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International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Technology (IJAERT)

Volume 2 Issue 1, April 2014, ISSN No.: 2348 8190

Prabhjot Kaur
, Sumit Kaushik
M.Tech. Scholar,
Assistant Professor,
Kurukshetra University
In the current work, A technique which performs
Segmentation of a image based on Graph-Cut approach
is discussed. An image is considered as a group of nodes
in a Graph G(V,E) where V are Nodes & E are Edges
whereas Energy Minimization technique were employed
in order to have a minimal Cut.
Some of the work is discussed here.
Keywords: Energy function, Min-cut/max-flow,
Energy Function Minimized With Graph-Cut
The energy function encodes the problem constraints,
and its minimization gives the optimal solution. The
general form of energy function for graph-cut is
explained from Markov Random Field by using the
Gibbs free energy and the Maximum Posteriori
Estimation function [2, 3, 4]
The energy function is denoted as
E(f) = Vp,q(fp,fq) + Dp(fp)
where F = {Fp |p P} is a labeling of image P,
Dp(fp) is a data penalty function,
Vp,q is an interaction potential,
N is a set of all pairs of neighboring pixels[4, 3]
1.1 Markov Random Field
MRF provide a convenient prior for modelling spatial
interaction b/w pixels. The MRF framework can express
a wide variety of spatially varying priors.[11]
A Markov process can be thought of as 'memoryless':
loosely speaking, a process satisfies the Markov property
if one can make predictions for the future of the process
based solely on its present state just as well as one could
knowing the process's full history. I.e., conditional on
the present state of the system, its future and past
are independent.[4, 8,10]
To give a formal definition of MRF, we 1st define
labeling field, Pixels and their Neighbours, Cliques and
Clique Potentials, Gibbs Distribution, Energy
function.[2, 4,11]
The objective of MRF is to either minimizes or
maximizes the Energy of the system. It also maximizes
the posterior probability function[8,10,11]
i.e. E(A) = E
(A) + E
1.2 Energy Minimization.
The energy minimization function minimizes the error of
the image. It minimizes the noise from the image. In the
last few years, several new algorithms based on graph
cuts have been developed to solve energy minimization
problems in computer vision. Each of these techniques
constructs a graph such that the minimum cut on the
graph also minimizes the energy[5]
Then E is graph-representable if and only if each term
Ei,j satisfies the inequality.
Ei,j(0, 0) + Ei,j(1, 1) Ei,j(0, 1) + Ei,j(1, 0).
1.3 Graph-Cut
Graph is an abstract representation of objects, where
objects are connected by links.[7,12] Graph G = (V, E)
consists of a set of nodes V and a set of directed edges E
that connect them. Usually the nodes corresponds to
pixels etc.
The graph have two special nodes called terminal nodes
one is sink(T) and the other is source(S).[1,3,4,6,7] The
weights are given in the way that the minimal cut
goes along the borders of object.[7]
An s-t cut in the graph is a subset of edges, such that the
terminal nodes S and T get completely separated in the
The cost function that we use as a soft constraint for
segmentation is general enough to include both region
and boundary properties of segments. But the hard
constraints for segmentation include certain pixels from
object and certain pixels background.[6]
International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Technology (IJAERT)
Volume 2 Issue 1, April 2014, ISSN No.: 2348 8190
fig1: Graph of 3-by-3 image[12]
In standard graph cuts, extraction of foreground objects
in a complex background often leads to many
segmentation errors. Iterated graph cuts algorithm, starts
from the sub-graph that comprises the user labelled
foreground/background regions and works iteratively to
label the surrounding unsegmented regions[1]. The
graph cuts framework proposed by Boykov and Jolly
addresses the segmentation of a monochrome image,
which solves a labeling problem with two labels[3, 7]
The interactive segmentation method is that it provides
a globally optimal solution for an N-dimensional
segmentation when the cost function is clearly
In image segmentation, we want the boundary to lie on
the edges in the image can typically be found by B(p;q)
Many methods are used for partitioning the image into
object and background. Each method comes with its own
features. The main method that i read is a compute
boundary function. The function penalizes a lot for
discontinuities between pixels of similar intensities when
|Ip Iq | < .
