# Dynamics1

Document 1103(b): Solutions - Worksheet 1 Vector Calculus
Question 1:
(a)
2
( ) 2 10
( )
velocity ( ) 2 20
( )
acceleration ( ) 0 20 20
r t t t
dr t
v t t
dt
dv t
a t
dt
= +
= = +
= = +
i j
i j
i j = j
(b)
3 2
2
( ) 4 (5 )
( )
( ) 12 (5 2 )
( )
( ) 24 (0 2) 24 2
r t t t t
dr t
v t t t
dt
dv t
a t t t
dt
= − −
= = − −
= = − −
i j
i j
i j = i + j
Question 2:
2
( ) (2 ) (3 ) r t t t i t j = + − +
(i) The particle begins to move when t=0 → r(0) = 0 i –3 j = 3 j i!e "rom position (0#3)

2 2
( )
) ( ) (2 2 )
(0) 2 spee\$ : 2 ( 1) 5
1
%ro&ection: tan 2'!15 333!45
2
dr t
ii v t t
dt
v
or θ θ
= = + −
= − ⇒⇒ + − =

= ⇒ = − ° °
i j
i j
(iii)
2
(2) (2 2 2 ) (3 2) ( 3 r = × + − + = − i j i j
2 2
(2) (2 2 2) '
spee\$: ' ( 1) 3)
1
%ro&ection: tan *!0' 350!54 to the hori+ontal
'
v
or θ θ
= + × − = −
+ − =

= ⇒ = − ° °
i j i j

Question 3
r(t) =
2 3
( 3 2 10) ( 2 ') t t t t − + + + − + + i j
,t time t = 1 sec - r(1) = (3 .2.10 i (1.2.') ! " * i ) !
/elocity v(t) =
2
( )
( ' 2) (3 2)
dr t
t t
dt
= − + + i + j
v(1) = 4 i – !
#a\$nitu%e &
2 2
( 4) ( 1) 1) − + − =
'earin\$ &

1
1
,c0te angle tan 14!04
4
4 is in 3r\$ 10a\$rant
(1(0 14!04) 1*4!04 to the hori+ontal
v θ
θ
⇒ = °
= − − ⇒
⇒ = + ° = °
i j
Question (:

2
2 (30 5 ) r ti t t j = + −
23*)'22))!\$oc %age 3
(a) %oint o" pro&ection is when t = 0
0 0 (0# 0) r i j → = + →
(b) at t = 2 secon\$s

2
2 2
(2) 2 2 (30 2 5 2 ) 4 40
\$istance "rom (0#0) is r(2) 4 ( 40) 1'1' 40!2
r
m
= × + × − × = −
+ − = =
i j i j
=
(c)

( )
( ) 2 (30 10 )
0# (0) 2 30
dr t
v t i t j
dt
At t v v i j
= = + −
= = = +

2 2 2 2
pee\$ at t = 0 is (0) 2 30 *04 30!0) 2 S v x y m s = + = + = = & &

1 1
30
,ngle o" pro&ection is tan tan ('!1*
2
y
x
θ
− −
= = =
o
&
&
(\$ )

2 2 2 2
/elocity at t = 2 is v(2) = 2 (30 10 2) 2 10
pee\$ at t = 2 is (2) 2 (10) 10( 10!1*( 2
=
S v x y m s
+ − × +
= + = + = = & &
i j i j
(e) ,cceleration

2 2
( )
( ) 10
3agnit0\$e ( ) ( 10) 10 2
dv t
a t
dt
a t m s
= = −
= − =
j
(") The time ta4en to hit the gro0n\$:
r(t) = 5(t) i . y(t) ! =
2
2 (30 5 ) r t t t = + − i j
The ob&ect is on the gro0n\$ when y(t) =0

2
30 5 0
30
(30 5 ) 0 0 'secs
5
t t
t t t or t
− =
− = → = = =
6t ta4es ' secon\$s "or the ob&ect to hit the gro0n\$!
(g) the hori)ontal %istance tra*elle% (ran\$e):

This is the 5(t) val0e when t = '
5 = 2 t =25'=12m
(h) the ma+imum hei\$ht reache%:
,t the ma5im0m height the vertical component o" velocity is +ero

( ) 30 10 0 3 y t t t = − = → = &
secon\$s
7eight at this time is
2
( ) 30 5
(3) *0 45 45
y t t t
y m
 = −

