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A Training Report

Training Need Analysis
Punjab State Power Corporation Limited

Submitted for Partial Fulfillment of the degree of
Masters of Business Administration
Submitted to: Submitted by:
Principal Parneet Kaur
Technical Training Institute Roll No: 120426115

School of Management Studies
Punjabi University
I owe a great many thanks to several people who helped and supported me for
successful completion of the project.
I would like to express my sincere gratitude to the management of Punjab State Power
Corporation Limited (PSPCL)s HRD department located at T.T.I., Shakti Vihar, Patiala.
I would like to explicitly thank Mr. Baltej Singh Grewal (Assistant Manager HR), Er.
Abhiraj Singh Randhawa (AEE, TTI PSPCL Patiala), Mr. Rajeev Attal (Superintendent),
Gurjant Singh (J.E), Mr. Hemraj Sharma (J.E) for their unconditional support and
guidance. They helped me to organize and pursue the project. I had a great deal to
learn under their valuable guidance and I could successfully complete my training.
I also owe my gratitude to whole faculty of SMS, Punjabi University, Patiala for her
valuable guidance and support during the entire training project. I would not have been
able to complete the same.
I also extend my sincere thanks to my institution, my family and friends who encouraged
me to complete this training assignment within the stipulated period.
Date: Name: Parneet Kaur
Place: Patiala Roll no: 120426115
Class: MBA- 2

As a part of course curriculum of Masters of Business Administration we are asked to
undergo 6 months summer training in any organization so as to give us exposure to
practical management to get us familiar with various activities taking place in the
I have put my sincere efforts to accomplish my objectives within the stipulated time.
Despite all limitations, obstructs, hurdles and hindrances, I have toiled and worked to
my optimum potential to achieve desired goals. Being neophytes in the highly
competitive world of business, I came across some difficulties to make my objective a
reality. Anyhow with the kind of help and genuine interest and the guidance of my
supervisor, I m presenting this and carved effort. I tried my level best to conduct a
research to gain a thorough knowledge about the project on topic, Study of training and
development in Punjab State Power Corporation Limited. I put the best of my efforts
and have also tried to be justice with available. If anywhere something is found
unacceptable or unnecessary to them; you are welcomed with your valuable
Thanks and regards.
Yours sincerely
Parneet Kaur

I hereby declare that the information given in this report is true. The report is prepared in
the partial fulfillment of Masters of Business Administration (MBA) degree and this
report has been on my study the guidance of Dr. B.B.Singla.

Page No.
1. Executive Summary 6-7
2. Introduction
Introduction to the Company
Introduction to the Project
Training and Development at PSPCL


3. Review of Literature 37-39
4. Research Objectives 40
5. Research Methodology 41
6. Data Analysis 42-51
7. Conclusion 52
8. Suggestions 53
9. Limitations of the Study 54
10. Bibliography 55
11. Annexure
Training Need Analysis Questionnaire

12. Abbreviations 58

I underwent my industrial training at Punjab State Power Corporation Limited. During
this period I did exploratory research on Training Need Analysis.
The scope of this study encompassed identification of different obstacles in the path of
PSPCL employees for individual and for organizational growth, the different
requirements of each department and its employees to overcome those obstacles and
the training thus proposed to meet these goals. The scope also included studying of
preparation of a road map for implementation of training, identification of resource
requirements for a successful implementation, designing of course content for training
programs identified for delivery of the training programs, designing mechanisms of
evaluation of training program like periodic testing, quizzes and to provide
implementation support during the actual implementation of the calendar.
The HRD at PSPCL has been organizing training modules as per their own perception
of the needs of the organizations. To evaluate the effectiveness of the training program
imparted, feedback was taken from each trainee at the end of the program and
incorporated in the subsequent batch of training. However, HRD finds this is a passive
approach. Hence, they developed an analysis project to identify the training needs of
different departments of PSPCL, under which employees from various departments
answered a questionnaire as per their perception of tasks.
PSPCL Training Policy adheres to the guidelines prescribed by Ministry of Power,
Government of India, and its fundamental philosophy is to make training an effective
instrument in transforming PSPCL into a learning organization. It aims at providing
PSPCL employees with updated knowledge, latest skills and building of positive attitude
that results into improvement of Organizational Effectiveness and Consumer
Satisfaction. Some key objectives of the policy guidelines are to: make learning one of
the core values of the organization, optimum utilization of the existing resource pool of
knowledge with in the establishment and outside organizations for the growth of
PSPCL, institutionalize learning opportunities that supplement work experience,
integrate organizational and individual developmental needs and enable employees to
keep abreast with the latest knowledge and skills and enable them to undertake current
and future responsibilities in a more effective manner.
The Training Policy tries to bring in a certain degree of mandatory discipline into the
training function. The policy suggests incentive scheme in line with guidelines of MOP,
GOI, to attract persons of high caliber in training function. The proposed Training Plan
makes an attempt to give definitive directions to training attempts by prioritizing training
areas. Requirement of infrastructures are the key to impart training successfully.
Various infrastructure facilities available at power and non-power institutes were seen
and studied and the recommendations were made for Training Calendar at Officials /
Field level, program content and the list of Training partners for implementing the
training calendar. This will enable PSPCL HRD to focus on the programs mentioned in
the training calendar for its all officers and partly to its officials to achieve the objectives
and targets of Training Institution in PSPCL. Facilitation of creating relationship between
Training partners and PSPCL was done for the programs, conducted during and after
the assistance period. While developing the relationship care must be taken w.r.t the
fees demanded, competency of partner, travel conditions, course content, duration etc.
And the provisions laid down in the training policy.
Various empanelled institutes/ individuals were contacted for designing of the course
content for PSPCL. The inputs in the form of their training calendar, their recent
programs conducted, their experience on the various topics etc. were used while
creating the course content. The main inputs were received from training partners like
PMI, REMI, NHPC, NPTI, HRD Foundation, CMT, Step Circle, ESCI, Net Cascade
Automation etc. certain programs were designed to suit the specific technical/
managerial needs of the PSPCL and emphasis was more on practical demonstrations/
case studies along with lectures.
In line with the changing power sector scenario and the enablement of competition for
resources and talent, it is imperative that PSPCL focuses on building a strong and
focused training organization which can effectively address its growing learning and
development needs. Further an emphasis of high magnitude would be required for
introducing- new training technologies, cost effective training methodologies and
strengthening PSPCLs internal HR systems and processes to foster a learning culture
that results into enhanced performance, measurable on the basis of two parameters-
increased financial health of the organizational and increased consumer satisfaction.
PSPCL is the first SEB which is going to attempt for implementing the National Training
Policy target of 5 training man days per employee per year and other salient points of

The Punjab State Electricity Board (PSPCL) was a statutory body formed on 1-2-1959
under the Electricity Supply Act, 1948. Subsequently with the organization of the
erstwhile state of Punjab under the Punjab Re-organization Act 1966 this for came into
existence w.e.f. 1
May 1967. Starting with the modest installed capacity of 62 MW, the
PSPCL grew up by leaps and bounds with generating capacity 10471 MW as on 31-3-
2012 from all sources, including share from Central Sector from central sector projects.
The boards gross generation during the year 2011-2012 was 28874.530 million units.
PSPCL operated its own generation power plants and also got power as its share from
BBMB. The PSPCL also constructed and maintained its Transmission and Distribution
system for providing efficient services to the various categories of electricity consumers
in the state. PSPCL proudly serving more than 75.9 lakhs consumers comprising of
approximate 63.17 lakhs general, 1.10 lakhs industrial and 11.63 lakhs agricultural
connections till 31-3-2012.
Vide notification no 1/9/08-EB 196, dated- 16.4.2010, Government of Punjab unbundled
Punjab State Electricity Board into two companies namely:
Punjab State Power Corporation Ltd. (POWERCOM)
Punjab State Transmission Corporation Ltd. (TRANSCO)
Vide notification no 1/9/08-EB (PR) 239, dated- 16.4.2010, Government of Punjab
ordered the board structure of two newly created companies, as shown in the pictures
Organizational Setup of Punjab State Power Corporation Ltd. (POWERCOM):

Organizational Setup of Punjab State Transmission Corporation Ltd. (TRANSCO):

