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Bhagyashri R. Pandurangi

a

, Vinay Sangolli

b

, Meenakshi R. Patil

c

a

Dept of Electronics and Communication, Visveshvaraya Technological University

KLS Gogte Institute of Technology,

Udyambag, Belgaum, India-590 008

e-mail:brpandurangi@git.edu

b

Dept of Electronics and Communication, Visvesvaraya Technological University

KLS Gogte Institute of Technology,

Udyambag, Belgaum, India-590 008

e-mail:vinaymsangolli@gmail.com

c

Dept of Electronics and Communication, Visvesvaraya Technological University

AGM rural College of Engineering and Technology,

Varur, Hubli, India-581207

e-mail : meenakashirpatil@gmail.com

Abstract:

In recent years, the chaos based cryptographic algorithms have

suggested some new and efficient ways to develop secure image

encryption techniques. Image encryption based on Chaos

became very popular for cryptography since properties of Chaos

are related to two basic properties of good cipher Confusion and

Diffusion. In this paper, Partial Image Encryption using Chaos

has been proposed. In Partial encryption speed is the main

factor. We decompose the original greyscale image into its

corresponding binary eight bit planes then encrypted using

chaotic map based o n pseudorandom binary number

generator (PRBNG). The four significant bit planes, determined

by the level of significance on contribution of a bit plane in

determination of a pixel value, are encrypted using keys which

are obtained by applying the recurrence relation of chaotic map.

The insignificant bit planes along with encrypted significant bit

planes are combined to form the final cipher image. In order to

evaluate performance, the proposed algorithm was measured

through a series of tests to measure the security and effectiveness

of the proposed algorithm. These tests includes visual test

through histogram analysis, correlation coefficient analysis,

information entropy test, Measurement of Encryption Quality

NPCR, UACI.

I. INTRODUCTION

Due to phenomenal growth in internet, multimedia content

such as image, video and audio can be easily transmitted from

source to destination. This has a huge impact on development

of entertainment, industry, multimedia and e-commerce which

rely on the Internet for their business. Thus, to prevent

corruption of multimedia content from unauthorized user,

security plays a significant role for content protection. In the

past few years, encryption has becoming a major tool for

securing multimedia content such as image, video and audio.

Image encryption is somehow different from text encryption

due to some inherent features of image such as bulk data

capacity and high correlation among pixels, which are

generally difficult to handle by traditional methods [2]. Many

applications like military image databases, confidential video

conferencing, medical imaging system, cable TV, online

personal photograph album, etc. require reliable, fast and

robust security system to store and transmit digital images.

The requirements to fulfill the security needs of digital images

have led to the development of good encryption techniques.

During the last decade, numerous encryption algorithms [1

13] have been proposed in the literature based on different

principles. Among them, chaos based encryption techniques

are considered good for practical use as these techniques

provide a good combination of speed, high security,

complexity, reasonable Computational overheads and

computational power etc. The properties of chaotic systems

including sensitivity to initial conditions, pseudorandom

nature, and non-periodicity, have made them a proper tool for

image encryption. The digital images have certain

characteristics such as: redundancy of data, strong correlation

among adjacent pixels, being less sensitive as compared to the

text data i.e. a tiny change in the attribute of any pixel of the

image does not drastically degrade the quality of the image

and bulk capacity of data etc. Consequently, the traditional

ciphers like IDEA, AES, DES, RSA etc. are not suitable for

real time image encryption as these ciphers require a large

computational time and high computing power. For real time

image encryption only those ciphers are preferable which take

lesser amount of time and at the same time without

compromising security. An encryption scheme which runs

very slowly, even may have higher degree of security features

would be of little practical use for real time processes.

II. RELATED WORKS

A number of chaos based image encryption scheme

havebeen developed in recent years which we discuss in brief

in this paragraph.In 1992, Bourbakis and Alexopoulos [1]

International J ournal of Engineering Associates (ISSN: 2320-0804) #19 / Special Issue -1 (Volume 3)

