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MAY 2014
TO 12

Amit kumar verma Ashok Tetarwal
This is to certify that ASHOK TETARWAL of VII Semester, ELECTRICAL
Engineering MNIT AI!"R#RA$% has &'(y com)(ete& his ma*or training from
H$+$E sho) #,(oc-./% of 0HEL 0ho)a($ He com)(ete& his training from 12
May 13/4 to /1 '(y 13/4$
His )erformance has ,een fo'n& satisfactory &'ring the training$ I ha5e him
sincere ,har&6or-ing an& technica((y so'n&$ He reg'(ar(y atten&e& in&'stria(
'n&er my a,(e g'i&ance$ I ta-e this o))ort'nity to 6ish them 6e(( for the f't're$
Project Guie!"
Mr# A$it %u$&r Ver$&
Sr E'(i'eer
H#G#E ()*oc+",)

7An engineer with theoretical knowledge is not complete engineer. Practical knowledge
is very important for an engineer to develop and apply engineering skills. It gives me a
great pleasure to have an opportunity to acknowledge and to express gratitude to those who
were associated with my training at Bharat Heavy Electricals imited! Bhopal$
S'mmer training at )HEL")/o0&* ha& ,een an in5a('a,(e an& enriching e8)erience for me$
9'ring this training I ha5e (earnt to a))(y my theoretica( conce)ts in )ractica( fie(&$ :or this I
am ;'ite than-f'( to a(( )eo)(e 6ith 6hom I got o))ort'nity to interact$
:irst of a((, I e8)ress my sincere than-s an& gratit'&e to 0HEL HR 9e)tt$ forgi5ing me
an o))ort'nity to &o my In&'stria( Training in this )restigio's organi<ation$
With a &ee) sense of gratit'&e, I 6ish to e8)ress my sincere than-s to my g'i&e, MR$
AMIT K"MAR VERMA, Sr engineer of H=9RO+ENERATOR Engineering 9e)artment
for gi5ing me the o))ort'nity to 6or- 'n&er him on this )ro*ect$ I tr'(y a))reciate an& 5a('e
his esteeme& g'i&ance an& enco'ragement from the ,eginning to the en& of this )ro*ect$
S)ecia( than-s to Mr$ Vi5e- +os6ami, Mr$ Amit 0angia, Mr$ Vi-as Mishra, Mr$ S'ren&ra
cha'han, Mr$O) meena, Mr$ Ti-en&ra -'mar an& many more 6ho g'i&e& me > my
&isc'ssion 6ith them 6as tr'(y en(ightening$ I 6o'(& again (i-e to e8)ress my sincere than-s
to a(( )ro*ect g'i&es for their constant frien&(y g'i&ance &'ring the entire stretch of this
re)ort$ E5ery ne6 ste) I too- 6as &'e to their )ersistent enth'siastic coo)eration, generosity
an& s')er, g'i&ance an& I ac-no6(e&ge this 6ith a &ee) sense of gratit'&e$
I 6o'(& a(so (i-e to than- a(( em)(oyees for their frien&(y an& 6arm attit'&e, 6hich
he()e& me in com)(eting the )ro*ect s'ccessf'((y$
Th* ,%--%."&/ 0*1%0t 10*$*&t$ 2 30"*, %#*0#"*. %, th* H4!0%
G*&*02t%0 2&! "t$ +%51%&*&t$ 2&! $63-2$$*53-"*$ St20t"&/ ."th th*
"&t0%!6+t"%& %, BHEL, %&* %, th* M2h2-N2#02t&2 (%512&4 %, I&!"2,
th* #20"%6$ 10%!6+t$ 10%!6+*! 34 BHEL "$ -"$t*! 3*-%., 2&! th*& 2
30"*, !*$+0"1t"%& %, 10%!6+t$ 0*-2t*! t% P%.*0 G*&*02t"%& "$ /"#*&
Th* 0*1%0t th*& t27*$ th* t%1"+ H4!0% G*&*02t%0 "& !*t2"- Th*
.%07"&/ 10"&+"1-*, th* )202!248$ L2., "$ /-2&+*! 61%& (%&$t06+t"%&
!*t2"- %, th* h4!0% /*&*02t%0 "$ 2-$% "&+-6!*! "& 2 +%&!6+"#* 52&&*0
)"&2--4 th* 0*1%0t *&!$ ."th 30"*, !*$+0"1t"%& %, $%5* !*$"/&
9esign an& man'fact'ring of Hy&ro.generators, re;'ires an a))reciation of