For the purpose of administering the Punjab State Electricity Board the two successors
companies, the govt. constituted a managing committee, in super session of the existing
board with following:
Er. K.D. Chaudhri, Chairman cum Managing Director
Sh. G.S. Bachi, Director/Administration
Er. Arun Kumar, Director/Distribution
Er. G.S. Chhabra, Director/Generation
Sh. S.C. Arora, Director/Finance
Sh. H.C. Seth, Director/H.R
Sh. Anurag Agarwal, Chairman cum Managing Director
Er. Ravinder Singh, Director/Technical
Sh. Uma kanta Panda, Director/Finance

Milestone achievements:
1. All the power Stations operated at their best ever plant load factor since their
2. Net Power generated during 2011-12 is 28874.530 Million units, which is more
than 2010-11 by 27464.575 Million Units resulting of 5.13% increase in one year.
3. The 1980 MW (3x660) Talwandi Sabo Power Project awarded to M/s Sterlite
Energy Ltd. Mumbai on 4.7.08 and PPA signed on 1.9.08.
4. Power purchase agreement with M/S GVK for installing 2x270 MW thermal
power stations at Goindwal Sahib signed on 26th May, 2009.The foundation
stone has been laid and the company has started the construction.
5. Second stage of Lehra Mohabbat Thermal Power Station for 2x250 MW has
been commissioned. Its Unit-III achieved CoD on 16.10.08 and Unit-IV
synchronized on 2.8.08 on coal.
6. 3,36,355 new connections including 15201 No. tube well connections were
released during 2011-12.
7. 24 Hrs. Urban pattern supplies made available to 12428 villages and 6158
Deras/ Dhanies with 5 or more houses.
8. To help SC & BPL consumers, free monthly consumption up to 200 units allowed
for connected load of 1000 watts w.e.f. 12-10-06 instead of earlier 500 watts.
9. Strict measures have been taken to reduce power theft. Disciplinary action taken
against the erring employees and 5 numbers Anti Power Theft Police Stations
have been set up.
10. New technologies like electronic meters, remote control of transformers, remote
meter reading and HVDS system for AP/ Industries introduced.
11. 20.29 lakhs meters out of 55.98 lakhs General/ Industrial Consumers shifted out
of their premises as on 31.3.09 to curb theft of energy.
12. All these measures have helped in reducing losses from 17.96% (2010-11) to
17.42% (2011-12) / which resulted in substantial increase in revenue.
13. During 2011-12, 82 numbers New Grid substations erected and capacity at 132
number Grid substations augmented.

The study has been conducted to identify the training needs of the employees of
PSPCL. The scope of work encompasses study of training and development system at
PSPCL which involves the policy for training, different training programs and system for
evaluation of the training programs like periodic testing, quizzes, feedback forms etc.
The study also aims to identify the obstacles in the path of PSPCL employees for
individual growth and for organizational growth.
The concept of training is related with enhancing skill and quality of performance of
workers for increasing productivity. Training programs are conducted to enhance the
existing skills of the associates and to develop the skills required to play different roles
and jobs in the organization.
Training needs analysis process is a series of activities conducted to identify
problems or other issues in the workplace, and to determine whether training is an
appropriate response. The needs analysis is usually the first step taken to cause a
change. This is a mainly because a needs analysis specifically defines the gap between
the current and the desired individual and organizational performances.
Training need analysis is the first step in the training process

A Training Need Analysis (TNA) is used to assess an organizations training needs. The
root of the TNA is the gap analysis. This is an assessment of the gap between the
knowledge, skills and attitudes that the people in the organization currently possess and
the knowledge, skills and attitudes that they require to meet the organizations
Training need = standard performance actual performance
People learn throughout their lives. Learning can increase productivity, prepare
individuals for career advancement, allow for succession planning and most of all, it
keeps work interesting. Thus, the training efforts aim at meeting the requirements of the
organization and the individual employees.
In details, we can say that training is the organized procedure by which employees
acquired knowledge and/or skill for a definite purpose after they have selected, placed
and inducted in the organization. It is the art of increasing the knowledge and skill of
employees for doing a certain job. Training is to be designed to meet the specific goals
in the organizations. Training should be continuous and progressive designed to
increase the individuals potential of maintenance staff members and to form them into a
technical quality and well organizes efficient team. The objective of the training must be
well defined clearly to the trainees. Training should be means to an end not an end in
itself; it must be an integral part of the organizations.
Objectives of Training:
To impact the knowledge of new recruits.
To impact skills of new employees which are needed by the organizations.
To increase efficiency and morale.
To increase potential.
To develop better behavior pattern as required for their jobs and responsibilities.
To improve productivity.

Focus of Training:
The utilities and the institutions must be constant touch for designing and developing
the training programs, which takes into account the following issues:
Emphasis on the idea that money spent on training is an investment not
expenditure and to appreciate the cost of lack of training besides cost/ benefit
The need for a new direction for the training policy in tune with the changing
scenario in the power sector, and guidelines for the national training policy for the
Power Sector.
Redefining the role of power engineers as business managers of a high
technology sector.
Developing standard performance parameters for each category of employees
based on best practices and bench marking concepts.
Reassessing the training needs of power sector personnel in the new
environment, identifying and addressing performance problems. Training needs
assessment in project planning, implementation and monitoring, O&M,
transmission and distribution, tariff, reforms and restructuring.
Designing training activities to ensure that they are job-oriented and need based
resulting in increased productivity and consumer satisfaction.
Planning for training as an integrated HRD activity with a commitment to impart
training for all in the power sector at entry level as well as in-service.
Networking amongst various organizations under the ministry of power and other
reputed institutes for optimizing training modules and to change the present
attitude of my-resources-my-people to our-resources-our-people, so that
redundancy/ duplication of hi-tech infrastructure facilities is avoided and optimal
utilization of existing training infrastructure and facilities and expertise through
networking is made possible.
Interaction amongst representatives from the ministry of power, central electricity
authority, regulatory commissions, Management Institutions, Central and State
Public Sector Power Utilities, SEBs, NPTI, CPRI, ASCI etc. for course
development, traini9ng etc.
Developing a funding mechanism for implementation of training policy by the
power sector organizations.
Self-sustenance of HRD institutions in Power Sector: Feasibility and Operation.
Review of the existing training courses and methods.
Faculty up gradation and Training of Trainers (TOT).
Evaluation (impact) of Training and to evolve internal and external mechanisms
for effectively institutionalizing the training functions based on Training Policy.
Training needs assessment has to precede the design and delivery of training.
Identification of training should not be generic in nature but more focused with reference
to the specific skills required to perform the job. The needs identification should be done
scientifically and the process should involve the employee himself.
A proper analysis of the jobs of individual functionaries or groups is the key to the
identification of their training needs. Every job is to be broken down into its specific task
components that the job holder is expected to perform. Standard performance
parameters for each category of technical/ non-technical staff are to be developed.

Types of Training:
There are broadly two categories of training:
On the job training
Off the job training

On the job training: In this method, the trainee is placed on a regular job and taught the
skills necessary to perform it. The trainee learns by observing and handling the job,
therefore it is called Learning by Doing. He gets training under the same type condition
in which he will be working on later. When a worker is trained on the same equipment,
on which he will work, then he will adapt more easily to the working condition. There are
several methods of on-the job training:
Job Rotation step
Committee assignment
Apprenticeship training

Off-the job training: This method is generally used by government and public
enterprises. School or institutions is established to provide training to all types of
persons. A program of training is designed to suit the need of the job which the trainee
occupies. Some different courses are arranged for separated group employees. There
are several methods of Off-the job training:
Role playing
Lecture method
Conference method

Origin of Training needs:

Thus training needs arise when there exists a gap between the present level of actual
performance and preferred performance that can be narrowed through training. This
requires an exhaustive effort to identify the performance standards, measure the actual
performances and recommend training module to fill the gap. This basically
incorporates creating a learning organization and training module to fill the gap. This
basically incorporates creating a learning organization and change attitude of the
employees to feel a part of the changes. The next step should be to develop a training
paradigm for skill development and then adopt improvement techniques and involve
people to suggest and manage the path to the improvements. This would lead to
enhancement of awareness; knowledge and skill related effectively perform the tasks.

