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1. Describe the different types of research design

a) EXP!RA"!RY !R #!R$%A"&'E RESEAR()*
$eaning of E+p,oratory research* is study of an unfamiliar problem about which the researcher has
little or no knowledge - It is ill-structured and much less focused on pre-determined objectives.
P-rposes* to generate new ideas or - to increase the researchers familiarity with the problem - to make a
precise formulation of the problem - for clarifying concepts - to check its feasibility
"he Steps in E+p,oration* a) iterat-re S-r.ey* A study of related and pertinent books, articles and
reports - A workable hypothesis may be formulated; important variables may be identified.
b) E+periences S-r.ey* Informal interviews with persons eperienced in the area of study
c) Ana,ysis of insight/sti0-,ating cases* an intensive study of some selected cases can
$eaning * is a fact!finding investigation with ade"uate interpretation - more specific than an eploratory
study- data are collected by# observation, interviewing and mail "uestionnaire.
(riteria* #irst, the problem must be describable and not-arguable -Second1 the data should be agreeable
to an accurate "uantitative assemblage for reliability and significance - "hird. it should be possible to
develop valid standards of comparison - ast, it should lend itself to verifiable procedure of collection
and analysis of data.
%sef-,ness* contribute to the development of a young science- useful in verifying focal concepts through
empirical observation - increases our awareness of the measuring devices - useful for prediction about
areas of social life
i0itations* It is not applicable to problems which cannot satisfy the re"uired criteria mentioned earlier -
$he researcher may make description an end in itself - $he researcher may tend to over ! use statistics.
c) D&A2N!S"&( S"%DY
$eaning* It is similar to descriptive study but with different focus- directed towards discovering what is
happening, why it is happening and what can be done about -It aims at identifying the causes of a
problem and the possible solutions for it.
P-rpose /It is concerned with discovering and testing whether certain variables are associated.
Re3-ire0ents* prior knowledge of the problem ie., clear ! cut definition of the given population,
ade"uate methods for collecting accurate information, precise measurement of variables, statistical
analysis and test of significance. $he research design must make much more provision for protection
against bias than is re"uired in an eploratory study.
$eaning* to assess the effects of particular variables on a phenomenon by keeping the other variables
constant or controlled - $he factor which is influenced by other factors is called a dependent variable, and
the other factors which influence it are known as independent variables.
Proced-re* $wo identical groups are selected. %ne of the groups is used as eperimental group, and the
other as control group. &perimental group is eposed to an eperimental variable or stimulus- 'ontrol
group is not eposed to the eperimental variable - $he difference between the eperimental and control
groups( outcome is attributed to the effect of the eperimental variable - &&,-stration *
4. State the contents of a report and e+p,ain it.
)A*$+ %, *&+&A*'- *&)%*$# 'over sheet - $itle page ! Acknowledgement - 'ontents .ist of the
$ables - Abstract - Introduction#
/%01 %, $-& *&)%*$# Aims and %bjectives - Review of Literature 2ethodology - *esults or
,indings - Analysis and 0iscussion ! 'onclusions ! *ecommendations - Appendi - *eferences
5. E,aborate the inter.ie6 0ethod of pri0ary data co,,ection.
!7SER'A"&!N* $eaning* %bservation may be defined as a systematic viewing of a specific
phenomenon in its proper setting for the specific purpose of gathering data for a particular study.
(haracteristics* It is both a physical and a mental activity ! selective - made for the specific purpose - It
captures the natural social contet in which persons behaviour occurs.
"ypes of !bser.ation* 3a4 participant observation, 3b4 non-participant observation, it may also be
classified into 3c4 direct observation, and 3d4 indirect observation. 5ith reference to the rigour of the
system adopted, observation is classified into 3e4 controlled observation, and 3f4 uncontrolled observation.
Ad.antages* 0ata collected in their 6natural settings- more suitable for studying children, tribal, animals,
bird, etc - improves the opportunities for analy7ing the contetual background at behaviour - less
demanding of the subjects and less biasing effect - 2echanical devices may be used for recording data
i0itations* no use for studying past events - not suitable for studying opinions and attitudes- difficult to
get a representative sample - researcher has to wait for the event to occur- not be possible to predict here
and when the event will occur, e.g., road accident, communal clash.
$eaning* &perimentation is a research process used to study the casual relationships between variables
- It aims at studying the effect of an independent variable on a dependent variable, by keeping the other
independent variable constant through some type of control.
"he ad.antages are* can determine causal relationships between variables - influence of etraneous
variables can be more effectively controlled - human error is reduced to the minimum - 2ore conditions
may be created and tested - generally yields eact measurements and can be repeated for verifying results.
"he Disad.antages*
It is difficult to establish comparable control and eperimental groups - scope for eperimentation with
human beings is limited - difficult to design, epensive and time consuming - may lack realism - can be
used only in studies of the present but not of past or future.