m'(ti&isci)(inary conce)t an& in &e)th -no6(e&ge or scientific ana(ytica( too(s, geare&
to the so('tion of rea( (ife )ro,(ems$ No &o',t e5ery rea( sit'ation is 'ni;'e ,'t a set
of theoretica( too(s of -no6(e&ge can he() in &e5e(o)ing the mechanism for han&(ing
s'ch sit'ation$
To ac;'aint me 6ith s'ch cha((enging sit'ation, I am a((o6e& to go to 0HEL,
0ho)a($ The training )erio& 6as of 2 6ee-s 6hich 6as too short to fin& o't an
efficient feasi,(e so('tion to the )ro,(em of E(ectrica( Engineering, so I ha5e trie& my
,est to co((ect a(( re(e5ant &ata an& st'&ie& the &etai(s of generators &esigne& an&
)ro&'ce& at 0HEL$
I 6ho(e hearte&(y a))reciate the atmos)here )ro5i&e& to me ,y the staffs of
E(ectrica( Engineering$ The &ata has ,een co((ecte& at )rimary so'rce thro'gh
&isc'ssions 6ith officers of &ifferent sections$ :or this nice gest're on their )art, I
sha(( e5er remain o,(ige& to them$
)/&r&t He&12 E*ectric&*3 Li$ite #)HEL% is the (argest engineering an&
man'fact'ring enter)rise in In&ia in the an& infrastr'ct're sector 6hich
inc('&es !o6er, Rai(6ays, Te(ecom, Transmission an& 9istri,'tion, Oi( an& +as
sectors an& many more$ These sectors ha5e ,een s'))(ie& 6ith en&(ess n'm,er of
e;'i)ment man'fact're& ,y 0HEL$
0HEL 6as esta,(ishe& more than ?3 years ago, 'shering in the in&igeno's Hea5y
E(ectrica( E;'i)ment in&'stry in In&ia$ The com)any has ,een earning )rofits
contin'o's(y since /@A/.A1 an& )aying &i5i&en&s since /@A2.AA$It is one of In&iaBs
nine (argest !',(ic Sector "n&erta-ings or !S"s, -no6n as the 7Maha."avratnasC or
Bthe nine *e6e(sB$
0HEL man'fact'res o5er /D3 )ro&'cts 'n&er E3 ma*or )ro&'ct gro')s an& caters to
core sectors of the In&ian Economy 5i<$, !o6er +eneration > Transmission, In&'stry,
Trans)ortation, Te(ecomm'nication, Rene6a,(e Energy, etc$ The 6i&e net6or- of
0HELBs /4 man'fact'ring &i5isions, fo'r !o6er Sector regiona( centers, o5er /33
)ro*ect sites, eight ser5ice centers an& /D regiona( offices, ena,(es the Com)any to
)rom)t(y ser5e its c'stomers an& )ro5i&e them 6ith s'ita,(e )ro&'cts, systems an&
ser5ices .. efficient(y an& at com)etiti5e )rices$ The high (e5e( of ;'a(ity > re(ia,i(ity
of its )ro&'cts is &'e to the em)hasis on &esign, engineering an& man'fact'ring to
internationa( stan&ar&s ,y ac;'iring an& a&a)ting some of the ,est techno(ogies from
(ea&ing com)anies in the 6or(&, together 6ith techno(ogies &e5e(o)e& in its o6n R>9
As an engineering cong(omerate, 0HEL offers o5er a 6i&e s)ectr'm of )ro&'cts an&
ser5ices for core sectors inc('&ing )o6er generation, transmission an& &istri,'tionF
trans)ortationF an& oi( an& gas, as 6e(( as the s'))(y of non.con5entiona( energy
O5er 2? )ercent of )o6er generate& in In&ia comes from 0HEL.s'))(ie& e;'i)ment$
O5era(( it has insta((e& )o6er e;'i)ment for o5er @3,333 MW$
)HEL )/o0&*
He&12 E*ectric&* P*&'t, )/o0&* is the mother )(ant of 0harat Hea5y E(ectrica(s Limite&, the
(argest engineering an& man'fact'ring enter)rise in In&ia in the an&
infrastr'ct're sector, to&ay$ It is (ocate& at a,o't A -ms from 0ho)a( Rai(6ay station, a,o't ?