Why to conduct Training needs analysis?
An in-house trainer or a consultant performs a needs analysis to collect and document
information concerning any of the following three issues:
Performance problems
Anticipated introduction of new system, task or technology
A desire by the organization to benefit from a perceived opportunity
In all three situations, the starting point is a desire to effect a change. It is important to
know how the people who will experience change perceive it. In the absence of a needs
analysis, we may find employees resistant to change and reluctant to training. They
may be unable to transfer their newly acquired skills to their jobs because of the
organizational constraints.
A needs analysis often reveals the need for well-targeted training areas. Those
conducting the needs analysis must get a clear idea of the problem, look at all possible
remedies and report on their findings to management before deciding on the best
solution. When properly done, a need analysis is a wise investment for the organization.
It saves time, money and effort by working on the right problems. Organizations that fail
to support needs analysis make costly mistakes; they use too much or too little training,
or they use training but fail to follow up on it. Process of conducting a training needs
analysis is a systematic one based on specific information gathering techniques. In
many ways, the needs analysis is like detective work; we follow up on every lead, check
every piece of information and examine every alternative before drawing any solid
conclusions. Only then we can ensure of having the evidence on which to base a sound
strategy for problem solving. A needs analysis is not a one-time event. Professional
organizations administer needs analysis at regular intervals, usually every year or two.
Methods of Identifying Training needs:
Training needs will differ with the backgrounds of the employees to be trained, and their
present status in the organization. Basically, a candidate for training may come from
any one of three groups:
New Hires
Veteran employees
Trainees currently in the Training pipeline (currently in the training program)
Consideration of the varying needs of these groups provides a frame of reference for
discussing and suggesting the methods of identifying training needs:
New Hires: Addition of new employees creates high and low peaks new persons
into the training program. This problem may be solved by a program where
progression is made in different sequences. It will eliminate a jam that will occur if
all phases of the program must be taken in a definite sequence. The new
employees will normally be of somewhat different backgrounds. Being new, they
are not familiar with their new employers. As a result, the earliest phases of the
training must concentrate on company orientation. During these phases, the
organization, organization policies and administrative details should be covered. It
is also a suitable time to acquaint the trainees with what will be expected of him,
and how he will be evaluated throughout the phase of training.
Retaining & Upgrading Veteran Employees: The people in this category offer a
real challenge to the training department. Therefore, the number and amount of
training required by this category should be carefully considered. Often the
retaining and upgrading of former employees can be very rewarding for training
instructors. On the other hand, this category of employees can also make
significant contribution to training if they are co-mingled with the new hires.
Pipeline Employee Requirements: A good training program will normally have
participants in various phases of completion. An awareness of completion dates
and how the potential employee will be employed should be the concern of the
training staff and also the employees supervisor. A trainee should have a
challenge in all phases of this training. All these challenges should not be
confined to those phases where the pipeline employee is sitting in a classroom.
Therefore, it is recommended that through interim test-work be given to pipeline
employees in periods between formal classes. This may take the form of
solidifying what he learned in the prior phase and serve s preparation for the
coming phases.
Techniques for Determining Specific Training Needs:
There are a number of practical methods that can be used to gather data about
employees performance. Each work well in given circumstances; therefore, it is
necessary to determine which method suits a given work environment and employees.
In this approach, an employees performance itself is the source of information. Using
this method workers performance can be evaluated through first-hand observation and
analysis. This is best accomplished by watching the worker and playing the role of non
participating observer. This means that we watch and listen and evaluate what we see
and hear, but do not get involved in his work process in any way. To make this activity
more productive, use a checklist to remind you of what to look for and take notes. The
objective during observations is to identify both the strengths to build on and the
deficiencies to overcome. A key advantage of using observation in the needs analysis is
that we gain first-hand knowledge and understanding of the job being performed and
the strengths and weaknesses of the relevant worker.
The use of interviews in conducting the needs analysis is strongly urged. This allows us
to determine whether a piece of information is ones opinion, or part of a widespread
perception. Since the interview guide forces to ask each worker a number of
predetermined questions, we must select those questions that are essential to what we
are trying to learn.
Interviews allow us to meet employees face to face to discuss their impressions of
performance. Because we are in conversation with workers, we can explore their
responses in depth. We obtain a full understanding of their performance deficiencies.
We also gain these benefits through interviewing:
We build credibility with our interviewees by asking intelligent questions and
listening well to their answers.
We obtain employees personal involvement and commitment to our efforts.
We establish personal relationships with potential trainees who are important to
our success as a needs analyst and trainer.

A questionnaire is a sort of interview in paper. We create our own questionnaire by
writing down all the questions we want employees to answer. Then we give to them and
await their responses. The key advantage of a questionnaire is that we can include
every person from whom we want input. Employees can complete the questionnaire
when and where they choose. We need not travel and spend time with all respondents.
Every employee is asked the identical questions and consequently data is very easy to
compile and analyze. Questionnaires can be useful in obtaining a big picture of what a
large number of employees think while allowing everyone to feel that they have had an
opportunity to participate in the needs analysis process.
Job Descriptions:
Before establishing a job description, a job analysis must be made. This job analysis
involves a thorough study of all responsibilities of the relevant job. It is companywide in
scope and should be detailed to such a degree that those conducting the training can
be use the job analysis as a yardstick for their course content. After the job analysis
phase has been completed, the writing of the job description and needs analysis is a
relatively simple task. When an employees job description has been defined, the trainer
can easily tailor his training curriculum to a very close proximity of what will be expected
of the employees.
The Difficulty Analysis:
The job analysis will focus attention on enumerating the numerous duties that a worker
must perform. On the other hand, the Difficulty Analysis establishes which of the duties
cause the employee the greatest amount of troubles and how this trouble can be
reduced through better training. A good difficulty analysis offers many advantages:
It enables a need analyst to weigh certain aspects of the training in relationship
to the expected difficulty that the worker will face in coping with those duties.
A well thought out difficulty analysis will provide the training program with an
abundance of role-playing material and situations.

Problem Solving Conference:
Another time-tested technique for gathering needs analysis material from employees is
to conduct periodic problem solving conferences which may take the form of or be part
of a plan for a new product, task or technology, or tied in with a training program. It is
always helpful to utilize an outside consultant to moderate such sessions. This outside
sponsorship has a tendency of letting the workers express their feelings about his
organization, and the session can then be geared to training needs. The current
problems will evolve that represent potential areas for training.

Appraisal Reviews:
During the periodic counseling performance interview, an employee should be
questioned regarding the duties and training of a worker. Comments rendered during
the appraisal interviews normally are genuine and can frequently assist in establishing
the needs, variations and penetrations that a training program should include. Feed-
back at appraisal interview time is valuable since it is timely information. Training needs
differ from worker to worker and appraisal sessions allow the employee and supervisor/
manager to uncover the cause of weaknesses in performance. These deficiencies
represent areas for training.

Drive Pattern Identity:
The extent of an employees development depends on his motivations. Identifying the
forces that cause an employee to behave in a certain way may be useful in determining
his individual training needs and how to stimulate his desire to fulfill that need. An
analysis of this kind, for example, may determine that the employee has an urgent need
for self-confidence. His individual program should be made to stress the importance of
attitude, skills etc. and any other assets that would give him this self-confidence.

Analysis of Organizational Policy:
Organization policy will affect the amount of training offered. An explanation of various
policies should be covered in the training program. Of particular concerns are those
policies that involve change, alteration and major revamping of training programs. In
organizations undergoing merger activity, product diversification and new penetration, a
great deal of sensitivity must be placed on policies today and expected changes in

Techniques to Analyze Training Needs:
Thus TNA involves finding answers to questions such as: whether training is needed? If
yes, where it is needed? Once we identify training gaps within the organization, it
becomes easy to design an appropriate training program. Training needs can be
identified through the following types of analysis:
Organizational need analysis:
According to many training experts, attaining the objectives of the business should be
the ultimate concern of any training and development effort. Therefore, conducting an
organizational needs analysis should be the first step in effective need assessment. It
begins with an examination of the short and long term objectives of the organization.
And trends that are likely to affect these objectives. It involves a study of the entire
organization in terms of its objectives, its resources, the utilization of these resources, in
order to achieve stated objectives.

