrab;Fwmxag nigkMralxNxag
30 383

183
+ (68 18)(13.5)2 +
+ (30 38)(14.5)2
Fwmxag I b = 68 12
12

= 632987cm 4
500
+
KNna I s sMrab;cMerokxagcugEdlRsbeTAnwgFwmxag EdlmanTTwg = 7600
2
2
= 4050mm

kMralxagcug I s = 40512 18 = 196830cm 4


3> a. KNna f f = EI b / EI s
.6
TisEvg l = 928924
= 3.19
291600
.6
= 2.51
TisxI s = 928924
369360
632987
= 3.22
Fwmxag = 196830
3.19 + 2.51 2 + 3.22
mFm = fm =
= 2.86
4
b. = pleFob clear span EvgelI clear span xI
3

=
c.

7.1
= 1.29
5.5

KNna hs

karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

493

NPIC

T.Chhay

hs min

420

7100 0.8 +

1400

=
= 150mm
36 + 5 1.29(2.86 0.2)

b:uEntMlenHminRtUvtUcCag
420

7100 0.8 +

1400

= 164mm
=
36 + 9 1.29

lub
eRbI hs = 18cm > 9cm tMlGb,brmaEdlkMNt;eday code
4> KNnabnemKuN wu = 14.28kN / m 2 BI]TahrN_TI 17>6
5> KNnam:Um:g;saTicsrub M ol = 539.9kN .m M os = 410.4kN .m BI]TahrN_mun
6> KNnam:Um:g;KNnaenAkgTisxI ElVg = 6m edaysarkMralCab;kgTisenH m:Um:g;mantMl
dUcnwgm:Um:g;Edl)anKNnaenAkg]TahrN_TI 17>6 ehIyRtUv)anbgajenAkgrUbTI 17>23
sMrab;kMralxagkg.
7> KNnam:Um:g;enAkgmYykMraledayeRbIemKuNEdleGayenAkgtarag 17>2 brUbTI 17>14
krNITI 3
m:Um:g;GviCmanxagkg M ni = 0.7M o = 0.7 539.9 = 378kN .m
m:Um:g;viCmankgElVg M p = 0.57M o = 0.57 539.9 = 307.7kN .m
m:Um:g;GviCmanxageRkA M ne = 0.16M o = 0.16 539.9 = 86.4kN .m
cMNaM RbsinebIviFI modified stiffness method RtUv)aneRbI enaH C = 3857.27 106 mm4 /
k ta = 39.13Ec 10 6 / K c = 5.79 Ec 10 6 / K s = 1.56 Ec 10 6 / k b = 4.95Ec 10 6 /
k b = 8.94 Ec 10 6 nig ec = 1.37 . m:Um:g;GviCmanxagkgkayCa 373.7 kN.m
Rbhak;RbEhlKa m:Um:g;viCmankayCa 252.75kN.m fycuH 18%
nigm:Um:g;GviCmanxageRkAkayCa 202.86 ekIneLIg 235%
8> karEbgEckm:Um:g;kMraleTAFwm cMerokelIssr nigcMerokkNal
hs min

l2
6
=
= 0.79
f 1 = l = 3.19
l1 7.6
l
f 1 2 = 3.19 0.79 = 2.52 > 1.0
l1

KNna C

karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

494

NPIC

T.Chhay

x x 3 y

C = 1 0 . 63
3
y

Eckmuxkat;rbs;FwmxagCactuekaNBIrEdleFVIy:agNaedIm,ITTYl)an C Gtibrma.
ykmuxkat;Fwm 300 560mm x = 300mm / y = 560mm nigmuxkat;kMral
180 380mm x = 180mm / y = 380mm
300 300 3 560
180 180 3 380

C = 1 0.63
1
0
.
63
= 3857.27 10 6 mm 4
+

560
3
380
3

t =
a.

b.

c.

Ecb C
3857 10 6
=
= 0.66
2 Ecs I s 2 291600 10 4

EbgEckm:Um:g;GviCmanxagkg M ni eyagtamtarag 17>3 nigedaykareFVI


interpolation PaKrym:Um:g;Edldak;enAkgcMerokelIssr sMrab; l 2 / l1 = 0.79
nig f 1l2 / l1 > 1.0 KW 81.3%
cMerokelIssr = 0.813 378 = 307.3kN.m
cMerokkNal = 0.187 378 = 70.7kN.m
edaysar f 1l2 / l1 > 1.0 / 85% nm:Um:g;enAkgcMerokssrKWRtUv)andak;eTAkgFwm
dUcenH
Fwm = 0.85 307.3 = 261.2kN.m
cMerokelIssr = 0.15 307.3 = 46.1kN.m
cMerokkNal = 70.7kN.m
EbgEckm:Um:g;viCman M p eyagtamtarag 17>3 nigedayeFVI interpolation PaKry
m:Um:g;EdlRtUvdak;kgcMerokelIssrKW 81.3% 85% ntMlenHRtUv)andak;eTAFwm.
dUcenH
Fwm = 0.85(0.813 307.7) = 212.6kN.m
cMerokelIssr = 0.15(0.813 307.7) = 37.5kN.m
cMerokkNal = 0.187 307.7 = 57.5kN.m
EbgEckm:Um:g;GviCmanxageRkA M ne eyagtamtarag 17>5 nigedaykareFVI
interpolation PaKrym:Um:g;Edldak;eTAkgcMerokelIssr sMrab; l 2 / l1 = 0.79
nig f 1l2 / l1 > 1.0 KW 92.5% nig 85%

karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

495

NPIC

T.Chhay

Fwm = 0.85(0.925 86.4) = 67.9kN.m


cMerokelIssr = 0.15(0.925 86.4) = 12kN.m
cMerokkNal = 0.075 86.4 = 6.48kN.m
9> m:Um:g;KNnaenAkgssr
Design Moments in Column
enAeBlEdlkarviPaKeRKagsmmUl (equivalent frame) RtUv)aneFVIeLIgedayviFI direct
design method m:Um:g;enAkgssrEdlbNalBIbnkminesI (unbalanced load) enAelIFwmEk,rRtUv)an
TTYlBIsmIkarxageRkam EdlRtUv)ankMNt;eday ACI Code, Section 13.6.9:
M u = 0.07[(wd + 0.5wl )l 2 l n2 w' d l ' 2 (l ' n )2 ]
!&>@@ a
RbsinebIviFI modified stiffness method EdleRbI K ec nig ec enaHm:Um:g; M u RtUv)ankMNt;
dUcxageRkam
0.08[(wd + 0.5wl )l 2 l n2 w' d l ' 2 (l ' n )2 ]
Mu =
!&>@@ b

1
1 +

ec

Edl

nig wl = bnkefr nigGefremKuNenAelIElVgEdlEvgCag


w' d = bnkGefremKuNenAelIElVgEdlxI
l n nig l' n = RbEvgnElVgEdlEvgCag nigxICag erogKa
wd

!&>@!
m:Um:g;enAkgsmIkarTI !&>@@ KYrRtUv)anEbgEckrvagssrxagelI nigxageRkamkMralxNRtg;
tMNreTAtamsmamaRtPaBrwgRkajrgkarBt;rbs;va rUbTI 17>24. sMrab;ElVgEdlesIKa l2 = l '2
nig ln = l 'n
M u = 0.07(0.5wl l 2 l n2 )
!&>@# a
0.08(0.5wl l 2 l n2 )
!&>@@ b
Mu =

1
ec =

K ec
(K s + K b )

1 +

ec

karbegItsmIkarTaMgenHedayQrenAelIkarsnt;fabnkGefrBak;kNaleFVIGMeBIenAelIElVg
EvgCag b:uEnbnkGefreFVIGMeBIenAelIElVgTaMgBIr. smIkar !&>@@ kGacRtUv)anGnuvtsMrab;ssrxag
eRkA edaysnt;faRbEvgElVgEdlxICagKW 0 rUbTI 17>25.
karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

