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Chapter 1

OVERVIEW
Project Context
Information and communication are two of the most important
strategic issues for the success of every enterprise. While
today nearly every organization uses a substantial number of
computers and communication tools (telephones, fax, and personal
handheld devices), they are often still isolated. While managers
today are able to use the newest applications, many departments
still do not communicate and much needed information cannot be
readily accessed.
To overcome these obstacles in an effective usage of
information technology, computer networks are necessary. They
are a new kind (one might call it paradigm) of organization of
computer systems produced by the need to merge computers and
communications. At the same time they are the means to converge
the two areas; the unnecessary distinction between tools to
process and store information and tools to collect and transport
information can disappear. Computer networks can manage to put
down the barriers between information held on several (not only
computer) systems. Only with the help of computer networks can a
borderless communication and information environment be built.
Computer networks allow the user to access remote programs
and remote databases either of the same organization or from
other enterprises or public sources. Computer networks provide
communication possibilities faster than other facilities.
Because of these optimal information and communication
possibilities, computer networks may increase the organizational
learning rate, which many authors declare as the only
fundamental advantage in competition. (ICT Global 2008)
In an article by Mitchell (2010), he defined computer
networking as the practice of linking two or more computing
devices together for the purpose of sharing data. Networks are
built with a mix of computer hardware and computer software.
Networks can be categorized in several different ways. One
approach defines the type of network according to the geographic
area it spans. Local area networks (LANs), for example,
typically span a single home, school, or small office building,
whereas wide area networks (WANs), reach across cities, states,
or even across the world. The Internet is the world's largest
public WAN.
Computer networks also differ in their design. The two
basic forms of network design are called client/server and peer-
to-peer. Client-server networks feature centralized server
computers that store email, Web pages, files and or
applications. On a peer-to-peer network, conversely, all
computers tend to support the same functions. Client-server
networks are much more common in business and peer-to-peer
networks much more common in homes.
Communication languages used by computer devices are called
network protocol. Yet another way to classify computer networks
is by the set of protocols they support. Networks often
implement multiple protocols with each supporting specific
applications. Popular protocols include TCP/IP, the most common
protocol found on the Internet and in home networks. (Mitchell,
2010).
According to Rouse (2006), a given network can also be
characterized by the type of data transmission technology in use
on it (for example, a TCP/IP or Systems Network Architecture
network); by whether it carries voice, data, or both kinds of
signals; by who can use the network (public or private); by the
usual nature of its connections (dial-up or switched, dedicated
or non-switched, or virtual connections); and by the types of
physical links (for example, optical fiber, coaxial cable, and
Unshielded Twisted Pair). Large telephone networks and networks
using their infrastructure (such as the Internet) have sharing
and exchange arrangements with other companies so that larger
networks are created.
As networks become an integral part of everyone's lives,
advanced network management technologies are being developed to
protect data and preserve privacy, especially Internet privacy.
Network management is often a primary concern when building a
network infrastructure.
Network management is the top-level administration and
maintenance of large networks, often in areas such as computers
or telecommunications, but not including user terminal
equipment. It often involves functions such as security,
monitoring, control, allocation, deployment, coordination, and
planning.
Routing, which refers to the process of selecting the paths
in a computer network on which to send data, is an important
area of network management. In this area, logically addressed
packets are passed from their source to their destination
through nodes, which are called routers, in a process called
forwarding. This is usually based on routing tables that
maintain a record of the most efficient routes.
Security management is also a key management component.
This involves protecting a network from unauthorized access and
includes many sub-functions, such as the authorization of
subscriber access, the control of the distribution of
cryptographic keying material, and the distribution and
reporting of security related events.
Configuration management relates to both the security and
quality areas of network management. It refers to the management
of security features in a network by controlling changes made to
the software, hardware, firmware, documentation, and test
features in a system. This area keeps the system under control
as it evolves and grows, maintaining quality and security.
(Kietzman, 2008)
Janssen (2005) explained that the first layer of network
security is enforced through a username/password mechanism,
which only allows access to authenticated users with customized
privileges. When a user is authenticated and granted specific
system access, the configured firewall enforces network
policies, that is, accessible user services.
