You are on page 1of 256

to

of
Up
Mrs.
S.T.
Blackwood
A MANUAl>-Or MARKS
POTTERY AND PORCELAIN
A DICTIONARY OF EASY REFERENCE
BY
W. H. HOOPER AND W. C. PHILLIPS
Uontion
MACMILLAN AND CO.
AND NEW YORK
1894
All
Rights
Reserved
First
Edition, 1876;
Second
Edition,
1877; Reprinted iZ-]^,
1886;
with corrections and
additions, 1894.
P K E F A C E.
THIS edition has been
carefully
revised and
enlarged
by
the addition of
many
new marks.
When first issued none of the marks of
Japan
had
been
published.
At that time information was difficult
to
obtain,
and much of it has since been found to be un-
reliable
; by
the kind
permission
of Sir A. W. Franks
a
large
number of marks are now
inserted,
which will
be found to include all the factories of
importance.
Being only
intended for a
pocket-volume, unimportant
factories and unknown marks are left out. For more
detailed
information,
the works of
Brongniart,
Chaffers,
Demmin,
Jacquemart (admirably
translated
by
Mrs.
Bury Palliser), Marryat,
Robinson and others
may
be
consulted.
The work is divided into four
parts ;
in the
first,
the
Marks are classed under
descriptive
heads,
as
Anchor,
Animal,
etc.
;
in the second
Majolica
the factories of
Italy
are
arranged alphabetically;
in the
third,
other
factories of
Europe
on the same
plan ;
and in the
fourth,
the Oriental Marks are
arranged by
the number of
characters inscribed.
IV PREFACE.
The Marks on
Pottery
and Porcelain are of three
kinds
factory,
workman,
and
pattern
mark. The first
is
usually placed
in a
prominent position,
sometimes
accompanied by
the mark of the maker or decorator.
Sevres
Porcelain,
for
instance,
often
having
four or five
workmen's
marks,
besides that of the
factory.
The
pattern
mark is
usually
a number
;
this is seldom
given,
being
useless without a
description
of the
pattern
itself.
The
Marks,
when
pencilled
or
incised,
vary very
con-
siderably ;
a different
hand,
a full
brush,
or a flaw in
the
material,
all tend to make them
unrecognizable ;
even when
printed they
are often blurred
by
the action
of the fire or
running
of the
enamel,
and when im-
pressed,
a
shrinking
of the wet
clay
will
change
or
obliterate them.
Z2STZDE1Z.
Anchor
Animal
Arrow
Axe ..
Beacon
Bell . .
Bird ..
Bow ..
Butterfly
Cadnceiis
Circle . .
Claw ..
Crescent
Cross ..
Crown
Dome . .
Dot ..
Ermine
Fish .
Bassano
Caffagiolo
. .
Castel Duranto
Castelli
Diruta
Faenza
Florence
Forli ..
Genoa..
MARKS.
INDEX.
FACTORIES.
r
INDEX. Vll
PAGE
CONTRACTIONS.
The
quality
of the Ware is described in the first
column,
and the mode of
marking
in the
second,
as follows :
. . . Incised.
. . .
Impressed.
... Pencilled.
... Printed.
... Stencilled.
The third column contains the dates.
maj.
...
Pottery
and Porcelain Marks.
ANCHOR
CHELSEA
p
imp
P gold
or red
iT
POPPLES
DORF
pot imp
176-
SCEAUX PEXTIIIEVRE s
p p
blue 175-
B
Pottery
and Porcelain
L
4-
4-
SCEAU.X PKNTHIEVRK
VENICE
Tliis mark varies
very
much
COLOGNE
Bow
The
form
and
position
of
the swora
vary.
COALRROOK
DALE
DERBY CHELSEA
pot p
blue ITS-
h
p p
red 1765
maj. p
color 17
pot p
blue 1
7
a
p p
red
173
h
p p
blue 18
p p goK
1770
or red
Marks.
CM
Rf
j
VENICE
...
'
...
Giovanni Marconi
WORCESTER
Richard
Holdthip,
decorator
He also ivcrked
for Derby
LoNGPORT
ISTONE
CHIN
CALDAS
ORTUGAJ.
Thus read
from
imperfect impression
of
name
CALDAS
Imitation
of Palissy
Ware
MlDDLESBOROUGH
20,
Pattern mark
s
p p gold
17-
or color
p
color 175-
pot imp
1793
pr
blue 1805
pot imp
18
pot imp
pot
pr
bluo
imp
20
Pottery
and Porcelain.
SWINTON
ANIMAL.
The
Rockingham
Crest.
<n !
MEISSEN
Near Dresden.
HESSE CASSEL
AMSTERDAM
FRANKENTHAL
CHINA
Ow old Nankin Ware.
h
p p
TO* 1824
pot imp
17
h
p p
blue . 17C3
h
p p
blue 1772
h
p p
blue
1754
h
p p
blue
It M
Marks.
ARROW.
Bow
(?)
PLYMOUTH
CAUGHLEY
LEEDS ...
Also with name
Hartleij,
Green
fy
Co.
PARIS ...
I)e la Courtille
(sometimes
called
Torches)
B
p p
blue
173-
h
P
b
p p
blue 17
-
pot imp
177-
li
p p
blue 1773
AXE.
BADEN BADEN
Tftctow
Sperl.
h
p p gold
or color 1753
Pottery
and Porcelain
tffc
BADEN BADEN
Widow
Sperl
DELFT
De
Byl (The Axe)
Justus Brouwei
r
BEACON.
GENOA
h
p p gold
1753
or color
pot p
blue I.7C4
BELL.
DELFT
De drei Kloklcen.
(The
3
bells)
W. Van dcr Docs
This mark varies so much that it
is called
Leaf
and Arrowhead
pot p
bine 1764
Marks,
BIRD.
AMSTERDAM
Hartog
and Brandeis.
pet p
color
1780
ANSPACH
h
p p
blup
1718
Sometimes
used without the letter
,
>
SKVRES
1st
Empire.
Napoleor.
III.
Emperor
LlVEUPOOL
A
Liver,
the Arms
of
the Town.
Case,
Mort
fy
Co.
h
p p
red
1810
sten &
imp
h
p pr
color
1852
pot
p
color
1833
Pottery
and Porcelain
HAGUE
(The)
The Arms
of.
BOW.
Bow
BUTTERFLY.
CHINESE On old Nankin
I
CADUCEUS.
DRESDEN
This mark varies
very
much.
WORCESTER
In imitation
of
Dresden
h
p y
blua 177-
s
p p
blue 173-
h
p p
blue
hp pblue
1712
s
p p
blue 1753
CIRCULAR MARKS.
FAENZA ...
maj. p
blue 15
And other
varieties,
and also
without the circle
Marks.
HOCHST
hp p gold
1720
Tlie arms
of
the
Archbishop of
or color
Maycnce.
Dahl
T\ I DAMM
Aschaferiberg
DELFT
TFortuyn
Fortune
P. Van der Breil
pot p
color 1794
&hp
h
p p
bine 17
pot p
oiuo 1G91
Martinus Gouda
pot
1675
FLORENCE
)
The arms
of
the Medici.
(B)
Francis II. A
very
rare mark.
w
Orazio Fontana Urbino
fecit.
s
p p
color 15
niaj. p
color 15
10
Pottery
and Porcelain
DERBY
COLOGNE ...
MONTPELLIER
Lc Vouland.
SHELTON
1
BERLIN
Royal Factory
h
p pr
color 1815
pot
1G-
pot imp
18
pot pr
color 1820
h
p pr
1850
SEVRES ... ...
h
p pr
color 1830
The marie ivas used with the
year
date
from
1830.
Louis
Philippi
1834
Marks.
i.CHATEAU,
51
1
SEVRES
Republic
BURSLEM
Wedgwood 8c Bentlcy
CLAW.
DELFT
De Klaauw
(The Claw)
Lambertus Sanderus.
h
p pr
color 1834
h
p p
red 1848
pot
&
imp 1768
hp
pot pbhu,
1764
12
Pottiry
and Porcelain
CRESCENT.
SALOPIAN.
CAUGHLEY
And without name.
h
p. p
blue 1750
WORCESTER s
p p
blue 1751
or
gold
URBINO ...
maj. p
blue 1591
Also with the initials E. F. B.
NAPLES
WORCESTER
mnj. p
blue 17
h
p p
blue 1783
Mark*
C<
V
CC
t
MARIEBERG,
Sweden
Ehrenreich,
CROSS.
*
BRISTOL
FULDA ...
VARAGES
DRESDEN
COPENHAGEN
CASEMENE ...
pot
&
p
color 1750
sp
1759
h
p p
iu 1773
color
h
p p
blue i763
pot p
bl: C c
1730
or red
h
p p
blue 1720
h
p p
color 1772
pot imp
IS~
Pottery
and Porcelain
BOURG-LA-REINE
Le
Chappelet.
h
p p
17
BRISTOL
TURIN
Vineuf
Dr. Gioanetti.
CROWN.
BASSANO
Also with the
signature of
Antonio Terchi
$
B
Terchj
CASTELLI
ST. PETERSBURG
Alexander I.
Alexander II.
h
p p
color 1773
h
p imp
1770
maj. p
color 1540
ma}. p
color 16
b
p p
blue 1801
or color
h
p p
blue 1805
or color
Marks.
'&
PARIS h
p p
red 177P
Porcelaine de la
Reine(Antoinette)
VENICE
DERBY
BRUSSELS
WORCESTER
Barr, Flight
8f
Barr.
NAPLES
Crown
of
various
shapes,
sometimes B.C.
SEVRES Charles X.
maj
17-
s
p p gold
177-
h
p p'
color 18
h
p imp
1807
maj. p
16
b
p
1829
Pottery
and Porcelain
*0 30
SEVRES Charles X.
LUDWIG-SBURG
Also attributed to
BUEN
RETIRO
Madrid. Carlos III.
LUDWKJSBURG
Initial
of
Duke Charles
NlEDERVILLER
De
Custine,
director
URBINO
(?)
Luca Cambiasi
HOCHST
h
p p
bine 1829
h
p p
blue 1758
s
p p
color 176-
&
pot
b
p p
blue 1758
h
p p
blue
1788
&
pot
maj.
16-
b
p
p gold
17*JO
& color
Marks.
PARIS ...
Charles
Philippe,
Comte
d'Artois, patron
h
p p
blue 1769
FEANKENTUAL
Carl Theodore
DERBY ...
Dueslury
with
monogram
D K
Duesbury
and Kean ...
Up p
blue 17G1
h
p p
red or 1780
violet
1798
also ivitnout croivn ...
,
Stevenson
$
Hancock ...
,,
18C-
HlLDEKSHEIM .,. .. h
p p
bill? 1760
i8
Pottery
and Porcelain
I'D
FULDA ..,
CAPO DI
MONTI, Naples
Ferdinandus. Rex
M
PARIS ...
DM and Guerhard
HESSE DARMSTADT
ST. PETERSBURG ...
Nicholas I.
SEVRES
Louis-
Philippe
CLIGNANCOURT ...
h
p p
blue 1763
s
p p
color 1780
hp prod
1780
h
p' p
blue 1756
h
p p
color 1825
h
p imp
or 1845
pr
color
hp
stred 17SO
Marks.
VU
U/
BUEN
RETIRO,
Madrid ...
sp p
color 176-
MARIEBERO,
Sweden
CAPO DI
MONTI, Naples
pot
&
p
color 1750
sp
s
p p
red or 1759
blue
JV.Q.
o
&
imp
SEVRES.
Napoleon
III. ... s&
p
color 1854
In this
year
the
manufacture
h
p
of soft paste
was resumed
SAVONA.
(?)
Guidolono ...
maj.
10-
ORLEANS
pot p
color 1753
Pottery
and Porcelain
n
SPM
.
t
WTT
ST. PETERSBURG. Paul I. ... h
p p
color 1796
DRESDEN ... ... h
p p
blue 1750
Saclisiche Porzellen
Manufacture
LUDWIGSBURG
OPORTO
Vista
Allegra
WORCESTER
Flight
and Barr
LIVERPOOL
DOME.
FLORENCE
A rare mark
h
p p
blue 1806
h
p p gold
1790
or color
h
p p
color 1793
pot imp
& 1796
pr
color
s
p p
color 1580
Marks.
o
DOT.
o
.
**
I LlMBACH
oOo URBINO & FAENZA
ERMINE.
STOKE-ON-TRENT ...
Minion
FISH.
GENOA ...
NYOV, ...
LILLE ...
The
Dauphin.
Patron
CHINA ...
Old Nankin ware
This mark varies much
2i
hp p
1761
maj. p
16
h
p p
color IS5-
&
gold
maj. p
10
h
p p
blue 1790
h
p
sten & 1781
p
red
li
p p
blue 969
to
HOfi
22
Pottery
and Porcelain
*
CHINA
FLEUR-DE-LYS.
Bow
CAPO DI
MONTI, Naples
Removed to
BUEN
RETIRO,
Madrid
MARSEILLES
h
p p
blue 969
to 1106
s
p p
blue 173-
s
p p
blue 1736
176-
pot pr
color 1777
EOUEN ... p
color
1542
Marks.
Sevres
30
ST. CLOUD
SEVRES
FLOWER.
CHINA.
(?)
Sesamum
s
p imp
1702
h
p p
blue 1830
h
p p
color 1403
to 1424
p
red 142G
&gold
to 1435
(?)