496

NPIC

T.Chhay

10> karbMElgm:Um:g;minesIeTAkgssr

Transfer of Unbalanced Moments to

Columns

10>1> karbMElgm:Um:g;
karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

Transfer of Moment

497

NPIC

T.Chhay

kgkarviPaKeRKagsmmUl (equivalent frame) enAkgGKar m:Um:g;ekItmanenARtg;tMN kMral


xN-ssr EdlekItBIkMlaMgxagdUcCa kMlaMgxl; kMlaMgrBaydI bkMlaMgTMnajminesI (unbalanced
gravity load) edayeFVIeGaymanm:Um:g;minesIenAkgkMralenAelIRCugEdlpynwgssr. mYycMENkn
m:Um:g;minesIRtUv)anbMElgeTAssredaykarBt; ehIycMENkEdleFVIeGaym:Um:g;manlMnwgRtUv)anbBan
edaykMlaMgkat;bBarEdlmanGMeBIenAelImuxkat;eRKaHfak;sMrab;kMlaMgkat;pug. RbEhl 60% nm:U
m:g;EdlRtUv)anbMElgeATcugssrTaMgsgagRtg;tMNRtUv)anbMElgedaykarBt; ehIy 40% EdlenA
sl;RtUv)anbMElgedaykMlaMgkat;cakpit bkMlaMgrmYl enARtg;muxkat;EdlmanTItaMg d / 2 BIp
ssr. ACI Code, Section 13.5.3 bgajfacMENkn unbalanced moment EdlRtUv)anbMElg
edaykarBt; M f enARtg;tMNkMralxN-ssrEdlRtUv)anKNnadUcxageRkam
M f = f Mu
!&>@$
1
1
=
f =
!&>@%

2 b
2 c1 + d
1 +

3 c2 + d

1+

3 b2

ehIym:Um:g;EdlbMElgedaykMlaMgkat;TTwgKW
(

Mv = 1

)M u = M u M f

!&>@^

Edl c1 nig c2 CaRbEvgrbs;RCugBIrnssrctuekaN bssrctuekaNEkgsmmUl/ b1 = (c1 + d ) nig


b2 = (c 2 + d ) . enAeBlEdl c1 = c 2 / M f = 0.6M u ehIy M v = 0.4M u .

10>2> karRbmUlpMsrsEdkenAelIssr

Concentration of Reinforcement Over the

column

sMrab;karbMElgm:Um:g;edaypal;eTAssr vaCakarcaM)ac;kgkarRbmUlpMsrsEdkdak;kgcMerok
ssrkgTTwgkMNt;mYyenAelIssr, Epknm:Um:g;EdlbMElgedaykarBt; M f RtUv)anBicarNaeGay
eFVIGMeBItamryTTwgkMralxNesInwgTTwgssr c2 bUknwg 1.15hs enARKb;RCugTaMgGs;rbs;ssr b
tamryTTwgkMralxNesInwg (c2 + 3hs ) (ACI Code, Section 13.5.3). srsEdkGacRtUV)anRb
mUlpMenAelIssredayKMlatCitKa bedayeRbIsrsEdkbEnm.

10>3> kugRtaMgkMlaMgkat;EdlbNalBI M

Shear Stress Due to M f

kugRtaMgkMlaMgkat;EdlbegItedaycMENkn unbalanced moment M v RtUv)anpSMeLIgCa


mYynwgkugRtaMgkMlaMgkat;EdlbegItedaykMlaMgkat; Vu Edl)anBIkMlaMgbBar. kugRtaMgkMlaMgkat;

karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

498

NPIC

T.Chhay

TaMgBIrRtUv)ansnt;eGayeFVIGMeBIenACMubrievNbg;EdlmanTItaMgenAcMgay d / 2 BIpssrdUcbgajenA
kgrUb 17>26. smIkarsMrab;KNnakugRtaMgkMlaMgkat;KW
V
M C
v1, 2 = u v
!&>@&
Ac
Jc
Edl Ac = RkLapmuxkat;eRKaHfak;enACMuvijssr
J c = m:Um:g;niclPaBb:UElnRkLapEdlRsbeTAnwgm:Um:g;EdlmanGMeBIbEnmBIelIm:Um:g;nicl
PaBnmuxkat;xagcugEdleFobnwgGkSTIRbCMuTMgn;nmuxkat;eRKaHfak;.

sMrab;ssrxagkg
nig
karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

Ac = 2d ( x + y )
Jc =

xd 3
d x 3
+ x2 y +

2 3
6

!&>@*
!&>@(
499

NPIC

T.Chhay

sMrab;ssrxageRkA Ac = d (2 x + y )
!&>#0
xd 3
2dx 3
nig
!&>#!
(2 x + y )dx12 +
Jc =
3
6
Edl x1 / x2 nig y Rtuv)anbgajenAkgrUbTI 17>26. kugRtaMgkMlaMgkat;Gtibrma
v1 = Vu / Ac + M v C J c RtUvEttUcCag f 'c 3 ebImindUecaHeT EdkTb;kMlaMgkat;RtUv)andak;.
]TahrN_TI17>8 kMNt;m:Um:g;enAelIssrxagkg nigxageRkAkgTisedAEvgrbs; flat plate kg
TahrN_TI 17>4.

dMeNaHRsay

1> kMNt;m:Um:g;ssrxageRkA. BI]TahrN_TI 17>4 nig 17>5


wd = 1.2 7.75 = 9.3kN / m 2
0.5wl = 0.5 1.6 4.8 = 3.84kN / m 2

Unbalanced moment
Mu =

1
1 +
ec

l n = l ' n = 7m

l 2 = l ' 2 = 6m

= 1.96

EdlRtUvbMElgeTAssrxageRkAedayeRbIsmIkar !&>@@ b KW

0.08
(9.3 + 3.84)6 7 2 0 = 157.7kN .m
1.96

RbsinebIsmIkar !&>@@ a RtUv)aneRbI/ M u = 270.4kN .m EdlCatMlEdlsnSMsMc.


2> enATMrxagkg PaBrwgRkajrbs;kMralenAsgagssrRtUv)aneRbIedIm,IKNna ec
K ec
!&>@!
ec =
(K s + K b )
BI]TahrN_TI 17>5/ K ec = 4.34Ec 106 / K s = 4.17 Ec 106 nig K b = 0 dUcenH
ec =

4.34 Ec 10 6
2 4.17 Ec 10 6

1
1 +
ec

= 0.52

= 2.92

BIsmIkar 17>22 b m:Um:g; unbalance enAssrxagkgKW


Mu =

0.08
(9.3 + 3.84)6 7 2 9.3 6 7 2 = 30.93kN .m
2.92

RbsinebIsmIkar !&>@@ a RtUv)aneRbI/ M u = 79kN .m EdlCatMlEdlsnSMsMc.


]TahrN_TI17>9 sMrab; flat plate kg]TahrN_TI 17>4 KNnakugRtaMgkMlaMgkat;enAkgkMralxN
Rtg;muxkat;eRKaHfak;EdlbNalBI unbalanced moment nigkMlaMgkat;TTWgenAelIssrxagkg nig
karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

500

NPIC

T.Chhay

ssrxageRkA. RtYtBinitkarRbmUlpMsrsEdk nigkMlaMgrmYlkgrbs;ssrxageRkA. eKeGay


f 'c = 28MPa nig f y = 420MPa

dMeNaHRsay

1> m:Um:g;EdleFVIeGayKanlMnwg (unbalanced moment) enAssrxagkgKW M u = 30.93kN .m


]TahrN_ TI 17>8 Edl f = 0.6 edaysar c1 = c2 = 50cm .
m:Um:g;EdlRtUvbMElgedaykarBt;KW M f = f M u = 0.6 30.93 = 18.56kN .m
m:Um:g;EdlbMElgedaykMlaMgkat;KW M v = M u M f = 30.93 18.56 = 12.37kN .m
ma:gvijeTot m:Um:g;E;dlKNnaBIsmIkar !&>@@ a GacRtUv)aneRbIedIm,IbegItkugRtaMgkMlaMgkat;
FMCag.
edayeRbI d = 22.2cm ]TahrN_TI 17>4
Vu = 17(6 7.5 0.722 2 ) = 756.1kN
BIrUbTI 17>27
Ac = 4 72.2 22.2 = 6411.4cm 2
Jc =
=

xd 3
d x 3
+ x2 y +

2 3
6

72.2
22.2 72.2 3
+ (72.2)2 72.2 +
22.2 3 = 5.7 10 6 cm 4

2 3
6

v max =

756.1
6411.4 10 4

0.722
2 = 1258kN / m 2
2
5.7 10

12.37

v min = 1179.3 78.34 = 1100kN / m 2

vc = f 'c / 3 = 0.75 28 / 3 = 1.323MPa = 1323kN / m 2 > 1258kN / m 2

2> sMrab;ssrxageRkA unbalanced moment EdlRtUvbMElgedaykarBt; M f enARtg;tMN


kMralxN-ssrKWesInwg f M u Edl M u = 157.7kN .m . cMNaMfa c1 = c2 = 50cm /
d = 22.2cm enAkgTisedAEvg nig f = 0.6 sMrab;ssrkaer.
M f = 0.6 157.7 = 94.6kN .m

m:Um:g;EdlRtUvbMElgedaykMlaMgkat;TTwgKW
M v = M u M f = 157.7 94.6 = 63.1kN .m

karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

501

T.Chhay

karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

NPIC

502

NPIC

T.Chhay

3> sMrab;karbMElgedaykMlaMgkat;enAssrxageRkA muxkat;eRKaHfak;sitenAcMgay d / 2


BIpssr rUbTI 17>28.
wu = 17kN / m 2
Vu = 17(6 3.9 0.611 0.722) = 390kN

kMNt;TItaMgTIRbCMuTMgn;rbs;muxkat;eRKaHfak;edayKitm:Um:g;eFob AB
61.1

2 61.1
= (2 61.1 + 72.2 )xl
2

dUcenH xl = 19.2cm . RkLapmuxkat;eRKaHfak; Ac KW 22.2(2 61.1 + 72.2) = 4315.7cm 2 .