$eaning* +imulation is thus a techni"ue of performing sampling eperiments on the model of the
systems. $he eperiments are done on the model instead of on the real system, because the latter would be
too inconvenient and epensive.
"ype !f Si0-,ation* $here are three types of simulation, vi7., 3a4 man simulations, 3b4 computer
simulations, and 3c4 man-computer simulations !
App,ications* /ehavioural and social problems, e.g., population dynamics; group behaviour; social
conflicts; )olitical problems- &conomic problems - /usiness problems - 5ar strategies and tactics.
S%R'EY* +urvey research is a systematic gathering of data from respondents through "uestionnaires. A
"uestionnaire is a formal list of "uestions to be answered in the survey. 8uestionnaire may be
administered by mail, telephone, or personal interview.
S-r.ey "echni3-es
3a4 personal interview 3b4 telephone survey and 3c4 mail survey.
Definition* Interviewing may be defined as a two-way, systematic conversation between an investigator
and an informant, initiated for obtaining information relevant to a specific study.
Ad.antages* suitable method for gathering information from illiterate - useful for collecting a wide range
of data - for probing interviewing is re"uired - 5here the area covered is compact, or when a sufficient
number of "ualified interviewers are available, personal interview is feasible - )eople are usually more
willing to talk than to write - enables the investigator to grasp the behavioural contet of the data
furnished by the respondents.
i0itations* costly, both in money and time - $he interview results are often adversely affected by
interviewers mode of asking "uestions and interactions, and incorrect recording and also by the
respondents faulty perception, faulty memory, inability to articulate etc - personal and financial
information may be refused - problem of recording information
$he interviews may be classified into# 3a4 structured or directive interview, 3b4 unstructured or non-
directive interview, 3c4 focused interview, and 3d4 clinical interview and 3e4 depth interview.
$elephone interviewing is a non-personal method of data collection.
%ses* useful for five or si simple "uestions - 5hen the survey must be conducted in a very short period
or time - 5hen the subject is interesting to respondents - 5hen the respondents are widely scattered
Ad.antages* low cost - Information can be collected in a short period of time- interviewer bias is reduced
- less demanding upon the interviewer - does not involve field work.
Disad.antages* limited to persons with listed telephones - lengthy interview not possible - not suitable
for comple surveys - respondents will not cooperate with the interviewer for personal "uestions - $he
respondents characteristics and environment cannot be observed - cannot use visual aids like charts,
maps, illustrations or comple scales.
$A& S%R'EY*
Definition* $his method involves sending "uestionnaires to the respondents with a re"uest to complete
them and return them by post.
A,ternati.e 0odes of sending 3-estionnaires* 394 personal delivery, 3:4 attaching "uestionnaire to a
product, 3;4 advertising "uestionnaire in a newspaper or maga7ine, and 3<4 newsstand inserts.
Ad.antages of 0ai, s-r.ey* less costly than personal interviews - can cover etensive geographical
areas - useful in contacting persons such as senior business eecutives - $he respondents can complete the
"uestionnaires at their conveniences - provide more anonymity than personal interviews
Disad.antages of 0ai, s-r.ey * response rate is low - difficult to determine the degree of
representativeness of a sample- causes for inade"uate and non responses cannot be known
8. ist o-t the criteria for a good hypothesis and state the proced-re for testing a hypothesis.
Definition !f )ypothesis* According to *ummel and /alline, =A hypothesis is a statement capable of
being tested and thereby verified or rejected.>
(riteria !f A 2ood )ypothesis* should provide tentative answer to the proposed problem - can be in the
form of a declaration statement - should be operational - should be as simple - It should be specific -
very small - stated in advance of collecting evidence aimed at its testing.
PR!(ED%RE &N "ES"&N2 !# )YP!")ES&S*
1. #or0-,ate a hypothesis* Set up two hypotheses instead of one, so that if one hypothesis is true, the
other is false. $he two hypothesis are null hypothesis3-o4 and alternate hypothesis3-94.
4. Set -p a s-itab,e significance ,e.e,* $he confidence with which a null hypothesis rejected or accepted
depends upon the significance level used for the purpose. A significance level of ?@, AorB 9@ means the
risk of making the wrong decision is about ?@.AorA 9@.
5. Se,ect test criterion* $he test criteria that are fre"uently used in hypotheses testing are 7, t, f C D:
8. (o0p-te* It involves various computations for the application of that particular test.
9. $a:e decisions* draw a statistical decision, involve the acceptance or rejection of the null hypothesis.
9. Write the proced-re for so,.ing one 6ay and t6o 6ay Anno.a prob,e0.
$he AN!'A is statistical techni"ue specially designed to test whether the means of more than two
"uantitative populations are e"ual.
"echni3-es of Ana,ysis of 'ariance * ; i) %ne way Analysis of Eariance 3or4 %ne way 'lassification
3ii4 $wo way Analysis of Eariance 3or4 $wo way 'lassification
!b<ects of Ana,ysis of 'ariance* $o obtain a measure of the total variation within the series - $o find a
measure of variation between or among the components - $o test the significance of difference between
the variations in two series or more may be measured.
Ass-0ptions* &ach sample is a simple random sample - )opulations from which the samples are selected
is normally distributed - &ach one of the samples is independent of the other samples - &ach populations