Emblems
of longevity ,, p
bluo
//iese inarlis are
from
old
Nankin
ware;
date un-
Pottery and Porcelain
CHINA ...
hp j
i blue
JAPAN. On old and modern
ware in imitation
of
old
Nankin
patterns
... h
p
Marks.
GEASS.
CHINA. This mark is knoivr.
as the
"
Grass Mark" but it
is meant
for
a water
plant
... h
p p
blue 960
to9G3
y
i
HAYFORK.
RUDOLSTADT
h D
p
color 1758
p
blue
.,
17-
A1SO WORCESTF.P
Pottery
and Porcelain
HATCHET
(see AXE).
HEAD.
DELFT ... ... ...
pot p
color
HEART.
MOTJSTIERS.
Olery
NAPLES
ST. SAMSON
I
HORN.
CHANTILLY
LUDWIGSBUR
pot p
color 17
maj
pot imp
182-
sp pblue
1725
cr
imp
hp p
red or 1758
blue
Marks.
LABEL.
ORLEANS ... ... h &
p
color 1753
Gerault Daraubert s
p
LEAF.
BERLIN
This mark is
frequently painted
in
green
or
gold
over the Berlin
sceptre
on
damaged pieces
GROSBREITENBACII ...
h
p p
color 1770
Sometimes a mere
flourish
CHINA ... ... ... h
p p
blue
A
great variety oj
leaves are
found
on old Nankin
ware,
the mark was imitated
by
DELFT and other
factories
Pottery
and Porcelain
A
CHINA.
(?)
Bamboo
leaves,
mark
of
a h
p p
blue 1573
Factory
in
King-te-chin
... 1619
JAPAN. On ware
painted
with h
p p
blue
Chinese
patterns
LETTERS.
PARIS. Le
basuf
...
A is also
found
on Bow ware
p
red 177-
ANSPACH. This mark varies h
p p
blu*
1
1718
very
much and sometimes
looks like crossed swords
Marks
29
iTD
A.K.
A.N.
AP
DELFT ... ... ...
De G-dclcse A
(The Alpha)
J. T. Dickstraat or Dextra
pot p
blue 17G1
DELFT ... ... ...
pot p
blue
De Wittc Stcr
(The
White
Star)
A Kiell
ALTENROLHAU
A
Nowotny
Director
UBEING
Alphonso
Patanazzi
ARRAS ...
h
p
&
imp
1829
pot
maj p
1GO-
s
p p
blue 1782
AVJJ \
D7M.
I DEF.FT ...
pot p
I'/-
Pottery
and Porcelain
B
B
B. L.
BlaR
WORCESTER ... ... h
p
me 1793
Bart-. B is also on Bow ware
MARSEILLES
Bonnefoy
DELFT ...
J. Brouwer
pot p
color 1769
pot p
blue 175-
SAINTES
... ...
pot
inc 1538
Attributed to Bernard
Pallissy
BRISTOL
GUBBIO
Maestro
Giorgio
LUXEMBOURG
BOCK.
L.A KiElNE
DELFT ...
h
p p
color 1773
maj p
color 15-
pot p
color 180G
&hp
s
p p
bin?
1773
&
pot
pot p
blue
Marks.
Cc
CB
GO
BAYREUTH
DELFT ...
(?) Berghem
DELFT
...
(?)
Vender
Does
ST. PETERSBURG ...
Catherine
BAYREUTH
DELFT
De Paauw
(The Peacock)
(?)
Cornells Boumeester
COALBROOK DALE
LIMOGES
PARIS ...
Chanou
pot p
blue 15
r>ot
p
biue
pot p
blue
h
p ,,176-
h
p p
color 1744
pot p
blue . 17
h
p p
blue 1787
h
p p
red 1773
n
p
1781
Pottery
and Porcelain
*C*
Marks.
33
g
14*
E BS
5
F
ST. PETERSBURG ...
P.
Kornilo/e
MARIEBERG
Ehrenreich,
director
DELFT
T'
jongue
Moriaans
Hofft
(The young
Moors
head.)
BRISTOL
(Imitation Oriental.)
FLORENCE
(A
late mark on Fine
Pottery.)
li
p p
blue 1762
pot p
color 1759
&sp
pot p
1764.
hp p
color 1773
maj M
17
FAENZA ... ...
maj
(Many
varieties
of
the letter
are
found.)
14
FURSTENBERG
hp pblue
1750
F is also
found
on Bow ware
DELFT ... ... ... pot
p
blui
34 Pottery
and Porcelain
URBINO. F^ Xanto ...
maj. p
color 15
F.DV
FI
FP
FR
MOUSTIERS. Feraud
NAPLES ...
Fab. del
Vecchio, Napoli
FLORENCE. For Firenze
UREINO. F
c
. Patanazxi
NEVERS
PERKENHAMMER. Fischer
Reichembach
GUBBIO
CAFJTAGIOLO. G is
found
on
Bow ware
pot p
color 178-
maj. imp
&hp
17-
maj. p
ma.
p
17-
1G08
pot p
color 3730
maj.
1802
1536
Marks.
35
6iK
1179
OVJ
1
M
H
HB
NAPLES. Giustiniani
GERA ...
GOTHA ..
DELFT
maj. imp
&
17
:
p
color
h
p p
blue 1780
"
175-
pot p
red
p
17-
, ,
T'oude Moriaans
Hojft.
(The
old Moor's
head) pot p
blue 1764
Geertruy
Verstelle.
STBASBOUKG.
Hannong
...
hp
1752
&
pot
PARIS.
Hannong
...
p
color 1773
NEVEKS.
Henri Borne ...
pot p
color 168-
DELFT. Jacobus HaiderAdriens
p
color 176S
Pottery
and Porcelain
H.F
7CS-7
HVMD
//a
2-
NAPLES
DELFT ...
NUREMBERG
Haws Kraut
Villingen
DELFT ..,
Hendrick Van Hoorn
DELFP ...
THart
(The
Hart)
Hendrick
van
Middeldijk
LISBON ,
DELFT ...
(?)
Jacobus
de Milde
DELFT ...
maj. p
17
pot p
ted
pot p
blue 15
pot p
blue 1764
pot p
blue
pot imp
13
pot p
blu6 1764
pot p
bine
Marks.
37
I.P
ITD
7
JJ?
DELFT ...
Jan
Kuylich
(?)
PESARO.
(?)
In Pesaro .
DELFT ...
De Griekse A
(The Alpha)
JT. T. Dikstraat or Dextra.
DELFT ...
DELFT ...
PARIS ...
Jacob Petit
LIMOGES
J.
Pouyat
VOISONLIEU
Jean
Zeigler
DELFT ...
(?)
Jan
Kuylich
pot p
blue 1680
maj p
pot p
blue 1761
h
p p
blue 1790
pot
p
red 18
pot
st color 1831
&
imp
pot p
blue
Pottery
and Porcelain
II
H.HCVJ/
m
XV
KVK
LC
DELFT ...
Jan
Kuylich
KIEL ...
Buchwald,
director
A.
Leihamer,
decorator
DRESDEN
pot pbluo
1GSO
pgold
177-
or color
hp p
blue 17
DELYT ...
LIMBACH
MONTELUPO
Given
by Jacquemart, Wolfs
Brush
BRUSSELS
L. GretU
DELFT ...
De
Lampetkan (The Pitcher)
Widow G. Brouwer
J> T
..
pot
17-
h
p p
red
maj. p
1761
h
p p
color 1791
pot p
blue 17G4
Marks.
39
B
MAP
If
15*
z
BORDEAUX
Lahens and Bateau
DELFT ...
(?)
Van Dammelar
CAFFAGIOLO
SlNCENT
Moulin
PARIS ...
Morel d Paris
GUBBIO
Maestro
Giorgio
h
p p
color IS-
pot p
blue
maj p
15
pot p
color 18G1
h
p p
blue 1773
rcaj
15
a.
LOOSDEECHT ... ... h
p p
blue
177%
Manufactur
oude
Loosdrcch\
&
^ ni
P
Moll
director,
4
o
Pottery
and Porcelain
M.P
MP
A\VC
IV
KL
N
op
OPORTO
Rocha Soare
pot p gold
\1~
or color
DELFT... ... ...
pot p
blue 1639
De Metaale Pot
(The
Metal
Pot)
Lamlertus
Cleffius
DELFT ...
NEVERS
BOURG-LA-REINE
LILLE
I Petit
pot
pot p
color 15
GUBBIO ... ...
maj p
Vincentio or Cencio son of
Maestro
Giorgio
GUBBIO
153-
h
p p
bme 1773
.,,
pot
p
color
1778
Marks.
LIVERPOOL
Pennington
PINXTON
These letters are ascribed to
Pinxton,
but t7ie wave was
seldom marked
GUBBIO
? Maestro Perestino
DELFT ...
CAFFA.GIOLO
KOTTEN...
NlMES
Plantier,
Boncourant
$
Co.
ROUEN
DELFT ... ...
P v
Doornp
pot p gold
1760
& h
p
or color
&
imp
s
p p
color 1791
maj
pot p
maj p
15-
15-
pot p
color 15
imp
183
pot p
color 15
pot
p
bluo 1761
Pottery
and Porcelain
PVM
K
R-n
DELFT ...
P van der Breil
DELFT ...
P van Meemm
DELFT ...
MARSEILLES
Robert
pot pblue
1G91
pot pblue
1764
p
brown
pot p
black 1777
&hp
RKGENSBERG OR RATISBON h
p p
blue 17
... b
p p
blue 17
RAUENSTEIN ... ... h
p p
blue 1760
DELFT ... ... ...
pot
COLOGNE. ..r
. .
v
pot p
blue
1.6
Marks.
43
S
S
SX
Ven?
CAUGHLEY
Salopian
SCHLAKENWALD ...
SlNCENT
hp pblue
1750
h
p p
color 180V.
pot p
color 1733
SEVRES on white ware ...
hp pr green
1833
The Scratch denotes tJiat
the
piece left
the
factory
undecorated. 18G
ST. CLOUD
Trow Director
SCEAUX PENTHIEVRE
VENICR
BERLIN
Wegeley, founder
pot
&
p
blue 173-
sp
up
inc 1750
maj p
color 15
&hp
17-
h
p p
blue 1751
44 Pottery
and Porcelain
WVB
PLYMOUTH
Probably
the usual
marie,
the
sign Jupiter, carelessly
pencilled
WORCESTER
p p
blue 176-
s
p p
blue 1751
And others in imitation
of ,, ,
oriental marks
DELFT ... ... ...
pot p
blue 1764
De Twee Wildemans
(The
two
Savages)
Willem Van Beelc
DELFT ...
Widow van der Briel
URBINO
F
co
Xanto
Al
pot p
blue 1764
maj p
maj
X
p
blue
N red lustre
maj p
Marks.
45
Z-DEJC
GUBBIO
ZURICH
DELFT ...
Dextra zoon
LINES.
ALT HALDENSTEBEN
COPENHAGEN
The
Sound,
the
great
and
little Belts
ST. PETERSBURG
maj p
15
h
p p
blue 1759
pot p
1765
h
p imp
17
h
p p
blue 1772
h
p p
blue 17
MITRE.
WURZBURG h
p p
blue 17
Pottery
and Porcelain
Marks.
47
DELFT ...
A Kielle
pot p
blue 1761
SI l
Moscow
A
Popoff
APREY ...
h
p p
color 1830
pot p
black 1750
DELFT ... ...
pot p
blue 1764
De twee
Scheepjes
(The
two
Ships)
Ant Pennis
Moscow ... ... h
p p
color 1830
A
Popoff
DELFT ... ...
Keyser <f- Pynalcer
pot
p
blue 1680
Pottery
and Porcelain
DELFT ...
Keyser Sf Pyndker
DRESDEN
pot p
col 1680
$6
DRESDEN
A modern mark
PARIS ...
Reverend
DELFT ...
ANSPACH or Frankenthal
J. A
Hannonjr
TOURS ...
Victor Avisseau
NEVERS
Jacques
Bourdu,
hp p
blue 1709
p
blue 13
&
imp
pot p
bluo 16
..
,.
16-
..
hp
17-
..
hp ,.
184-
pot p
color 1602
Marks.
49
B.L
E
LUXEMBOURG
NlEDERVILLEB
Beyerle founder
pot p
color 180G
& h
p
h
p p
blue 1760
&
pot
MARANS ... ...
pot p
color 1740
Jean Pierre
Roussencq
NTON ... ... ... h
p p
blue 18
Pierre Hulhausen decorator
COALBROOK DALB h
p p
blue 1787
URBINO ... ...
maj p
15-
A air.iilar mark is dated 1549.
STOKE-ON-TRENT
SEVRES
Charles
Hp pr
color 185-
p p
bine 1824
Pottery
and Porcelain
VENICE ... ...
maj p
Probably
Gian Andrea and
Pietro Bertolini
15-
D/W
COALBROOK DALE
DlRTJTA
PARIS ...
Chanou
URBINO
Nicolo d' Urbino
DELFT ...
De Paauw
(The Peacock)
Jacobus de Milde 1764
h
p p
blue 1787
maj p
16-
h
p p
red 1784
maj p
15
root
p
blue 1651
Marks.
I*
FAOrEBAT
DlRUTA
FLORENCE
NEVERS
Denis
Lefebvre
DELFT ...
Johannes Mesch
URBINO
TOOLOUSE
Fouque"
Arnoux
$
Co.
LlLLiE ...