KNna J c = I x + I y sMrab;RkLapesIKaBIr 22.2 61.1 EdlmanRCugRsbeTAnwgTisedAn
m:Um:g; CamYynwgRkLap 22.2 72.2 EkgeTAnwgTisedArbs;m:Um:g;. m:Um:g;niclPaBnRkLa
pTaMgBIrRtUvKiteFobnwgGkS CD .

bh 3
Jc = I x + I y =
+ Ax 2

12

61.13
61.1
61.1
= 2 22.2
+ 22.2 61.1
19.2 +
22.2 3 + 72.2 22.2 19.2 2
12
2
12

= 1.84 10 6 cm 4

bedayeRbIsmIkar !&>#! sMrab;ssrxageRkA. KNNakugRtaMgkMlaMgkat; nominal Gtibrma


nigGb,brmaedayeRbIsmIkar !&>@&
Vu M v C
390
63.1 0.192
+
=
+
= 1562.1kN / m 2

4
2
Ac
Jc
4315.7 10
1.84 10
V
M C
= u v = 903.7 658.4 = 245.3kN / m 2
Ac
Jc

v max =
v min

vc = f 'c / 3 = 0.75 28 / 3 = 1.323MPa = 1323kN / m 2 < 1562.1kN / m 2

kugRtaMgkMlaMgkat;TTwgFMCagkugRtaMgkMlaMgkat;GnuBaat dUcenHeKRtUvbegInkMras;kMralxN
beRbIEdkTb;kMlaMgkat;.
4> RtYtBinitkarRbmUlpMsrsEdkenAssrxageRkA KWRtYtBinitPaBRKb;RKan;rbs;lTPaBTb;
karBt;rbs;muxkat;edIm,IbMElgm:Um:g;GviCmaneTAkgssrxageRkA. muxkat;eRKaHfak;rbs;kM
ralxNRtUv)anbnay 1.5hs enAelIRCugnImYyrbs;ssr EdleGayTTwg (50 + 3 25)
= 125cm nigkMras; 25cm . m:Um:g;srubenAkgTTwgcMerokelIssr 3m KW 162.4kN .m
karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

503

NPIC

T.Chhay

Edl)anKNnaenAkg]TahrN_TI 17>4 CMhan %. m:Um:g;enAkgTTwg 125cm KWesInwg


125
= 67.67 kN .m .
162.4
300
RbsinebIeKeRbIKMlatEdkesIKaenAkgcMerokelIssr enaHeKRtUvkarbrimaNEdkbEnmenAkg
TTwg 125cm sMrab;m:Um:g;EdlesInwg M f 67.67 = 94.6 67.67 = 26.93kN .m . brimaN
EdkcaM)ac; As = 340mm 2 dUcenH 4DB12 452mm 2 GacRtUv)aneRbI.
dMeNaHRsayepSgeTotKWedIm,ItMerobEdkenAkgcMerokelIssredIm,IbegInbrimaNEdkenAkgTTw
kcMerok 125cm . brimaNEdkcaM)ac;enAkgTTwgcMerokKYrRKb;RKan;edIm,ITb;nwgm:Um:g;EdlesInwg
0.6 dgnm:Um:g;GviCmanenAkgcMerokelIssr b 0.6 162.4 = 97.44kN .m .
Mu
snt; a = 25mm
As =
a

f y d

As =

97.44 10 6
= 1230mm 2
25

0.9 420 222


2

As f y
1230 420
a=
=
= 17.4mm
0.85 f 'c b 0.85 28 1250

RtYtBinit
eRbI 11DB12 enAkgTTwg 125cm edayEckesIKasgagssredayKitBIGkSssr rUbTI
17>29. kardak;EdkbEnm 4DB12 Edl)anbgajxagelICadMeNaHRsaykan;EtRbesI.

5> kMlaMgrmYlenAkgkMralxN kMlaMgrmYlBIRCugTaMgsgagrbs;ssrxageRkAesInwg 40%


nm:Um:g;elIcMerokTTwg.
karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

504

NPIC

T.Chhay

Tu = 0.4 162.4 = 64.96kN .m


64.96
= 32.48kN.m
2

kMlaMgrmYlenAelIRCugmag
TTwgnmuxkat;kMralxNEdlesInwgTTwgssrRtUv)ansnt;eGayTb;nwgkugRtaMgrmYl
1
Tu = vtu x 3 y
3

Edl x = 25cm nig y = 50cm . muxkat;eRKaHfak;KWenAcMgay d BIpssr rUbTI 17>30 .


edaysnt;fakMlaMgrmYlERbRbYlmanragCaExSekag)a:ra:bUleTAGkSkMralxN enaHkMlaMgrmYl
enAcMgay d KW
2

3.5 0.222
Tu = 32.48
= 28.42kN .m
3 .5

sMrab;ersIusg;Tb;karrmYlrbs;ebtug Acp = 25 50 = 1250cm 2 / Pcp = 2(25 + 50)


2
= 150cm tamsmIkar !%>!( Tcp = 0.75 28 (1250 10 2 ) 10 6 / (3 1500 )
= 13.78kN.m / Ta = 13.78 / 4 = 3.445kN .m < 28.42kN .m .
eKRtUvkarEdkTb;kMlaMgrmYl. EdkkgbiTCitcaM)ac; nigEdkbeNaybEnmRtUv)anKNnadUc
Bnl;enAkgemronTI 15. muxkat;cugeRkayRtUv)anbgajenAkgrUbTI 17>30. vaCakarRb
esIrRbsinebImanFwmxagenAssrxageRkAedIm,IbegInPaBrwgRkajTb;karrmYlrbs;kMralxN.

]TahrN_TI17>10 kMNt;brimaNEdkTb;kMlaMgkat;TTwgcaM)ac;sMrab;kMral flat plate xagkgeday

BicarNadUcteTA kMlaMgkat;put Vu = 870kN / kMras;kMralxN = 23cm / d = 19cm /


f 'c = 28MPa / ehIyTMhMssrKW 50 50cm .

dMeNaHRsay

karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

505

NPIC

T.Chhay

1> kMNt; Vc =

f ' c bo d / 3

sMrab;kMlaMgkat;BIrTis

bo = 4(50 + d ) = 4(50 + 19) = 276cm

Vc = 0.75 28 2760 190 10 3 / 3 = 693.7 kN

edaysar Vu = 870kN > Vc EdkTb;kMlaMgkat;TTwgRtUvkarcaM)ac;.