However, if pixels are very different, |Ip Iq | > , then
the penalty is small.[1]
The penalty for discontinuity in the boundary cost is
B(p,q) = { 1 if Ip = Iq }
{0.2 if Ip != Iq }
In min-cut/max-flow problem the nodes of the graph
are partitioned into two sub-sets one connected to
source(S) and other to sink (T)[3]. The theorem of Ford
and Fulkerson[3] that is used for min-cut/max-flow
problem states that a maximum flow from s to t saturates
a set of edges in the graph dividing the nodes into two
disjoint parts {S, T } corresponding to a minimum cut
fig 2 : a) Original image b) Maimum flow c) Minimum
Some of the standard algorithms are:
Dinic algorithm, Push-relabel method and the important
one is Ford-Fulkerson method[3]
Dinic algorithm uses breadth-first search to find the
shortest paths from s to t on the residual graph Gf. The
worst case running time complexity for Dinic algorithm
is O(mn
) where n is the number of nodes and m is the
number of edges in the graph. Another method is
Preflow push that not only exploits the structural
properties inherent in image based grid graphs but also
combines the basic paradigms of max-flow theory in a
novel way.[9]
Push-relabel algorithms use quite a different approach.
They do not maintain a valid flow during the operation;
there are active nodes that have a positive flow
2.3 New Min-Cut/Max-Flow Algorithm
The new min-cut/max-flow algorithm presented belongs
to the group of algorithms based on augmenting
paths.[3] Similarly to Dinic algorithm it builds search
trees for detecting augmenting paths. In that, we build
two search trees, one from the source and the other from
the sink. The other difference is that we reuse these trees
and never start building them from scratch.
International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Technology (IJAERT)
Volume 2 Issue 1, April 2014, ISSN No.: 2348 8190
fig 3: Example of the Search tree
The above figure illustrates the basic terms. We maintain
two non-overlapping search trees S and T with roots at
the source s and the sink t, correspondingly. The nodes
in the search trees S and T can be either active or
The algorithm iteratively repeats the following three
1. growth stage: Search trees S and T grow until
they touch giving an s-> t path.
2. augmentation stage: The found path is
augmented, search tree break into forest
3. adoption stage: Trees S and T are restored
[1]. YURI BOYKOVGraph Cuts and Efficient N-D
Image Segmentation. Computer Science, University of
Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada and GARETH
[2]. Bo Peng, Lei Zhang, and Jian Yang Iterated Graph
Cuts for Image Segmentation Department of
Computing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University,
Kowloon, Hong Kong, China. School of Computer
Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Science
and Technology, Nanjing 210094, China.
[3]. Yuri Boykov and Vladimir Kolmogorov An
Experimental Comparison of Min-Cut/Max-Flow
Algorithms for Energy Minimization in Vision In IEEE
Transactions on PAMI, Vol. 26, No. 9, pp. 1124-1137,
Sept. 2004.
[4]. Olga Veksler, August(1999) Efficient Graph-Based
Energy Minimization Methods in Computer Vision
faculty of Graduate School of Cornell University.
[5]. Vladimir Kolmogorov member IEEE and Ramin
Zabih member IEEE What Energy Functions Can Be
Minimized via Graph Cuts? Computer Science
Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853.
[6]. Boykov,Y., Jolly,M. P Interactive graph cuts for
optimal boundary and region segmentation of objects in
N-D Images International Conference on Computer
Vision, vol. I, pp 105-112(2001).
[7]. Zhayida Simayijiang & Stefanie Grimm
Segmentation Graph-Cut.
[8]. Fahim Masnnan (260 266 294) Interactive Image
[9]. Chetan Arora, Subhashis Banerjee, Prem Kalra, and
S.N. Maheshwari An Efficient Graph Cut Algorithm
for Computer Vision Problems Department of
Computer Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of
Technology, Delhi, India.
[10]. Michael Mc Grath Markov Random FieldImage
Modelling Degree Of Master Of Science at the
University of Cape Town, South Africa, June 2003.
[11]. Yuri Boykov, Olga Veksler, Ramin Zabih Markov
Random Fields with Efficient Approximations
Proceedings of IEEE conference on Computer Science
Department Cornell University Computer Vision and
Pattern Recognition (CVPR), 1998.
[12]. Anders P. Eriksson, Olof Barr and Kalle _Astr om
Image Segmentation using minimal graph-cut Centre
for Mathematical Sciences, Lund University, SWEDEN.