F. Boussemart
roaj p
16
maj p
14
pot p
color 1636
pot p
blue 1680
maj
16
pot p
color 1820
pot p
color 1729
pot p
color 1610
1G90
KREUSSEU
Caspar
V^t
Hans
Christophe
Vest
PARIS ... ... ...
h
p p
red 1780
Dihl
4-
Guerhard,
Due d"4n-
gouldine patron
Pottery
and Porcelain
UK
//f
NUREMBERG
George
Liebolt
pot p
blue 16G7
DELFT ... ... ...
pot p
blue 1761
De drei
porceleyno FlescJijes
(The
3
porcelain bottles)
Hugo
Brouwer
NUREMBERG
NAPLES
DELFT ...
Jan Jan zoon
Kuylich
NUREMBERG
Hans Kraut
pot imp
maj p
17
pot p
blue 1680
pot p
blue 15
STRASBOURG &
FRANKENTHAL
pot p
blue 17
Paul
Hannong
& h
p
& inc
Marks.
53
GUBBIO ... ...
maj p
16
Hipollito
Rombariotti
STRASBOURG & FRANKENTHAL
pot p
bluo 17
Hannong
& h
p
FRANKENTHAL & STRASBOURG
,,
J.
4*
P.
Hannong
NEVERS ... ...
pot p
color 17
Jacques Seignc
NIEDERVILLER ...
pot
sten 1802
Lanfray
& h
p
LIMBACH
(?)
... ... h
p p
color 176-
. Pffold
|
PARIS ... ... ... h
p p
color 1773
Gros Caillou
54 Pottery
ana Porcelain
k
53!?
SEVRES ... ... fl
p p
blue 1753
The letter indicates Hie date
See Sevres
Louis XVIII.
MOTJSTIERS
Olcry
COLOGNE
HEREND
Maurice Fischer
h
p p
blue 1814
pot p
color 17
REGEKSBERG or Eatisbon ... h T>
p
blue 17
pot p
blue 1589
hp pblue
1839
DELFT ... ... ...
pot
p
blue 1639
De Metaale Pot
(The
Metal
Pot)
Marks.
55
me*
ML
FAENZA
15*44;
ftw
URBINO
Nicolo d' Urbino
DELFT ...
Q Kleynoven
URH1NO
Orazio Fontana
maj p
154
maj p
15
pot pblue
1680
maj p
15-
CLIGNANCOURT ... ...
h
p
st rod 1775
Monogram of
the
patron
Louis
Stanislas Xavier Comte de
Provence
DELIT ...
(?) Philip
Wouvermans
pot p
10-
Pottery
and Porcelain
M
DELFT ... ... ...
pot p
blue 16SO
J.
PynaJcer,
C.
Keyser 4-
A.
Pynalcer
DELFT ... v .
f
.
De
Romeyn (The Roman)
Petrus van Meerum
DELFT ...
P van der Briel
DELFT
De
porceleyne
Fles
(The por-
celain
bottle)
Pieter van
Doorne
SEVEES
R^pullique Franqaise
GUBBIO
(?)
Salimbene
pot p
blue 1764
pot
1G91
pot p
blue 1764
h
p
color 1792
& s
p
maj p
j
COALBROOK DALE ...
h
p P
blue 1861
j
CaugJiley
Swansea
4
1
Nantganv
Marks.
57
DELFT ...
Samuel Pict Roerdet
DIRUTA
CAFFAGGIOLO
ST. AMAND
Fauquez
STOKE-ON-TIIENT
Minion
CASTELLI
Sowerio Grue
DELFT...
Suter van der Even
pot p
blue 165
maj p
16
maj p
15
pot p
175-
h
p p
blue 179-
or red
maj p
17
pot p
blue 1580
Pottery
and Porcelain
SCHAFFHAUSEN . . .
Tobias Stimmer
FAENZA
pot p
color 1560
H
V
maj p
15
DELFT ... ... ...
pot p
blue 1650
Antoni Ter
Humpelin
NEVERS
Tite Ristori
pot p
color 1850
DELFT ... ...
pot p
blue 1764
Jan van der Kloot Jan
Zoon
DELFT
(?)
Van
der Even
pot pblue
1580
FESARO
(?)
Giovanni
Vejaso
MARSEILLES
I
Veuve Perrin
maj p
15
pot p
black 1760
Marks.
59
VI
URBINO
DELFT ...
(?)
Wvander Does
I
maj p
blue 16
pot p
blue 176-4
W- Adams.
Astbury.
R.
4-
J.
Baddeley,
Bailey <$
Baikin.
Qodty
MUSICAL INSTEUMENTS.
CHINA ... ... ... h
p p
blue
Nankin ware
NAMES.
*fr
r*
TUNSTALL
SHELTON
LANE END
FAENZA
WOECK3TE14
pot imp
pot imp
pot imp
pot imp
maj p
hp pr
1780
17
1750
18-
15-
1807
6o
Pottery
and Porcelain
Enoch Booth.
Brameld.
int.
BPATbEFb
KopHHAOBLDO
Chamberlain.
Child.
Christian.
Govlfwt.
TUNSTALL
SWINTON
DELFT
Verboom
painter
ST. PETERSBURG ...
Korneloffslci
Brothers
SWANSEA
LIVERPOOL
WORCESTER
TUNSTALL
LIVERPOOL
COALBROOK
DALE
pot imp
1750
b
p pr
red 1807
&
pot
pot p
color 1680
h
p pr
color 1827
h
p p
color 178-
pot p
color 1751
h
p p
color 178-
&
imp
pot imp
1763
pot imp
1765
h
p p
blue 1787
Marks. 61
Copeland.
62
Pottery
and Porcelain
Flight.
Flight Sf
Ban-
Flight,
Barr
#
Barr.
n <fl ^tl
(DP
TYAMHA
FAPkHEPT}
Ginori.
Grainger,
Lee
Co.
Guerhard
et
Dihl.
WORCESTER
hp p
color 1783
... 1793
1807
DELFT ... ...
pot p
blue 1C91
T.
Fortwyn (Fortune)
P van d&r Breil
Moscow ... ...
h
p imp
color 18
Galena. Fabrica
Gospodina
&
pot
The
Factory of
our
Lady)
Moscow
Gardner
DOCCIA
NAPLES
Giusiiniani Brothers
WORCESTER
TURIN
(so
attributed)
PARIS ..
h
p imp
17
s
p imp
1735
maj imp
17
hp pred
1800
maj p
J7
b
p
st red 1780
Marks.
Haclcwood.
o
4
Pottery
and Porcelain
E.
Mayer.
Marks.
Phillips $
Co.
B. Plant.
nonoBbi
Pouyat $
Russinger.
Reid
4-
Co.
RocJcingham.
Sadler
fGreen.
William Sans.
MN
1
'
SUNDEELAND
LANE END
Moscow
A
Popoff
PARTS ...
De la Couriille
LIVERPOOL
SWINTON
LIVERPOOL
BUKSLEM
SEVRES
National
Factory
Imperial Factory
pot pr
color "V780
pot imp
177-
li
p p
color 1830
h
p p
red 1773
h
p imp
175-
pot imp
1757
&hp
pot pr
color 175G
&hp
pot imp
167-
s
p
st red 1S03
h
p
st red 1806
Pottery
and Porcelain.
Marks.
m*
68
Pottery
and Porcelain
B*
MALTA ..,
NEVERS
pot imp
18
pot p
color 15
PLYMOUTH ... ...
hp p
blue 176-
This
marie,
the
sign ofJupiter,
is
often
considered as
2,
4
joined
ST. CLOUD
J. B. Chicanneau
DELFT ...
BERLIN
SAVONA
ORB.
pot p
color 1700
pot p
hp pblue
1830
maj p
16
Marks. 6
9
GtiBBio ... ...
cnaj p
ORIENTAL.
CHINA ... ... ... h
p p
blue
Old Nankin ware. Sacred axe
15
,,
Precious
things.
Instru-
ments of
writing
Kwei,
or emblems of u
Mandarin
Pottery
and Porcelain
CHINA. ... ... h
p p
blue
Instrument used as a
tuning
fork
DELFT ... ... ...
pot p
bluo IB-
In imitation of the
'
six mark
'
OVAL.
ANDENNES
B. Lammens
Sf
Co.
UZES ...
Francois
Pichon
(?)
VENICE
On modern ware
MONTET
Laurjorois
put imp
18
maj p
18
pot anp
18
PEtiARO AND FAENZA ...
maj p
15
Marks.
PESAUO AND FAENZA
j
VAL sous MENDON
Mittenhoff
,
I
! COLOGNE
PALETIE.
PARIS ...
Schloss),iacher
PICKAXE.
LEEDS ...
X
PIPE.
ARNSTADT
ninj p
pot imp
179-
pot
p
blue 1C
hp p gold
18
pot p
color 1770
pot p
color 17O-
' VlNCENNEP . h 178~
72.
t Pottery
and Porcelain
3)
1
*
ROSE.
CAUGHLEY
J. Roge S- Co.
...
b
p p
color 1799
DELFT ... ... ...
pot
.
p
blue 17G4
De Roos
(the Rose),
Dirk van
dor Does
SCEPTRE.
BERLIN hp pblae
170-
SHELL OR HELMET.
CHINA hp pblne
Marks
CHINA ...
h
p p
blue
SHIELD.
ANSPACH ... ...
h
p p
blue 1718
NYMPHENBERG ... ...
h
p imp
1758
SAVONA ... ...
maj p
Sometimes with initials G.
A.G., (?)
Gian Anto. Guido-
fcono,
G. 8.
4*
B. C.
1C-
Girolamo Salomons ...
Pottery
and Porcelain
SAVONA
DELFT ...
VOLKSTADT
maj p
1C
pot p
rec* 1.7
h
p p
color
17C2
TURIN ...
And Shield alone with Cross.
Arms
of Savoy
VIENNA
SIIIP.
COBRIDGE
SQUARE
MARKS.
CHINA ...
For other
Square Maries,
see
Oriental,
used also
by
WORCESTER and DRESDEN
t
r
mnj p
lo-
li
p imp
or 1774
p
olue
pot p
blue 18
h
p p
blue
Marks.
75
H
h
p f
blue 17 DRESDEN
Imitation Oriental
On
Bottger
ware ...
",,
UKBINO
Orazio Fontana
In Greek Characters
maj p
15
STAR.
DOCCIA
NOVE .
s
p p
color 1735
hp p gold
or 1750
pot p
red
Pottery
and Porcelain
X
X
SUN.
ST. CLOUD ... ...
pet p
blue 1702
.*
sp
SAVONA
SWORD.
OAUGHLEY ... ... h
p p
blue 1750
DRESDEN ... ... h
p p
blue 1726
1730
Marks.
77
X
x
!
DRESDEN
.,
Marcolini
Manager
...
on White Porcelain
for
Sale ... ...
on
imperfect pieces
...
h
p p
blue 1770
1796
17-
scratched
through
Pottery
and Porcelain
XX-
DRESDEN
Bruhl
Manager
ELBOGEN
MONTREUIL
Tinei
TOURNAY
(?)
CAUGHLEY
Attributed to Worcester
WORCESTER
h
p 3
blue 1750
17
h
p mp
1810
p
blue 18
s
p p gold
175-
or blue
hp pblue
177-
sp p
bine 17
Marks.
WORCESTER s
p j)
blue \7
TABLE.
CHINA ... ... ...
h
p
imitated
by
DERBY ...
TOWETl.
TOURNAT ., ...
s
p p
tl"e 175
8o
Pottery
and Porcelain
I
A
VlNCENNES 8
p
p
color 17
TRIANGLE.
Bow,
CHELSEA & DERBY
BRISTOL
DOCOIA
KORZEC
NYMPIIENBERO ...
s
p
&
p gold
& 17-
h
p
color &
imp
& inc
h
p imp
18-
&bis
s
p p gold
1735
&
imp
.
p p
blue 1803
hp {.blue
1753
pot imp
1809
Hulaudier*
Marks.
TRIDENT.
Bow
JA,e
triangle imp
CAUGHLKY
CAPFAGIOLO
Also attributed to Faenza
Gubbio
SWANSEA
And one trident
VASES.
BRISTOL
The Cross
imp
JAPAN ...
p
blue
170-
h
p p
blue 17
maj ,.
lo
h
y imp
18
h
p pr
blue 18
h
f. imp
18
color
82
Pottery
and Porcelain
Gunno
WINDMILL.
CLJGNA.NCOUKT ...
Paries
greatly
inaj p
blue 15
&hp i
color 1775
Majolica.
83
MAJOLICA.
THE manufacture of Italian
Pottery generally
known
as
Majolica
or RafFaelle ware was foi
many years
under
the
patronage
of the Urbino
family,
and was
principally
carried on at
Urbino, Gubbio, Pesaro,
Castel
Dnrante,
Faenza
and Dimc.i.
The ware is coarse and
bar],
but it is valued for the
decorations,
which are from
designs by RafFaelle,
Michael
Angelo,
Guilio
Romano,
and other
great masters;
and some
are
thought
to be
painted
with their own hands.
Marryat says
:
"
It was the usual custom for the Artists
to write the title of the
subject,
in blue characters on the
back of the
dish,
but
rarely
to affix their names and
place
of
abode." The
examples given
will,
it is
hoped,
be sufficient
for the identification of such marks as
may
be met with in
duplicate,
those that arc
given
in
type
are too
large
for
ensravinor
in a small handbook.
Pottery
and Porcelain.
MAJOLICA.
&
BASSANO,
Venetia ... ... ... 1540
Also with the
signature
of Antonio Terchi and
B
Terchj
CAFFAGIOLO, Tuscany
... ... ... 1507
The
ordinary
mark is thus
marie,
it is S. P. in e
monogram,
sometimes the P is alone
given.