2> Vc GnuBaatGtibrma EdleRbIEdkkMlaMgkat;TTwgesInwg
f ' c bo d / 2 = 1.5(Vc ) = 1040.6kN > Vu EdkTb;kMlaMgkat;TTwgGacRtUv)aneRbI.
3> EdkTb;kMlaMgkat;TTWgGacpSMeLIgedayEdksrs Edkrag dUcCaFwmGkSr I b special
large-head studs welded to a steel strip emIlrUbTI 17>9. kg]TahrN_enH dMeNaHEdl
minfedayeRbIEdkTb;kMlaMgkat;FmtaRtUv)anTTYlykmkeRbI rUbTI 17>9 f . EdkTb;kM
laMgkat;TTwgRtUv)andak;enAelIRCugTaMgbYnrbs;ssrxagkg bbIRCugsMrab;ssrxageRkA
sMrab;RbEvg d + a rUbTI 17>31. cMgay a RtUv)ankMNt;edayeGay Vc = Vu enAmux
kat; bo EdlbgajedayExSdac; nigsnt;fa Vc = f 'c bo d / 6 .
bo = 4(c + a 2 ) = 4(500 + 2a )
0.75 28 4(500 + a 2 )190 / 6 = 870000
enATIenH a = 87cm ehIy (a + d ) = 106cm dUcenHyk 110cm .

karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

506

NPIC

T.Chhay

4> KNnaEdkkMlaMgkat;TTwg
Vs = (Vu Vc ) = 870 693.7 = 176.3kN
Vs = 235kN

sMrab;pmYyrbs;muxkat;eRKaHfak; V4s = 58.75kN


eRbI DB10 EdkkgGkSr U / Av = 157mm 2 sMrab;eCIgBIr. KMlatKW s = Av f y d / Vs
= 157 420 190 / 58750 = 213mm . KMlatGtibrmKW d / 2 = 190 / 2 = 95mm / yk
s = 90mm .
5> karEbgEckEdkkg cMnYnEdkkgkgmYyRCugrbs;ssrKW 110 / 9 = 12.2 b 13 kg.
cMgaysrubKW 13 90 = 1170mm rUbTI 17>31
Vs

]TahrN_TI17>11 Flat-Slab Floor System

edayeRbIviFI direct design method KNnaRbePTkMralxN flate slab xagkgEdlmanEt drop


panel ehIyvamanTMhM 7.5 6m rUbTI 17>32. RKb;kMralTaMgGs;RtUv)anRTedayssrTMhM
50 50cm RbEvg 3.6m . kMralxNRTnUvbnkBRgayesIGefrKanemKuN 4.8kN / m 2 nigbnkefr
KanemKuN 1.15kN / m 2 edayKanrYmbBalTMgn;pal;. eKeGay f 'c = 28MPa nig f y = 420MPa
dMeNaHRsayKWRsedognwg]TahrN_TI 17>3.

dMeNaHRsay

1> kMNt;kMras;kMral nigkMral; drop panel


a. RbEvg clear span KW 7.5 0.5 = 7 m . sMrab;kMralxageRkA tMlGb,brmarbs;
h = l n / 33 = 21.2cm b:uEnkMralxagkg tMlGb,brmarbs; h = l n / 36 = 19.4cm .
eRbIkMralxNEdlmankMral 20cm kMras;TMlak;cuHBIeRkamkMralxNKW h / 4 = 5cm
dUcenHkMras; drop panel KW 25cm .
b. TMhMrbs; drop panel KW L / 6 = 7.5 / 6 = 1.25m sMrab;TisnImYyBIGkSrbs;TMrkgTis
edAEvg nig 6 / 6 = 1m enAkgTisedAxI. dUcenHTMhMsrubrbs; drop panel KW 2.5 2m
rUbTI 17>32.
2> KNnabnkemKuN
slab load = 1.15 + 0.2 25 = 6.15kN / m 2
Wu = 1.2 6.15 + 1.6 4.8 = 15.06kN / m 2

karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

507

NPIC

T.Chhay

drop panel load = 1.15 + 0.25 25 = 7.4kN / m 2

Wu = 1.2 7.4 + 1.6 4.8 = 16.56kN / m 2

edaysarEt drop panel manRbEvg L / 3 kgTisnImYy tMlmFm


2
1
Wu = 15.06 + 16.56 = 15.56kN / m 2
3
3

3> RtYtBinitkMlaMgkat;BIrTis enAcMgay d / 2 BIpssr


d = 25 2 0.8 = 22.2cm
a. enAkg drop panel
bo = 4(50 + 22.2) = 288.8cm

Vu = 15.56 7.5 6 (0.722)2 = 692kN

0.75
Vc =
f 'c bo d =
28 (2888 222) 10 3 = 848.1kN > Vu
3
3

b.

enAkgkMral d = 20 2 0.8 = 17.2cm ehIy bo RtUv)anvas;ecjBI drop panel


enAcMgay 17.2 / 2 = 8.6cm .
bo = 2(250 + 17.2) + 2(200 + 17.2) = 968.8cm
Vu = 15.56[7.5 6 2.672 2.172] = 609.9kN

0.75
Vc =
f 'c bo d =
28 (9688 172) 10 3 = 2204kN > Vu
3
3

kMlaMgkat;mYyTisminmaneRKaHfak;.
4> KNnam:Um:g;saTicsrubenAkgTisEvg nigTisxI
c.

6 72
= 571.8kN / m 2
8
7.5 5.5 2
= 15.56
= 441.3kN / m 2
8
600
= 300cm
2

M ol = 15.56
M os

b:uEnTTwgrbs;cMerokkNal
TTwgrbs;cMerokelIssrkgTisnImYyKW
KW 300cm kgTisedAEvg nig 450cm kgTisedAxI.
5> KNnam:Um:g; nigsrsEdkRtUv)anbgajtarag 17>11. eRbIkMBs;RbsiTPaBmFm
d = 250 40 = 210mm sMrab;cMerokelIssr nig d = 200 40 = 160mm
sMrab;cMerokkNal. karBRgaysrsEdklMGitmanlkNRsedogKakg]TahrN_ flat
plate.

karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

508

NPIC

T.Chhay

tarag 17>11> karKNnaRbBnkMral flat slab xagkg


M ol = 571.8kN .m

emKuNm:Um:g;

TisEvg
cMerokelIssr

cMerokkNal

0.49M o

0.21M o

0.16M o

0.14M o

M u (kN .m)

-280.2

120.0

-91.5

80.0

TTwgcMerok b(mm)

3000

3000

3000

3000

210

160

160

160

( MPa)

2.12

1.56

1.19

1.04

PaKryEdk (%)

0.59

0.43

0.32

0.28

As = bd (mm 2 )

3717

2064

1536

1344

As (min) = 0.0018bhs (mm 2 )

1350

1080

1080

1080

19DB16

11DB16

14DB12

12DB

kMBs;RbsiTPaB d (mm)
Ru =

Mu
bd 2

EdkEdleRCIserIs Rtg;
M os = 441.3kN .m

emKuNm:Um:g;

TisxI
cMerokelIssr

cMerokkNal

0.49M o

0.21M o

0.16M o

0.14M o

M u (kN .m)

-216.2

92.7

-70.6

61.8

TTwgcMerok b(mm)

3000

3000

4500

4500

kMBs;RbsiTPaB d (mm)

210

160

160

160

( MPa)

1.63

1.21

0.61

0.54

PaKryEdk (%)

0.45

0.33

0.16

0.14

As = bd (mm 2 )

2835

1584

1152

1008

As (min) = 0.0018bhs (mm 2 )

1350

1080

1620

1620

15DB16

15DB12

15DB12

15DB12

Ru =

Mu
bd 2

EdkEdleRCIserIs Rtg;

karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

509

T.Chhay

karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

NPIC

510

T.Chhay

NPIC

11> kMralxN Waffle Waffle Slabs


RbBnkMralxN waffle slab BIrTispSMeLIgedayrnUtebtugEdlFmtaRbsBVKaCamMuEkg. kM
ralxNenHGacsagsg;edayKanFwm EdlkgkrNIenHk,alssrtan;RtUv)aneFVIenAelIssredIm,Ikar
BarkarpugEdlbNalBIkMlaMgkat;. FwmTUlaykGacRtUv)aneRbIenAeLIGkSssrsMrab;kMBs;esI.
Bum<canEdkragkaer b fiberglass pan RtUv)aneRbICaTUeTAedIm,IbegItRTnug. kMralxNesIgkMras;
75mm eTA 125mm RtUv)ancak;CamYyRTnugedIm,IbegItCa waffle slab.
kMralnImYyRtUv)anEbgEckCacMerokelIssr nigcMerokkNal. cMerokelIssrrYmbBalRT
nugTaMgGs;EdlCab;eTAnwgk,alssrtan; ehIycMerokkNalsitenAcenaHcMerokelIssr. EdkRtg;
bEdkBt;GacRtUv)aneRbICaEdkBRgwgenAkg waffle slab. karKNna waffle slab BIrTismanlkN
RsedogKanwgkarKNna flat slabEdr edayKitk,alssrtan;Ca drop panel. edIm,IkarBarkMlaMgTaj
FMenAkgk,alssr eKRtUveRbITMhMssrFMRKb;RKan; bdak; shear cap.
kgkarKNna waffle slab kMralxagelI nigrnUtnImYybegItCamuxkat;GkSret EdlesIkMBs;
kg flat plate. dUcenH ElVgEvgEdlRTbnkFn;GacRtUv)anKNnaCamYynwgkarsnSMsMcebtug)aneRcIn.
kMral waffle slab k)anpl;nUvBidandKYreGayTak;Taj Edl)anBIkarelcecjnUvRTnug bedaykar
lMGrePIg. kMralsg;darnBum<canEdlRtUv)aneRbICaTUeTAenAkg waffle slab GacsitenAkgCMerIsBIr
xageRkam
karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

