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Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ ---¨¡Ÿ-véπ¢√®Ωç 27 -----ï-†-´-J 2006 Vipula: Hi Klupta, what's new? °j Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™ must ¢√úÕ† Ææçü¿-®√s¥©’
Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛
---¨¡Ÿ-véπ¢√®Ωç 27 -----ï-†-´-J 2006
Vipula: Hi Klupta, what's new?
°j Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™ must ¢√úÕ† Ææçü¿-®√s¥©’ îª÷úøçúÕ
(àçöÀ N¨Ï-≥ƒ©’?– ÉC É°æ¤púø’ ¶«í¬ ¢√úø’-éπ-
™éÀ ´Ææ’h†o °æ©-éπ-Jç°æ¤ ´÷ô)
1) The application must be in the candidate's
own handwriting = Ææyü¿-Ææ÷h-J™ Öçú≈L
Klupta: O nothing. Just getting on.
2) No column must be blank =
(àç ™‰´¤. àüÓ Å™« ïJ-T-§Ú-ûÓçC)
ë«Sí¬ Öçúø-èπÿ-úøü¿’.
Vipula: Is your application for the job ready?
èπ◊
°æ秃-Lq† Application Æœü¿l¥ç
(job
î˨»¢√?/ ready í¬ Öçü∆?)
3) We must write = ´’†ç ®√ߪ÷L.
4) You must enclose = ïûª-°æ-®√aL.
5) must reach = îË®√L.
Klupta: What's
the hurry, Vipula?
We have
´’†™
î√-™« ´’çCéÀ
ûÁ©’Ææ’
must Åçõ‰
plenty of time, haven't we?
ûª°æpEÆæJÅE.
(àçöÀ
ûÌçü¿®Ω? é¬-¢√-Lq-†çûª time ÖçC,
™
9
éπ™«x Öçú≈L.
àN’öÀ
Karthik: ´’†ç
lab
éπü∆? Plenty of = î√™«)
Ç©Ææuç? úø•’s ready í¬ØË ÖçC-éπü∆?
Police Officer: Even if the Governor comes,
you must close shop by 10.30.
Don't forget.
Vipula: What are you talking? Only four days
are left, you know. You must hurry.
Must be - be form = Öçú≈L;
Must + 1st RDW - Action word (Must go, must
write, etc,) = ¢Á∞«xL, ®√ߪ÷L, etc.)
éÀçü¿öÀ Lesson ™ have to/ has to, should èπ◊
á´-®Ω÷-™‰®Ω’.
´÷
Å´’t ´îËa-ü∆é¬
Sravan: Éçöx
É°æ¤púø’
Ñ
*†o game practice îËߪ’çúÕ.
Çí¬L ؈’. ûª†’ ´îËaü∆é¬ Öçúø-´’E ´’K
(àçöÀ ´÷ö«x-úø’-ûª’-Ø√o´¤?
®ÓV™‰í¬ ÖçC?ûªy®Ω-°æ-ú≈L)
left = N’T-LçC
Ééπ
Ø√©’í∫’
í∫öÀdí¬ îÁ°œpçC.
Karthik: ´’-†ç 9 éπ™«x lab ™ Öçú≈L,
؈’ ¢Á∞¡xØ√?
Infinitive Åçõ‰ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éπü∆– Éçûª-èπ◊-´·çü¿’ les-
sons ™ N´-Jçî√ç–
to + Ist Regular Doing
éπ*a-ûªçí¬.
Word. eg: to go, to come, to know, etc, OöÀE
Klupta: Dad's going to fill it in tonight and it will
be ready by tomorrow afternoon.
must èπÿ î√-™« ü¿í∫_®Ω Ææç•çüµ¿ç ÖçC – Å®Ωnç™,
Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í∫ç™. °j Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™ N°æ¤© must †’
E•ç-üµ¿-†©’, Åçõ‰ ûª°æp-E-Ææ-Jí¬ Öçú≈-Lq-†O (must
be) / îËߪ÷-Lq-†O (must + 1st RDW) ¢√úøôç
í∫´’-Eç-î√®Ω’ éπü∆. éÀçCN èπÿú≈ îª÷úøçúÕ.
Sravan: Åçûª
-éπç-í¬-È®ç-ü¿’èπ◊? °æéπ\ØË ÖØ√oúø’í¬
ÅPyE. ¢√úÕ bike O’ü¿ ¢Á∞«lç.