NC-EMPIRE Conference proceeding 2014 IJ EA. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 19

have proposed an image encryption scheme which utilizes the

SCAN language to encrypt and compress an image

simultaneously. Further,Scharinger [4] designed a chaotic

Kolmogorov-flow-based image encryption technique, in

which whole image is taken as a single block and which is

permuted through a key-controlled chaotic system. In

addition, a shift register pseudo random generator is also

adopted to introduce the confusion in the data. Fridrich [5]

demonstrated the construction of a symmetric block

encryption technique based on two-dimensional standard

baker map.Further, Yen and Guo [6] also proposed an

encryption method called CKBA (Chaotic Key Based

Algorithm) in which a binary sequence as a key is generated

using a chaotic system. The image pixels are rearranged

according to the generated binary sequence and then XORed

and XNORed with the selected key. Yen and Guo [9]

proposed an encryption method called BRIE based on chaotic

logistic map. The basic principle of BRIE is bit recirculation

of pixels, which is controlled by a chaotic pseudo random

binary sequence. The secret key of BRIE consists of two

integers and an initial condition of the logistic map. In [10] the

partial image encryption has been described in two ways using

hill cipher technique. First encryption technique uses two

slightly different keys to construct two self-invertible

matrices, which are used in two different stages to get

partially encrypted image. Second encryption technique use

one key to construct one self-invertible matrix and it is used in

first stage. In second stage same key matrix along with few

modification in diagonal values are used to construct another

self-invertible matrix which leads to partial image encryption.

Later in 2002, Li and Zheng [11] pointed out some defects in

the encryption schemes presented in the references [6,9] and

also discussed some possible improvements on them.

Recently, Li et al. [12] have proposed a video encryption

technique based on multiple digital chaotic systems which is

known as CVES (Chaotic Video Encryption Scheme). In this

scheme, 2n chaotic maps are used to generate pseudorandom

signals to mask the video and to perform pseudorandom

permutation of the masked video. Very recently, Chen et al.

[13] have proposed a symmetric image encryption in which a

two-dimensional chaotic map is generalized to three

dimension for designing a real time secure image encryption

scheme. This approach employs the three-dimensional cat

map to shuffle the positions of the image pixels and uses

another chaotic map to confuse the relationship between the

encrypted and its original image. The characteristics of the

chaotic maps have attracted the attention of cryptographers to

develop new encryption algorithms. As these chaotic maps

have many fundamental properties such as ergodicity, mixing

property and sensitivity to initial condition/system parameter

and which can be considered analogous to some cryptographic

properties of ideal ciphers such as confusion, diffusion,

balance and avalanche property etc.

III. THE PROPOSED IMAGE ENCRYPTION TECHNIQUE

A. Decomposition of planes into bit planes

In a gray-level image, the pixel intensity is quantized into

an integer number of levels ranging from 0 to 255. The value

of the pixel at coordinate (x, y) is denoted as g(x, y).Each

pixel can be decomposed into an 8 bit binary value, given by

g(x,y) = P

8

P

7

P

6

P

5

P

4

P

3

P

2

P

1

The input image can be subdivided into eight binary images

according to bit locations within a pixel.

In Fig 1 Original grayscale image Lena of size 256 256

and Fig 2 shows binary images obtained by collecting all the 8

bits of the plane image pixel is shown.

Fig 1 Plain Image Lena of size 256 256

Fig 2 Bit plane decomposition of grayscale image Lena

(a)bitplane8, (b)bitplane7, (c)bitplane6, (d)bitplane5,

International J ournal of Engineering Associates (ISSN: 2320-0804) #20 / Special Issue -1 (Volume 3)

NC-EMPIRE Conference proceeding 2014 IJ EA. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 20

(e)bitplane4, (f)bitplane3, (g)bitplane2, (h)bitplane1

B. To Determine Significant bit planes

To determine whether a bit-plane is significant or not

considering level critical region at = 0.05 i.e. 5% level of

significance from Table I we consider the first four bit-planes

to be insignificant in terms of their percentage contribution.

Percentage of contribution of different bit positions in the

formation of a pixel of intensity 255 is shown in Table I that

can be derived by the formula as stated in [14]

A bit can carry different amount of information depending

on its position in an 8 bit binary number i.e. if there exists a 1

at the 8th position (MSB) of a 8 bit binary number then its

contribution towards the formation of corresponding decimal

number is 127 where as it contributes only 1 if it is present at

the 1st position (LSB).

TABLE I.

PRERCENTAGE OF CONTRIBUTION IN THE PIXEL

INTENSITY.

Bit position Contribution in the formation of pixel

intensity (Percentage)

1 0.392156

2 0.784313

3 1.568627

4 3.137254

5 6.274509

6 12.546019

7 25.098039

8 50.196083

C. Pseudorandom Binary Number Generator

A Pseudo random bit generator (PRBG) based on two one-

dimensional tent maps proposed by K. K. Sud et al.[16]

running side-by-side and starting from random independent

initial conditions has been used in the literature. The

pseudorandom bit sequence is generated by comparing the

outputs of both the chaotic logistic maps. The pseudo random

bit generator (PRBG) is based on two tent maps stated as

pseudo random bit generator (PRBG) is based on two tent

maps stated as

(x

n

) =

and (2)

(y

n

) =

The bit sequence is generated as shown in (3)

(3)

IV. PROPOSED SCHEME FOR ENCRYPTION AND DECRYPTION

A. Encryption

Step 1: Consider the plain image to be I (x, y) of size M N

where x = 0, 1, 2, M - 1 and y = 0, 1, 2 N - 1.