-ms from Ha,i,gan* Rai(6ay station an& a,o't /D -ms :rom Ra*a 0ho* Air)ort$ With
technica( assistance from Associate& E(ectrica(s #In&ia% Lt&$, a "K ,ase& com)anyF it came
into e8istence on 1@th of A'g'st, /@?2$ !t$ a6ahar(a( Nehr', first !rime minister of In&ia
&e&icate& this )(ant to the nation on 2th of No5em,er, /@23$
0HEL, 0ho)a( 6ith faci(ities, man'fact'res 6i&e range of e(ectrica(
e;'i)ment$ Its )ro&'ct range inc('&es Hy&ro, Steam, Marine > N'c(ear T'r,ines, Heat
E8changers, Hy&ro > T'r,o +enerators, Transformers, an& S6itchgears, Contro( gears,
Trans)ortation E;'i)ment, Ca)acitors, 0'shings, E(ectrica( Motors, Rectifiers, Oi( 9ri((ing
Rig E;'i)ment an& 9iese( +enerating sets$
0HEL, 0ho)a( certifie& to ISOG @33/, ISO /433/ an& OHSAS /D33/, is mo5ing to6ar&s
e8ce((ence ,y a&o)ting THM as )er E:HM I CII mo&e( of 0'siness E8ce((ence$ Heat
E8changer 9i5ision is accre&ite& 6ith ASME J"K Stam)$ With the s(ogan of 7 Ka&am -a&am
mi(ana hai, graha- safa( ,anana haiC, it is committe& to the c'stomers$
0HEL 0ho)a( has its o6n La,oratories for materia( testing an& instr'ment ca(i,ration 6hich
are accre&ite& 6ith ISO /A31? ,y NA0L$ The Hy&ro La,oratory, "(tra High Vo(tage
(a,oratory an& Centre for E(ectric Trans)ortation are the on(y (a,oratories of are 'se& in
in&'stries &ea(ing in 5ario's ty)es of chemica(s$ 0HEL is man'fact'ring &ifferent ty)es of
she(( an& t',e ty)e heat e8changers for in&'stries (i-e Refineries, !etrochemica(s an&
:erti(i<ers, etc$
0HEL 0ho)a(Bs strength is its em)(oyees$ The com)any contin'o's(y in5ests in H'man
Reso'rces an& )ays 'tmost attention to their nee&s$
9ifferent ty)es of )ro&'cts are man'fact're& here &e)en&ing )rimari(y on the
'ti(i<ation of it$ Some of the im)ortant mechanica( )ro&'cts ,eing man'fact're&
here areG
Power Utiliatio!
AC Motors >A(ternators
Trans)ortation E;'i)ment
Power Ge!eratio!
Hy&ro T'r,ines Hy&ro
+enerators Heat
E8changers E8citation
Contro( E;'i)ment Steam
Oi( Rigs :a,rication
Power Tra!smissio!
Transformer S6itchgear On.
Loa& Ta) Changer Large
C'rrent Rectifiers Contro( >
Re(ay !ane(s
Re!ovatio! $
Th*052- P%.*0 St2t"%&$
+enerator is a &e5ice that con5erts mechanica( energy to e(ectrica( energy$ A generator
forces e(ectric c'rrent to f(o6 thro'gh an e8terna( circ'it$ The so'rce of mechanica(
energy may ,e a reci)rocating or t'r,ine steam engine, 6ater fa((ing thro'gh a t'r,ine
or 6ater6hee(, an interna( com,'stion engine, a 6in& t'r,ine, a han& cran-,
com)resse& air, or any other so'rce of mechanica( energy$ +enerators )ro5i&e near(y
a(( of the )o6er for e(ectric )o6er gri&s$
Accor&ing to :ara&ayKs (a6, 6hen there is a re(ati5e motion ,et6een the con&'ction
an& the magnetic fie(& then an emf is in&'ce& in the con&'ctor$ The 5a('e of the
5o(tage generate& &e)en&s on .
the n'm,er of t'rns in the coi(
strength of the fie(&
the s)ee& at 6hich the coi( or magnetic fie(& rotates
The (ara&a)*s law is the "ri!#i"le whi#h +over!s the
worki!+ o, a H)&ro Ge!erator.
