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Baking Terms

1) A la Carte: referring to cooking to order as opposed to cooking ahead in large batches
2) Braise: To cook food in a simmering liquid (on stovetop or in oven).
3) Chop: To cut food into irregular pieces.
4) Dissolve: Stirring a dry substance into a liquid until solids are no longer remaining.
5) Extracts: are concentrated flavorings that come from different foods and plants.
6) Filling: Frosting, preserves or pudding that's spread between cake layers and holds them
7) Garnishing: Presentation process whereby the appearance, flavor and texture of a dish is
enhanced with edible decorations.
8) Hydrogenation: A process that converts liquid oils to solid fats (shortenings) by chemically
bonding hydrogen to the fat molecules.
9) Italian Meringue: A meringue made by whipping a boiling syrup into egg whites.
10) Julienne: To cut vegetables and fruit into long thin strips. A type of cut 1/8 x 1/8 x 2 1/2"
11) Knead: To press, fold and stretch dough until it is smooth and uniform that forms the gluten
network in dough.
12) Leaven: To cause batters and doughs to rise, usually by means of a chemical leavening
13) Mousse: A soft or creamy dessert, lightly sweetened or a savory cold dish made with cream,
whipped egg white and gelatin.
14) Nougat: A mixture of caramelized sugar and almonds or other nuts, used in decorative work
and as a confection and flavouring
15) Oxidation: The union of a substance and oxygen; fruit exposed to oxygen will often turn
16) Preserve: To prevent food spoilage by pickling, salting, dehydrating, smoking, boiling in
syrup, etc.
17) Roast: To cook, uncovered, by dry heat in a oven or over hot coals.
18) Scramble: To cook over medium heat, stirring constantly.
19) Toast: To brown and crisp usually by means of direct heat.
20) Vanilla Sugar: Granulated sugar flavored with vanilla by enclosing it with a vanilla pod in an
airtight jar.
Food Service
The practice or business of making, transporting, and serving or dispensing prepared foods, as in a restaurant or

 Family Service - is when the food is brought to the table in serving dishes and the diners pass the food
around the table and serve themselves.

 Buffet Service - A meal at which guests serve themselves from various dishes displayed on a table or

 Russian Service - The method of serving food from platters to individual diners at the table

Table Manners
A pattern of behavior that is conventionally required of someone while eating.

1. Chew with your mouth shut. We all know this; we have all heard it as well as said a multitude of times.
Could it be because it is the simple most important table manner to execute?
2. Do not be overly loud or a chatter hog at the dinner table. If you feel a sneeze or cough coming, turn your
head away from the table and cover your mouth.
3. When a serving dish is brought to the table, place the amount of food desired on your plate and pass to
the right.
4. No playing at the table. One day a friend, her infant son and I met for lunch. I played ball with him across
the table while she had gone to the buffet-you know to entertain him and keep him from CRYING as he
was in the separation anxiety stage. I was engaging in play at the table and that was not a good example
to promote! We joke about it now, as her son has wonderful manners, but she was adamant about
manners being important enough to start in infancy.
5. Soup is not a noisy food. Eat it quietly and use the side of the spoon.
6. No elbows on the table. Mabel, Mabel if you are able, kindly remove your elbows from the table. How
many times did my sister and I hear that while growing up? To our dismay, not near the number of times,
we say it to our children.
7. No eating food with your fingers. It is a difficult one to learn because so many of children's food are eaten
with fingers. French fries, pizza, chicken wings, chicken nuggets, bread, tacos, etc. Another good reason to
start feeding children healthier meals. (So did not happen in my home- finger foods are quick!)
8. 8) Sit up straight and no slouching at the table. Not only will better manners be had, but better posture as
9. Place your napkin on your lap and keep it there unless you are using it to dab at your face. Do not crinkle
them up and toss them onto the table. Once you are done eating, the napkin can be placed on top of the
empty plate.
10. Please do not just get up and leave without excusing yourself. If your cell phone rings, please excuse
yourself and get up from the table to converse with the caller. Better still, turn the phone off prior to
dinner and enjoy being with the people present.

The single most important table manner of all? Say Please!

Table Appointments

The Table Appointments Include any Item Used to Set a Table; Tablecloth, Place mats,
Dinnerware, Glassware, Flatware and Centrepiece

Table appointments are implements used from dining which consist of linen, silverware,
dinnerware, glassware and centerpiece. Proper care and wise selection of table appointments
result in beauty in table setting. The appearance of the table will add to the enjoyment of the
meal. It is used in buffet service,meal service,plate service,formal service, french style,american
style,english style and russian style.

 Linens - are fabric household goods, such as pillowcases and towels.
 Dinnerware - the tableware (plates and platters and serving bowls etc.) used in serving
a meal
 Flatware - eating and serving utensils (as knives, forks, and spoons)
 Hollowware - items of usually metal tableware, such as bowls, pitchers, teapots, and
trays, that serve as containers or receptacles.
 Centerpiece - is an important item of a display, usually of a table setting

Table Setting
Refers to the way to set a table with tableware—such as eating utensils and dishware—for
serving and eating. The arrangement for a single diner is called a place setting.
Practice dictating the precise arrangement of tableware has varied across cultures and
historical periods.