Task or role analysis:
This is a detailed examination of a job, its components, its various operations and
conditions under which it has to perform. The focus here is on the roles played by
individual and the training needed to perform such roles. The whole exercise is meant to
find how the various tasks have to be performed and what kind of skills, knowledge,
attitudes are required to meet the job needs. Questionnaires, interviews, reports, tests,
observation and other methods are generally used to collect job related information from
time-to-time. After collecting the information an appropriate training programme may be
designed, paying attention to performance standards required of employees, the tasks
they have to discharge etc.
Person analysis:
Training needs analysis at individual level focuses on each and every individual in the
organization. At this level, the organization checks whether an employee is performing
at desired level or the performance is below expectation. If the difference between the
expected performance and actual performance comes out to be positive, then certainly
there is need of training. To be effective, training efforts must continuously monitor and
coordinate the three kinds of analysis described above. An appropriate programme that
meets the companys objectives, tasks and employee needs may then be introduced.
Skill analysis:
Skill means the special knowledge for doing a particular task. Every job requires any
type of skill for doing that job. So skill level of person affects the output of the job. So in
the organization skill analysis of associates must be required for continuous and
economic production of goods. For improvement in skill level of associates Training
programme must be provided time to time by preparing skill matrix of associates. In the
process, it is shown that skill level of emp0loyees and job requirements are compared. If
skill level of employee is satisfactory according to job needs then job responsibility is
given. If job requirement doesnt match skill level training is provided.


In line with the changing power sector scenario and the enablement of competition for
resources and talent, it is imperative that PSPCL focuses on building a strong and
focused training organization which can effectively address its growing learning and
development needs. Further an emphasis of high magnitude would be required for
introducing new training technologies, cost effective training methodologies and
strengthening PSPCLs internal HR systems and processes to foster a learning culture
that results into enhanced performance, measurable on basis of two parameters
increased financial health of the organization and increased consumer satisfaction.
PSPCL is the first SEB which is going to attempt for implementing the National Training
Policy target of 5 training man days per employee per year and other salient policies of

PSEB Staff College For Strategic Development of Human Resources:
The power sector reforms introduced by Government of India in the early nineties
brought elements of competition in the sector and improved quality of service to the
customer. The enactment of the Electricity Act 2003 and the pronouncement of
National Electricity Policy 2005 have laid the foundation for major changes in the
electricity market of the country. The regulatory framework in the power sector in recent
past has seen the sector change substantially in its institutional arrangements for its
regulation as well as the structure of the industry in itself. The Electricity Act 2003 has
removed entry barriers to different segments of the electricity business with the
objective of promoting competition. Generation has been de-licensed and open access
in transmission has been provided. Training has been recognized as a distinct activity.
Major changes are being introduced in the power sector through private participation,
reforms, restructuring, beside the technological and perceptional changes that are also
taking place simultaneously. The sector is undergoing transformation through paradigm
shift in Government policies, economic environment and consumer awareness.
Breaking from the past, electricity generation, transmission and distribution are now
considered commercial activities with profit motives. This process of change has
certainly subtle implications on human resource engaged in this sector. To survive and
grow in the era of aggressive competition, rapidly changing market dynamics;
organization will have to review the existing core beliefs, processes, methodologies and
concrete on the process of ongoing learning to imbibe the necessary contemporary
knowledge, skills and attitudes in their personnel. This affirms a fresh and scientific look
at the current Human Resource Management (HRM) Training and Development,
scenario and motivates to develop a dynamic Training Policy and plan in consonance
with the rapid developments being unleashed in this sector.
Human Resource is the backbone of any organization. Properly trained and highly
skilled human resource is perceived as the greatest asset of an organization. Skill
personnel contribute to efficiency, growth, increased productivity and market reputation
of an organization. This has been realized by industrial, commercial, research
establishments and even governments. Invariably, a separate Human Resource
Development department exists in all these organizations to attend to the matters
relating to recruitment, training and development. Technological advancements in
various fields world over are very rapid, and the every other day we see new products
or machines or equipments with more and more advanced features, with which users
have to be acquainted. In order to cope with the industry demand and technological
advancements, we need to develop training strategy for our human capital to attain the
required skill levels.
Strategy Human Resource Development is concerned with the development of
strategies for the provision of learning, development and training opportunities to
improve individual, team and organizational performance. Strategic HRD takes a holistic
view about the HRD policies and practices based on the supporting role to be provided
by HR for meeting the business strategies. This basically considers enhancing resource
capability in accordance with the belief that a firms human resources are a major
source of competitive advantage. This is basically about developing the requisite
intellectual capital required for the organization, as well as to ensure that the right
quality of people with right competencies is available to meet present and future needs.
As seen above, strategic HRD aims to produce a comprehensive framework for people
development. Creation of suitable environment for learning and development is also
part of strategy. The focus here is on development of intellectual capital and promoting
learning of individual, groups and organization.
The focal point is development of knowledge and its management. This is about
creating policies and procedures for learning and development with enabling climate
and support of organization. Though this frame work is based on Business strategy, the
aspirations and needs of individuals are also taken care. HRD policies are closely
associated with HRM which is concerned with investment on employees and developing
the organizations human capital.
The key elements of HRD are:
Learning: A relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of
practice or experience.
Education: It is the development of knowledge, values and understanding
required in all aspects of life rather than the knowledge and skills relating to
particular areas of activity.
Development: The growth or realization of a persons ability and potential through
the provision of learning and educational experiences.
Training: The planned and systematic modification of behavior through learning
events, programs and instructions which enable the individuals to achieve the
levels of knowledge, skill and competence needed to carry out their work

In line with the above and to meet the challenges, PSPCL proposed to start its own
independent Staff College to continuously attract and develop competent and
committed human resources to match world standards which provided clear initiatives
for the companys growth and future.

PSPCL HRD Organization Structure Proposed:
Relevant benchmarks kept at par with PMI/ESCI. In NPTC, the HRD function is
headed by Director supported by two General Manager (GMs) lead about 300
HR professionals across NTPC. Out of them approx 70 HR executives and
faculty members work in PMI. In the long run, PSPCL shall have to develop a
comprehensive HR organization similar to NTPC AND other successful public
sector organization.
Many HRD practices like transfers, promotions, salary processing etc. is in
operation under different locations and under different HODs and it may not be
practically feasible to bring the entire HR gambit under HRD structure at once.
Therefore, HRD structure need to be reviewed stage wise with an aim of bringing
entire HR functions within one umbrella as the case in any public/private

Training Policy Ministry of Power:
PSPCL Training Policy adheres to the guidelines prescribed by Ministry of Power,
Government of India and its fundamental philosophy is to make training an effective
instrument in transforming PSPCL into a learning organization. It aims at providing
PSPCL employees with updated knowledge, latest skills and building of positive attitude
that results into improvement of Organizational effectiveness and consumer satisfaction.
Some key objectives of the policy guidelines are to : make learning one of the core
values of the organization, optimum utilization of the existing resource pool of
knowledge with in the establishment and outside organizations for the growth of
PSPCL, institutionalize learning opportunities that supplement work experience,
integrate organizational and individual developmental needs and enable employees to
keep abreast with the latest knowledge and skills and enable them to undertake current
and future responsibilities in a more effective manner.
The training policy tries to bring in a certain degree of mandatory discipline into the
training function. The policy suggests incentive scheme in line with guidelines of MOP,
GOI to attract persons of high caliber in training function..
The proposed training plan makes an attempt to give definitive directions to training
attempts by prioritizing training areas. Requirement of infrastructures are the key to
impart training successfully. Various infrastructure facilities available at power and non
power institutes were seen and studied and the recommendations were made for
officials/ field level training calendar, program content and the list of training partners for
implementing the training calendar. This will enable PSPCL HRD to focus on the
programs mentioned in the training calendar for its all officers and partly to its officials
(to achieve the objectives and targets of training institution in PSPCL).
Facilitation of creating relationship between training partners and PSPCL was done for
the programs, conducted during after the assistance period. While developing the
relationship care must be taken w.r.t. the fees demanded, competency of partner, travel
conditions, course content, duration etc. and the provisions laid down in the training
Various empanelled institutes/individuals were contacted for designing of the course
content for PSPCL. These inputs in the form of their training calendar, their recent
programs conducted, their experience on the various topics etc. were used while
creating the course content. The main inputs were received from training partners like
PMI, REMI, NHPC, NPTI, HRD foundation, CMT, Step Circle, CenPaid, ESCI and Net
Cascade Automation etc. Certain programs are designed to suit the specific
technical/managerial needs of the PSCPL and emphasis was more on practical
demonstrations/ case studies along with lectures.