Me#ha!i#al -o!stru#tio!
The main )art of a hy&ro generator are .
To) an& ,ottom ,rac-et
St&tor Fr&$e
The stator frame is &esigne& for rigi&ity an& strength to a((o6 it to s'))ort the
c(am)ing forces nee&e& to retain the stator )'nching in the correct core geometry$ The
stator frame is of fa,ricate& str'ct're a&e;'ate(y &esigne& to )re5ent &istortion &'ring
(ifting, trans)ort or any a,norma( o)erating con&ition of the generator$ It 's'a((y s)(it
into a s'ita,(e no$ of sections &e)en&ing on trans)ort (imitation$ The frame is )ro5i&e&
6ith feet to rest on the so(e )(ates 6hich are gro'te& into the concrete fo'n&ation 6ith
the he() of fo'n&ation ,o(ts$
St&tor core
The stator core consist of (aminate& segment a( 5arnishe& )'nchings ma&e from (o6
(oss magnetic sheet c(am)e& ,et6een stee( en& )(ates an& ra&ia( fingers sec're(y
6e(&e& to the en& )(ates$ The c(am)ing )ress're is a))(ie& an& maintaine& ,y st'&s
)assing a(ong the ,ac- of the core an& fitte& 6ith the n'ts at each en&$ To a((o6 free
circ'(ation of air for coo(ing )'r)oses, 5enti(ation &'cts are )ro5i&e& at inter5a(s a(ong
the (ength of the stator core, these are forme& ,y non.magnetic stee( s)acer ,eams
sec're(y 6e(&e& to a&*acent stam)ings$
The com)(ete& core assem,(y is teste& for static core (oss an& satisfactory noise (e5e(
,efore f'rther assem,(y if coi(s$
The 6in&ing forms one of the most e8)ensi5e com)onent of any machine ,eca'se of
the co))er an& ins'(ation 'se&$ The ins'(ation 5aries in ty)es #&e)en&ing ')on the
ma8im'm o)erationa( tem)erat're%
The stator 6in&ing is of &o',(e (ayer ty)e em)(oying either a sing(e t'rn ,ar or a m'(ti
t'rn &iamon& )'((e& coi($ The 6in&ing connections may ,e if (a) or 6a5e 6o'n&
6hich is chosen accor&ing to the ,est )ossi,(e &esign arrangement$ Each coi( #or ,ar%
is ma&e from a no$ of stran&s of g(ass ,rai&e& or (a))e& co))er of rectang'(ar cross
section to minimi<e e&&y c'rrent (osses$
-i'i'( I'3u*&tio'
Stator 6in&ing em)(oys thermosetting ty)e 7Resif(e8C ins'(ation system s'ita,(e for
o)eration ') to C(ass : tem)erat'res #ma8im'm hot s)ot tem)erat're /??MC%$ Resin
rich e)o8y ,on&e& g(ass ,ac-e& ,y mica )a)er is 'se& as s(ot ins'(ation an& a f'((y
c're& ,'t f(e8i,(e synthetic resin ,on&e& g(ass an& me(ine8 ,ac-e& mica f(a-e ta)e is
'se& as en& 6in&ing ins'(ation$ The s(ot )ortion is conso(i&ate& an& c're& 'n&er
)ress're an& tem)erat're to ens're com)(ete e(imination of 5oi&s$
Th* +%"-$9 320$ 20* +h*+7*! ,%0 !"5*&$"%&2- 2++602+4 t% *&$60*
+%00*+t 2$$*53-4 %, ."&!"&/ "& $t2t%0 +%0* (%510*h*&$"#* t*$t"&/ %,
"&!"#"!62- +%"-$9320 "$ 2 120t %, :62-"t4 +%&t0%- 10%/0255*

Rotor S/&4t &' t/ru3t 5*oc+
The shaft is forge& from high ;'a(ity me&i'm car,on stee( an& is acc'rate(y machine&
