In the current work, A technique which performs Segmentation of a image based on Graph-Cut approach is discussed. An image is considered as a group of nodes in a Graph G(V,E) where V are Nodes & E are Edges whereas Energy Minimization technique were employed in order to have a minimal Cut.

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In the current work, A technique which performs Segmentation of a image based on Graph-Cut approach is discussed. An image is considered as a group of nodes in a Graph G(V,E) where V are Nodes & E are Edges whereas Energy Minimization technique were employed in order to have a minimal Cut.

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REVIEW PAPER ON SEGMENTATION WITH GRAPH-CUT

Prabhjot Kaur

1

, Sumit Kaushik

2

1

M.Tech. Scholar,

2

Assistant Professor,

Kurukshetra University

.

Abstract:

In the current work, A technique which performs

Segmentation of a image based on Graph-Cut approach

is discussed. An image is considered as a group of nodes

in a Graph G(V,E) where V are Nodes & E are Edges

whereas Energy Minimization technique were employed

in order to have a minimal Cut.

Some of the work is discussed here.

Keywords: Energy function, Min-cut/max-flow,

Segmentation.

.

1. INTRODUCTION

Energy Function Minimized With Graph-Cut

The energy function encodes the problem constraints,

and its minimization gives the optimal solution. The

general form of energy function for graph-cut is

explained from Markov Random Field by using the

Gibbs free energy and the Maximum Posteriori

Estimation function [2, 3, 4]

The energy function is denoted as

E(f) = Vp,q(fp,fq) + Dp(fp)

where F = {Fp |p P} is a labeling of image P,

Dp(fp) is a data penalty function,

Vp,q is an interaction potential,

N is a set of all pairs of neighboring pixels[4, 3]

1.1 Markov Random Field

MRF provide a convenient prior for modelling spatial

interaction b/w pixels. The MRF framework can express

a wide variety of spatially varying priors.[11]

A Markov process can be thought of as 'memoryless':

loosely speaking, a process satisfies the Markov property

if one can make predictions for the future of the process

based solely on its present state just as well as one could

knowing the process's full history. I.e., conditional on

the present state of the system, its future and past

are independent.[4, 8,10]

To give a formal definition of MRF, we 1st define

labeling field, Pixels and their Neighbours, Cliques and

Clique Potentials, Gibbs Distribution, Energy

function.[2, 4,11]

The objective of MRF is to either minimizes or

maximizes the Energy of the system. It also maximizes

the posterior probability function[8,10,11]

i.e. E(A) = E

likelihood

(A) + E

prior

(A)

1.2 Energy Minimization.

The energy minimization function minimizes the error of

the image. It minimizes the noise from the image. In the

last few years, several new algorithms based on graph

cuts have been developed to solve energy minimization

problems in computer vision. Each of these techniques

constructs a graph such that the minimum cut on the

graph also minimizes the energy[5]

Then E is graph-representable if and only if each term

Ei,j satisfies the inequality.

Ei,j(0, 0) + Ei,j(1, 1) Ei,j(0, 1) + Ei,j(1, 0).

1.3 Graph-Cut

Graph is an abstract representation of objects, where

objects are connected by links.[7,12] Graph G = (V, E)

consists of a set of nodes V and a set of directed edges E

that connect them. Usually the nodes corresponds to

pixels etc.

The graph have two special nodes called terminal nodes

one is sink(T) and the other is source(S).[1,3,4,6,7] The

weights are given in the way that the minimal cut

goes along the borders of object.[7]

An s-t cut in the graph is a subset of edges, such that the

terminal nodes S and T get completely separated in the

graph.[1,3,4,7]

The cost function that we use as a soft constraint for

segmentation is general enough to include both region

and boundary properties of segments. But the hard

constraints for segmentation include certain pixels from

object and certain pixels background.[6]

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Technology (IJAERT)

Volume 2 Issue 1, April 2014, ISSN No.: 2348 8190

21

www.ijaert.org

fig1: Graph of 3-by-3 image[12]

2. LITERATURE SURVEY

In standard graph cuts, extraction of foreground objects

in a complex background often leads to many

segmentation errors. Iterated graph cuts algorithm, starts

from the sub-graph that comprises the user labelled

foreground/background regions and works iteratively to

label the surrounding unsegmented regions[1]. The

graph cuts framework proposed by Boykov and Jolly

addresses the segmentation of a monochrome image,

which solves a labeling problem with two labels[3, 7]

The interactive segmentation method is that it provides

a globally optimal solution for an N-dimensional

segmentation when the cost function is clearly

defined.[6]

In image segmentation, we want the boundary to lie on

the edges in the image can typically be found by B(p;q)

in[1,6]

Many methods are used for partitioning the image into

object and background. Each method comes with its own

features. The main method that i read is a compute

boundary function. The function penalizes a lot for

discontinuities between pixels of similar intensities when

|Ip Iq | < .