Philosophy of Training Policy:
The fundamental philosophy of the training policy is to make training an effective
instrument in transforming PSPCL into a learning organization. It aims at providing
PSPCL employees with updated knowledge, latest skills and building of positive attitude
that results into consumer satisfaction. Money spent on training will be constructed as
an investment not expenditure.
Training Needs Identification
Based on Business Priorities and individual needs
Organizational framework structure, Roles and Responsibilities and Top
Resources Faculty, Infrastructure and Training Budget
Quantum and Level of Training

Objectives of Training Policy:
The objectives of the guidelines are to:
Make training one of the core values of the organization
Optimum utilization of the existing resource pool of knowledge with in the
establishment for the growth of organization
Ensure value addition through training to the overall business process
Institutionalize learning opportunities that supplement work experience
Integrate organizational and individual developmental needs
Enable employees to keep abreast with the latest knowledge and skills and
enable them to undertake current and future responsibilities in a more effective
Provide linkages between the different functionaries of training activity
Provide linkages of training activity with overall Human Resource function

Target audience:
The training system shall cover all officers/ officials employed in the organization, who
will be nominated for training under a mandatory framework.

Terms and definitions:
Training: Training shall comprise of a training program, seminar, convention,
workshop, symposium or any other structured learning or developmental
program, based on organizational needs and/ or training need analysis.
Training Year: Training year shall mean a period of one year commencing from
April till 31
March of the subsequent year.
In-house training program: A training program designed, developed and
conducted within the organization, exclusively for the employees of the
organization, with or without the assistance of external agency (ies).
External training program: A training program designed, developed and
conducted within India, by an outside agency, not exclusively for the employees
of the organization, and to which one or more employees of the organization may
be nominated.
Customized training program: Training program conducted by external agency in
consultation with PSPCL HRD organization.
Need-based program: A training program, designed, developed and conducted
on the basis of the developmental needs felt and identified for the employees
concerned in the training needs form.

Types of Trainings:
Induction Level Training: Induction level training will be imparted to newly
recruited personnel.
Pre-Promotional Training: Pre-Promotional Training shall be imparted to those
likely to be promoted in near future, when there is significant functional difference
in the present post and the promoted post. For timely action on same details of
promotions due in near future will be shared with Chief Engineer HRD.
Onsite Training: To improve the performance of personnel deployed in
Operations, Thermal, Hydel & Gas Power Plants, onsite training shall be
Reorientation Training: For all levels of staff to update their knowledge, refresh
their concepts and to upgrade and refine their skills with attitudinal changes,
reorientation trainings shall be imparted.
General Management Training: Continuous developments of Sr.
executives/Managers, especially at the transition period in their career and in the
context of continuously changing business environment are of utmost
importance. There are a large number of knowledgeable technical and non-
technical officers in various divisions/departments who need to develop and
improve their managerial ability as managers with professional approach towards
their jobs. Due to the process of reforms, restructuring, unbundling, privatization
etc. the role of managers has become crucial and Management programs to
develop necessary competencies among them have become essential.
Trainings on Attitudinal Changes/ Behavioral Sciences: attitude of an individual
plays an extremely important role in his/her performance. In spite of the
availability of the best of knowledge and skill, the ability and willingness to
provide the desired services may still lack in individuals until they do not possess
appropriate attitudes. It is imperative that such trainings must be introduced at
the induction level and in-service training programs. These trainings must be aim
at development of sense of belongingness and pride towards the organization,
better understanding and consideration of the interests of other stake holders in
the system and developing a right and empathetic attitude towards consumers.
Such training programs must comprise of business games, counseling, role-plays
etc. and should involve a professional approach in public sector set up.
Energy Conservation and Energy Audit: Training to engineers on Energy
Conservation and Energy Audit methodologies.
Training on Renewable and Non-Conventional Energy Sources: While there is
constant growth in generation of electricity from renewable and non-conventional
sources of energy but facility for training/awareness creation in power sector
practically does not exist. Steps must be taken to establish facilities to provide
training and generate awareness in this field.
Training Involving Manufacturers: Manufacturers may be involved in training
activity to ensure that their specific product knowledge, expertise and facilities
are appropriately utilized. The suppliers of equipment should be required to
provide necessary training to operate their equipment. Where absorption of
technology is envisaged through supply of modern equipments, training of staff
should be an integral part of the contract so that the technology is internalized.
Simulator training: At suitable intervals simulator training should be used for
operation staff and engineers of Power Plants and Load Dispatch Centers.
Training for Contract Labor: Adequate training should be made a pre-requisite for
the contractors to qualify for supply of labor in power plants. Contract documents
should be accordingly modified.
Partners in Progress: Training program for trade union leaders.
Training on Court Cases and Court Craft: For officers.
Training to handle Disciplinary Cases: For officers.
Training on Retirement Planning: For officers and office.
Training for Literacy: For illiterate workmen.
Etiquette Training: For peons.
Training on Driving and Auto maintenance: For drivers.
Training for Physical and Mental Fitness: For all employees.
Training for Reforms: Since reform and restructuring process initiated is going to
change the power sector, training in Power Sector should be provided to all
concerned including the regulators and consumer forums. The middle and senior
level managers should be exposed to the regulatory framework and market
dynamics prevalent in other countries. Following issues need to be addressed in
Training on Reforms:
o Need for inculcating positive attitude across the stakeholders including
o Need for building greater accountability and responsibility in employees.
o Need for the employees to understand the needs and requirements of
o Creating an environment for initiative by linking performance with
recognition and reward.
o Doing away with Blame everything on management syndrome
o Empowering the employees to cope effectively with the changing
Technical Training for Non-Technical Executives: executives in finance and
management with non-technical background do not have adequate knowledge of
the technical issues that is essential to help them discharge their duties efficiently
and to effectively support the technical staff. The integration of disciplines such
as finance, management and HRD with technology is still to take place and
appropriate measure must be undertaken to ensure that. Power sector is no
longer confined to electrical engineering alone. Thus suitable technical trainings
must be imparted to Non-technical executives.
Training in Finance for Non Finance People: Adequate and relevant training in
Finance should be given to officers who also handle finance related activities
beside their other job responsibilities.
Training in Disaster Management: there is an urgent need to conduct purposeful
training courses on Disaster Management and for developing standard operation
practices for all agencies. A team of trainers from generation, transmission and
distribution functions should be trained in disaster management to tackle
situations like fire, earthquake, terrorist attack etc. to restore power in shortest
possible time. These trainers in-turn can train the other personnel.
Training Abroad: Opportunities for foreign training should be provided to
meritorious candidates through objective selection criteria. On competition of
such high cost abroad training the employee shall serve in the selection criteria.
On completion of such high cost abroad training the employee shall serve in the
selected field of training for a minimum period of 3 years. An attempt should be
made that all direct recruits with qualification such as B.Tech./BE, CA/CS/ICWA
with praiseworthy work performance may be sent abroad for training at least
once in their career life cycle at an appropriate juncture.

Classification of Training Needs:
Essential: Developmental needs which, if not met, may affect job performance.
Desirable: Developmental needs which are necessary for personal development
and growth.
Short-term: Developmental needs that needs to be fulfilled for immediate job
Long-term: Developmental needs that need to be fulfilled for future job
performance, in next two years.