to ga'ge$ The shaft has smooth ,ore& ho(es thro'gh its centre for ins)ection )'r)oses$
It may a(so ,e 'se& for )assing connecting t',es in Ka)(an t'r,ine or for a&mitting air
in :rancis t'r,ine$
The shaft may ha5e an integra((y forge& thr'st ,(oc- or a se)arate(y forge& thr'st
,(oc- attache& to it &e)en&ing ')on the ,earing arrangement se(ecte&$ An integra((y
forge& ha(f co')(ing is )ro5i&e& at the ,ottom of the shaft for connecting to
corres)on&ing ha(f co')(ing on the t'r,ine shaft$
The rotor s)i&er is of fa,ricate& constr'ction 6ith arms ra&iating from a centra( h',,
forme& ,y t6o thic- f(anges, se)arate& ,y a thic- 6a((e& cy(in&er$ The &ri5ing tor;'e
is transmitte& from the shaft to the s)i&er ,y ra&ia( -eys or 5ertica( &o6e(s$ Hea5y
stee( ,ars are 6e(&e& to the o'ter en& of the s)i&er arms to s'))ort the rotor rim$ The
s)i&er is s)ecia((y strengthene& at the (o6er en& of the o'ter )eri)hery to carry the
6eight of the rim, )o(es an& the ,ra-e trac-$
The rim is ,'i(t ') from high tensi(e sheet stee( (amination, ha5ing T sha)e& s(ots on
the o'ter )eri)hery for (ocating the )o(es$ The (aminations are )'nche& in the
segments co5ering t6o )o(e )itches an& s'ccessi5e (ayers o5er(a))e& to gi5e a&e;'ate
strength to the com)(ete& rim$ The assem,(e& (aminations are c(am)e& ,et6een hea5y
stee( en& )(ates ,y a (arge no$ of fine c(earance ,o(ts$
Rim assem,(y
The )o(es are a(so ma&e ') from high tensi(e stee( sheet (aminations an& c(am)e&
,et6een hea5y stee( en& )(ates ,y a (arge no$ of ,o(ts$ 0oth the )'nching an& en&
)(ates ha5e one or more T. sha)e& or &o5etai(s )ro*ections 6hich 6o'(& engage 6ith
the corres)on&ing s(ots in the rotor rim$ Each )o(e is firm(y sec're& ,y means of a )air
of ta)er -ey$ The )o(e )rofi(e is circ'(ar, the ra&i's of the )rofi(e ,eing chosen so as to
ens're a s'ita,(e gra&ing of the air ga)$
Fie* 6i'i'(
Win&ings ,eing one of the most e8)ensi5e com)onent of the machine, s)ecia(
attention is gi5en to fa,rication of it$ Resif(e8 ins'(ation system is 'se& for the
ins'(ation of 6in&ing$ The fie(& coi(s are s;'are en&e& ,eing fa,ricate& from straight
(ength of co))er stra), &o5etai(e& an& si(5er ,ra<e& at en&s$ At inter5a(s &o6n each
coi(, the co))er is increase& in 6i&th to gi5e fins for coo(ing )'r)oses$
To0 )r&c+et
The ,rac-ets are of fa,ricate& stee( str'ct're$ The to) ,rac-et s'))orts the stationary
)arts of thr'st ,earing, to) g'i&e ,earing, f(ooring etc$ It consists of the ,earing
ho'sing, s'))orte& on s)(it arms mo'nte& on to) of the stator frame$ ac-ing scre6s
are )ro5i&e& for a&*'sting the ,rac-et &'ring (e5e(ing > centering$ The ,rac-et is
&esigne& to s'))ort the com)(ete thr'st.,earing (oa&