Oatmeal Raisins Cookies

 1 cup (1/2 pound or 2 sticks) unsalted butter, softened, OR 1 cup shortening
 1 cup brown sugar, packed
 3/4 cup granulated sugar
 1 1/2 cups all-purpose flour
 1 teaspoon salt
 1 teaspoon baking soda
 1/2 teaspoon freshly grated nutmeg
 1 teaspoon cinnamon
 2 large eggs, well beaten
 1 Tbsp vanilla
 3 cups rolled oats (We use Quaker Quick or Old Fashioned. Do NOT use instant.)
 1 1/2 cups raisins
 1/2 cup chopped walnuts (optional)
1 Pre-heat oven to 350 degrees. Grease two large cookie sheets or line with Silpat, parchment paper or waxed
2 In a large mixing bowl, beat butter until creamy. Add sugars; beat until fluffy, about 3 minutes. Beat in eggs. Add
3 Mix flour, salt, baking soda, cinnamon, and nutmeg together in medium bowl. Stir dry ingredients into butter-
sugar mixture. Stir in raisins and nuts. Stir in oats.
4 Spoon out dough by large tablespoonfuls onto prepared cookie sheets, leaving at least 2 inches between each
5 Bake until cookie edges turn golden brown, 10-12 minutes. Cool 1 minute on cookie sheets. Then carefully
remove them, using a metal spatula, to a wire rack. Cool completely. They will be quite soft until completely
cooled. Store tightly covered.
Makes about 2 dozen cookies.

Chiffon Cake
Ingredients :
 2-1/2 cups cake flour, sifted
 3/4 cup sugar
 3 tsp. baking powder
 1/2 tsp. salt
 1/2 cup oil (vegetable oil or corn oil)
 7 egg yolks, at room temperature
 3/4 cup cold water
 1 tsp. vanilla
 7 egg whites, at room temperature
 1/2 tsp. cream of tartar
 3/4 cup sugar
Cooking Procedures :
1. Preheat oven to 350°F. Prepare 10-inch ungreased tube pan.
2. Sift together the flour, sugar, baking powder and salt in a bowl.
3. Make a well at the center and add oil, egg yolks, water and vanilla. Beat until smooth and no lumps occur.
Set aside.
4. Using a stand mixer or electric hand mixer, beat egg whites until frothy. Add the cream of tartar.
Continue to beat on high until soft peaks begin to form. Add sugar very gradually and continuously
beating until meringue is glossy and stiff.
5. Gently fold the egg yolk mixture into the meringue until well blended, ensuring that you scrap the bottom
of the bowl as you fold.
6. Pour into prepared ungreased tube pan.
7. Bake until golden and middle springs back when touched for about 45 minutes.
8. Invert onto the neck of a bottle.
9. Cool completely upside down.

Butter Cake


1 1/2 cups all-purpose flour
1/2 teaspoon salt
2 teaspoons baking powder
1/2 cup butter
1 cup white sugar
2 eggs
1 teaspoon vanilla extract
3/4 cup milk


1. Preheat oven to 350 degrees F (175 degrees C). Lightly grease one 8 inch square baking pan. Line bottom
with wax paper or dust lightly with flour.

2. Sift together the flour, salt, and baking powder.

3. Cream the butter and blend in the white sugar, eggs, and vanilla. Beat until light and fluffy. Add the sifted
dry ingredients to the creamed mixture alternately with the milk. Stir until just blended. Pour batter into
prepared pan.

4. Bake at 350 degrees F (175 degrees C) for 50 to 55 minutes or until cake springs back when lightly
touched. Remove from pan and allow it to cool.

Chocolate Cake with Chocolate Frosting
3 ¼ cups cake flour
4 ½ teaspoons baking powder
1 cup butter
1 cup sugar
¾ cup cocoa (Goya or Dutch or 100% cocoa)
½ teaspoon salt
5 pieces eggs
¾ cups evaporated milk
½ cup lukewarm water
1 1/2 teaspoon vanilla


1. Sift together flour, cocoa, salt, and baking powder. Set aside.
2. Cream and sugar blend in eggs, one at a time.
3. In another bowl, combine milk, lukewarm water, and vanilla.
4. Add the flour mixture and the milk mixture, alternatively to the creamed mixture, starting and
ending with flour.
5. Pour butter in a prepared pan. Bake at 375° F or 190° C to 158 minutes to 1 hour.

Quick Chocolate Frosting


½ cup unsweetened cocoa powder
1 tall can condensed milk
pinch of salt
5 tablespoons flour
2 tablespoons butter
½ cup water

1. Mix flour, water and salt. Set aside.
2. Melt the cocoa powder into the condensed milk on a powder boiler.
3. Stir the mixture with butter until smooth and cook until its thick enough to spread.
4. Use a spatula for frosting.


Submitted by:
Mherrianne Roberlle T. Ambal
I – Agoncillo

Submitted to:
Ms. Christine Tacna