´‚úø’ Nüµ∆-©’í¬ ¢√úøû√ç.
1) ¢Á∞¡xôç, ®√´ôç, ûÁ-L-ߪ’ôç/ ûÁ©’Ææ’-éÓ-´ôç, ÅØË
Å®ΩnçûÓ.
(´÷ Ø√†o É¢√∞¡ ®√vA application °æ‹Jh
b)
To go now will be the right thing
a)
îË≤ƒh®Ω’. Í®°æ¤ ´’üµ∆u-£æ…o-E-éπ™«x
Öçô’çC.)
ready í¬
Voters must show their ID cards to the polling
Officers =
Voters polling officers èπ◊ ûª´’ í∫’Jhç°æ¤ cards
(ID cards = Identity cards) îª÷§ƒL. (E•ç-üµ¿†)
police officer: É°æ¤púø’ time áçûª?
Shopkeeper: 10.30 ü∆öÀçC.
Police officer: 10.30 éπ™«x shop ´‚ÂÆ-ߪ÷u-©E
É°æ¤púø’ ¢Á∞¡xôç ÆæÈ®jç-Cí¬ Öçô’çC.
2) ¢Á∞«x-©E, ®√¢√-©E, ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-¢√-©E ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ
I want to go = ¢Á∞«x-©E ņ’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o†’.
3) ¢Á∞¡x-ö«-EéÀ, ®√´-ö«-EéÀ, ûÁ-L-ߪ’-ö«-EéÀ ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ
--ûÁ-L-ߪ’-ü∆? ´‚ÂÆ-ߪ÷u-L- O’-J-°æ¤púø’.
b)
Students must get their own geometry box to
a) He is getting ready to go
the exam = °æK-éπ~èπ◊
Nü∆u-®Ω’n©’
¢√∞¡x
≤Òçûª
Shopkeeper: •ßª’ô showcase ÖçC. ü∆Eo
¢Á∞¡x-ö«-EéÀ ûªßª÷-®Ω-´¤-ûª’-Ø√oúø’
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù
-™°æ©Â°ö«dL.
103
Geometry box ûÁa-éÓ-¢√L. (E•ç-üµ¿†)
she is going out to buy a book
É°æ¤púø’ game. É™«çöÀ
°æ¤Ææhéπç é̆-ö«-EéÀ ¢Á∞hçC.
infinitives Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç*
sentences form îËߪ’ôç – áEo îËߪ’-í∫-L-TûË ÅEo,
You must finish the work
áEo varieties Å®·ûË ÅEo – statements &
questions, negative sentences (no/ not/
never ûÓ, O©-®·ûË dialogue form ™.
eg:
1) She wants to sing §ƒú≈-©E ņ’-èπ◊ç-öçC
Varun: When
will
you
Vipula: Klupta, don't talk like a child. Don't you
know that the application must be in the
candidate's own hand writing? It must
be complete in with all particulars. No
column must be blank. If a column does
not apply to us, we must write in it,
Does not apply / Not applicable' No
dashes either.
2) To smoke is not good for health.
Police officer: ؈’ ´’Sx O’ shop 10.30 ûª®√yûª
be
back,
ûÁ®Ω*
Öçúøôç îª÷úø-èπÿ-úøü¿’,
( smoke îËߪ’ôç Ç®Ó-í¬u-EéÀ ´’ç*Cé¬ü¿’)
Kuber?
ûÁL-Æœçü∆?
3) She has came to borrow a book from me
(èπ◊¶‰®˝,
á°æ¤púø’
(Ø√ ü¿í∫_®Ω °æ¤Ææhéπç BÆæ’éÓ-´-ö«-EéÀ ´*açC)
éÌ-†-ú≈-EéÀ
AJ-íÌ-≤ƒh¢˛?)
Shopkeeper: ÉçéÓ
police officer à¢Ó-
4) Where do you want to go now?
´î√a®Ω’.
ÅC é̆ôç °æ‹®Ωh-ßË’u-ü∆é¬
Kuber: Only after 5. Till
then I must be
É°æ¤púø’ áéπ\-úÕéÀ ¢Á∞«x-©E ņ’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o´¤?
shop ûÁJ-* -Öç-îª-´’E Çïc Éî√a®Ω’,
5) Vasanth:
Which college do you want to
M. SURESAN
at office. I must
close the accounts before I leave office.
sir.