However, firewalls do not always detect and stop viruses or
harmful malware, which may lead to data loss. An anti-virus
software or an intrusion prevention system (IPS) is implemented
to prevent the virus and/or harmful malware from entering the
network.
Although networks have been used in business environments
for many years, they are becoming increasingly common in homes
as a means of sharing an Internet connection. A computer network
has several different parts, and each serves its own purpose for
example personal computers, servers, networking devices, and
cabling. These components can be grouped into four main
categories: hosts, shared peripherals networking devices,
networking media.
The network components that people are most familiar with
are hosts and shared peripherals. Hosts are devices that send
and receive messages directly across the network.
Shared peripherals are not directly connected to the network,
but instead are connected to hosts.
The host is then responsible for sharing the peripheral
across the network. Hosts have computer software configured to
enable people on the network to use the attached peripheral
devices.
The network devices, as well as networking media, are used
to interconnect hosts. Some devices can play more than one role,
depending on how they are connected. For example, a printer
directly connected to a host (local printer) is a peripheral. A
printer directly connected to a network device and participates
directly in network communications is a host.
(http://networking.xtreemhost.com 2010)
An implementation of network infrastructure has been proven
beneficial of many researches including the local study made by
Mauri (2008). He mentioned that although the upgrade of the
organizations infrastructure and implementation of proposed
network infrastructure at Data Center College-Baguio involves
high expenditure for the company, having a network
infrastructure provides greater advantages, which eventually
compensates the cost at the end.

According to the study of Bangat (2009) entitled Network
Infrastructure Plan of Kalinga-Apayao State College Bulnao
Campus, the advantage of having a network infrastructure plan
in government transactions shall be a great help for better and
faster delivery of services to citizens at lesser costs while
generating higher revenues. Also, Bangat mentioned that network
architecture plan will facilitate communication efficiently,
easily and effectively.
Gali(2010)in his study, network infrastructure plan in
local government unit shall be a great help to facilitate
effective resource sharing and shall increase the work
productivity and also allows the employees do their tasks in
their respective offices.
The researchers decided to propose a Network Infrastructure
for the Department of Education to address the problems found in
the existing network set-up of the office and to cater the needs
of the different departments. If the problems within the network
will be solved it would result to a faster dissemination of
information and the outcome will also reflect the outside
transactions of the company. This study shall provide
communication to the different workplaces that needs sharing of
files and other resources, automating many of the administrative
tasks that the employees are compelled to perform. This study
will also help in managing and organizing files in a more
effective and efficient manner; the time the employees use in
searching to their paper-based documents will be lessen. The
proper allocation of bandwidth will also be addressed. Higher
speed must be provided to the departments with heavy workloads
to facilitate high-speed data transmission.
Company Profile
The Department of Education is one of the most important
branches of the Philippine government body. Division Office of
Baguio has served the education field in several years. With
numerous records, updates, memorandum, laws, meetings and
transcripts to store through these years, mandating and
monitoring over 54 sections in pre-elementary, 66 in elementary
and 43 sections in secondary, with 2 special education schools.
Aside from this, the office also governs office employees,
teachers and non-teaching employees.
The site on the other hand, is owned by the Department of
Education. It is a corner lot located along Military Cut-off
road exactly along the crossroads rotunda of Loakan Road,
Southdrive Road, and the Military Cut-off road at south and
Session road at north. It is beside the Quezon Elementary School
property, Special Education school and the Baguio School of arts
at west.
The Department of Education (DepEd) Division Office is
presently under a major construction of their new 2-storey
building housing different departments in their temporary
workplaces. The building is nearing its completion. More than
half of the portions of the first and second floor were occupied
temporarily since some departments are yet to have their
permanent location once the construction is finish.
There is also a dormitory building standing at the
rightmost side in-front of the building being constructed (that
is if youre facing the main entrance of the new building).
However, it is no longer being utilized and was planned to be
demolished for the future expansion of the new building being
constructed.