,,
The trident is used both with and without
above. The name is also
signed
In
Gafagolo
This mark is also attributed to Faenza and
Gubbio
(?)
for
Gafagiolo
Majolica. 85
FattoinBotega
di
Piccolpasso
CASTEL DURANTE,
Urbino ... ... founded 1361
The earliest known date is ... 12
Sep.,
1503
Sebastiano
d'
Marforio signs
and dates a
piece
in 1519
Francesco Durantino 1533
,,
The Chevalier
Piccolpasso
was director of a
factory
about
> 1841 !
"
On Modern Ware
<
in imitation of the old
CASTELLI, Naples
So attributed
by
Pusscri ...
Saverio Grue. Also initials and name
L. G. P.
Or. Rocca di
Castelli,
1732.
Gentili P.
,, Luigi
Grue ...
,
Fro.
-
Ani- Grue
... 1550
14
1C
... 17
'>
... 1722
... J-'2
. 17-
DIRUTA,
Papal
States
Other varieties of this
signature
are found
86
Pottery
and Porcelain.
-inty
J *
DIRUTA, Papal
States
HT
1G-
FatainFaenza
In Coxa Pirota
Given
by
Darcel as a mark of this
factory
...
P AEN7A
On one of the earliest
pieces
of
Majolica
known 1475
(?)
Gubbio.
Supposed
to be Maestro
Giorgio
14
Many
varieties of the letter F are found ...
Cosa Piroto The name of a
factory
of
Facnza ... .,, .,, ... 15-
Majolica.
FAENZA
And Avithout the circle
... ,,.
15
Also attributed to Pesaro
Many
other varieties of this mark are found
Yvioiuarcx ]
ft
Also initials B. M. , 154-
ML
,,
And B Avithout the T ...
(?)
Baldasara
ero.
F.R.
TAOEBA.T
Pottoy
ana Porcelain.
AENZA
Attributed to Baldasara 15
In a
square,
and initials
only
... , ..
M
FLORENCE, Tuscany
... ... ... 14
Luca della Robbia and his
family
mailc their
famous ware here until about ... ... 15GO
This mark and
another,
LR
FA, 1451,
is attributed
to
Luca,
but both are
very
doubtful
Pate
m .F
1542.
I la, Bo
teg
a d
Mo Jero da
Forli.
,,
A late mark on fino
pottery
(?)
for Firenze
.,
17-
FORLI ... ... ... 15-
Also without date,
and with
signature
of
Lcucadius
Solombrinus,
1555
Majolica.
GENOA ... ... ... .
The beacon is well
known,
it varies
very
much
15
,,
Given
by
Demmin
GUBBIO,
Urbino ... ... ... ... 14
Giorgio Andreoli,
afterwards known as Maestro .
Giorgio,
first used the beautiful metallic luttre
which caused the Gubbio ware to be so valued
Also ascribed to him ... .*. .
... 1519
.,. 1525
9
o
Pottery
and Porcelain.
GUBBIO Maestro
Giorgio
B
A,
Merchants' mark...
,,
With merchants' mark
...
1528
1532
15
Attributed to 3faes/ro
,.
Vincentio or
Cencio,
son of M-
Giorgio
...
w
Majolica.
GUBBIO
AlsoN. G. , 15
(?)
Maestro Fercstino. Also
signature
in full
,.
,, (?)
Salimbcne ... 16-
O
(?) Ilipollilo
TtombarioUi
(?) Rovigo
...
17. A. I. Jlf.
LODT, Lcmbarcly
...
And with the initials
only
... 1C-
*L
5to,
r
n.o
tf.B.
31.
1627.
M
te
L*
1639.
Pottery
and Porcelain
MILAN.
Lombardy
And name
only
,
17-
15-2
/f
On modern
pottery
... ... ,
18-
MONTELUPO, Tuscany
... ... ,..,
1G-
Vaviously
written
With
signature Raffaello
Girolamc
Given
by Jacque
mart ... ...
p
black
(?)
Wolf's brush modern
NAPLES
Crown of various
shapes,
some-
times B. C.
Majolica. 93
EDV
N
H.F
C
Padva.
A. Padoa.
NAPLES.
And Ferdinando del Vecchio
Napoli imp
in full 17
So attributed
. 17
Giustiniani Brothers ...
And in outline
PADUA,
Venetia ...
With
date,
1548
1563
...
imp
17
&
p
color
...
p
blue 17
15-
94_
In Fesaro.
FattoinPesaro
IP
Ravena.
In Arimin
1535.
In Rimino
1535.
Fato in
Ariminensis
1635.
Fatto in Roma
da Gio Pavlo
Savino
M.D.C.
In Roma.
Pottery
and Porcelain.
PESARO
With
dates,
1542 to 1765
Doubtful
(?)
Giovanni
Vejaso
EAVENNA
Between two flourishes
RIMINI
Stiffly
written
EOME ...
Pencilled in oval
Pencilled and
impressed
, li
. 15-
... 1512
, 10-
, 15-
*
1C35
...
16-
. 1COO
Majolica.
95
Alma Roma
1623.
EOME.
SAVONA,
Genoa
...
(?)
Guidobono
Girolamo
Salomons
16-
16-
9
61
.,
With initials G. A. G.
(Gian
Ant
..
Guidobono)
and G. S.
(tSalomone)
& B. C. ..
Pottery
and Porcelain.
L L
Fata t Siena.
Bar Terese
Roma.
F. G.
Treviso.
N.
SAVONA,
Genoa
~. 16
SIENA, Tuscany
With
signatures
of M Benedetto
,,
Bartolomeo Terenzio Romaw-o
,,
Also in
monogram
Ferdinando Ma.no,
Campani
...
TREVISO, Lomardy
In circle
So attributed
TURIN,
Piedmont ... ... ...
15
And Shield alone with Cross. Arms of
Savoy
10-
15
1727
1733
15
Majolica. 97
FattainTorino TURIN, Piedmont
Fabrics Reale
di Torino
1737.
So attributed
UEBINO
.f.XA-K
-Til /
^
/
t/rAino.
Xanto Avelli da
Rovigo
.. 1577
... 17
... 14
p
colour 15
X in
blue,
N in red
lustre, probably
Viceniio's
mark
H
9
8
Pottery
and Porcelain.
^V
^
A
URBINO
Francesco Xanto Avelli
15-
,,
Orazio Fontana 15-
Urlino Fecit
In Greek character!
JE
A similar mail; dated 1519
A
T
ico7o d' UrUno.
About
also
signed
Niculo
di V.
Majolica. 99
T. R. F.
1587.
F. G. C.
Alf.
P. F.
Vrbini,
1606.
A.P
RE
B. F. V. F.
VI
UBBINO
Nicolo d' Urbino ...
Geronimo
Vrliino,
with dato
Also with initials E F
B,
dated
... 15
... 1583
... 1587
, 1594
,, Alfonzo
Patanazzi. Also name in full ... 1006
Francesco Patanazzi. Also name in full ... 1608
Vicenzio
Patanazzi, aged
12
years
... 1619
,, (?)
Luca
Cambiasi,
of Genoa ... ...
16
,, (?)
Battista Franco Urbini Fecit ... ...
Pottery
and Porcelain
UB.BINO
Also attributed to Faenza
VENICE
Venczia ic also written in full
, 16-
... 1545
Probably
Gian Andrea and Pietro
Berlolini,
too confused to be made clearer
.,
A well-known
mark,
with
many
variations ... 17
Doubtful
<.)n modern waro
17
.. is
Factories. 101
FACTOEIES.
ALTENROLHAU near
Carlsbad,
Germany
... ...
pot imp
1829
A.
Nowotny,
Director & h
p
AMSTEL,Oude3
nearAr
sterdam,
Holland ... ...
hp p
blue 1782
AMSTEL,
Nicwer ... ... h
p p
blue 15
AMSTERDAM,
Holland
...
h
p ji
blue 1772
A.
Daeuber,
Director ...
,t
178-
Pottery
and Porcelain
AMSTERDAM,
Holland
Hartog $
Brandeis
ANDENNES,
France
B. Lammens
$
Co.
pot p
color 1780
pot imp
18
A. Der Vander Wcert
ANsrACH,
Bavaria ...
h
p
p
blue 1718
And other varieties
of
the
A^sometimes
like crossed
s words
The
Eagles
and Shields
t , n n
vary very
much,
and
sometimes
on A used
without the letter
Factories.
103
ANSPACH
Ii
p p
blue 1718
/P
X
<vAa
And FRANKENTHAL
J". J..
Hawnong
APREY,
France ...
ARNSTADT, Germany
pot p
black 17CO
II J5 "
pot p
color 17G-
ARRAS,
France
BADEN-BADEN, Germany
Widow
Sperl
s
p p
blue 1782
h
p p gold
1753
or color
io
4 Pottery
and Porcelain
\
BADEN-BADEN, Germany
Widwu
Sperl
n
h
p p gold
1753
or color
BAYRETJTII,
Bavaria ...
pot p
black 15 )k 15-
rot
D blue 15
kip p
1744
BERLIN,
PRUSSIA.
Established
by
W. G.
Wegeley,
in
1751,
and
purchased
by
Frederick the
Great,
in 1763.
Pott,
a chemist at
this
factory,
claims the invention
of transfer printing
on
porcelain.
BERLIN,
Prussia.
Wegeley
h
p p
blue 1751
Factories.
105
1
KPK
BERLIN,
Prussia
Royal Factory. Many
forms of sceptre
... h
p p
blue 176-
Konigliche
PorzelleR.
Manufactur
This
Ea,gle
is also used
by
Schuman, of Hoabit,
with namet
Frequently
painted
tn
green
or
gold
over the
sceptre mark,
on
damaged pieces
1830
r 1850
18
io6
Pottery
and Porcelain
B
BlaR
op
*
I:
t
BORDEAUX,
France
Lahens
4"
Rateau
h
p p
color 18
BOURG-LA-EEINE,
France .-. s
p p
blue 1773
4
pot
Le
Chappelet ,
BOW.
This
factory
ivas established about
1735,
"but did not
become celebrated until
many years
later.
Bow
e
p p
blue 173
Factories.
107
it
Bow
To
The
form
and
position
of
the sword
vary
The
triangle
has
long
been
considered a Bowmark
t
but recent researches
have rendered it doubt-
ful,
it is
often
hard to
say if
it is a Bow or
Triangle,
the latter is
now
proved
to have been
used at CHELSEA
and
DERBY
Triangle, imp
A. B. F. G. & K. are also
found, probably
work-
men's marks
Also BRISTOL
B
p p
blue 173-
p
red
&gold
imp
inc
'
p gold
& color
p
Dine
io8
Pottery
and Porcelain
ELERS
*
B
B
BRAi>WELL
pot imp
1600
BRISTOL
Founded
ly
llicliard h
p p
color 1772
Champion
,,
And other imitations
of
Oriental marks ...
,,
The cross
impressed
hp pr
blno IS
imp
& biscuit
For
Tebo,
the modeller.
Many
other ivorlcmeris
marks are
found
ino 17-
Factories.
109
LC
JB
J{. S/iau-e.
WEDGWOOD.
Wedgwood.
Wedgwood
<
Bentley.
Aaron Wood.
Enoch Wood.
Wood&
Caldwell.
Steel.
BEUSSELS, Belgium
L. Crette
BURSLEM,
Staffordshire
And
Ralph Toft
h
p p
color 1791
P .>
pot
in
relief 1G70
.1
,
im
P
167
~
173-
175-
1768
175-
1783
1790
18
10
Pottery
and Porcelain
caen
CALDAS
PORTUCAI
BUEN RETIRO
(Madrid), Spain
Attributed to
Royal
Factory,
Charles
III.,
but
probably
LUDWIQS-
BUKQ
,,
The
Capo
di Monte mark
is
found
on
early pieces
,,
And M
only
...
CAEN,
France
Also in
capitals
CALDAS, Portugal
Mafra^
maker. Imitations
of Palissy
ware
CAPO DI
MONTI, Naples
And various other
forms
of
Fleur de
lys
Ferdinand
IV, patron
...
s
p p
color
&
pot
176-
h
p p
red 1793
pot imp
18
s
p p
blue 1736
p
red 1759
or blue
&
imp.
Factories. ii i
Os
D. D. & Co.
CASTLEFOED
POTTERY.
SALOPIAN.
CAPO DI
MONTI, Naples
This
factory
has success-
fully
imitated old ma-
jolica
Ferdinandus Rex
CASEMKNE,
France
Lafl4cliere
and Pzillaird
CASTLEFOED.
near Leeds
D. Dunderdale
CAUGHLEY, Shropshire
Established in
1750, by
.
Brown,
taken in 1772
by
Thomas Turner.
Crescent marked thus is
often mistaken
for
J)
arid attributed to
Duesbury of
DERBY.
s
p p
color J79
p
color 1780
pot imp
18
pot imp
1790
h
p p
blue 1750
p
blue
112
Pottery
and Porcelain
s
X
TURNER.
CAUUHLEY, Shropshire
... h
p p
blue 1750
h
p imp
1772
&
pot
h
p p
blue 17
And other numerals thus
treated,
to rescmUe
oriental marks
,, (?) Turner,
attributed lo
WORCESTER
Rose
Sf
Co. ...
p
blue J77-
color 1799
CHAM-TILLY,
France
Also u'ithname
s
p p
blue
and
imp
Factories*
'Si/*
A
4
Ti
CHELSEA.