511

NPIC

T.Chhay

1> Bum<cankaerTMhM 75cm 75cm CamYynwgkMras;kMral 75mm nigTTwgrnUt 150mm manKM


lat 90cm KitBIGkS. sg;darRbePTenH mankMBs;ERbRbYlBI 200mm eTA 500mm
eday ekIneLIgmg 50mm . eyagtam]TahrN_TI17>12 nigrUbTI 17>33.
2> Bum<cankaerTMhM 48cm 48cm CamYynwgkMras;kMral 75mm nigTTwgrnUt 125mm manKM
lat 60cm KitBIGkS. sg;RbePTenH mankMBs;ERbRbYlBI 150mm eTA 300mm eday
ekIneLIgmg 50mm . BtmanepSgBIkMralRtUv)anbgajenAkgtarag 17>12.
karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

512

NPIC

T.Chhay

tarag 17>12 lkNmuxkat;


sMrab;rnUt Bum<canTMhM 75cm 75cm
maDxl;
kMralxagelI kMBs;rnUt
RkLap
( 10 6 mm3 / pan) ( 10 4 mm 2 )
(mm )
(mm)
75
75
75
75
75
75
115
115
115
115
115
115

karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

200
250
300
350
400
500
200
250
300
350
400
500

107.4
132.7
157.4
181.4
204.9
250
107.4
132.7
157.4
181.4
204.9
250

10.09
11.04
12.02
13.05
14.12
16.39
13.69
14.64
15.62
16.65
17.72
19.99

Ycg

Ig

(mm )

( 10 mm )

81.91
98.58
116.54
135.4
155
195.7
95.12
109.4
141.8
141.8
159.45
196.88

5.45
9.02
13.85
20.08
27.88
48.8
8.25
12.89
19.06
26.95
36.72
62.59

513

NPIC

T.Chhay

sMrab;rnUt Bum<canTMhM
75
75
75
75
115
115
115
115

150
250
250
300
150
250
250
300

32
42.01
51.57
60.75
32
42.01
51.57
60.75

48cm 48cm

6.56
7.33
8.15
90
8.96
9.73
10.55
11.4

72.14
89.11
107.57
127.08
87.47
102.21
118.53
136.12

2.31
4.25
7.03
10.78
3.84
6.44
10.08
14.91

]TahrN_TI17>12 Waffle Slab

KNnaRbBnkMralxN waffle floor EdlpSMeLIgedaykMralkaerKanFwmedayKitnUvTinnyxagRkam


rUbTI 17>33
RbEvgElVgedayKitBIGkSssreTAGkSssr= 10m
TTwgrnUt = 150mm manKMlat 900mm BIGkSeTAGkS
kMBs;rnUt = 350mm
kMras;kMralxN = 75mm
TMhMssr = 500 500mm
bnkefr minrYmbBalbnkpal;= 2.4kN / m 2
bnkGefr= 4.8kN / m 2
f 'c = 35MPa
f y = 420MPa

dMeNaHRsay

1> KNnakMras;Gb,brmarbs;kMralxNedayeRbItarag 17>1 hmin = ln / 30 / ln = 10 0.5


= 9.5m / hmin = 9.5 / 30 = 0.317 m sMrab;kMralxagkg ehIy hmin = l n / 33 = 0.288m
sMrab;kMralxagkg. smIkar !&>! nig !&>@ GacRtUv)aneRbI. edaysnt;kMBs;srub 425mm
EdlrYmmankMralkMras; 75mm nigrnUtkMBs; 350mm .
2> KNnabnkEdlmanGMeBIenAelI waffle floor
a. bnkemKuNnEpktan;enAelIssr = 1.2 0.425 25 = 12.75kN / m 2
b. maDxl;rbs;rnUtkMBs; 350mm KW 181.4 10 6 mm 3 elIRkLap 900 900mm 2 .
TMgn;srubrbs;p 810000mm 2 KW
1.2 25(81 10 4 425 181.4 10 6 ) 10 9 = 4.89kN
bTMgn;kg 1m 2 KW 4.89kN / m 2

karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

514

NPIC

T.Chhay

c.

d.

bnkefrbEnmemKuNnigbnkGefremKuNKW 1.2 2.4 + 1.6 4.8 = 10.56kN / m 2 .


bnkBRgayesIemKuNenAelIptan; wu = 10.56 + 12.75 = 23.31 23.5kN / m 2
bnkBRgayenAemKuNenAelIpelIrnUt wu = 10.56 + 4.89 = 15.45 15.5kN / m 2
bnkenAelImYykMral eyagtamrUbTI 17>34 enAelIptan;
W = 23.5 3.6 + 15.5 6.4 = 183.8kN / m

enAelIpelIrnUt W = 15.5 10 = 155kN / m


3> KNnakMlaMgkat; nigm:Um:g;saTicsrub
Vu (at face of column) = 183.8 1.55 + 155 3.2 = 780.89kN
M o (at midspan ) = 780.89 4.75 183.8 1.55 3.975 155

3.2 2
= 1783.2kN .m
2

4> RtYtBinitkMlaMgkat;pug eyagtamrUbTI 17>35


a. enAkgptan;enAcMgay d / 2 BIpssr h = 425mm / d = 425 30 = 395mm /
c(column) = 500mm / bo = 4(500 + 395) = 3580mm /
Vu = 155 6.4 + 183.8 3.6 23.5 0.895 2 = 1634.9kN nig
Vc = f 'c bo d / 3 = 0.75 35 (3580 395) / 3 = 1952kN > Vu
b.

enAkgpelIrnUtenAcMgay d / 2 BIRCugrbs;ptan;. kMras;kMralKW 75mm . yk


d = 60mm enaH
bo = 4(3800 + 60) = 15440mm
Vu = 155 6.4 + 183.8 3.6 23.5 3.860 2 = 1304kN

Vc = f 'c bo d / 3 = 0.75 35 (15440 60) / 3 = 1370kN > Vu

5> KNnam:Um:g; nigsrsEdk


a. kMralxageRkA M o = 1783.2kN .m
m:Um:g;GviCmanxageRkA = 0.26M o = 463.6kN .m
m:Um:g;viCman = 0.52M o = 927.3kN .m
m:Um:g;GviCmanxagkg = 0.7M o = 1248.2kN .m
b. kMralxagkg M o = 1783.2kN .m
m:Um:g;GviCman = 0.65M o = 1159.1kN .m
m:Um:g;viCman = 0.35M o = 624.1kN.m
karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

515

T.Chhay

NPIC

karlMGItBIkarKNnaRtUv)anbgajenAkgtaragTI 17>13 nigrUbTI 17>36. cMNaMfa


PaKryEdkTaMgGs;tUc ehIy = 0.9
6> KNna unbalanced moment enAkgssr nigRtYtBinitkMlaMgkat;sMrab; Vu nig M v
dUckg]TahrN_TI 17>8 nig 17>9.

karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

516

T.Chhay

karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

NPIC

517

NPIC

T.Chhay

tarag 17>13> karKNnakMral waffle slab xagkg nigxageRkA rnUt 5enAkgcMerokelIssr


nigrnUt 6enAkgcMerokkNal
kMralxageRkA

cMerokelIssr
xageRkA
M
100

emKuNm:Um:g;

cMerokkNal
xagkg

60

M
75

25

40

M u (kN .m)

463.6

556.4

936.2

312

370.9

TTwgcMerok b(mm)

3800

5000

3800

900 (6 ribs)

5000

395

395

395

395

395

( MPa)

0.78

0.71

1.58

2.22

0.48

PaKryEdk (%)

0.21

0.19

0.43

0.61

0.13

As = bd (mm 2 )

3152

3753

6454

2169

2567

As (min) = 0.0018bhs (mm 2 )