Training target:
To implement at the earliest, 5 days of training in a training year to every
employee under a mandatory framework post implementation of this policy.
Employees shall make full use of the training systems to support the cause of
creating a learning and growing organization.
To establish training function as mandatory, disciplined and scientific activity with
special focus on implementation of learning of training programs in their
respective work area through the formation of Core Groups in various areas as
directed by HRD and supported by Top Management.
To strengthen the existing training institutions in PSPCL and upgrade resources
(including identification of high caliber internal faculties) so that the current
training set up of PSPCL transforms into a state of the art Staff College for
PSPCL and subsequently obtains ISO 9001:2000 certifications. Post which
PSPCL HRD can aim at providing services in training and development to other
government owned utilities in line with decision taken by full board of PSPCL in
its meeting held on 28/8/03 for development of Management Development
Institute (MDI). The following points need to be taken care while the development
o The manpower strength/faculty requirements need to be kept on identical
lines with PMI/ESCI but it is recommended to recruit at least 5 no MBAs with
electrical engineering (#2) / computer (#1) / HR (#2) background and
minimum passing marks of 65% at both graduation and post graduation
level. It is learnt that PSPCL has decided to recruit engineers for their
emerging needs; therefore, the above mentioned MBAs may also be
recruited through ongoing recruitment process. These MBAs shall be strictly
allocated for HRD work and shall form foundation for future HRD services.
To attract quality MBAs their pay structure need to be higher than the
existence pay structure for PSPCL officers in Engineering and Finance
o PSPCL MDI enters into strategic alliance with premier power and training
institutes of India and abroad for its regular and occasional operations. One
of the SEB, the recent times, has developed their own training institute with
modern amenities. Since the actual functioning of the PSPCL MDI may take
couple of years time, therefore, it is recommended that an alternative
arrangement which requires minimum necessary changes can be explored.
During visit to various places in PSPCL, it is thought that 32 no flats located
in the residential area of Shakti Vihar may be suitable for this. This may be
altered on the pattern of NPDL training institute CENPEID. This will enable
the implementation of training calendar with immediate effect with
empanelled training partners.
o The support services like security, housekeeping and catering etc. may be
outsourced. The sample work order/agreement on outsourcing of security
and catering services obtained jointly with PSPCL HRD from important
power training institutes are available for reference.

Nomination system:
The objectives of the nomination system are:
To ensure that the employees are nominated to training in areas that are relevant
to their duties or which have been identified as their developmental needs for
present and future postings.
To ensure that opportunities to attend training programs are made available to all
employees to achieve the training target of average of 5 days of training in a
training year for each employee.

Nomination for training and education programs:
HRD head quarter in Patiala under the command of CE-HRD shall be the central
authority for all training related functions of HRD.
At other levels the responsibility for planning, co-ordination, execution, execution,
monitoring and evaluation of training activities shall have shared responsibilities
of nodal officers as laid down by PSPCL.
PSPCL HRD would send to zonal nodal officer (for training) SE/Dy CE attached
with CE/EIC of respective zone and existing Deputy Directors TTCs (HRD
coordinators) schedules for the next programs planned for employees. Selection
of employees for the scheduled training program shall be the joint responsibility
of the HRD and CE/EIC of respective zone. Such decisions shall be binding on
all employees.
For better co-ordination and efficient implementation of training related activities,
TTI and TTCs should be located headed by Dy DIR
o Border Zone Amritsar
o South Zone Patiala
o West Zone Bathinda
o North and Central Zones Jalandhar and Ludhiana (merged under one
PSPCL HRD along with nodal officers will ensure that employees are normally
nominated to programs related to training needs identified.
An employee deputed for attending any of the training programs included in the
training calendar shall forward his/her request for nomination, through reporting
officer, at least three weeks before the commencement of the program.
Decision on imparting training to employees who are due for retirement (HODs
3 months, officers 6 months and officials 1 year) shall be taken only after
taking in account the nature of training, opportunity for the trainee to extend the
benefits of the training to the job at hand. Such deliberation and decision will
come in the purview of HRD organization and decided in consultation with
members in charge.
Employees may generally be considered for nomination to training programs only
in the areas identified in the training needs analysis and for training programs
being conducted during the year.
The authorities competent to approve nominations for external training programs
shall be concerned member in charge of the organization. Immediate reporting
officer will send names for the training to Chief Engineer/HOD of the respective
department, which further will be sent to CE-HRD for obtaining final approval of
concerned member. If training is common for more than one wing then the
Chairman shall be competent authority for final approval. In case of abroad
programs Chairman shall be the competent authority.
With a view to achieve the training target of average of 5 days of training in a
training year for each employee, HRD, along with the nodal officers/TTCs shall
periodically prepare a list of employees who have not attended any training
program or have not yet completed an average of 5 days of training. Nominations
shall be generally based on this list. The list shall be made available to
concerned employees, nodal officers and the HRD coordinators.
Officers with outstanding academic and professional history shall be nominated
for the Executive Post Graduate Diploma in Business Management; PSPCL on
the reform growth path will require a substantial number of young professionals
who are committed for an accelerated development of the organization. Driven
by the need to set high performance standards such professionals will have the
ability to design, develop, and institute improved systems and processes, bring to
their work an understanding of markets and market mechanisms; have the
courage to take personal risks and lead change; have the capacity to not only
sustain their own motivation but to motivate others working with them. To
develop such champions of growth programs similar to that as mentioned below
shall be very helpful.
15 months Executive P.G. Diploma in Business Management (EPGDBM):
Energy management with specialization in Power Distribution is offered in school
of energy management, MDI in collaboration with Ministry of Power, Government
of India and USAID under distribution reform, upgrades and management
(DRUM) project.
MBA (power management) by NPTI. Program duly approved by AICTE is
affiliated to Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak.
PGDBM and Management Development programs fir in-service PSPCL
managers are under development by IIM, Bangalore/CPRI, Bangalore.
Further depending on the need HRD organization shall also look into customized
certification programs in partnership with various institutes for employees of
PSPCL organization.
HRD organization shall also look into following education programs:
o Distance Education: Employees may be permitted to undergo distance
education for cultivating special managerial skills like HRM, Finance and
Project Management etc. Diploma in Training and Development, recognized
by Government of India, Ministry of HRD may be one example of such
distance education programs.
o Continuance of Education: selected meritorious employees may be deputed
to continue education on Technical and Managerial courses with an
undertaking to serve in the board for a specified period after completion of
o Continuance of Education at employees own cost: employees may be
permitted to undergo continuance of education on part time basis at their cost
provided such continuance shall not affect their normal duties expected.
The process of identifying prospects that can fit the above description shall be
responsibility of CE-HRD. CE-HRD shall seek specific suggestion in this regard
from various HODs, subsequent to which the suggested names shall be
deliberated with concerned members. Having arrived at a decision in this regard
final approval of the competent authority shall be availed of by CE-HRD. As
deemed fit by CE-HRD, undertaking from employees will be sought to serve in
area of specialization for a specified period after completion of such courses.
The induction level training of 2 months duration currently being conducted at TTI
and TTCs shall continue as earlier for new induction/promotion from lower rank.
The 5 days field training proposed now shall run for in-service staff.

Categorization of programs:
On the basis of duration, training programs would be categorized as:
Short duration 3 days or less
Medium duration 4-7 days
Long duration more than 7 days

Limit on the number of programs:
An employee may be nominated for training programs within the limits stipulated
Short duration maximum of 3 in year
Medium duration maximum of 2 in a year
Long duration maximum of 1 in a year
Chairman shall be the competent authority to permit relaxation of the limits on the
number of training programs for an employee in a year as stipulated above such
deliberation and decision will come in the purview of HRD and CE-HRD after consulting
members will forward the decision arrived at to the chairman, who shall be the
competent authority on such matters.

Informing regarding nomination:
An employee shall normally be informed through his reporting officer, by HRD,
regarding his/her nomination for the program preferably with a notice of
3 days in case of short-duration programs
7 days in case of medium-duration programs
10 days in case of long-duration programs
However, where verbal or any other form of concurrence of the HOD is obtained, the
period of notice could be less. Copy of the communication regarding nomination for a
training program shall be sent to the HRD, head office at Patiala.