However, if pixels are very different, |Ip Iq | > , then

the penalty is small.[1]

The penalty for discontinuity in the boundary cost is

B(p,q) = { 1 if Ip = Iq }

{0.2 if Ip != Iq }

2.1 MIN-CUT/MAX-FLOW PROBLEM

In min-cut/max-flow problem the nodes of the graph

are partitioned into two sub-sets one connected to

source(S) and other to sink (T)[3]. The theorem of Ford

and Fulkerson[3] that is used for min-cut/max-flow

problem states that a maximum flow from s to t saturates

a set of edges in the graph dividing the nodes into two

disjoint parts {S, T } corresponding to a minimum cut

fig 2 : a) Original image b) Maimum flow c) Minimum

flow

Some of the standard algorithms are:

Dinic algorithm, Push-relabel method and the important

one is Ford-Fulkerson method[3]

Dinic algorithm uses breadth-first search to find the

shortest paths from s to t on the residual graph Gf. The

worst case running time complexity for Dinic algorithm

is O(mn

2

) where n is the number of nodes and m is the

number of edges in the graph. Another method is

Preflow push that not only exploits the structural

properties inherent in image based grid graphs but also

combines the basic paradigms of max-flow theory in a

novel way.[9]

Push-relabel algorithms use quite a different approach.

They do not maintain a valid flow during the operation;

there are active nodes that have a positive flow

excess.

2.3 New Min-Cut/Max-Flow Algorithm

The new min-cut/max-flow algorithm presented belongs

to the group of algorithms based on augmenting

paths.[3] Similarly to Dinic algorithm it builds search

trees for detecting augmenting paths. In that, we build

two search trees, one from the source and the other from

the sink. The other difference is that we reuse these trees

and never start building them from scratch.

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Technology (IJAERT)

Volume 2 Issue 1, April 2014, ISSN No.: 2348 8190

22

www.ijaert.org

fig 3: Example of the Search tree

The above figure illustrates the basic terms. We maintain

two non-overlapping search trees S and T with roots at

the source s and the sink t, correspondingly. The nodes

in the search trees S and T can be either active or

passive[3]

The algorithm iteratively repeats the following three

stages:

1. growth stage: Search trees S and T grow until

they touch giving an s-> t path.

[3]

2. augmentation stage: The found path is

augmented, search tree break into forest

[3]

3. adoption stage: Trees S and T are restored

[3]

REFERENCES

[1]. YURI BOYKOVGraph Cuts and Efficient N-D

Image Segmentation. Computer Science, University of

Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada and GARETH

FUNKA-LEA, USA (2004)

[2]. Bo Peng, Lei Zhang, and Jian Yang Iterated Graph

Cuts for Image Segmentation Department of

Computing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University,

Kowloon, Hong Kong, China. School of Computer

Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Science

and Technology, Nanjing 210094, China.

[3]. Yuri Boykov and Vladimir Kolmogorov An

Experimental Comparison of Min-Cut/Max-Flow

Algorithms for Energy Minimization in Vision In IEEE

Transactions on PAMI, Vol. 26, No. 9, pp. 1124-1137,

Sept. 2004.

[4]. Olga Veksler, August(1999) Efficient Graph-Based

Energy Minimization Methods in Computer Vision

faculty of Graduate School of Cornell University.

[5]. Vladimir Kolmogorov member IEEE and Ramin

Zabih member IEEE What Energy Functions Can Be

Minimized via Graph Cuts? Computer Science

Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853.

[6]. Boykov,Y., Jolly,M. P Interactive graph cuts for

optimal boundary and region segmentation of objects in

N-D Images International Conference on Computer

Vision, vol. I, pp 105-112(2001).

[7]. Zhayida Simayijiang & Stefanie Grimm

Segmentation Graph-Cut.

[8]. Fahim Masnnan (260 266 294) Interactive Image

Segmentation.

[9]. Chetan Arora, Subhashis Banerjee, Prem Kalra, and

S.N. Maheshwari An Efficient Graph Cut Algorithm

for Computer Vision Problems Department of

Computer Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of

Technology, Delhi, India.

[10]. Michael Mc Grath Markov Random FieldImage

Modelling Degree Of Master Of Science at the

University of Cape Town, South Africa, June 2003.

[11]. Yuri Boykov, Olga Veksler, Ramin Zabih Markov

Random Fields with Efficient Approximations

Proceedings of IEEE conference on Computer Science

Department Cornell University Computer Vision and

Pattern Recognition (CVPR), 1998.

[12]. Anders P. Eriksson, Olof Barr and Kalle _Astr om

Image Segmentation using minimal graph-cut Centre

for Mathematical Sciences, Lund University, SWEDEN.

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