has the same variance and identical means - $he effect of various components are addictive
%ses* It is used to test whether the means of a number of population 3 more than two 4 are e"ual.
Proced-re for so,.ing !ne Way ANN!'A*
i. ,ind F G Fo.of observations H ii. ,ind $ 3 $otal of observations H
iii. ,ind the correction factor - ', I
iv. ,ind the total sum of s"uares # ++$I
v. ,ind the column sum of s"uares
ANN!'A "ab,e *
So-rces of 'ariations S-0 of S3-ares Df $ean S-0 of S3-ares #/Ratio
/etween 'olumns ++' '-9 2+' I ++' J '-9
, I 2+' J 2+& 5ithin 'olumns ++& F-' 2+& I ++& J F-'
$otal ++$ F-9
Proced-re for so,.ing "6o Way ANN!'A*
i. ,ind F G Fo.of observations H
ii. ,ind $ 3 $otal of observations H
iii. ,ind the correction factor
', I
iv. ,ind the total sum of s"uares
v. ,ind the column sum of s"uares
vi. ,ind the row sum of s"uares
vii. *esidual &rror
++& I ++$ ! 3 ++' K ++*4
So-rces of 'ariations S-0 of S3-ares Df $ean S-0 of S3-ares #/Ratio
/etween 'olumns ++' c-9 2+' I ++' J '-9
, I 2+' J 2+&
, I 2+* J 2+&
/etween *ows ++* r-9 2+* I ++* J *-9
5ithin 'olumns ++& 3c-94 3r-94 2+& I ++& J 3'-943*-94
$otal ++$ F-9
=. E+p,ain the steps in research process.
*esearch process consists of series of actions or steps necessary to effectively carry out research and the
desired se"uencing of these steps.394 formulating the research problem; 3:4 etensive literature survey; 3;4
developing the hypothesis; 3<4 preparing the research design; 3?4 determining sample design; 3L4
collecting the data; 3M4 eecution of the project; 3N4 analysis of data; 3O4 hypothesis testing; 39P4
generalisations and interpretation, and 3994 preparation of the report or presentation of the results, i.e.,
formal write-up of conclusions reached.
>. a) E+p,ain the different types of sca,es that can be -sed in report.
&ntrod-ction* In case of measurement of attitude, the data belongs to the abstract or "ualitative type.
$here are four widely accepted levels of measurement called measurement scale. $hese are nominal,
ordinal, interval and ratio scales.
;a)No0ina, Sca,e? In this scale, numbers are used to identify the objects. &.g. Qniversity *egistration
numbers assigned to students - It is a mere identification and counting - If numbers are interchanged as
one for =Fo> and two for =1es>, it wont affect the answers given by the respondents !
Limitations: $here is no rank ordering - Fo mathematical operation is possible - 'alculation of standard
deviation and mean is not possible - It is possible to epress mode.
;b) !rdina, Sca,e* used for ranking in most market research studies - used to find consumer perception,
preferences etc -
Statistical implications: calculate mode and median - In market research ordinal scale is used.
;c) &nter.a, Sca,e? $he distance given on the scale represents e"ual distance on the property being
measured. Interval scale may tell us R-ow far apart the objects are with respect to an attributeSR - $his
means that, the difference can be compared.
Example: -ow many -ours do you spend to do class assignment every day.
T ;P min. ;P min. to 9 hr. 9hr. to 9U hrs. 9U hrs.
;d) Ratio Sca,e* has a meaningful 7ero point - 5ith this scale, length, weight, distance, can be measured.
In this scale, we can say, how many times greater or smaller one object compared to the other !
Example: +ales of this year for product A is twice the sale of the same product last year.
Statistical implications: All statistical operation can be performed on this scale.
>) b) E+p,ain the c,assification of data.
Definition of (,assification*
'lassification is the process of arranging data into se"uences and groups according to their common
characteristics or separating them into different but related parts. - +ecrist
(haracteristics of c,assification* performs homogeneous grouping of data -brings out points of
similarity and dissimilating - may be either real or imaginary - fleible to accommodate adjustments
!b< @ p-rposes of c,assifications
$o simplify and condense the large data - $o present the facts to easily in understandable form - $o allow
comparisons - $o help to draw valid inferences - $o relate the variables among the data - $o help further
analysis - $o eliminate unwanted data - $o prepare tabulation
$odes @ "ypes of (,assification
3a4 Veographical 3b4 'hronological 3c4 8ualitative 3d4 Fumerical, "uantitative
a4 Geographical Classification: the classification is based on the geographical regions.
b) Chronological Classification: the statistical data are classified according to the time of its occurrence
c) Qualitative Classification: the data are classified according to the presence or absence of
attributesJcharacteristics in given units. E+# .iteracy, &ducation, 'lass grade etc.
d4 Quantitative Classification# the classification is based on some characteristics, such as age, marks,
income, production, sales etc. $he "uantitative phenomenon under study is known as variable.
A. a) E+p,ain corre,ation coefficient
&ntrod-ction / $he correlation will tell you how strong the relationship
$eaning of corre,ation* 'orrelation is the relation that eists between two or more variable. If two
variable are related to each other in such a way that change in one creates a corresponding change in the
other, then the variable are said to be correlated. &g., *elationship between the heights and weights,
%ses* show relationship between variable like price and "uantity demanded, advertising ependiture and
sales promotion measures etc - helps in deriving the degree and the direction of relationship - to reduce
the range of uncertainty of our prediction - helps to understand economic behavior,
Kar, PearsonBs coefficient of corre,ation
Definition- Viven a set of N pairs of observation
9 9 : :
3 , 4, 3 , 4,...3 , 4
X Y X Y X Y relating to two variables
W and 1, 'oefficient of 'orrelation between W and 1, denoted by the symbol 6r is defined asX