This
factory,
established in {he 17th
century, acquired
little
celebrity
until about
1750,
when the
modelling
and
beauty of
the
paste
rendered its
productions equal
to
those
of any foreign factory.
CHELSEA
The best
quality
in
gold
p imp
174-
p gold
174-
or rod
M
Pottery
and Porcelain
CHELSEA ... ... s
p p gold
1745
And with name in
full
or red
&
imp
CLIGNANCOURT,
near Paris ...
h&spp
color IV "5
This varies
very
much
r
/v*
" Monogram of
the
Patron,
h
p
st red
/r /
f
|&
Louis Stanislas
Xavier,
^* ^->
Comte de Provence
Porcelaine de Monsieur
tt f
1780
CoALrORT,
or COALBROOK h
p
p
blue 1787
DALE, Shropshire
^wd C. J>aZe ... ...
.. .,
18
Factories.
%>
MX
Voyez.
I
RV/c.
COALFORT,
or COALBROOK
DALE, Shropshire
... ... h
p p
blue 18
Caughley, Swansea,
Nant-
garw,
united 1821
1861
COBRIDGE,
Staffordshire ...
pot imp
1773
p
blue 18-
COLOGNE, Germany pot
] blut, 1589
16-
i6
Pottery
and Porcelain
o
Factories.
CEIEL.
D
ITD
7
Cm
EL,
Franco
Also with
monogram
of
Stone-Coquerel
and Lc
Gros
of
Paris
DAMH, Germany
...
pot imp
J7S-
h
P p
blue 17
DELFT,
HOLLAND
Potteries were established here at a
very early
date;
it is said that
fine
ware was
produced
in
1480, nothing
certain is Icnoivn
lefore 1614,
when a
patent
ivas
granted
to Cla.es Janssen
Wytman's,for makingporcelain, probably
fine pottery.
DELFT,
Holland
The
A
*
PHA De Griekse. A.
J. T. Dextra or Dilcstraat
Mark
registered
pot p
blue
17G1
n8
DEX
7
I. H. D.
Pottery
and Porcelain
DELFT,
Holland ...
Zoon Dexlra ...
,,
On tyare ttrMTi same
pat-
terns as that with
first
mark
The works were carried on
by
Ja
r
obus Haider
Adriens Zoon in 1765...
(?)
Jacobus Haider
,,
Cornells van Os had the
works in 1767
,,
ThoA.XE.
DeByl
Justus Brouwer
pot p
blue 1764
17C5
,, p
bluo
rcg
17G4
Factories.
DELFT,
Holland ...
Justus Brouwer.
This is also attribuied to
A.Kielle, of
the Wliite
Star.
The CLAW. De Klaauw
Lambertus Sanderus.
,,
This mark is so varied
that it is
usually
"
un-
known." It has leen
called The
Griffin
!
pot p
blue 1764
reg
17G4
'80
The DOUBLE PITCHER.
DC Dubbelde Schenkkan
Thomas
Spaandonclc...
17G4
I 20
Pottery
and Porcelain
tjTUTLl.\
(A.
DELFT,
Holland
,,
FORTUNE. T'
Fortuyn... pot p
blue
reg
1'J'J!
Pieter van der Briel
,T. H. F.
Int.
Fortuyn.
I. D. A.
De
.,
TFccluice i'. d. Uriel
The GOLDEN BOAT. /H
tier
vergulde
Boot
Johannes
der
Appel
,,
TLc GOLDEN FLOWERPOT
De
vergulde blompot
...
P.
Verberg
1704
Factories. 12.1
j
DELFT,
Holland
The HART. T' Hart ...
pot p
blue
rcg
17G4
HVMD
MP
E. B. S.
,,
Hendrik van
Middeldijk
The METAL POT
De Metaale Pot
Lartibertus
Clejjfius
...
Pietcr Paree
The old MOOB'S HEAD ...
In V oude Moriaans
Hojft
Geertruy
Verstelle
Tbe
young
MOOR'S HEAD
Tjongue
Moriaans
Hofft
Widow
of
Picler Jan
v. d.
Hagen
Probably
a mark of one or
other of these factories
The PEACOCK. De Paaaw
Jacobus de Milde
1639
1704
p
color
pblae
.. 1G51
>,
17C1
122
Pottery
and Porcelain.
7='
twn
PVM
DELFT,
Holland
Jacobus de Milde
pot [i
blue 17C1
(?)
Cornells Boumeester
,,
The PORCELAIN BOTTLE
De
Porceleyne
Fles
Pieter van Doorne ...
The PORCELAIN PLATTER
De
Porceleyne
Sclwotel
.,
Johannes van
Duyn
...
, t
Tlte EOMAN
De
Romeyn
Petrus van Merum
reg
17G4
Factories.
123
DELFT,
Holland
,,
JanvanderKlootJanzcon
pot p
blue 1764
/oo7;
thejactory
The EOSB ...
De Roos
Dirfe van der Does
The THREE BELLS
De drie klokken
W. van der Does
This varies so much
that it is
often
"
unknown
"
Doubtful
ieg!7G4
I2
4 Pottery
and Porcelain
FB
Hooren.
7?
WVB
DELFT,
Holland
,,
The THREE PORCELAIN rel7(M
BOTTLES De drle Par-
cel
eyrie fleschjes
,, Hufjo
Brouwer ...
pot p
blue
,,
The THREE PORCELAIN
BARRELS De drie Por-
celeyn
aslonnen
Hendrick van Hoorn ... ,,
The Two SHIPS ...
De twee
Sheepjes
,,
Ant. Pennis ... ...
,, , ,,
The Two WILD MEN ...
;..
DC twee wildemans
,,
Widow
of
Willem
van
,.
Beek
The WATER CA:T ... -.
De
Lampetkan
W(dow
of
Gerardus
Brouwer
L P Kan
Factories.
125
AK-
DELFT,
Holland
The WHITE STAB
De ivitie stcr
reg
17G4
pot p
brie
/t/C
As
J
fi^t^r variations
(?)FancZrJ,osc/
,. Beryl
iem
J774
Pottery
and Porcelain
LVj
V
DELFT,
Holland
,,
Isaalc Lrouwer
(?)
Van der Does
(?)
Van Dammelar
Suter van der Even
so attributed
Ifartmus
^Infoni
Ter
Hwnpelin
plMue
1750
1580
-eg
1G75
color 1650
Factories.
IfK
UK
J-ff
\
DELFT,
Holland
Q. Kleynoven
Jan
Kuylicli
the
younger
r
Bf
Johannes Mesch
Cornells
Keyser
Jacobus
Pynalcer
and
Adrien
Pynaker
12
p
blue
re^f
1680
*i
-
.
128
Pottery
and Porcelain
DELFT,
Holland
,, Keyset* 4* Pynal:er p
blue xG80
,,
Jan Steen
,,
Samuel Piet Roerdcr
"
Willem van der Velde ..,
Abraham Verboom
Piet
*r
iseer ... ..
(?) Philip
Wouvermans ..
1650
I
color
1660
1680
1769
15-
Factories-
AVIf
T>7M.
2l>
1173
DELFT,
Holland
UNKNOWN MARKS
129
p
co
1
or 1773
pblufe
6-JVC
G")&
'779
HX2-
(?)
In 7
71
p
rea
p
bl**
Pottery
and Porcelain
xw
KVK
MVC
4
DELFT,
Holland
UNKNOWN MARKS
., (?)
Jan
Kuylich
On ware
painted
in the
style of Majolica.
An
imitation
of
a Savona
mark-
p
blue
f
blue 1731
p
oolor
p
bine
p
red 17
Factories..
4#
Pottery
and Porcelain
PEHBY.
Founded in
1751, ly
W.
Duesbury, who,
in
1770, pur-
chased the Chelsea
Works, and,
in
1781,
removed the
moulds and models to
Derby;
also
Bow,
1770.
DERBY ... .. s
p p
red
Duesbury.
DERBY CHELSEA ... ... s
p
Later in
lilac,
then in red
p gold
or red
1756
1770
p gold
177-
CROWN DERBY ... ... h
p p
red 1780
Also without the dots or violet
with
monogram
D K
Duesbury
and Kean ...
,, .,
1798
-
Also with in old
English
type
^ 1780
Factories.
133
A
Joshua Heath.
DEJIBY
,,
In imitation
of
the Sevres h
p p
red or 1798
mari violet
, ,
In imitation
of
the Chinese
,,
Probably
a workman*t
mark
p
blue
M
&
imp
And in oval h
p pr
color
[
183g
Stevenson
$
Hancock ...
lip p
color 186-
Cockpit
Hall
DOCCIA,
near
Florence, Italy
Various star marks
pot
imp
1760
9
p p
color 1735
imp
&
p gold
'34
GINORI.
<3>
C/PO
Pottery
and Porcelain
DOCCIA,
near
Florence, Italy...
The
founder's
name
The
Capo
di Monti mould*
were
transferred
here
about
n
I> imp
1735
1821
DRESDEN,
SAXONY.
The
first European
Porcelain
manufactory,
established
by Augustus
II. in
1709,
under the
management of
fiottjer.
DRESDEN, Saxony
,, Augustus Rex, founder
...
hp p
blue 1709
The Caduceus
(sale mark)
Bottger
ware
And other
square
marks
in imitation oj
oriental
1712
to 1720
about 1718
factories.
'35
, {Saxony...
Herold, manager
h
p p
blue 1720
1720
1730
,, 'Brulil, manager
17-
Alcissen
porzeilen
manu*
faclur.
A'so without
the words.
Pottery
and Porcelain
x
X
XX
DEES
DEN, Saxony...
Early
mark
Sachsiche
porzellen
mami-
factur
Konigliche porzellen
manu-
factur
p p
blio 17
1750
17-
1770
,, Harcolini, manager
...
9 ,
On white
porcelain (per-
fect), for
sale.
,,
On
imperfect pieces
I79G
l>
blue
scratched
through
Factories,
137
DRESDEN, Saxony...
Un
'imperfect pieces
,,
On
faulty
table
goods
b
p p
blao 17
scratched
through
Wedgwood$Co
A modern imitation
of
early
mark
p
blue 18
&
imp
ELBOGEN,
Bohemia
... h
p imp
1810
see
Wedgwood
FERRYBRIDGE,
near TJurslcm
,,
&
pot
Pottery
and Porcelain
FLORENCE, Italy
..,
*
p p
color 1580
This varies
very
much
,,
The arms
of
the Medici
family.
Rare marie.
15
FEANKENTHAL,
Bavaria ... h
p p
bltto 1754
The arms
of. Hannong
of Strasbourg,
removed
here,
1753.
Paul
Hannong
...
Also J. A. H.
t
in
monogram
&
pot
fc in/
Carl Theodore, patron
...
hp p
blue 1761
FULDA,
Germanv
...
Furstlick
Fuidaisch
p
blue 17G3
to 17SO
Factories.
139
t
FULDA, Germany
...
On
figure?..
FURSTENBEEG, Germany
,,
The F varies
very
much...
h
p p
blue 17G3
h
p
p
blue 170
GERA
GOTu*
R.
h
p p
blue 1780
b
p p
blue 175-
,, Rotheribcrg,
the
founder
GROSBREITENBACH
Sometimes a mere
flourish
h
p p
r-olor 1770
1
4
o
Pottery
ana Porcelain
E.
Mayer.
Lakin
fy
Poole.
Shorthose.
NEALE & Co.
J. MEIGH &
SONS.
NEELD.
HAGUE
(THE),
Holland ...
hp p
blue
177-
J Stork the Arms
oj
ihe
Town
HALDENSTEBEN, ALT, Germany hp imp
HANLEY
pot imp
Also
Heigh
.
In imitation
of Wedgwood
17
177-
1776
U79
173-
178
Factories.
141
J.
Keeling.
Eastwood.
Shorthose
Sf
Heath.
T.
SNEYD,
HANLEY.
Mason's
Ironstone
China.
HEREND.
HANLEY
W.
Baddeley
pot imp
179-
18
Lane
Delph,
near ...
,, pr
color 1813
HERCULANEUM see LIVEKPOOL.
HEREND, Hungary
h
p p
blue 1800
H)
Also Shield
$
Crown
of
Austria, fy
Shield
%
Crown
of Hungary.
Maurice Fischer
... 1839
HESSE
CASSEL, Germany
... h
p p
blue 1763
HESSE
DARMSTADT, Germany
h
p p
blue 1756
HILDERSHEIM, Germany
h
p p
blue 1760
Pottery
and Porcelain
HOCHST,
near
Mayence, Germany
h
p p gold
1720
The arms
of the
Archbish'm & color
of Maymce
D
KiEETb
\S
n
^
3T
fitd
T
Dahl
KIEF. Russia
KIEL,
Denmark ...
Bu.chwald,
Director
Abr. Leihamer
fecit
pot p
color 1791
&hp
pot p
color 178-
pot p gold
177-
or color
Also K. T. G ...
KORZEC,
Poland ... ... h
p p
blue 1803
,,
The mark varies
very much,
and is sometimes usea
with the name
KREUZEN, Germany
Caspar
Vest
Hans
Christoplie
Vest
pot p
color 1610
to 1GOO
Factories.
J. Lockett.
TURNER.
B. Plant.
T.
Harley,
Lane Lnd.
Maf 4
1
Newld
LANE END or
LONGTON,
Staffordshire
Mayer Sf
Ncwbold
Bailey $
Batlcin.