= − =

(i) Cartesian ,-uation
23*)'22))!\$oc %age 4

2
2
2
2
( ) 2 (30 )
2
2
30
30( ) ( )
2 2
15
4
r t t t t
x
x t t
y t t
x x
x
y x
= + −
→ = → =
= −
= −
∴ = −
i j
Question .:
(a) ,t t=0# r (0)= 0i . '! = '! i!e! ' metres \$irectly above origin
(b)
( )
( ) 4 10
0# (0) 4
dr t
v t t
dt
At t v
= = −
= =
i j
i
8pee\$ =
(0) 4 2 v m s =
(c) v (0)= 4 i . 0 !

0
tan 0 0
4
θ θ = = → =
o
(\$)
( )
( ) 10 which is constant
dv t
a t
dt
= = − j
Question /:
(a) 0article1

0article 2
The particles colli\$e when the 2 \$isplacement vectors are e10al

2
2
3 (2 3) ( 4) ( 1)
910ate hori+ontal an\$ vertical components:
3 4!!!!!!!( )
2 3 1!!!!!!!!!!!( )
( ) 4 secon\$s
t t t t
t t i
and t t ii
Solving ii t
+ − = − + +
⇒ = −
− = +
⇒ =
i j i j
80bstit0te this val0e bac4 into the 2 \$isplacement vectors to chec4 that the particles are at the
same position at this time
-:hen t = 4

1
2
2
(4) 3 4 (( 3) 12 5
(4) (4 4) (4 1) 12 5
r
r
= × + − = +
= − + +
i j i j
i + j = i j
The particles colli\$e at 4 secon\$s at position (12#5)
23*)'22))!\$oc %age 5
1
( ) 3 (2 3) r t t t = + − i j
2
2
( ) ( 4) ( 1) r t t t = − + + i j
Question 1:
a (t)= (34t) i
2
( ) (3 4 )
(3 2 )
v t t i dt
t t i c
= −
= − +

2nitially t = 0# v(0) = 2i → 2i = 0 . c → c= 2i
2
( ) (3 2 2) v t t t i ∴ = − +
2
2 3
( ) (3 2 2)
3 2
( 2 )
2 3
r t v dt t t i dt
t t
t i c
= = − +
= − + +
∫ ∫
6nitially t=0# r=5i → c=5i
2 3
3 2
( ) ( 2 5)
2 3
t t
r t t i ∴ = − + +
(b) 3he bo%y is at rest 4hen * " 0

2 2
3 2 2 0 2 3 2 0
1
(2 1)( 2) 0 ( ) 2
2
4 (
2 (2) 3 2 2 2 5
2 3
2
*
3
t t t t
t t t impossible or t
When t the position is r
m
− + = → − − =
→ + − = ⇒⇒ = − =
= = × − × + × +
=
Question 5:
(a) ,cceleration
a(t) 2t 3 = − i j

2
/elocity
v(t) = 2t i 3 & \$t
= t i 3t & .c

6nitially at t=0# v(0) = 4 i . ' j → 4 i . ' j =c

2
2
80bstit0te;c;
v(t) = t i 3t& 4i .'&
= (t 4)i .(3t .')&

(b) /elocity is +ero when
2
t ( 0 an% 3t / 0 t 2 secon%s − = − + = ⇒ =
(c)
a(2) 2(2) 3 ( 3 = − = − i j i j

2 2
a ( ( 3) . = + − =
23*)'22))!\$oc %age '
Question 6:
(a)

(b) 3he 7articles colli%e 4hen
P Q
r r =

2
910ate hori+ontal component
2 5 3 1
'
,t t =' the positions are:
(') (2 ' 5) (' ')
1) 30
(') (3 ' 1) 5 '
1) 30
the particles colli\$e at t = ' secon\$s
as they are at the
P
Q
t t
t
r i j
i j
r i j
i j
+ = −
→ =
= × + + −
= +
= × − + ×
= +

same position at the same time
(c )

23*)'22))!\$oc %age )
0article 0
5 = 2t.5

80bstit0te into y

0article Q
5 = 3t –1
80bstit0te into y
2
(2 5) ( ')
P
r t i t j = + + −
0article 0
(3t 1) 5t
Q
r i j = +
0article Q