Police officer: Governor ´*aØ√ ®√vA 10.30èπ◊
(*†o-°œ-©x™« ´÷ö«x-úøèπ◊. O’
Ø√†o
fill
shop éπõ„d-ߪ÷uL. ´’Ja-§Úèπ◊.
îËߪ’ôç (Eç°æôç) àN’öÀ? Application
ŶµºuJn Ææyü¿-Ææ÷h-JûÓ Öçú≈L. ÅEo N´-®√-©ûÓ
°æ‹Jhí¬ Öçú≈L. à column èπÿú≈ ë«Sí¬
Answers:
a)
Karthik: Are you ready? Shall we start?
join?
Hemanth: I have come to consult you.
Vasanth: To join our college will be the
best.
Hemanth: But to join your college will be
expensive, won't it?
Öçúø-èπÿ-úøü¿’.
´’†èπ◊
´Jhç-îªE column
É™«ç-öÀN Ñ game ™ practice îËߪ’çúÕ.
àüÁj-Ø√ Öçõ‰ Does not apply/ Not appli-
®√ߪ÷L.
èπÿú≈ Öçúø-èπÿ-úøü¿’.)
Candidate (é¬uEf-úÁ-ß˝’ö¸ – é¬u, bank ™ b ™«í¬
é¬u ØÌéÀ\ °æ©’-èπ◊û√ç) = ŶµºuJn particulars (°æöÀ-
èπ◊u-©ñ¸ öÀ ØÌéÀ\ °æ©’-èπ◊û√ç, r silent, *´J ñ¸,
size ™ z ™«í∫) = N´-®√©’. blank = -ë«-S.
™«çöÀN
cable ÅE
Dash ©’
(5 í∫çô© ûª®√yûË. Åçûª-´-®Ωèπ◊ office ™ØË
Öçú≈L. Office ´C-™‰-´·çü¿’, accounts
èπÿú≈ close îËߪ÷L)
Ñ Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™ kuber, must †’ ûª† duties
îÁÊ°pç-ü¿’èπ◊ ¢√úø’-ûª’-Ø√oúø’ éπü∆? (office ™ Öçú≈-
Lq† Æ洒ߪ’ç, îËߪ÷-Lq† °æ†’©’ – É™«çöÀ Nüµ¿’©’/
duties) ÉN must èπ◊ -Ö†o È®çúÓ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷í∫ç –
-v°æ-¨¡o:
†’-´¤y -´’®Ω-*-§Ú-û√-¢Ë-¢Á÷-†-E í∫’®Ω’h -îË-¨»-†’.
Must expresses duties.
Udaya: May I go now Madam? (¢Á-∞Ôx-î√açúŒ?)
Sandhya: No. You must stay here for another
hour; understand? You must finish
the work I have given you and then
only leave.
Sravan: Wait I must pay the fees today. Let me
get the money.
Karthik: Why can't you pay tomorrow?
Sravan: From tomorrow, we must pay a fine of
Rs.10/- per day.
Karthik: We must be at the lab by 9. What's the
delay? You have the money.
Sravan: No one is at home. I must/ have to wait
till mother comes back. She has told
me that I must wait till she is back.
'Lest you should forget that I have
Ñ
¢√éπuç
ÆæÈ®j-†-
reminded you'
üËØ√?Lest ´ÊÆ hshould ®√¢√-L -éπü∆?
Does not apply/ Not applicable = ´Jhç-îªü¿’.
é¬F, not ûÓ é¬F also
No
...
either = 'no' -ûÓ
(™‰ü¿’.
ÉçéÓ
í∫çô Öçú≈L †’Ny-éπ\úø.
¢√úø-èπÿ-úøü¿’. Å™«ç-ô-°æ¤púø’,
No/
not either
ØËE-*a†
°æE
°æ‹JhîËÆœ† ûª®√yûË
¢Á∞«xL
Åçö«ç. Column = 鬩ç = Application ™
†’´¤y. -ûÁ-LÆœçü∆?)
ÅúÕÍí
ÖüËl-Pç-*† ë«S Ææn©ç)
Å稻©’
Åçü¿’èπ◊
´’†ç ®√ߪ’-ö«-EéÀ
Karthik: We must be at the lab at 9. Shall I go?