Step 2: Each pixel value P

i

(x, y) in I (x, y) is decomposed

into its corresponding 8 bit binary equivalent and thus 8 bit-

planes B

i

P

i

(x, y) for all i = 1,2, . . , 8 are formed.

Step 3: Significant bit planes are determined by the level

critical region

Step 4: Keys for diffusing the significant bit planes are

generated using Tent Map based PRNG, with initial values as

x

0

y

0

stated in [15] [16]. These values are iterated M times

i.e. the number of pixels of the original image. The final

iterated values of (x

n + 1

, y

n +

1) for highest significant bit plane

become the initial values (x

0

, y

0

) for generating the next key

and so on.

Step 5: The significant bit planes determined are ciphered by

EXOR-ing the binary equivalent planes with the key as

for j = 1, 2 4

Step 6: Each value is stored after EXOR ing to form the cipher

image shown in Fig 3 The cipher bit planes

and the

unencrypted bit planes B

i

P

i

are combined together to form

cipher image

As C

i

(x, y) =

+ B

k

P

k

for i = 1, 2..8, j = 1, 2.4 and

k = 5, 68

Fig 3. Ciphered significant bit planes.

International J ournal of Engineering Associates (ISSN: 2320-0804) #21 / Special Issue -1 (Volume 3)

NC-EMPIRE Conference proceeding 2014 IJ EA. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 21

B. Decryption

Step 1: Consider the cipher image to be C

a

(x, y) of size M

N where x = 0, 1, 2, M - 1 and y =0,1, 2 N - 1.

Step 2: Each pixel value P

i

(x, y) in C

a

(x, y) is decomposed

into its corresponding 8 bit binary equivalent and thus 8 bit-

planes B

i

P

i

(x, y) for all i = 1,2,. . , 8 are formed.

Step 3: Significant bit planes are determined by the level

critical region.

Step 4: Upon receiving x

0

y

0

the Keys for diffusing the

significant bit planes are generated using Tent Map based

PRNG, with initial values as x

0

y

0

stated in [15] [16].

These values are iterated M times i.e. the number of pixels of

the original image. The final iterated values of (x

n + 1

, y

n +

1)

for highest significant bit plane become the initial values (x

0

,

y

0

) for generating the next key and so on.

Step 5: The significant cipher bit planes, determined by %

level of significance, are deciphered as BP

j

= CBP

j

K

j

for j

= 1, . . ,4.

Step 6: The decipher bit planes BPj and the insignificant bit

planes BP

i

are combined together to form original image

as P

i

(x, y) = BP

j

+ BP

k

for i = 1,2, . . , 8, j = 1, . .4 and k = 5, .

. ,8 where + is used to denote combining process.

V. SECURITY TEST AND ANALYSIS

A good encryption procedure should be robust against all

kinds of cryptanalytic, statistical and brute-force attacks. In

this section, we discuss the security analysis of the proposed

image encryption scheme such as statistical analysis,

sensitivity analysis, key space analysis etc. to prove that the

proposed cryptosystem is secure against the most common

attacks.

A. Statistical analysis

It is well known that many ciphers have been successfully

analyzed with the help of statistical analysis and several

statistical attacks have been devised on them. Therefore, an

ideal cipher should be robust against any statistical attack. To

prove the robustness of the proposed image encryption

procedure, we have performed statistical analysis by

calculating the histograms, the correlations of two adjacent

pixels in the encrypted images and the correlation coefficient

for several images and its corresponding encrypted images.

(a) Histogram analysis: An image-histogram illustrates how

pixels in an image are distributed by graphing the number of

pixels at each color intensity level. In Fig 4 the histogram of

the original image of Lena of size 256 256 and the

histogram of Corresponding Cipher Image has been presented

which depicts that the histogram of plain image has certain

pattern where as that of the Cipher image are uniformly

distributed.