Non-attendance/absence from training programs:
Non-attendance of any training program for which an employee has been
nominated shall be allowed only on the basis of recommendation by the Chief
Engineer/HOD of the respective department. Approval on the same shall be
given by CE-HRD.
Communication (supported by a reasonable explanation) regarding inability to
attend the program shall be intimated to the HRD before the program is held. The
concerned HOD shall be responsible for nominating a substitute for the program.
Where an employee has been nominated but has absented himself or withdrew
in the midst of the program or has partially attended the program without prior
approval mentioned as above, the cost of the program may be recovered from
the monthly salary of the employee in interest-free equated monthly installments
within a year.
The PSPCL HRD, shall take up with Reporting Officers regarding cases of
absence/withdrawal, which in turn will be passed on to the concerned Chief
Engineer/HOD for necessary action.

Training code directory:
A Training code directory, listing out codes for various training courses/programs
shall be evolved, maintained and circulated by HRD for uniform compilation and
classification of training needs identified and training programs attended by
The needs may be analyzed on the basis of the training course codes given in
the code directory. All those courses that are required by set of
employees/officers which do not appear in the directory shall be marked UCFID
(Under Considered for inclusion in the Directory) for initial
consideration/registration. Subsequently these would be reported to
Director/HRD for inclusion in the Code Directory.

Training Management Information System (TMIS):
HRD would maintain a central computerized and software-enabled database in
appropriate formats entered in suitable software applications, of training details of all
employees, which shall include:
Training Needs Identified
Training Programs Nominated/Attended/Absented
Training Program Evaluation
The HRD shall also maintain details of the programs conducted, training cost and all
other similar information. Training details shall also be periodically updated in the
personal files of the employees. A systematic/simple IT system shall be developed
which links- employee database with the Training Management Information System.
Software enabled TMIS shall be linked with HRIS (Human Resource Information
System) and must aim at supplying monthly MIS (Management Information System)
reports to PSPCL top management.

Training evaluation:
The objective of training evaluation is to enhance value addition through training
programs by building on the strengths and by removing the shortcomings, if any, and
measure the impact of training programs on job behavior. Training evaluation may be
done at three levels:
Pre-training evaluation: Pre-training evaluation is necessarily required in case of
all in house or external long-duration programs. Impact assessment is required in
case of all medium and long-duration programs and program feedback shall be
taken for all programs. In case of short/medium duration program need based
pre training evaluation shall be carried out by HRD. Pre-training evaluation is
aimed at detecting shortcomings in the program design before the
commencement of the program. For this, in case of all in-house long duration
programs, the HRD shall review the program design, content etc. in the light of
the feedback obtained from a sample of participants or the designated reviewers.
Program feedback: The HRD shall seek participant feedback at the end of the
training program in the program feedback form for making
modifications/improvements in future programs.
Impact assessment: it involves measuring the change in job behavior of the
employees on account of the learning during the training program. The
information would be collected through the Impact Assessment Form (IAF) after
completion of 6 months of the program.

Regulation of Entitlements:
Entitlements of employees on training, relating to TA/DA shall be regulated as per the
PSPCL Travelling Allowance Rules, PSPCLs existing rules relating to food expenditure
(ref o/o no. 6488/GB/M-217 (Rules) dated 27.3.96) are outdated and need to be revised
at least proportionate to rise in Consumer Price Index. The proposed rates/entitlements
with respect to Food, Outdoor activities, Audio/Video aids etc. are available for

Sharing of learning and formation of core and implementation groups:
Employees who have attended training programs shall share their learning with other
employees in forums created for these sharing. PSPCL HRD Organization would work
towards creating these forums of knowledge sharing.
In vase of medium and long duration programs for executives, the participant shall
submit an action plan to his/her Reporting Officer, with a copy marked to the Chief
Engineer HRD, detailing the steps that would be required to be taken by PSPCL and
by him/her for implementing the learning during training in his/her job. Various Core
groups in recent past have been constituted in PSPCL to follow up their learning during
training programs attended, with specific Action Plans. This practice has been widely
appreciated and it should be a continued practice. These Core Groups shall be
supported by implementation Groups to be framed in field on zonal level for on ground
implementation of such Action Plans. The Quality Circle Model being implemented in
NTPC and BHEL at shop floor level needs to be emulated in PSPCL in due course of

Mandatory Training:
To ensure that in-service training becomes a part of career plan in PSPCL, training shall
be made mandatory and the grant of promotional scales (9/16/23 years step ups) of all
officers and employees shall be linked to completion of minimum 5 days of training
annually, attended by each person to be eligible for consideration of these pay scales
(e.g. 9 years pay scales shall be granted after completion of 45 days training in a band
of 9 years and in case a person has missed 5 days in a particular year, he/she may
complete this gap by availing 10 days training during next year but before the
completion of 9 years.
In addition to 100 years kept for ACR for officers, 25 marks shall be to be kept for
successful completion of training. These marks shall be allotted by the training agency
(internal/external) and conveyed to the confidential section through C.E/HRD
accordingly; each individual shall be assessed for promotion out of 125 marks instead of
100 marks being presently kept for various performance parameters in the ACR. In case
any individual who defaults to attend two subsequent nominations for training; he/she
shall automatically attract punitive action equivalent to one Censure entry. The training
agency (internal/external) shall grade (among below average, average, good, very good
and outstanding) the officials on the basis of their performance during training shall be
given 20% weight age to its corresponding numerical value for arriving at overall value
for officials. This clause shall form part of service regulation of officials and officers.

Training Policy enumerated above has been formulated keeping in perspective the goal
of establishing the training organization of PSPCL as a system driven organization
rather people driven organization. While it is important to have such a structure and
practices that enables PSPCL to become a learning organization but at the same time it
is equally important that such structure must be in place for the entire organization of
PSPCL. Rationale behind that is simple, which is - training function of PSPCLs HRD
organization cannot act in isolation but is interlinked with the rest of the organization and
thus the need to have an efficient system driven practices is equally necessary for the
whole organization and cannot be restricted for the training function only. Software
enabled Training Management Information System (TMIS) must be linked with Human
Resource Information System (HRIS) and should aim at supplying monthly MIS reports
to PSCPL top management so as to enable them have updated position on skills and
performances of Human Resource engaged in the organization and facilitate the
decision making processes related to transfers, promotions, performance monitoring,


Prasad. V (2005) Training and Development in Godrej India
The case explains the training and development initiatives of the Godrej Group since
the late Nineties. In the late 1990, the Godrej group initiated various training and
development programs such as the TQM workshops, Parivartan, EVA training,
GALLOP, Spark, E-Gyan, English language training and BPO training.
The case explains each of these programs in detail and the benefits that the group
reaped from all these initiatives. The case ends with the shortcomings in Godrejs
training and development initiatives.

Yndi Rowland, Ph.D. (2007) Executive Director, WebAIM Training and Professional
Development for Web Accessibility
The case stresses that institutions of higher education who take Web Accessibility
seriously must create systems of training and professional development for their staffs
and faculties. Case studies were gathered from eight authors who were tasked to assist
their institutions with Web Accessibility. These case studies should assist higher
education in understanding a range of personnel development practices currently used
in accessibility efforts. The authors describe how their campus supports needed
accessibility skills for personnel as well as the breadth and depth of those supports.
They also present perceived outcomes from these efforts and lessons learned.

Nicola Steele (2005) Training skills development at Tesco
Tesco Academy Director Nicola Steele explains why over 140 Tesco personnel have
attended courses leading to TAP certification over the last 3 3years and sets out some
of the benefits that the initiative has generated. (2005). Tesco was founded in 1924.
Over the past 79 years the company has grown and developed as the retailing market
has changed.
Tesco Academy Director Nicola Steele takes up the story : we wanted to work in
partnership with a like-minded organization that had a proven track record in trainer
development but was flexible and pragmatic enough to adapt to Tesco needs.

D Rudoluf (2003) Training Employees of IBM through e-learning
The case explains in detail the concept of e-learning the new mode of employee
training adopted by IBM. IBM had focused on its workforce development since
inception. The case discusses in detail about how IBM implemented different e-learning
programs for different groups of employees, based on their requirements. The company
implemented the Basic Blue program for its new managers, which was based on a
four-tier learning model. Finally, the case talks about the benefits reaped by IBM from its
e-learning initiatives and about its future endeavors in this field.