of the machine, inc('&ing hy&ra'(ic thr'st$ Thr'st ,earing ho'sing )ro5i&es
a co5er to the thr'st ,earing > s'))orts the 5a)o'r sea(, ,r'sh gear casing
> to) &ome$

To) 0rac-et Assem,(y
)otto$ )r&c+et
The ,ottom ,rac-et is of a fa,ricate& stee( str'ct're an& consists of the ,earing ho'sing s'))orte&
integra( arms$ It s'))orts the stationary )arts of ,ottom g'i&e ,earing$ An oi( 5a)o'r sea( an& the
,ra-eI*ac- 'nits are a(so mo'nte& on the ,ottom
,rac-et$ The ,rac-et is &esigne& to s'))ort the com)(ete rotor 6eight$
The ,rac-et arms rest on so(e )(ates an& shims are )ro5i&e&
for (e5e(ing )'r)ose$ ac-ing scre6s are )ro5i&e& for 'se
in (e5e(ing an& centering the 6ho(e ,rac-et$ Sheet stee(
co5ers ,o(te& to the 'n&ersi&e of the ,rac-et sea( the
machine enc(os're from the t'r,ine )it$
The ,rac-et is &esigne& s'ch that it can ,e (ifte& o't
thro'gh the stator ,ore$
Thr'st ,earing an& g'i&e ,earing are 'se&$ The constr'ction &etai(s of 6hich is gi5en
T/ru3t 5e&ri'(
Thr'st ,earing (oa&ing$ The thr'st ,earing in the generator is the most im)ortant
,earing e(ement in the generator.t'r,ine assem,(y as it carries not on(y the 6eight of
the rotating generator )arts, ,'t the 6eight of the t'r,ine shaft an& t'r,ine r'nner, in
a&&ition to the hy&ra'(ic thr'st on the r'nner$ The a((o6a,(e hy&ra'(ic thr'st )ro5i&e&
in stan&ar& generator &esign is satisfactory for 'se 6ith a :rancis r'nner, ,'t a Ka)(an
r'nner re;'ires )ro5ision for higher.than.norma( thr'st (oa&s $
The thr'st ,earing is of t6o ty)e
S)ring s'))orte& ty)e. the thr'st )a& segments are of stress re(i5e& mi(& stee( an&
are face& 6ith a high ;'a(ity 6hite meta($ Each segment rests on a n'm,er of s)rings
6hich are ) an& )ermanent(y (oc-e& to a stan&ar& o5era(( (ength$
A&*'sta,(e shoe ty)e. the thr'st ,earing of the )i5ote& a&*'sta,(e )a& ty)e is se(f.
(',ricate& an& immerse& in an oi(.,ath $
Guie 5e&ri'(
A g'i&e ,earing is 's'a((y )ro5i&e& a&*acent to the thr'st ,earing an& is (',ricate& ,y
the oi( in the thr'st ,earing )ot$ $The g'i&e ,earing is of )i5ote& )a& ty)e consisting of
a ro6 of 6hite meta( )a& arrange& to ,e mo'nte& on a s'))ort ring$ The g'i&e )a&s
ha5e a ,earing on a *o'rna( s'rface machine& on the )eri)hery of the thr'st co((ar$ A
)i5ot ,ar is (ocate& at the ,ac- of each g'i&e ,earing )a& to roc- s(ight(y to ta-e ') a
s'ita,(e )osition an& to faci(itate the formation of oi( fi(m 6hen r'nning$
In 5ertica( shaft hy&ro generators, 4 6e(( recogni<e& arrangements as &isc'sse&
,e(o6 are 's'a((y a&o)te&$
Su30e'e T20e (To0 T/ru3t )e&ri'() Arr&'(e$e't
In this arrangement, the thr'st an& one g'i&e ,earing are a,o5e the rotor an& one
g'i&e ,earing ,e(o6 it$ The thr'st ,earing ,rac-et s)ans across the stator in this