(a)

(b)

Fig 4 Visual Test and Histogram analysis (a) Plain original

image, (b) histogram of original image

(c)

(d)

(c) Encrypted Image, (d) Histogram of encrypted image (d)

International J ournal of Engineering Associates (ISSN: 2320-0804) #22 / Special Issue -1 (Volume 3)

NC-EMPIRE Conference proceeding 2014 IJ EA. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 22

B. Correlation Coefficient Analysis

In most of the plain images, there exists high correlation

among adjacent pixels whereas poor correlation between the

neighbouring pixels of corresponding cipher image is

observed. The correlation of horizontally, vertically and

diagonally adjacent pixels of both the plain and cipher image

are shown in Fig 5.

Fig 5. Horizontal, vertical diagonal pixel distribution of

plain image and encrypted image.

TABLE II.

CORRELATION DO EFFICIENT BETWEEN

HORIZONTAL, VERTICAL, DIAGONAL ADJACENT

PIXELS OF ORIGINAL AND ENCRYPTED IMAGES

Image

Name

Horizontal

Correlation

Vertical

Correlation

Diagonal

Correlation

Plain

Image

Cipher

Image

Plain

Image

Cipher

Image

Plain

Image

Cipher

Image

Lena 0.9453 -0.0012 0.9716 -0.0095 0.9194 0.0078

Jellyfish 0.9669 0.0170 0.9694 0.0150 0.9531 -0.0106

Elaine 0.9707 0.0068 0.9738 0.0198 0.9495 -0.0255

Astronaut 0.9633 0.0039 0.9670 0.0367 0.9419 0.0217

C. Sensitivity analysis

An ideal image encryption procedure should be sensitive

with respect to the secret key i.e. the change of a single bit in

the secret key should produce a different encrypted image. As

an example plain image Lena of size 256 256 is encrypted

with x0 = 0.45001, y0 = 0.54001, 1 = 2 = 1.97. In Fig 6

different cipher images of Lena of size 256 256 with minor

changes in secret keys has been presented.

(a)

(b) (c)

Fig 6 Key sensitivity test (a)Plain Image Lena of size 256

256 (b) Cipher image with chosen key (c) Cipher image with

change in x

0

=

0.45002, y

0

= 0.54002

D. Information Entropy analysis

Entropy is a statistical measure of randomness that can be

used to characterize the texture of an image. It is well known

that the entropy H(s) of a message source s can be calculated

as:

H(s) =

(4)

Where

.

When an image is encrypted, its entropy should ideally be

8. If it is less than this value, there exists a certain degree of

predictability which threatens its security. The entropy of

partially and complete encrypted images are found to be

different by 0.2%

TABLE III.

INFORMATION ENTROPY

Image Name

Information Entropy

Plain Image Cipher Image

Lena 7.44 7.99

Jellyfish 6.35 7.86

Elaine 7.48 7.99

Astronaut 7.44 7.94

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NC-EMPIRE Conference proceeding 2014 IJ EA. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 23

E. Encryption quality NPCR, UACI

Opponent can create a small change in the input image to

observe changes in the result. By this method, the meaningful

relationship between original image and encrypted image can

be found. If one small change in the plain image can cause a

significant change in the cipher-image then the differential

attack actually loses its efficiency and becomes useless. To

test the effect of one-pixel change on the image encrypted by

the proposed algorithm, two common measures were used

Number of Pixel Change Rate (NPCR) and Unified Average

Change in Intensity (UACI) . Consider two cipher-images,

Ca(i, j) and Cc(i , j) where i = 0,1,2, , M - 1 and j = 0,1,2,

, N - 1,whose corresponding plain-images have only one

pixel difference. Then NPCR and UACI are defined as

NPCR=

UACI =

/ 255 100%

TABLE IV.

MEASUREMENT OF ENCRYPTION QUALITY AND

TIME TAKEN

Image Name NPCR UACI Time Elapsed

Lena 99.57 33.48 1.20

Jellyfish 99.52 33.40 1.16

Elaine 99.62 33.37 1.17

Astronaut 99.57 33.46 1.12

VI. CONCLUSION

The proposed algorithm was found to be very fast and

secured which can be applied for real time applications which

have bandwidth and power constraints. This is because it

requires less time to encrypt and decrypt image since they are

partially encrypted. This will also help to improve security

since the intruder does not know which all coefficients are

partially encrypted. Application of chaos theory helps to

achieve complex dynamics. Future scope of this method is to

design an adaptive algorithm to detect the significant bit

planes. Extend the algorithm for videos.

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[2] Sahar Mazloom, Amir-Masud Eftekhari-Moghadam, Color

Image Cryptosystem using Chaotic Maps, in Computational

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International J ournal of Engineering Associates (ISSN: 2320-0804) #24 / Special Issue -1 (Volume 3)

NC-EMPIRE Conference proceeding 2014 IJ EA. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 24

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