.3 , 4
x y
Cov X Y

5here, 'ov.3W,14 I'ovariance of W and 1 -
I+tandard 0eviation of W variable -

I+tandard 0eviation of variable 1

&panded forms of the above formula#
9. &panding the formula of 'ov,3W,14
3 43 4 3 4 3 4
A # .3 , 4 B
x y
r Note Cov X Y

= =

3ii4. A .3 , 4 B
x y
xy xy
r Cov X Y
= =

:. &panding the formula of +tandard 0eviation

: :
: :
A # , B
x y
xy x y
r Note
x y
= = =

: :
x y

Properties of coefficient of corre,ation * Independent of choice of origin !Independent of choice of
scale !Independent of Qnits of 2easurement !$he correlation coefficient r lies between -9 and K9 -$he
coefficient of correlation is the geometric mean of two regression coefficients.
xy yx
r b b = .
&N"ERPRE"A"&!N* $he value of r lies between -9 to K9.
'a,-e of r &nterpretation
3a4 If r I K9
3b4 If r I -9
3c4 If r I P
$here eists perfect positive correlations between the variables.
$here eists perfect negative correlation between the variable
$here eists no relationship between the variable
$erits of coefficient of corre,ation* gives direction as well as degree of relationship between the
variables - helps in estimating the value of the dependent variable from the known value of independent
i0itations of coefficient of corre,ation* /$he assumption of linear relationship between the variables
may or may not always hold true - time consuming - affected by the value of etreme items - *e"uires
careful interpretation
A) b) E+p,ain chi/s3-are test for association.
&ntrod-ction* Association of attributed is effectively answered by the chi-s"uare test - &t has only one
parameter called the 6degrees of freedom 3df4 - $he shape of a chi-s"uare distribution depends on the
number of degrees of freedom.
(hi/s3-are distrib-tion properties* 'hi-s"uare is non-negative in value; it is either 7ero or positively
valued - It is not symmetrical; it is skewed to the right - there is a different chi-s"uare distribution for each
degree-of-freedom value - If we know the degrees of freedom and the area in the right tail of a chi-s"uare
distribution, we can find the value of chi-s"uare 3
4 from the table.
2oodness/of/fit test* $his test is a test of the agreement 3or conformity, or consistency4 between a
hypothetical and a sample distribution.
Proced-re for cond-cting chi/s3-are test* +tate the null hypothesis - for each observation, we shall
have observed fre"uency and epected fre"uency -0etermine the level of significance -'alculate the chi-
s"uare by using the following formula
3 4
i i


; 5here
I chi-s"uare;
O Iobserved
fre"uency in the ith category
E Iepected fre"uency in the ith category; YInumber of categories
0etermine the number of degrees of freedom - 'ompare the calculated value of
with the theoretical
value and determine the region of rejection - If calculated value of
is less than the theoretical 3or
critical4 value, the null hypothesis is accepted - Ifthe calculated value of
is greater than the theoretical
value, the null hypothesis is rejected.