arrangement$ The thr'st ,earing coo(ers are more rea&i(y accessi,(e$ This arrangement
res'(ts in ta((er machines an& 6here the stator &iameter is (arger, the thr'st ,earing
,rac-et ,ecomes massi5e$ 0earings are ins'(ate& against circ'(ating shaft c'rrents$
This arrangement is 'se& for higher s)ee& 'nits 6here stator > rotor &iameter are
S/ort Cou0*e T20e Arr&'(e$e't
This is simi(ar to s's)en&e& rotor arrgt$ e8ce)t that the ,ottom g'i&e ,earing is
omitte&$ It is sometimes )ossi,(e to e8tent t'r,ine shaft right ') to the generator rotor$
This arrgt$ is norma((y a&o)te& for sma(( high s)ee& machines$
U$5re**& Arr&'(e$e't
In this arrangement, one g'i&e > thr'st ,earing is ,e(o6 the rotor an& there is no
g'i&e ,earing at the to) of the rotor$
This ty)e of constr'ction is 's'a((y )referre& 6here e5er )ossi,(e on acco'nt of its
sim)(icity an& economy$ It is )ractica,(e to ha5e this arrangement for generators 6ith
(arge &iameter an& short core (ength #s(o6 s)ee& machines%$ S'ch ty)e rotor is more
sta,(e 6hi(e re5o(5ing than one 6ith a sma(( &iameter an& (ong core$
Se$i U$5re**& Arr&'(e$e't
In this arrgt$ the thr'st ,earing is )ro5i&e& ,e(o6 the rotor$ There is one g'i&e ,earing
a,o5e > one ,e(o6 the rotor$ The thr'st ,earing ho'sing has to s)an sma((er )it, the
&imensions of 6hich are &eci&e& ,y the (argest t'r,ine com)onent 6hich has to ,e
(o6ere& into the )it$
The arrangement is norma((y a&o)te& for the machines 6here 'm,re((a arrangement
cannot ,e a&o)te& an& s's)en&e& rotor arrangement is 'neconomica($
or F*26/ee* E44ect
The f(y6hee( effect #+9
% of a machine is e8)resse& as the mass of the rotating )arts
m'(ti)(ie& ,y the s;'are of the ra&i's of gyration$ The +9
of the generator can ,e
increase& ,y a&&ing 6eight in the rim of the rotor or ,y increasing the rotor &iameter$
Increasing the +9
increases the generator cost, si<e, an& 6eight, an& (o6ers the
efficiency$ The nee& for a,o5e.norma( +9
sho'(& ,e ana(yse& from t6o stan&)oints,
the effect on )o6er system sta,i(ity, an& the effect on s)ee& reg'(ation of the 'nit$
Nee 4or G.

E(ectrica( system sta,i(ity consi&erations may in s)ecia( cases re;'ire a high +9N for
s)ee& reg'(ation$ As +9N is on(y one of se5era( a&*'sta,(e factors affecting system
sta,i(ity, a(( factors in the system &esign sho'(& ,e consi&ere& in arri5ing at the
minim'm o5era(( cost$ S'fficient +9N m'st ,e )ro5i&e& to )re5ent h'nting an& affor&
sta,i(ity in o)eration 'n&er s'&&en (oa& changes$
Losses in a generator a))ear as heat 6hich is &issi)ate& thro'gh ra&iation an&
5enti(ation$ The generator rotor is norma((y constr'cte& to f'nction as an a8ia( f(o6
,(o6er, or is e;'i))e& 6ith fan ,(a&es, to circ'(ate air thro'gh the 6in&ings$ Sma((.