LEEDS
TT'irTia
POTTERY.
'
LEEDS
UlU
1
43
pot imp
17
1762
177-
pot
&
imp
hp
1809
Also with
name, Hartley,
Green
$
Co.
LILLE,
France
Dorez
D is also
found
on
soft paste.
imp
& 18
pr
color
pot imp
-
18
pot imp
177(?
p
color
imp
pot p
oobr 1711
j,
174-
17
1
44
I
Pottery
and Porcelain
LILLE,
France
F. Boussemart.
Petit
pot p
color 1729
1778
Patron,
The
Dauphin
... h
p
stcn & 1784
Leperre
Duroo.
p
red
LIMBACH,
Saxe
meiningen
...
hp p
red 17G1
p gold
p
coicr
LIMOGES,
France ... h
p p
red 1773
Factories.
H5
J.p
146
Pottery
and Porcelain
Davenport.
LONGPORT.
Phillips.
yi.rf
X
LONGPORT
J.
Davenport
A blurred
impression of
"
^war& is read Liver-
pool
in mistake
for
Davenport..
pot imp
1793
pr
red
imp
]
r blue 1S05
LOOSDRECHT,
near
Amsterdam, bp p
bine
Holland
Manufactur
oude Loos-
drecht.
Moll,
director
LOWESTOFT
... ...
s*hp
,,
No mark used
byfactory
I/UDWIGSBURG, Wiirtemberg
h
p p
blue
Tnitial
of
Duke
Charles,
sometimes used with-
out the crown
17GO
1772
175-
1758
Factories
I
! LUDWIGSBURG, Wiirtembcrg
h
p p
blue 1758
This
form
is also attributed
to Madrid
An antler
from
ihe arms
,.
of Wilrtemberg
or red
TR
.
B.1
E
Also W. R. ...
LUXEMBOURG, Belgium
Boch,
Director
MADRID-see BUEN EETIRO.
MALTA ...
p
blue 1C06
to 1818
pot p color.
180G
&lip
u/ vi/
pot imp
18
MARANS,
France ... ...
pot p
color 1740
Jean Pierre
Roussencq
MARIEBERG,
Sweden ...
pot p
colo* 1750
& s
p
148 Pottery
and Porcelain
.
c.
V
c c
MARIEBEEG,
Sweden
Ehrenreich.
MARSEILLES,
France
Also with C. S.
Savy
pot p
color 17*
& s
p
>
pot p
color 1777
pr .,
B
Veuve Pernn
lionnefoy
p
black 17CO
., p
color 1769
hp p
black 1777
&pot
Factories.
149
DV
MEISSEN,
near
Dresden, Saxony pet imp
17
Boltger
MENECY
VILLEROT,
France...
op p
color 1735
Dulce
of Villeroy
& inc
MIDDLESBOROUGH,
Yorkshire
pot p
blue 18
20,
the
pattern
mark
imp
MONTET,
Franco ...
Laurjorois, manager
MONTPELLIER,
France
Le Vouland
pot imp
18
pot imp
18
TAPKHEPt
MONTREUIL,
sous
bois,
Franco h
p p
blue 18
Tinet
Moscow,
Russia ...
A. Gardner
h
p p
color 17
5
o
Pottery
and Porcelain
nonoBbi
7*
I^AHHA
Moscow,
Russia
...
-4.
Popo/.
li
p p
color 1830
) 91
,,
F. G. Fabrica
Gospodina
h
p imp
18
(The factory of
our &
pot
color
Lady)
Galena
e
NANTGARW.
MOUSTIEKS,
Franco
Olery
1686
p
color 172-
,,
Feraud
Guichard
Also the G
only
NANTQARW,
AVales
pot p
color 173-
,,
stcn in
dots
h
p imp
& 1813
color
Factories.
NAPLES. See CAPO DI MONTI.
NEVERS,
France ...
,, Jacques
Bourdv
,,
Denis
Lefebvre
,,
Henri Borne
Jacques Scigne
,, Francois
Rodrigue
,
Tile mstori ...
pot p
color 15
3) It
II >t
>5 S>
1602
1636
1730
1850
I
C2
Pottery
and Porcelain
NEWCASTLE. NEWCASTLE-ON-TYNE ...
pot imp
18
X
NIEDEBVILLER,.
near Stras- h
p p
blue 1760
bourg
1
,
France &
pot
Baron de
Beyerle",
the
founder
General de Custine ... 1786
,,
And other varieties
oj
the
,,
coronet
,, Lanfray,
director ...
fiten 1802
PBC
Nove
NOVE
*
xmp
NIMES,
France ... ...
pot
PLantier Boncourant # Co.
183-
NOVE, Italy
h
p p gold
1750
Factories.
NOVE.
Italy
h
p p gold
175
or color
NUREMBURG,
Germany
...
pot imp
155(
Ham Kraut ... ...
p
blue 1578
,, George
Liebolt
NYMPHENBERG,
Bavaria
The arms
of
Bavaria
1667
b
p imp
1753
,, p
blue
,,
NYON,
Switzerland ... ,,
Pierre
Mulhausen, painter >}
1790
18-
'54
Pottery
and Porcelain
VA
Factories.
'55
I
PARIS,
France ... ... h
p p
color 1773
^yV_
Gros
H
A
Manuf"-
de
MM"-
Guerliard et
liihl a Paris-.
,,
Advenir Lamarre
P. A.
Hannong
Lelxeuf.
Marie
Antoinette,
patroness
Housel took the
factory
...
: n
Guerhard
Due
d'Angouleme, patron
,,
Also the names in
full
together
and
separate.
Nast
1773
Porcelaine de la Reine ...
f
red 1778
1799
p
rod 1780
h
p
&t red 1783
Dagoty.
Feuillet
&
F&R
P
*
Pottery
and Porcelain
PARIS,
France
Dagoty
...
hp ji
ret. 179-
Feuillet ...
J. Petit ... ...
h
p {.
blue 1790
Clianou
... red 1784
Schlossmacher
M v gold
187-
PERKENHAMMER,
near
Carlsbad, hp j>
color 1802
Austria
Fischer & Reichembach
PlNXTON ... ...
Sp
80
attributed,
but the
factory
had no acknow-
ledged
marks.
1794
I Pi/! MOUTH
The
sign of Jupiter
h
p p
blue 176-
Factories.
157
PLYMOUTH ... ... h
p p
blue 176-
Probably Jupiter carelessly
pencilled
... ... h
p p
blue 1770
Doubtful
POPPLESDORF, Germany
QUIMPER.
Hubaudiere.
17
pot imp
176-
imp
1809
EA'IWNSTEIN, Germany
...
hp p
blue 1760
REUENSBERU or RATISBON ...
h
p p
bluo 17
Germany
Pottery
and Porcelain
k
f
I
?A
pr
fD
X
REGENSBERG,
cr
RATISBON, bp p
bit . 17-
Germany
EOCKINGHAM See SWINTON
ROUEN,
France ...
pot p
color
,,
A
great many
initials are
given by
as Rouen marks
EUDOLSTADT, Germany
... h
p jicoior
1758
Hay fork, part of
the
Arms
of ftchwa'ftzberg
Factories,
I
I
UUDOLSTADT, Germany
... h
p p
color 1758
SAINTES,
FRANCE.
Bernard
PaU?sy
settled here about 1538 and
after
unceasing efforts
succeeded in
producing
the well-Known
pottery
called
by
his name
SAINTES,
France
pot
inc
So attributed
ST. AMAND,
France ...
puC,
p
1750
Fauquez,
director.
ST.
CLOUD,
b''ranc*> ... s
p imp
1702
J. B. Chicanneau ...
pot p
bluo 1700
,,
When
patronised by
the
king ,,
1702
&sp
to 1715
6o
Pottery
and Porcelain
ST.
CLOUD,
France
Trou,
director
ST.
PETERSBURG,
iiussis
pot
<fc
p
sp
J715
1730
h
p p
bluo 1741
Cc
6
8
rtrt
^
n
Catherine 11
ft
Made
for
the Palace bv
Paul
Korniloffe
17G-
17C2
p
color 1736
Factories.
161
-4
BPATKEBT*
KopHMAOBblXTi
sx
^L^
ST.
PETERSBURG,
Russia
Alexander I.
Nicholas!. ...
Brothers
Korneloffski
,,
Alexander II,
ST.
SAMSON,
France
h
p p
color 1801
pot imp
1827
1855
183-
SCEAUX
PENTHIEVRE,
Franco s
p
inc 1750
^ZsoSP. to 1760
Due de Penthievre. Lord
High Admiral, patron pot p
bluo 1751
sp
1753
Sceaux. J.792
162
Pottery
and Porcelain
tfe
Sevres
SCHAFFHAUSEN, Germany
Tobias Slimmer.
SCHLAKENWALD,
Austria
pot
hp
p
coior 1560
1800
SEVEES,
FBANCE.
This
Factory
was removed
from
Vincennes in 1756.
and,
under the
patronage of
Madame de
Pompadour
became the most celebrated in
Europe.
The
soft past*
vases, etc.,
are now
invaluable, owing
to their
form,
colour,
and artistic decoration.
SEVRES,
France.
,, Royal period.
Sometimes
with crown. The letter
indicates the
year.
See
TabU.
s
p p
blue 1753
Hard
paste first
made
Republic
And name
only
...
National
Manufactory
...
Marlz 1804. See Table.
Imperial
Manufactory
...
J7C8
h & s
p
colov 1792
h
p
st red 1803
1806
Factories.
163
25"
JO
Sevres
30
SEVRES,
France ...
Imperial Manufactory.
Louis XVIIL
Dated with ttie
year of
the
century.
Charles
X. ...
,,
On
plain
ware
,,
On decorated ware
Louis
Philippe.
From
August
to Decemler.
1830,
to
November,
1831
h
p p
red 1810
stcn
&
imp
p
blue 1814
1824
1829
1830
p
color
164
Pottery
and Porcelain
I SEVRES,
France ...
Louis
Philippe
With the ahom
Republic
to 1851
On decorated ware.
h
p p
blue 1334
imp
or 1833
pr
color
pr green
1848
p
red
Napoleon
III.
, Emperor hp pr
color 1852
The raarat- h &
facture ofsoft paste
was s
p
revived 1854.
The scratch marks the
piece m
as undecorated.
1854
pr green
1861
Factories.
SEVBES.-TABLE OF DATES.
66
Pottery
and Porcelain
AA
Factories.
.67
|
SEVRES. Initials and
Monograms of Decorators, $c.
/*'*
Chapui?,
aine ...
Flowers, Birds,
etc.
i68
Pottery
and Porcelain
^^
SEVRES. Initials and
Monograms of Decorators, <$c.
*~F*
Fontaine ... Flowers.
Factories.
169
XA
Pottery
and Porcelain
/#
Factories.
171
p
?
1
172 Pottery
and Porcelain
SEVRES. Initials and
Monograms of Decorators, $c.
Schadre ... ... Birds and
Landscapes.
Sinsson ... ... Flowers.
Swebach ...
Landscapes,
etc.
Bineb ... ... Flowers.
Vande ... ...
Gilding
and Flowers.
Mde. Gerard . . Flowers and Borders.
Hilken ... ... Pastoral
Subjects.
Vavasseur . . .
Arabesques
Grison ... ...
Gilding.
Micaud ... ..
Flowers,
Vases
Bouillat ...
Landscapes
and Flowers
Joyau
... ... Detached Flowers.
UNKNOWN.
Figure subjects, finely painted.
Do. do.
On fine
ware,
with other marks.
Factories.
'73
SEVRES. Maries
of Decorators,
Buteux, pere
... Flowers and
trophies.
?
'74 Pottery
and Porcelain
#
Factories.
5
6
9-
Pottery
and Porcelain
M 8.
ASTBTJBT.
E. & J.
BADDELEY
I. & G.
RlDGWAY.
J. & W. E.
Sincheny.
Noel
Choisy
...
Aubert ...
Martinet . . .
SEVRES. Marks
of Decorators, i^c.
...
Flowers,
medallions.
. . . Flowers
, trophies
.
... Flowers.
The lest
Painters, fyc.,
are n Italics.
SHELTON
New Hall Works
and name Hackwood.
,
Miles
,, Baddeley
Bell Works
SINCENY,
France
pot pr
color 1820
1842
1685
,, imp
17
1750
177-
lo 1816
to 1854
pot p
color 1733
Factories.
'77
SPODE.
Porcelar
SINCENT,
France
Joseph
le
Cerf.
,,
Moulin
STOKE-UPON-TllENT
,,
Minton
On best
,, Gopeland. Copeland $
Garrett,
1833.
Cope-
land,
late
Spode,
1847.
pot p
color 177-
1864
pot imp
1770
h
p p
red
,, p
color 179-
h
p p gold
185
or color
pr
blue 18
pr
color 185-
STBASBOUBG, Germany
...
pot p
blue 17
Hannong
removed to & h
p
Frankenthal,
1754.
.78 Pottery
and Porcelain
M.
PHILLIPS &Co
DIXON & Co.
MOORE & Co.
SOUTHWARE.
SWANSEA.
X
SWANSEA
SWANSEA.
<M
STRASBOURG, Germany
. ...
pot p
blue 17
&
hp
,,
J.
Hannong.
Paid
,,
Hannong.
SUNDERLAND
Sunderland
Pottery.
,,
Wear
Pottery
SWANSEA
pot pr
color 1780
1805
1*>-
n
p p
color 178-
imp
18
And trident
only
And with
name, Dyllwyn
4-
Co. sten rod 181-
SWINTON, Eockingham
...
h
p pr
red 17
The
Eockingham
Crest.