2907

765/rib

2907

688.5

637.5/rib

11DB20

2DB25/rib

21DB20

7DB20

2DB22/rib

kMBs;RbsiTPaB d (mm)
Ru =

Mu
bd 2

EdkEdleRCIserIs Rtg;

kMralxagkg

cMerokelIssr
xageRkA
M
-

emKuNm:Um:g;

cMerokkNal
xagkg
M

60

75

25

40

M u (kN .m)

374.5

869.3

289.8

249.6

TTwgcMerok b(mm)

5000

3800

900 (6 ribs)

5000

395

395

395

395

( MPa)

0.48

1.47

2.06

0.32

PaKryEdk (%)

0.13

0.40

0.57

0.09

As = bd (mm 2 )

2567

6004

2026

1777.5

As (min) = 0.0018bhs (mm 2 )

765/rib

2907

688.5

637.5/rib

EdkEdleRCIserIs Rtg;

2DB25/rib

20DB20

7DB20

2DB22/rib

kMBs;RbsiTPaB d (mm)
Ru =

Mu
bd 2

karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

518

T.Chhay

karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

NPIC

519

T.Chhay

NPIC

12> viFIeRKagsmmUl Equivalent Frame Method


enAeBlEdlRbBnkMralxNBIrTismineKarBtamkarkMNt;rbs; direct design method m:Um:g;
KNnaRtUv)ankMNt;edayviFI equivalent method. enAkgviFIenH GKarRtUv)anEckCaeRKagsmmUltam
BIrTis nigbnab;mkviPaKeRKagkgsanPaBeGLasicsMrab;RKb;lkxNnkardak;bnk. PaBxusKarvag
viFITaMgBIrsitenAelIviFInkarKNnam:Um:g;tambeNayrbs;ElVg. tMrUvkarsMrab;karKNnaRtUv)anBnl;
dUcxageRkam
k> karBiBN_naBIeRKagsmmUl eRKagsmmUlCaeRKagGKarkgbg; BIrTMhM EdlTTYl)an
edaykarkat;GKarkglMhM bITMhMtambeNayExSkNalElVgcenaHssr rUbTI 17>4.
eRKagsmmUlEdlTTYl)anRtUv)anBicarNadac;edayELkenAkgTisbeNay nigTisTTwg
rbs;GKar. sMrab;bBar kMralnImYyRtUv)anviPaKdac;edayELk edaysnt;cugsagelI nig
cugxageRkamrbs;ssrRtUv)ansnt;fabgb;. kMral-Fwm (slab-beam) RtUv)ansnt;fabgb;
enARtg;TMrkMralBIrEdlQmnwgTMrEdleYigRtUvBicarNa BieRBaHbnkbBarcUlrYmCamYym:Um:g;
tictYcenARtg;tMNrenaH. sMrab;bnkedk eRKagsmmUlpSMeLIgedaykMralTaMgGs;sMrab;
kMBs;TaMgmUlrbs;GKar edaysarkMlaMgenAkMralnImYyCaGnuKmn_nbnkedkenARKb;kM
ralBIelInIv:UEdlRtUvBicarNa. karviPaKeRKagkGaceFVIeLIgedaykmviFIkMuBTr.
x> karsnt;bnk enAeBlpleFob service live load nig service dead load tUcCagbesInwg
0.75 KMrUnkardak;bnk pattern loading RtUv)aneRbIedayBicarNanUvlkxNxageRkam
- manEt 75% nbnkefremKuNTaMgmUlGacRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;karviPaK.
- m:Um:g;Bt;GviCmanGtibrmaenAkgkMralRtg;TMrRtUv)anTTYledaykardak;bnkEtelIkM
ralxNBIrEdlCab;Ka.
- m:Um:g;viCmanGtibrmaenAEk,rkNalElVgRtUv)anTTYledaykardak;bnkEtenAelIElVg
qas;.
- m:Um:g;KNnaminRtUvtUcCagm:Um:g;KNnaEdlekIteLIgedaykardak;bnkemKuNeBjelIkM
ral (ACI Code, Sectoion 13.7.6).
- m:Um:g;GviCmaneRKaHfak;RtUv)anBicarNaeGaymanGMeBIenARtg;pssrctuekaN benA
Rtg;ssrkaersmmUlEdlmanRkLapdUcKasMrab;muxkat;minEmnctuekaNEkg.
karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

520

NPIC

T.Chhay

K> m:Um:g;niclPaBkMral-Fwm ACI CodekMNt;fakarERbRbYlm:Um:g;niclPaBtamGkSbeNay


ssr nigFwmkMralRtUv)anykmkKitkgkarviPaKeRKag. tMbn;eRKaHfak;sitenAcenaHExS
GkSssr nigpssr/ bracket b capital. tMbn;enHRtUv)anBicarNaCamuxkat;Rkas;nkM
ralxN. edIm,IBicarNakMBs;dFMrbs;ssr nigkarkat;bnyTTwg\TiBlrbs;vaEdlCab;nwg
FwmkMral ACI Code, Section 13.7.3.3kMNt;fam:Um:g;niclPaBrbs;FwmkMralrvagGkS
ssr nwgpTMrRtUv)ansnt;esInwgFwmkMralenARtg;pssredayEcknwgtMl (1 c2 l2 )2
Edl c2 CaTTwgssrkgTisedATTwg nig l2 CaTTwgrbs;FwmkMral. RkLaprbs;muxkat;
TaMgmUlGacRtUv)aneRbIedIm,IKNnam:Um:g;niclPaBrbs;FwmkMral.
X> m:Um:g;niclPaBrbs;ssr ACI Code, Section 13.7.4 bgajfam:Um:g;niclPaBrbs;ssr
RtUv)ansnt;faesIGnnBIpxagelIrbs;kMraleTA)atrbs; column capital bFwmkMral
rUbTI 17>37.
g> PaBrwgRkajrbs;ssr K ec RtUv)ankMNt;eday
1
1
1
=
+
!&>!&
K ec K c K t
Edl K c CaplbUkPaBrwgRkajrbs;ssrxagelI nigssrxageRkamenARtg;cugrbs;va
9 Ees C
Kt =
!&>!(
3
c
l 2 1 2
l2

x x 3 y
C = 1 0.63
y 3

!&>@0

c> m:Um:g;ssr enAkgkarviPaKeRKag m:Um:g;EdlkMNt;sMrab;ssrsmmUl enAcugxagelIssr


eRkamkMral nigenA)atssrelIkMralRtUv)aneRbIkgkarKNnassr.
q> m:Um:g;GviCmanenAelITMr ACI Code, Section 13.7.7 bgajfasMrab;ssrxagkg m:Um:g;GviC
manemKuNRtUv)anykenARtg;pssr bp capital b:uEnenAcMgayminFMCag 0.1175l1 BI
GkSssr. sMrab;ssrxageRkA m:Um:g;GviCmanemKuNRtUv)anykmkKitenARtg;muxkat;Edl
sitenABak;kNalcMgayrvagpssr nigEKmrbs;TMr. ssrmuxkat;mUlRtUv)anKitCassr
kaerEdlmanmuxkat;esIKa.
C> plbUkm:Um:g; RbBnkMralxNBIrTisEdleKarBtamkarkMNt;rbs;viFI direct design
method kGacRtUv)anviPaKedayviFI equivalent frame method . edIm,IFanafaviFITaMgBIr
karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

521

NPIC

T.Chhay

pl;nUvlTpldUcKa ACI Code, Section 13.7.7 bgajfam:Um:g;EdlkMNt;edayviFI


equivalent frame method GacRtUv)ankat;bnyedaysmamaRtEdlplbUknm:Um:g;viCman
nigm:Um:g;GviCmanenAkgkarKNnaminRtUvFMCagm:Um:g;saTicsrub M o .

]TahrN_TI17>13

edayeRbIviFI equivalent frame method viPaKeRKagKMrUxagkgnRbBnkMral flate plate EdleGayenA


kg]TahrN_TI 17>3 EtkgTisedAEvg. RbBnkMralpSMeLIgedaykMralbYnkgTisedAnImYy Edl
kMralnImYymanTMhM 7.5 6m . kMralnImYyRtUv)anRTedayssrTMhM 50 50cm RbEvg 3.6m .
Service live load KW 3.8kN / m 2 Service dead load KW 6kN / m 2 edayrYmbBalTaMgTMgn;pal;
rbs;kMral. eKeGay f 'c = 21MPa / f y = 420MPa . FwmxagminRtUv)aneRbI. rUbTI 17>38

dMeNaHRsay

1> kMras;kMralxN 25cm RtUv)aneRCIserIs dUcEdlBnl;kg]TahrN_TI 17>3.