an& mo&<e generators may ,e )artia((y enc(ose&, an& heate& generator air is
&ischarge& into the generator ha((, or &'cte& to the o'tsi&e$ Larger machines are
enc(ose& in an air ho'sing 6ith airI6ater heat e8changers to remo5e heat (osses$
Water.coo(e& heat e8changers 'se& in a recirc'(ate& air coo(ing system consist of
gro')s of thin.6a((e& finne& t',es 6ith a))ro)riate 6ater ,o8es, 5a(5es, an& hea&ers$
The 6ater s'))(y (ine to the air coo(ers sho'(& ,e se)arate from the 6ater (ine to
the thr'st.,earing coo(er$ It may )ro5e &esira,(e to mo&'(ate the 6ater f(o6 to the air
coo(ers to contro( the generator tem)erat're, or to sh't it off entire(y 6hen the 'nit is
,eing sto))e&$ It is &esira,(e to -ee) a f'(( f(o6 of 6ater thro'gh the thr'st ,earing oi(
coo(er 6hene5er the 'nit is t'rning$
The c'stomer 's'a((y &ra6s s)ecification of )erformance #consisting of
geogra)hica( con&itions, hy&ra'(ic )arameters, etc% ,ase& on 6hich hy&ro
e(ectric generators are &esigne&
These cannot ,e trans)orte& to site in sing(e )iece an& hence the machines are
,ase& on -noc- &o6n techno(ogy an& are sent in the form of (oose items 6hich
are assem,(e& at site to create a generator
The main &ata re;'ire& ,y &esign engineer for &esigning a machine are -VA,
)o6er factor, (ine 5o(tage, fre;'ency, n'm,er of )hases, (imits of tem)erat're
rise of 6in&ings an& core, rate& s)ee&, o5er s)ee& on thro6ing off f'(( (oa&
6ith the go5ernor ,ecoming ino)erati5e an& the f(y6hee( effect re;'ire& to
ens're satisfactory s)ee& reg'(ation of hy&ra'(ic t'r,ine$
Te'eri'( Proce33
o 0HEL ,asica((y (oo-s for E > M )ac-ages )ro*ects$
o The 5ario's com)anies a&5ertises thro'gh ne6s)a)ers an& internet for their
o In 9e(hi Cor)orate Office, there is Hy&ro Mar-eting 9i5ision 6hose f'nction
Is to (oo- for these a&5ertisements an& a(so &ea( 6ith the c'stomer thro'gho't$
o Then these &etai(s are sent to HSS #Hy&ro Sa(es an& Ser5ices% at 0HEL.
0ho)a($ It has t6o f'nctions G.
I$ To esta,(ish a (in- ,et6een 9e(hi Cor)orate office an& H+E 9e)tt$
II$ It a(so &ea(s 6ith c'stomers for )ayment an& a(( 6hen )ro*ect e8ec'tion
ta-es )(ace$
o A(( the com)anies )artici)ating in the ,i& are gi5en a &etai(e& &oc'ment ,y
c'stomer -no6n as ten&er &oc'ment 6hich consists of c'stomerKs &eman&s
an& s)ecifications
o In the ten&ering section of H+E, a &etai(e& st'&y of this &oc'ment is carrie&
o't an& a s'mmary is )re)are& containing im)ortant )oints so that at the time
of &isc'ssion, a(( ;'eries can ,e c(eare& 6ith c'stomer$ This &isc'ssion is
ca((e& )re.,i& meeting$
o At &isc'ssions a(( com)anies )artici)ate, ;'eries are c(eare& an& after this the
c'stomer stan&ar&i<es or ma-es changes as a stan&ar& for a(( com)anies
accor&ing to its s'ita,i(ity$
o Then the fina( re)ort 6ith a(( the technica( an& financia( as)ects inc('&e& is sent
to the c'stomer thro'gh HSS ,efore the fina( &ate for ,i&$
o At ,i& the com)any 6hich meets a(( the technica( s)ecifications re;'ire& 6ith
high efficiency an& (o6est )rice is chosen for the )ro*ect$
o When the com)any gets the fina( offer, it e8ec'tes the fina( &esigning of each
com)onent, man'fact'ring, erection, assem,(y an& commission$
Co'c*u3io'&r2 Re$&r+
It is sai& that -no6ing the game is one thing an& )(aying the same is another$ On the
fie(& it is the a))(ication of the -no6(e&ge that 6i(( gi5e fr'itf'( res'(t$ It is on the
fie(& that 6e came to -no6 ho6 6e(( 6e can )(ay the game$ Engineering in the same
6ay re;'ires the )ractica( a))(ication of the ,oo-ish -no6(e&ge 6e ha5e$ The fo'r
6ee-s of internshi) that I ha& at 0HEL 0ho)a( gi5es me an o))ort'nity to see things
as they ha))ens in the engineering 'n(i-e in ,oo-s 6here t6o )('s t6o is a(6ays 4$
BHEL M2&62-$
D2"-4 D"204