First used about 1824.
Brameld,
maker.
Factories.
79
BF.AJHELD,
SWINTON, Buckingham
TOULOUSE,
France
Fouque,
Arnoux et Cie.
h
p pr
red 1807
&pot
pot p
color 1820
BOOTH.
CHILD.
A.
$E.Keeling.
VV. ADAT\IK.
TOUKNAY,
Franco ...
sp p
blue 175-
Tour aux oiseaux. Also
a
potter's
kiln.
V gold
or blue
TOURS,
France
Victor Avisseau.
TUNSTALL
And name in
full
Enoch
Booth.
h
p p
blue 184-
pot imp
1750
17(53
1770
1780
i8o
Pottery
and Porcelain
TURIN,
Italy
... ... h
p imp
1770
Vineuf,
Dr. Gioanetti.
t*
Ven?
CM
UZES,
France
Francois
Pichon.
VAL sous
MEUDON,
France.
Mittenhof $
Mourot.
VABAQES
VENICE, Italy
,,
Giovanni
Marcone
pot
18-
179-
&
pr
pot p
black 1730
or red
h
p p
red 17
or blue
s
p p gold
17
or color
h
p p
rod 1765
VIENNA,
Austria ... ... p
blue 1774
The
shape of
the shield
or
imp
varies.
Factories. 181
s
VINCENNES,
France
The Tower varies.
9> Hannong
s
p p
?olor 17
li
p
178-
fJSTS'\/l\f
VILLENGEN, Nuremberg
n-/L.l/yVj Hans Kraut.
cSv VOLKSTADT, Germany
VOISONLIEU,
France
Jean
Ziegler.
WEDGWOOD.
WEDGWOOD,
Burslem and
Wedgwood.
Etruria.
hp
pot
s-t
&
imp
15-
17G2
1839
pot imp
175-
A h
p
1770
imp
17G8
to 1780
132
Pottery
and Porcelain
WORCESTER
This
Factory
was
established,
in
1751, by
Dr. Wall and
others. The invention
of transfer printing
on
porcelain
is
attributed to Dr.
Wall,
but is also claimed
for Sadler, of
Liverpool,
and Dr.
Pott, of
Berlin.
WORCESTER s
p p
blue 1751
or
gold
Dr. Wall
Imitation
of
Chinese
marks
Many
marks are
found
in
this
style,
in imitation
of
Oriental.
p
blue
or red
p p
blue 17-
or red
Factories.
183
X
WORCESTER
Imitation Dresden marks
p p
blue 17
or red
c
tfipfit
Flight
and name on<v
ft
p \)
blue 178.
Flight $
Barr
,,
Barr
Barr, Flight $
Ban ...
Also FEB. and names
in
full.
1793
h
p
inc 1793
imp
1807
1
84 Pottery
and Porcelain Factories.
RI
WORCESTER ... ... h t>
pr
18
,,
And Chamberlains
only.
178-
., Grainger,
Lee
$
Co. ... 1800
,,
Richard
Holdship.
A .
p
color 175-
Duorator's mafic. He
also
ivorkedfor Derby.
WURZBUKG,
Bavaria
...
,,
p
blui 17
ibsolom Yam.
YARMOUTH ...
pot
^
.Z?,.. orator, also wit''
name
inj.^.
ZURICH,
Switzerland
hp
,)blue 1759
W.C.P.
Oriental. 1 8
ORIENTAL MARKS.
CHINA.
CHINESE
porcelain
is said to date from about a
century
before the
Christian era
;
their
pottery
is of the
greatest antiquity, and,
like the
porcelain,
is of
every quality.
The oldest
example
that can now be
obtained
is of the
Ming period, though,
if the marks could be relied
on,
there are
many pieces
of the 10th
century
still to be
found,
but marks
are so
easily imitated,
and Chinese
potters
are so fond of
reproducing
old
patterns
with marks
complete,
that
very
little reliance can be
placed
upon
them. The best
periods
of the manufacture of
porcelain during
the
Ming dynasty,
were
Yun
^
10 " 1403 to 1424
Seuen-tih ... 1426 1435
Ching-hwa
14C5 1487
Kea-tsing
1522 15G6
Wan-leih ...
1573 1G19
Egg
Shell" ware was first made in the
Yung-lo period.
The euen-th was famous for all sorts of coloured ware.
1 86
Pottery
and Porcelain.
The
Ching-hwa produced
the best ware and the finest
decoration. This mark commands
larger prices
in
Europe
-f-
H
7
than
any
other. The dark rich blue of the
Kea-tching
and
the white
granulated
surface of the
Wan-leili,
are
very
choice.
"
Old blue
China,"
or Nankin
ware,
is from the Im-
perial
factories at
King-te-chin
a town of
potters
named after
King-'e,
the
Emperor,
who first
patronized
the
manufactory
in 1004-1007. The
ware bore the "six mark" dates until
1667,
when
they
were forbidden
by
an edict from the
governor
of the
province,
lest
any piece being
broken,
the
Emperor's
name
might
be
profaned by being carelessly
thrown on the dust
heap.
This blue ware was made
by
direction of the
Emperor,
who ordered it to be of the colour of the
sky
after the winter
rains.
The marks on Chinese work are seldom either
Factory
or Painter's
marks. M. Stanislas Julien
gives
the mark of a
potter
of the Wan-leih
period,
named
Hao-chi-lihieoii,
who excelled in
writing
verses and in
painting ;
he
appears
to have taken
religious
vows and lived in retire-
,
^, -^
ment;
his mark is
Ou-in-tao-jin. Ou,
the hermit. M.
iPf
H?.
Jacquemart
mentions a
"
six
mark,"
"
sold
by Pei-tcliing,
AH5?
made
by
Kien-ki." Some of those
given
are no doubt
In3\
makers' names as
San-yuh,
Mountain of Gems
;
but the
marks most
commonly
found are in four or six
characters,
and denote
the date of the manufacture.
The "six mark"
may
be made out from the table of dates without
much
trouble, except
from
badly
formed
characters, handwriting being
as varied in China as elsewhere.
Chinese
writing
is
arranged
in columns
commencing
at tne
right,
reading
downwards. If in a horizontal line it reads from
right
to left.
Oriental,
KEEN SEUEN-TA
CHE-TiH-MING
The first and second characters of the
"
six mark
"
show
woo- TA TA
EN- MING
the
dynasty,
thus :
'
the third and
fourth,
the
peri
od
C
/t
E
| "ifc
(
n'e en
haou),
name of the
years;
the fifth
signifies
/
!qpl
year,
and the sixth
J||
made :
thus, Ta-Ming, Hung-
woo,
neen che. Great
Ming (illustrious) dynasty, Hung-
woo, years;
made. 13G8 to 1398. Or
arranged thus,
Ta.
Ming, Seuen-tth, neen,
che. Made in the Seuen-tih
period
of the
Ming dynasty.
1426 to 1435.
The next
example
is
Ta
Ts'hing, Yung-ching, neen, die,
Great
Ts'hing (pure)
dynasty Yung-ching period.
1723 to 1735. The
*'
four
mark
"
is more
troublesome,
as it does not
give
the
dynasty
it necessitates a search
through
the whole list of
dates
;
it is read in the same
order,
thus :
King-till
neen, che,
made in the
King-tih period,
about 1004 to
1007.
The
square
marks called the
Imperial Seal,
which have
been in use from the
beginning
of the last
century,
are
read in the same
way; they
are written in an archaic
character that is
only
understood
by antiquaries,
and
are
usually very badly
done. In the list
given,
from the
best
examples
that could be
obtained,
it will be seen that
the
first, second,
fifth and
sixth,
which should be alike in
all, vary
considerably;
"four mark" seals are also
given
which show similar
variations.
i88
Pottery
and Porcelain
4
*
*E
Dates are also written thus : Wan-leih
pah
r>&n che.
\
Wan-leih
eighth year,
made 1580.
All these
may
be known as dates
by
the last
characters,
Ween
year ;
and
che,
to
make,
form or fashion.
Sometimes another character is
used,
Neen
tsaou,
made
or make.
Ta
Ming-she-heen,
made in the time of the Great
Ming
government.
An
example
was found that
probably
read
thus : but it was too confused to be read with
certainty ;
the
piece
waa modern ware.
Ta
Ming
neen
che,
made in the
years
of the Great
Ming.
This is also to be
found,
but is
probably
a modern mark.
Another mode of
dating
is
by
the
cycle
of
sixty years,
but as
only
the
year
of the
cycle
is
given
it does not
identify
the
period.
24th
year
... ...
p
blue
Oriental.
One
example
was written thus-
Woo shin necn
chc,
5th
year
p
blue
The first column is called the ten celestial
stems,
and
the second the twelve terrestrial branches. The twelve
"branches" are the Chinese Zodiac: The
Rat, Bull,
Tiger, Eabbit, Dragon, Serpent, Horse, Sheep, Monkey,
Cock, Dog
and Boar. The ten
"
stems
"
are double
characters
; they
are allied to the five Chinese elements :
Water, Fire, Wood,
Metal and Earth. This
system
is
also used in
Japan
and Siam. The 76th
cycle
commenced
in 1864.
if
"
If ft
53
OPT
57
190 Pottery
and Porcelain.
5
m
ISA
The most
interesting
of these dates is that used in
the
year 1721,
Yew sin-choiv ne'^n che. Made in the Sin
chow
year again (recurring).
The
Emperor Kang-he
came to the throne in the 38th
year
of the 68th
cycle,
and died in
1722. He therefore had
reigned
for a whole
cycle
on the recurrence of the 38th
year
in
1721,
an
event
unexampled
in Chinese
history.
In a later
example
the date is
given
both
by
the
year
of the
Emperor,
and the
year
of the
cycle.
T'hung-cJie
sJuh urh necn. Kwci
yew,
12th
year
of
T'hung-che.
10th
year
of
cycle
=
1874.
The llth
year
also commences in 1874.
DATES.
TA MING
Dynasty
Hung-
woo
Keen-wan
Yung-lo
Hung-he
1368
1399
1403
Seuen-te .. 1426
*
Ching-t'hung
1436
King-tae
... 1150
*
T'heen-shun 1457
'
Ching-hwa
... 14G5
*
Some authorities reverse these two
periods they
both
belong
to the
Emperor
Yung Ching,
who was taken
prisoner by
the
Tartars,
and held
captive for
seven
yearf.
Oriental.
191
$&
Pottery
and Porcelain.
IMIIII
m
$IDJ
11
i j/
loP!
1*5.1
fl
luuii!
Kang-he
... 1662
Yung-ching
1723
Keen-lung
... 1736
Kea-king
... 1796
Taou-kwang
1822
Han-fung
... 1851
T'huvg-che
... 1861
Four Characters.
Ching-hwa...
14;^
Probably
a
forgery
.
Shun-che ... 1641
Zeen-Zttnflr
... 1736
Taou-ku-ang
1822
Han-fung
... 1851
Thung-che...
1861
Two Characters-
Name
only.
r/mnsr-c/tc...
186!
Oriental.
193
BAT.
Fuh,
used as a
synonym
for
happiness.
DRAGON,
With five
claws,
is an
Imperial emblem,
with
four,
of
the blood
royal,
and with
three,
of the
nobility. Lung-
fung,
a
dragon
and a
phoenix (divine
bird of felicitous
omen),
was a mark of the Scuen-to
period,
1426 to H35.
FISH.
The two
fish,
an emblem of domestic
felicity,
is a
mark
usually
found on old blue or Nankin ware
;
it is
one of the earliest
known,
from 969 to 1106.
Cups
with
handles in the form of- a red fish are of the Scucn-tc
period.
FLOWER.
Many
varieties of this mark are found in blue and also
in colours. A sesamuin flower
painted
under
the foot of
a
vase, &c.,
is a mark of
Tou-chcou,
969 to 1106.
The Che
plant,
a kind of
fungus,
used as an emblem
of
longevity.
Pottery
ana Porcelain.
Emblem of
longevity.
(?)
Bat and
peach.
(?)
The lotus.
Hoa,
a small flower
p
vnted inside a
cup,
is a mark of the
Yung-lo period,
14-3 to 1424. It
signifies pleasure
in
a vicious sense.
FLY,
Or
Butterfly,
ia found on old
"
Nankin."
Oriental.
'95
GRASS.
Tho
"
grass
mark" is
probably
a water
plant.
About
A.D. 960 some such mark was used to denote ware of the
best
quality.
INSCRIPTIONS.
A
great variety
are to be met with on old
porcelain,
often in the
place
where the
European
mark is found.
Some are
compliments
and
good wishes;
others are in
praise
of the articles inscribed
; many
are
quotations
from
the
poets
and classical authors of all
ages.
These last are
not
exemplified.
Tsew,
wine. Small white
cups
thus marked were used
by
the
Emperor Kea-tsing,
1522 to 15G6.
Keen,
rectitude. Mark of an
early period,
said to be on
articles sent to
disgraced
Mandarins.
Show, long
life. This is a common Oriental
compliment,
"
May you
live for
ever,"
and occurs oftcner
than
any
other character. It has
many
variations
;
sometimes a
piece
of
pottery
or
porcelain
is marked
with a hundred or more
j
these
are called
"
the
hundred sliow."
196 Pottery
and Porcelain.
Varieties of Show.
Longevity.
OS)
\Jy
CT3
if?