2> bnkemKuNKW wu = 1.2 6 + 1.6 3.8 = 13.28kN / m 2
pleFob Service dead load elI Service live load KW 3.8 / 6 = 0.63 < 0.75 . dUcenHeRKag
GacRtUvKNnaCamYynwgkarbnkemKuN wu eGaymanGMeBIRKb;kMralCMnYseGaykarBRgay
bnktamKMrUnkardak;bnk.
3> kMNt;PaBrwgRkajrbs;kMral K s
Ks = k

karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

EI s
ls

522

NPIC

T.Chhay

Edl

CaemKuNPaBrwgRkaj nig

Is =

l 2 hs3 6 0.25 3
=
= 7.81 10 3 m 4
12
12

emKuNPaBrwgRkajGacRtUv)ankMNt;edayviFI column analogy method


EdlRtUv)anBnl;enAkgesovePAviPaKrcnasm<n (structural analysis).
edayKitfam:Um:g;niclPaBsMrab;kMral I s esInwg 1.0 dUckgrUb m:Um:g;niclPaBrvagGkSssr
nigpssrKW
1.0
c2
1
l2

1.0
500

6000

= 1.19

TTwgn analogous column ERbRbYlCamYy 1 / I dUcbgajenAkgrUbTI 17>38 b 1 / 1.19


= 0.84

emKuNPaBrwgRkajkMral k = l1 A1

Edl

Mc

I a

!&>#@

RkLapnmuxkat; analogous column


I a = m:Um:g;niclPaBrbs; analogous column
M = m:Um:g;EdlekItBIbnkktaenAsrsxageRkAbMputn analogous column
EdlenAGkSrbs;kMral.
Aa =

M = 1 .0

l1
2

Aa = 7 + 2 0.25 0.84 = 7 + 0.42 = 7.42


I a = I (for slab portion of 7m) + I (of end portion) about the centerline
2

73
0.250

Ia =
+ 0.42 3.75
= 34.1
12
2

edayecalm:Um:g;niclPaBnGgt;xIxagcugeFobnwgTIRbCMuTMgn;rbs;va.
75 3.75
emKuNPaBrwgRkaj k = 7.5 7.142 + 1 3.34
= 1.01 + 3.09 = 4.1
.1
emKuN carryover = 3.094.11.01 = 0.507
10
dUcenH PaBrwgRkajrbs;kMralxNKW K s = 4.1E 77..81
5

karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

= 4.27 10 3 E

523

NPIC

T.Chhay

4> kMNt;PaBrwgRkajrbs;ssr/ K c
EI
K c = k ' c
lc

karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

524

NPIC

T.Chhay

sMrab;ssrenABIelI nigBIeRkamkMral.
k ' = emKuNPaBrwgRkajrbs;ssr
l c = 3.6m

Ic =

0.5 4
= 5.2 10 3 m 4
12

emKuNPaBrwgRkaj k ' GacRtUv)ankMNt;dUcxageRkam


1 Mc

+
k ' = l c
Aa I a

sMrab;ssr c = lc / 2 nig M = 1.0(lc

2) = lc 2

Aa = l c hs = 3.6 0.25 = 3.35

(lc hs )3

3.353
= 3.133
12
12
1.8 1.8
1
k ' = 3.6
+
= 4.8
3.133
3.35
Ia =

K c = 4.8 E

5.2 10 3
2 = 0.0139 E
3.6

enAkg flat-plate floor system PaBrwgRkajrbs;ssr K c GacRtUv)anKNnaedaypal;


dUcxageRkam
3I c l c2
Kc
Ic
!&>##
=
+
3
(l h )
E
c

(lc hc )

5> KNnaPaBrwgRkajTb;karrmYl K t rbs;kMralenARtg;prbs;ssr

x x3 y
9 Rcs C

Kt =
C
=
1

0
.
63
ehI
y

3
y 3

c
l 2 1 2
lc

enAkg]TahrN_enH x = 250mm kMras;kMralxN nig y = 500mm TTWgssr


emIlrUbTI 17>17.
0.25 0.253 0.5

C = 1 + 0.63
= 3.42 10 3 m 4

0
.
5
3

Kt =

9 Ecs 3.42 10 3
0.5
61

= 6.66 10 3 E

sMrab;kMralxNBIrCab;Ka K t = 2 6.66 10 3 E = 13.32 10 3 E


6> KNnaPaBrwgRkajssrsmmUl/ K ec
karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

525

NPIC

T.Chhay

1
1
1
1
1
=
+
=
+
K ec K c K t 0.0139 E 13.32 10 3 E
K ec = 6.8 10 3 E

7> emKuNEbgEckm:Um:g; (D.F)


- sMrab;tMNxageRkA
Ks
4.27 10 3
=
= 0.386
K s + K ec 4.27 10 3 + 6.8 10 3
K
D.F (columns) = ec = 0.614
K
D.F (slab) =

ssrxagelI nigssrxageRkamkMralxNmanPaBrwgRkajdUcKa dUcenH emKuNEbgEck


0.614 RtUv)anEckesIKarvagssrTaMgBIr EdlmYyTTYl)an D.F= 0.614 / 2 = 0.307 .
- sMrab;tMNxagkg
Ks
4.27 10 3
D.F (slab) =
=
= 0.278
K s + K ec 2 4.27 10 3 + 6.8 10 3
K
6.8 10 3
= 0.444
D.F (columns) = ec =
K 2 4.27 10 3 + 6.8 10 3

ssrmYyman D.F= 0.444 / 2 = 0.222 .


8> m:Um:g;cugbgb; edaysar L.L / D.L tUcCag 0.75 m:Um:g;emKuNTaMgmUlRtUv)ansnt;faman
GMeBIelIElVgTaMgGs;.
Fixed end moment = k"wu l 2(L1 ) 2

emKuN k" GacRtUv)ankMNt;eday column analogy method sMrab;bnkkta w = 1kN / m


enAelIbeNayElVg 7.5m daRkamm:Um:g;Bt;samBaRtUv)anbgajenAkgrUbTI 17>38 b .
RkLapnm:Um:g;Bt; edayBicarNabMErbMrYlm:Um:g;niclPaBtambeNayElVgKW
RkLapsrub ( Am ) = A1 + A2 + 2A3
=

emKuNm:Um:;g;bgb;cug =

2
1

7(7 0.91) + 7 0.91 + 2 0.25 0.910.84 = 34.98


3
2

Am
Aa l12

Edl Aa sMrab;kMralxNKW 7.42 dUcEdl)anKNnaenAkgCMhanTI 3.


k" =

karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

34.98
7.42 7.5 2

= 0.0838

526

T.Chhay

NPIC

eyIgeXIjfaemKuNm:Um:g;bgb;cug k"= 0.0838 mantMlEk,rnwgemKuN 1 / 12 = 0.833 Edl


eRbICaTUeTAedIm,IKNnam:Um:g;bgb;rbs;Fwm. eK)anrMBwgTuknUvlTplenH edaysarEpknElVg
manm:Um:g;niclPaBERbRbYltUcenAkg flat plate EdlKan column capital b drop panel. enAkg
flat plate EdlmanpleFobElVgelITTwgssrFMCag 20 enaHeKGacykemKuNm:Um:g;bgb;cug
0.0833 mkeRbIedIm,IKNnam:Um:g;cugRbhak;RbEhl. m:Um:g;bgb;cug EdlbNalBI
wu = 13.28kN / m 2 = 0.0838 13.28 6 7.5 2 = 375.6kN.m
9> karEbgEckm:Um:g;GaceFVIeTA)ansMrab;Bak;kNaleRKag edaysarvamanlkNsIuemRTI. enA
eBlEdlm:Um:g;cugGviCmanRtUv)ankMNt;
m:Um:g;viCmanenAkNalElVgGacTTYl)anedaydktMlmFmnm:Um:g;cugGviCmanBIm:Um:g;viCmanFwmTMrsamBa. karEbgEckm:Um:g;RtUv)anbgajenAkgrUbTI 17>39. m:Um:g;Bt; nigkMlaMg
kat;TTwgcugeRkayRtUv)anbgajenAkgrUbTI 17>40.
10> kMralxNCagRtUv)anKNnasMrab;m:Um:g;GviCmanenARtg;pssrdUcbgajenAkgrUbTI 17>40.

karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

527

T.Chhay

NPIC

]TahrN_TI17>14

edayeRbIviFI direct design method edIm,IKNnakMral flate slab xagkgEdlman drop panel edIm,IRT
bnkefr 8.6kN / m 2 nigbnkGefr11kN / m 2 . RbBnkMralpSMeLIgedaykMralcMnYn ^ kgTisnImYy
EdlkMralmYymanTMhM 6 5.4m . RKb;kMralTaMgGs;RtUv)anRTeday ssrEdlmanGgt;pit 0.4m
ehIy column capital manGgt;pit 1.0m . kMBs;Can;KW 3.0m . eKeGay f 'c = 28MPa nig
f y = 400MPa

karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

528

T.Chhay

NPIC

dMeNaHRsay

1> RKb;karkMNt;rbs; ACI edIm,IeRbI direct design method RtUv)anbMeBj. kMNt;kMras;kMral


Gb,brma hs edayeRbIsmIkar !&>! nig !&>@. Ggt;pitrbs; column capital esInwg 1.0m .

karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

529

NPIC

T.Chhay

muxkat;ssrkaersmmUlEdlmanRkLapesIKamanRCugesInwg
= 885mm b 900mm .

r 2 = (500)2

clear span (long direction) = 6.0 0.9 = 5.1m


clear span (short direction) = 5.4 0.9 = 4.5m

edaysarFwmminRtUv)aneRbI fm = 0 / s = 1.0 nig = 6 / 5.4 = 1.11 BItarag !&>!/


kMras;Gb,brma hs = ln / 33 = 5.1 / 33 = 155mm b:uEnedaysarman drop panel hs Gac
RtUv)ankat;bny 10% RbsinebI drop panel latsnwgcMgayy:agtic l / 6 kgTisnImYyBI
GkSrbs;TMr nigTMlak;cuHBIeRkamkMraly:agtic hs / 4 . dUcenH eRbIkMras;kMral hs = 0.9 155
= 140mm ehIyRbEvgbeNay nigTTwgrbs; drop panel KW
l1 6.0
=
= 2m
3
3
l
5 .4
Short direction = 2 =
= 1 .8 m
3
3
Long direction =

kMras;rbs; drop panel KW 1.25hs = 1.25 140 = 175mm . begInkMras;rbs; drop panel dl;
220mm edIm,Ipl;nUvkMras;RKb;RKan;sMrab;kMlaMgkat;pug nigedIm,IecosvagnUvkareRbInUvPaKry
EdkFM. TMhMTaMgGs;RtUv)anbgajenAkgrUbTI 17>41.
2> KNnabnkemKuN
wu = 1.2 8.6 + 1.6 11 = 28kN / m 2

3> RtYtBinitkMlaMgkat;BIrTis. dMbUgenAkg drop panel muxkat;eRKaHfak;enAcMgay d / 2 CMuvij


column capital. yk d = 220 30 = 190mm . Ggt;pitrbs;muxkat;rgkMlaMgkat;KW
1 + 0.19 = 1.19m

Vu = 286 5.4 1.19 2 = 876kN


4

1.19
bo = 2
= 3.74m
2
0.75 0.33
Vc = 0.33 f 'c bo d =
28 3740 190 = 930kN > Vu
1000

bnab;mkeTotepgpat;kMlaMgkat;BIrTisenAkgkMralxN. muxkat;eRKaHfak;KWsitenAcMgay
d / 2 BIeRkA drop panel
d (slab ) = 140 30 = 110mm

karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

530

NPIC

T.Chhay

RkLapeRKaHfak; = (2 + 0.11)(1.8 + 0.11) = 4.03m 2


bo = 2(2.11 + 1.91) = 8.04m
Vu = 28(6 5.4 4.03) = 794kN
0.75 0.33
Vc =
28 8040 110 = 1158kN > Vu
1000

kMlaMgkat;mYyTismineRKaHfak;eT.
4> KNnam:Um:g;saTicsrubenAkgTisEvg nigTisxI

wu
28
l 2 l n21 =
5.4 5.12 = 491.6kN .m
8
8
w
28
= u l1l n22 =
6 4.5 2 = 425.2kN .m
8
8

M ol =
M os

edaysar l2 < l1 TTwgrbs;cMerokelIssrkgTisedAEvgKW 2(0.25 5.4) = 2.7m . TTwgcM


erokelIssrkgTisedAxIKW 2.7m . edaysnt;Ggt;pitEdk 12mm ehIyEdkkgTisedAxI
sitenABIelIEdkkgTisedAEvg enaHkMBs;RbsiTPaBkgTisedAxIKWtUcCagkMBs;RbsiTPaBkg
TisedAEvgRbEhl 10mm . tMlrbs; d nigdMeNIrkarKNnaRtUv)anbgajenAkgtarag
17>14. RbEvgGb,brmarbs;EdkEdl)aneRCIserIsRtUveKarBtamRbEvgtMrUvkarrbs; ACI
Code Edl)anbgajenAkgrUbTI 17>16. cMNaMfaPaKryEdkTaMgGs;tUcCag max .
dUcenH = 0.9 .
5> PaBrwgRkajrbs;ssrKW
l1
D.L 8.6
ratio
=
= 0.782
ehI
y
= 1.11
l
L.L 11
2

kMNt; min
viFIRbhak;RbEhlRtUv)aneRbIenATIenHedIm,IkMNt;PaBrwg Rkajrbs;ssrCamYynwg capital
rbs;va.
140 3
= 1372 10 6 mm 4
I s m:Um:g;niclPaBrbs;kMralkgTisxI = 6000
12
1
=
= 1.15
0.782 1.11

Ks =

Ic

4 Ec I s 4 E c 1372 10 6
=
= 1016 10 3 E c
l2
5400

sMrab;ssrmUlEdlmanGgt;pit 400mm =

Kc =

D 4
64

64

(400) 4

= 1257 10 6 mm 4

4 E c I c 4 Ec 1257 10
=
= 1676 10 3 E c
lc
3000

karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

531

NPIC

T.Chhay

tarag 17>14 karKNnankMral flat plate xagkgEdlman drop panel


TisEvg

M o = 491.6 kN .m
M n = 0.65M o = 319.5kN .m
M p = +0.35 M o = +172.1kN .m

cMerokelIssr

cMerokkNal

emKuNm:Um:g;

0.75 M n

0.60 M p

0.25M n

0.40 M p

M u (kN .m)

-239.6

103.3

-79.9

68.8

190

110

110

110

2.7

2.7

2.7

2.7

( MPa)

2.46

3.16

2.44

2.10

PaKryEdk (%)

0.71

0.93

0.7

0.6

As = bd (mm 2 )

3642

2762

2079

1782

As (min) = 0.0018bhs (mm 2 )

1070

680

680

680

18DB16

14DB16

20DB12

16DB12

150

193

135

170

TTwgcMerok b(mm)

kMBs;RbsiTPaB d (mm)
Ru =

Mu
bd 2

EdkEdleRCIserIs Rtg;
KMlat (mm)
M o = 425.2kN .m
M n = 0.65M o = 276.4kN .m
M p = 0.35M o = +148.8kN .m

TisxI
cMerokelIssr

cMerokkNal

emKuNm:Um:g;

0.75M n

0.60 M p

0.25M n

0.40 M p

M u (kN .m)

-207.3

89.3

-69.1

59.5

TTwgcMerok b(mm)

180

100

100

100

kMBs;RbsiTPaB d (mm)

2.7

2.7

3.3

3.3

( MPa)

2.37

3.30

2.10

1.80

PaKryEdk (%)

0.69

1.00

0.60

0.50

As = bd (mm 2 )

3353

2700

1980

1650

As (min) = 0.0018bhs (mm 2 )

1070

680

680

680

18DB16

14DB16

18DB12

16DB12

150

195

185

205

Ru =

Mu
bd 2

EdkEdleRCIserIs Rtg;
KMlat (mm)
karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

532

NPIC

T.Chhay

pleFobrvagPaBrwgRkajrbs;ssrnigPaBrwgRkajrbs;kMral
=

K c 1676 10 3
=
= 1.65
K s 1016 10 3

EdlFMCag min = 1.15 . RbsinebI I s kgTisEvgRtUv)aneRbI pleFobnPaBrwgRkajssr


elIPaBrwgRkajkMralEdl)anKNnanwgFMCag 1.65 . dUcenHssrKWRKb;RKan;.
6> kMNt; balanced moment enAkgssr nigRtYtBinitkugRtaMgkMlaMgkat;enAkgkMral dUc
Edl)anBnl;enAkg]TahrN_TI 17>8 nig 17>9.

karKNnakMralxNBIrTis

533