Granier T. Brian (2007) Cross-training
This article is presented as a case study outlining the reasons for cross-learning,
methods of implementation and analysis of the results as it applies to his personal
experience with his IT services team. While the context of the case study should be kept
in mind, it is his expectation that his information can be useful for many managers
regardless of industry in analyzing and assessing the value of cross-training in their
teams, a basic framework for implementation and how it can positively impact core
business goals.

Mulligan Jennifer Albornoz (1990) Microsoft Customizes Multilevel Privacy
In the late 1990s, Microsoft moved to bolster the security of its products, services and
operations and found that its employees lacked understanding and awareness about
data privacy. It then embarked on an employee training program. Although Microsoft
had to overcome the challenges of a decentralized corporate structure in training its
employees while also incorporating privacy awareness into its software development life
cycle, it has succeeded in training 100% of its employees on privacy. But generic
privacy training isnt enough: Microsoft has also instituted specialized training for data
handlers, marketing and sales campaign managers, and its vendors.

Reeta (2009) Training and Development and Recruitment Process
She concluded that the system of strategic training need identification plans to identify
the needs which would help the individual to actually apply it at his workplace. By
involving the HOD at the beginning, ensures that the training program conducted would
be of relevance to the department and will help them in achieving their objectives.

Saxena Manjari (2005) Study of Recruitment and Training in Anand Rathi Securities
Pvt. Ltd.
It gave her view of the working culture and the importance of each activity or process in
HR department. It gave her chance to interact with HR professional in the department
and know the process. The learning did not only resolve within the project boundaries
but also beyond it, where she learn lots other work that done in HR department and its
important in organization.

Dwarakanath P. (2001) Effective Learning and Development Programs Best
Best companies in the world have realized that by continuously developing and training
their employees they can acquire the core competencies needed for competitive
advantage and flexibility. These organizations encourage their employees to learn
continuously there by realizing the benefits of self-development and an habit of learning
and sharing. Every employee is encouraged to have measurable goals to enable him to
plan his/her career path and learning path.

Aastha Suji (2009) The Impact of Training and Development
She concludes that through proper training an employee can become multi skilled and
this she has practically noticed through my analysis. Thus, training endeavors to impart
knowledge, skill and attitudes necessary to perform job related task. She has founded
out that because of the training employees are more able to perform their work very


The main objectives of the study are to identify the training needs of the employees of
PSPCL. So the overall objective is to identify the different tasks performed by
employees at various departments and the training required to effectively perform the
tasks and hence contribute to individual and organizational growth. Thus the major
objectives are listed as below:
1. To know the different training and development programs at PSPCL.
2. To know and analyze the training needs of the employees of different
departments at PSPCL.
3. To know the main tasks performed in different department of PSPCL.
4. To know the level of satisfaction of employees of PSPCL.
5. To know the suggestion of different employees of PSPCL to overcome individual
and organizational obstacles in their progress.

To conduct any research a scientific method must be followed. The universe of study is
very large in which it is difficult to correct information from all the employees. So, the
sampling method has been followed for the study. The analysis is based on primary as
well as secondary data.
Research Design
o Exploratory research design: In this research, exploratory research design
is used. This research design is used to discover the tasks performed by
the employees at different departments and to explore training needs of
the employees.
o Descriptive research design: in this research, descriptive research design
is used to describe the tasks of a particular department. This research
design is used to describe the training requirements for various aspects
viz. to pursue career aspirations, for personal growth, for organizational
growth etc.

Scope of the study
This study is conducted in the HR department of Punjab State Corporation
Limited (PSPCL), located at T.T.I., Shakti Vihar at Patiala. The scope of the
study is limited to various offices situated in Patiala. This project is of great
significance for the company as well as the employees. The study involves 71
employees of PSPCL ranking from Stenographers, LDC to AEEs and Sr. XENs.
The studies will help to identify the hindrances in the growth of the PSPCL
employees and the training requirements to overcome those hindrances.

Data Collection Methods
o Primary sources: Questionnaires were used to collect the responses of the
employees and simultaneously interview was used to facilitate the process
of data collection.
o Secondary sources: Secondary sources is collected from articles on
internet, magazines, newspapers and various books.

Sampling Design
o Sampling Technique: Judgment and convenience sampling technique has
been used. The survey involved employees up to the rank of Sr. XEN and
not above.
o Sampling Unit: It determines who is to be surveyed. In this study, sampling
unit is employees of PSPCL in various departments.
o Sample Size: In this study, the sample size is restricted to 71 respondents
(employees of PSPCL).

The foregoing discussion has bought out thing very clearly that organization has very
pragmatic HRD policy to develop its employees. In spite of it outcome has not been very
encouraging. The reasons could be numerous. The results of this project reveals that all
workers and staff members are village to go on got further training program. So what
should be training areas for individuals, groups and organization has been discussed

To combat the competitive environment, every organization need to have stars i.e. the
employees with high performance and high potential level. As per the result of the study
through the nature of training needs of the employees is almost similar yet the contents
required and the way of disseminating may very as per the cadres of employees.
Moreover the training needs of staff and workers are more of technical nature and
behavioral ones.


From the data collected from the employees of the PSPCL, the following has been
1. Most of the employees who were questioned were in their last years of
service. Hence a common recommendation was that the training program
should be imparted in early years of service which would reap more benefits
for the organization.
2. Training program in most of the departments is initiated through
recommendation by higher staff. However, the employees suggest that they
should meet the needs of their job profile.
3. Training programs on stress management should be introduced in the
4. Training program on improvement of work culture should be introduced in the
5. The employees have also suggested that adequate furniture, stationary etc.
should be provided.
6. As revealed from the data analysis and conclusion, regular training session
should be arranged in each department. Also employees feel that they should
be provided with list of different training programs from which they can
choose as per their needs.
7. As per the majority of employees, following training programs should be
incorporated on priority:
Training on communication skills
Leadership training
Computer training/ IT training
Education on policies of the organization
Refresher courses- awareness course (periodically, say annually) on
new policies and new developments in the organization for the
Accounts employees.
The best suited approach to impart the above program would be On Job training and
Classrooms or Seminars.

Although, the research has been a success, yet it was limited by several factors before
it could be completed. Some of the major factors are listed below:
1. The employees were resistant to reveal any information, for the fear that it could
be misused against them.
2. The employees had a very busy schedule, so most of them were reluctant to
answer the questionnaires.
3. The process of data collection was very time consuming as it involved visits to
several departments.
4. The data collected during a research can become outdated fairly quickly, as the
training requirements can change rapidly.


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2. Reeta. (2009) Project Report; Training and Development and Recruitment
Process; United Institute of Technology, Naini, Allahabad.
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4. Dwarakanath P, (2001) Effective Learning and Development Programs Best
Practices, Tata Consultancy Services, Chennai, India.
5. Subhash C. Kundu, Divya Malhan and Pradeep Kumar (2007) Human
Resource Management Practices in Shipping Companies a study; Delhi
Business Review Vol. 8, No. 1 (January-June 2007).
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Publishers; New Delhi, India; 2010.
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with special reference to mother dairy; Amrapali Institute of Management and
Computer Applications Shiksha Nagar, Lamachaur, Haldwani (Affiliated to
Kumaun University, Nainital).
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and Sons; New Delhi.
10. Tripathi P.C. (2006); Human Resource Development; Sultan Chand snd Sons;
New Delhi (India).
11. Olaniyan D.A., Ojo Lucas. B. (2008), European Journal of Scientific Research;
Staff Training and Development: A Vital Tool for Organizational Effectiveness.
12. Yndi Rowland, Ph.D. (2007) ; Executive Director, WebAIM; Training and
Professional Development for Web Accessibility.
13. Nicola Steele (2005) Training skills Development at Tesco
14. D Rudoluf (2003) training Employees of IBM Through E-learning
15. Mulligan Jennifer Albornoz (1990) Microsoft Customizes Multilevel Privacy
16. PSEB, Introduction to PSEB.


BBMB Bhakra Beas Management Board (administration, maintenance and
operation of works of Bhakra, Nangal and Beas Projects)
CMD Chairman and Managing Director
Admin. Secy. Govt. Administration Secretary Government
Pb. Deptt. Punjab Department
ToT Training of Trainers
TNA Training Need Analysis
TTI Technical Training Institute
TTC Technical Training Center
Dy DIR Deputy Director