The office has seventy three (73) employees and one of
which is the offices Computer Operator I, Mr. Harris Dizon. He
takes the responsibility of managing the network set-up they
currently have, the internet connection and maintenance and
troubleshooting of the computers. He also maintains the website
of Dep. Ed. Baguio Division Office. Anyone who wishes to know
more about them can visit their office.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to make a network
infrastructure plan for the Department of Education Division
Office in order to increase the productivity of the workers
right on the cutting edge. This shall benefit the following:
To the Company. This study shall serve as a solution to the
problems faced by the organization. It is through this study
that will provide the company the knowledge on how they are
going to implement the design of the network that is correlated
to their needs.
To the Office Personnel. This study shall boost the
productivity of the workers which is the result of the
rectification in their network.
To other Companies. This study shall serve as a basis for
the other companies who wishes to have or improve their network
infrastructure plan.
To the Society. Through this study, people in the community
would gain benefits since the problem in this sector would be
narrowed. This results to faster and accurate work procedures.
To the Researchers. This study shall serve as a training
ground for the researchers to apply the things that they gained
during the days that they have spent in the four corners of the
classroom.
To the Future Researchers. This study shall serve as
reference for the future researchers concerning the network
design and implementation plan of the Department of Education
Division Office. It would also be a resource material in
building an infrastructure plan that will aid in the matter of
network technology.
Objectives of the Study
The main aim of the study is to design a network
infrastructure plan for the Department of Education Division
Office. Specifically, it shall address the following:
1. To determine the current network layout used by
Department of Education Division Office.
2. To create the logical infrastructure of the network
infrastructure for Department of Education Division Office.
3. To design the physical infrastructure and topological
diagram of network infrastructure for the Department of
Education Division Office.
Scope and Delimitation
This study is focused on the network infrastructure plan of
the Department of Education Division Office that shall bear a
hand in the improvement of the processes or transactions made by
the organization through a faster connection by centralizing the
servers together with their services and as a backbone for their
current system.
This study will also cover the physical components that
will be needed for the development of the infrastructure of the
company. The logical infrastructure will also be included in the
study along the areas on connectivity, the routing and switching
set-up, access control, and the software products and networking
protocols, device simulation, and network security. Moreover,
costing, acquisition and implementation plan to help the company
in the futurity of carrying out the design will also be
included. It is for them to be guided what to buy first by
taking into consideration the current situation of the
organization and prioritizing what is the top most important
device that will give way to the improvement of the data flowing
through the network. Furthermore, the company would be well-
informed on the cost they incurring if implemented.
The phases 4 to 6 of the methodology namely implement
phase, operate phase, and optimize phase are not carried out
since the focus of the study was only the design of the network
plan and the implementation of the plan is subject for approval.
Likewise, other features that can be included on a network
like CCTV design and installation, separation of data and voice
for their phone systems are beyond the scope of this study.
Even though costing for hardware and software needed for
the realization of this plan is part of the discussion, an in-
depth cost benefit analysis will not be performed by the
proponents.
Definition of Terms
This paper shall be better understood if the understanding
of some terms is set aside in favor of the way they are used in
this paper. The following terms are used in this paper with the
following meaning:
Access Control. The selective restriction of access to a
place or other resource on the network.
Cabling. Comprises of activities like crimping and
connecting the different devices together where the data will
flow.
Connectivity. Refers to a program or device's ability to
link with other programs and devices.
Host (Web Hosting).A type of Internet hosting service that
allows individuals and organizations to make their website
accessible via the World Wide Web.
Infrastructure. The basic framework that supports the
development of a structure.
Internet. A network of networks that enables people to
communicate virtually (e.g., chat, sharing of documents, online
meeting with your colleagues or business partners).
LAN or Local Area Network. Group of stations communicating
with each other thru a common media.
Network. A group of interconnected devices.
Network Security. The primary concern in developing a
network infrastructure plan. The act of properly planning where
to put the cables (and other devices) and giving authorization
of access to data in the network.
Router. A device that connect networks together.
Routing. It is enabling devices to communicate with each
other.
Server. It provides services to the connected computers
whether is it directly or remotely attached to the network.
Stations. Desktop computers being used by the employees in
doing the daily activities of the office.