Sravan: Why are you so worried? Aswini is
here. We can go on his bike.
i) ¢√úÕûÓ Øˆ’ îÁ§ƒpE îÁ°æ¤p Fèπ◊ Ç °æE-îËÆœ °úø-û√úø’.-
ii) †’´¤y Å™« ņ’-èπ◊ç-ö«-´E Ø√èπ◊ ´·çüË ûÁ©’Ææ’.
-O-öÀ-E ÉçTx-≠ˇ™ ᙫ îÁ§ƒpL?
iii) old boy Åçõ‰ close friend ÅØË Å®Ωnç éπÈ®-ÍédØ√?
– ®√ñ¸- π◊-´÷®˝, ü¿Jz
-ï-¢√-•’: 1. †’´¤y ´’Ja-§Ú-û√-¢Ë¢Á÷†E í∫’®Ω’h î˨»†’ –
Ééπ\úø Sandhya ´÷ô©Fo commands/ orders
b)
Police officer: What is the time now?
= Çïc©’.
Åçõ‰
ÇïcL-´y-ö«-EéÀ
èπÿú≈
must
Klupta: I don't know how to fill in properly.
(´’J- Ø√èπ◊ ÆæJí¬ Eç°æôç ®√ü¿’.
Properly = v§ƒ°æ-L = ÆæJí¬_)
¢√úøû√ç.
É°æpöÀ´®Ωèπ◊ ´’†ç ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊†o must uses:
DEéÀ correct English - I have reminded you
lest you (should) forget.
'That I have reminded you; ûª°æ¤p
2. Start early lest you should be late
1) Rules (E•ç-üµ¿-†-©èπ◊) 2) duties (Nüµ¿’-©èπ◊)
Ç©Ææuç é¬èπ◊ç-ú≈ ÖçúËç-ü¿’èπ◊ ûªy®Ωí¬ •ßª’-™‰l®Ω’.
Vipula: Take your dad's help. Remember too
that you must enclose all the certifi-
cates. The application must reach the
office on or before the 31st January.
3) commands/ orders (Çïc-©èπ◊)
3. He carried an umbrella lest he (should) get
drenched
Now practice the following in English:
Shopkeeper: Past 10.30
Police officer: Don't you know that you must
close shop by 10.30? you must
close it now.
Shopkeeper: The showcase is outside. I
must keep it in.
ûªúÕ-Æœ-§Ú-èπ◊çú≈ ÖçúËç-ü¿’èπ◊ íÌúø’í∫’ BÂÆ\-∞«xúø’.
a)
(O’ Ø√†o ≤ƒßª’çûÓ fill îÁß˝’. ÅEo certifi-
cates ïûª-°æ-®√aL. Application, Ç office èπ◊,
31st Jan ™‰ü∆ Åç-ûªèπ◊´·çü¿’í¬-F îË®√L.
Certificate - ÆæöÀ-°∂œ-Èé-ß˝’ö¸
Èé
ØÌéÀ\
°æ©’-èπ◊û√ç)
Klupta: I must hurry up. (Å®·ûË Øˆ’ ûªy®Ω°æ-ú≈L)
Karthik: †’´¤y ready Ø√? •ßª’-™‰l-®Ω’--ü∆´÷?
Sravan: é¬Ææh Çí∫’. ؈’ Ñ®Ó-V °∂‘V-éπ-ö«dL.
Åçü¿’-éπE úø•’s ûÁa-èπ◊ç-ö«†’.
Karthik: Í®°æ¤ éπôd-èπÿ-úøü¿÷?
Sravan: Í®°æöÀ†’ç* ®ÓVèπ◊ Rs 10/- ïJ-´÷† éπö«dLq
Öçô’çC.
Police officer: I must not see the shop open
after 10.30 again; understand?
Shopkeeper: Some other Police Officer came
here to buy something. He
ordered me to keep the shop
open until his purchases are
complete, sir.
(Purchases = é̆’-íÓ©’)
No 1, No 3 sentences ™ should omit îËߪ’-´îª’a.
No. 2 ™ èπÿú≈ should BÊÆÆœ, lest you be late
ņ-´îª’a. Lest = so that not.
i) Tell him it is from me. He will do it.
(It is from me = ؈’ îÁ§ƒp-†E îÁ°æ¤p)
ii) I knew that you would think so.
ņôç
iii) Close friend †’,
old
boy
correct,
Ææ®Ωy-≤ƒ-üµ∆-®Ωùç.
Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ
..
URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm

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