*
/*y_>_^%
\/
03
/03\
*
m
va/
/s\
jj
I
\/
m
ffl
\/
\7
M
\y
in
iiFr^
^
.fj
(il
flm
i
jii
m
t
\/
/)If\
AIA
*
/ffiil
Oriental.
197
m
II
Show,
is also drawn in
circular,
oval and
elongated
forms.
In ^/tow; this form is known as the
spider
mark.
Happiness,
divine
protection,
felicity.
Also written in
many
different
ways.
ii
mm
m
198 Pottery
and Porcelain.
31
DP
Luh
m
Kc'ih
Wan
Hing
(?)
Ke
Paou
Ting
Shun
(
Prosperity,
wealth,
great pos-
sessions
A,
and
found
together.
Prosperous.
Felicity, good
luck.
|
Jade,
a
gem, beautiful,
precious,
valu-
^
able,
&c.
,
known as the F
mark,
being
I often
indistinct,
and like that letter.
/
Literature. On articles made for use of
I
literarymen,therulingclass
of Cliina.
Exalted,
highly
esteemed.
A
vessel, vase, ability, capacity.
Precious,
valuable.
Perfect.
Elegant.
Oriental.
199
Koo
Antique.
Shing Holy.
Tsuen
Complete, perfect,
a name.
King Good, excellent, congratulations.
Ch'ha Name.
The five
blessings
: which are
long life,
riches, health,
the love of
virtue,
and
a natural death.
Precious or valuable
jade.
Yuh chin Jade of
great
value
;
pearl
of
great price.
/
This is an
example
of the
way
marks
I
are
usually
written.
Wan
yuh
Kare
jade.
2OO
Pottery
and Porcelain.
m
Chin ivan
(
A
precious rarity.
Choo
foo
Keang Cang
Tsaou,
fang
Tung gan
Yung ching
A valuable
curiosity.
Veritable
jade.
Chin
An
elegant rarity.
Yew wan
Great
prosperity,felicity
or
good
fortune.
Western
jade.
The best
)
jade
comes to China > /%
yuh
from the West.
)
A
pivot,
and the most
polite expression
for
the house of another.
Palace of the centre
of the universe mark
used 1260-1367.
Ginger preserved
in
syrup.
Inexpressibly precious. Paoushing
A fruit
(colled dates,
by
Europeans)
in
syrup
Choiv Chow. Both
marks of the Kea-
tsing period,
1 522-66.
The arrival of friends. Yew lae
Name
imp
on old ware.
Red olive cinnamon. "1
The Tcwei is a me- I
taphor
for
honours.
Name
p
blue on old ware.
literary
f
Tan Jcwei
Oriental. 201
Trr
. , , . f Made to
multiply (or
increase the stock
Wei
foo
china
\
L J
v
I
of)
veined
jasper.
"HALL" MARKS.
There has been some
uncertainty
as to the exact
meaning
of the word
tang,
but Mr. Franks has ascer-
tained that it means the name of the establishment at
which the
specimens
so marked were made.
Jin ho kwan Hall of brotherhood and
peace.
Lull e
tang Waving
bamboo hall.
/ Hall for the honourable
reception
of
tang
)
those who have
gone
before.
I Hall of ancestors.
Made at the Hall of rare
jade.
Made at the Hall of brilliant colours.
Kheytih
tang
die
Tsae
jun
tang
che
2O2
Pottery
and Porcelain.
t*
9
CVmw/
tih \
|"
tang
die
}
Made at the Hall of virtuous research.
Made at the Hall of
f
*
advantage.
ll
Ulade at the Hall 01
\ e
f the
jewelled girdle.
Made at the Hall
off
1
'***"*
abundant
jade.
(^ tang
die
Tze tze \
Madc ftt the Hall of the
tang
die
J
violet
embroidery.
Made at the Hall
ofj
Ta sh
the
great
tree.
( tang
die
King
v-ei }
Made at the Hall of wor-
tang
die
J
sni
P
ant^ veneration.
Made at the
encourage-
j
Yan
9
ho
inentof
harmony
Hall.
\
tang
die
Ming
\
Full
Yue
Tang
Tlie illustrious Fo's
(or
Buddha)
hall of au-
dience or
prayer.
Oriental.
203
flfe
&,
FfiU
.^.
^
kca ke
Shin till
tang
che
Beautiful vase
(or
excellent
vessel)
of the
jade
hall the
Academy.
Made at the Hall of the cultiva-
tion of virtue.
Antique
made at
^
sJiin till
tang
R
the Shin lih \
Hall. J &
boo che
Tseushunmei )
f Made at the Hall of beautiful
jade.
yuh tang
che
)
King
tSen
tang
C Imitation of
antiques
made at the
King
Men
Hall,
named after a
distinguished
fang
koo che
(
^^
Fuh kwci
chang
chun
Teen kican
tsze
fall
Wealth, honours,
and a
long spring time,
or
lasting youth.
Wealth, honours,
F*h ku
'
ci
and
long
life,
j
cj
Mng ming
May
heaven confer
happiness.
204 Pottery
and Porcelain.
wan
J/L*
jou
Ching yew
ya
tsc'ih
Pokoo
chin wan
Wan
yuh
paou ting
Wan
shang
Shan tow
Mei
yuh
ya
che
Nan chuen
kin
yuh
Wonderful
precious stone,
resembling
a
jewel.
A
gem
rare as
jade.
The
elegant
collections of the
Holy
Friends.
For the learned in
antiquities,
a valu-
able
curiosity.
Elegant, perfect
and
precious ting,
or
metal vase used for
burning joss
stick or incense.
Scholarship lofty
as the Hills and the
Great Bear.'
Compliment comparing
the
recipient
to the mountain Tae Shan
and the north
pole
or
star,
Pih tow.
Made for the connoisseur of beautiful
jade.
The
elegant jade
of Nan chuen.
Oriental.
205
>/l\
t/ffl
2O6
Pottery
and
Porcelain.
&J6
Yung cliing
yu
die
}
Made for the service of
Yung ching.
Leen
cliing
\
)
khe how
Jo shin
(?)
Name.
Deep
like a
treasury
chintsangf
of ems"
This mark is of
frequent occurrence,
but is
usually
very
indistinct.
Keih
tscang
JOU
C
}
As fortunate as
you
can desire.
Khe she
paou \
,
\
A
gem among precious
vessels of rare
tiny
che chin
}
stone'
Oriental.
207
1 A
gem among precious
vessels of rare
ting
die chin
J
J
acle'
Chung
yeumei^
For thfl
possessor
of a true and faitllful
?
w
/& iia -he I
neart this
elegant gem
was made.
Showpc
nan
shan,
Long
life as south mountain.
Fou
jou tung hai, Happiness
similar east sea.
Nan-shan is a mountain in
Fong-lfiesang-foii.
The in-
scription may
be
read,
May you
live to be as old as
the
hills,
and
your happiness
be as
great
as the sea
is wide.
LEAF.
The leaf mark is
very
common on
pieces
of
every period ;
probably
a leaf of the
artemisia,
an emblem of
good
augury.
208
Pottery
and Porcelain.
I
Oriental.
209
RABBIT,
or
Hare,
sacred to the
moon,
found on old Nankin
ware,
an emblem of
longevity.
SACRED
AXE,
so
called,
it is
probably
the
symbol
Fuh embroidered on
the
Emperor's
sacrificial robes
;
perhaps
an
equi-
valent for
Full, Happiness.
SHELL,
a Buddhist emblem, A shell was lent
by
the Government
to the ambassadors to
Loochoo,
to ensure them a
prosperous voyage.
SQUARE.
Faon.
Precious,
valuable.
Pottery
and
Porcelain.
Kwo,
National or Governmental.
Te
shan,
name.
Shan
yiih
or Shan
wang,
name.
On old
ware, dragon pattern.
I
Found on old Nankin ware
;
imitated
by
factories of
Europe.
Maker or decorator's mark. Called House marks
by
the
Chinese.
Le
Chih,
name.
Oriental. 211
Chung-kith
she The
Chung-kuh family.
Fou kwci \ Beautiful vase for the
wealthy
and
kea Ice or '> noble
;
or
wealth, honours,
and a
wong
Jce
j
vast intellect or
rapacity.
Ling Chang
tsee tsaou
Chin chow
she ts-uen
Jo shin
chin
tsang
Heae chuh
choo
jin
tsam
Tsun Chin
Made
by Ling Chang-tsee.
Valuable
(vase)
to
explain
the future.
Deep
like a
treasury
of
gems.
Made
by (or for)
the lord of the Heac
bamboos. Heae is the name of the
place
where
Ling
Lun,
minister of
the fabulous
Emperor Hwang
Ti,
cut
bamboos to form musical instruments.
Name.
212
Pottery
and Porcelain.
Examples
of marks on Canton
ware,
of recent date
possibly
to
represent
the
Imperial
' '
Seal.
"
SYMBOLICAL ORNAMENTS.
12345
6
Pa-paou.
The
eight precious things.
1. Pearl or "tide
jewel."
2.
Probably
a coin as an emblem of riches
3.
Probably
one of the dual
symbol (?)
the female. 4. Variant of last 01
male of dual
symbol.
5.
King,
emblem of
happiness
or luck. 6. Pro
bably
books. 7. Rhinoceros horns. 8. Leaf of
artemisia,
emblem ol
good augury.
Oriental. 213
Pa die
siang.
The
eight
lucky
emblems of the Buddhists.
1.
Chung,
a bell. 2.
Lo,
a chank shell. 3.
San,
State umbrella.
14 Kae,
a
canopy.
5.
Hwa,
the
lotus,
this is
always
without fillets.
6. ,
a vase with cover. 7.
Yu,
two fishes uuited
by
fillets, may
signify
domestic
felicity.
8.
Chang,
an emblem of
longevity.
These
emblems
are found as
marks,
and are also used in decoration.
Wan-tsc,
Ten thousand
things, everything,
all creation.
The "swastika"
or
fylfot
;
cross of Buddha.
King,
an emblem
of
good
fortune.
This is also intended
to
give
forth a sound when struck
;
it is used as a
tuning
fork
;
it has been mistaken for
a Masonic emblem.
Gourd,
an emblem
of
longevity,
inscribed
Full, happi-
ness,
in "Grass" character.
Joo-c,
or
sceptre
of
longevity,
and musical instruments.
Pottery
and Porcelain.
Peach and
bat,
the
peach
is an emblem of
longevity
and
the bat of
happiness,
here
they symbolise
the
phrase
Fuh slwiv
shwany chucn,
a two-fold
perpetuation
of
happiness
and
longevity.
Pi,
a
pencil, ting,
a cake of
ink, joo-e,
a
sceptre
of
longevity symbolizing
the
phrase,
Pi
ting joo
c.
May things
be fixed as
you
desire.
Paou. Precious
things.
Pencil and roll of
paper.
TABLE.
Many
varieties of this mark are found on old Nankin
ware. It was imitated
by Delft, Dresden, Worcester,
and other factories of
Europe.
Mr. Franks is of
opinion
that it is a
four-legged
vase with a
high
ear on each side.
Probably
a
wedding cup.
Oriental. 1 1
5
These
figures
occur so often on old
ware, especially
that
intended for sacrificial
use,
that a few words
may
be
given
to
explain
their
purport.
The unbroken line
Yang, represents
the masculine or
perfection ;
the divided line
Yin,
the feminine or
imper-
fection. The
group
of four is called the
Eze-seang
or
four similitudes
;
the
eight
are the
Pa-qua
or
eight sym-
bols of Foh-he. The circle was added
by Choiv,
a member
of the
Sung dynasty,
who
analysed
and
explained
them.
The circle
represents
the
original principle,
the waved
line
dividing
it makes the dual
power
or the active and
passive principles
of
creation,
it is called the
Tae-Tceih,
this when in
action, produced
a male
power,
when at rest
a female
power.
From these were
generated
four visible
forms which
represent
in the innumerable combinations
of the
eight symbols,
the
changes
and transmutations
that take
place
in nature and in the affairs of the world.
2 1 6
Pottery
and
Porcelain.
JAPAN.
THE manufacture of
pottery
is said to date from B.C. 660. A
factory
was established
by
Corean
potters
A.D. 200. The first
good glazed
pottery
was made at Seto about
1230,
by
Toshiro,
who had learnt the
art in China. Porcelain is said to have been first made
by Gorodaytt
Shonsui,
who also studied in
China,
and on his return in 1513 settled in
Hizen.
The
great
centre of the
Japanese
manufacture is in the
province
of
Ilizcn,
where
twenty-five villages
are
congregated
on a mountain which
affords a
plentiful supply
of material for their work. Other districts
have, however,
their
peculiar
wares,
some of which are
undoubtedly
of
great antiquity.
The marks used in
Japan
are
usually
the name of the
factory
or of
the maker or decorator
;
sometimes all are
given.
DATES
are marked in the same fashion as the
Chinese,
sometimas the
year
of the
period
is written :
1580
-u
-ju.
'_
Y 1653
As a rule it
may
be assumed that when an article is marked Dai
Nipon
it is a modern
production.
Chinese
periods
are to be found on
work made after Chinese
patterns.
Oriental.
217
218
Pottery
and Porcelain.
lH
IE
1*1
'13
w
Kwam-bun
Oriental.
219
tB
^.
Asahi, Uji,
established 1644-47.
Asa-hi,
Morning light,
so named from
colour of the ware ... ...
imp
Min-pci.
Avvaji,
established about 1840
by
Ka-sliiu
Min-pci.
Nipon
(Made
by)
Kashiu
Sanpei
in
Awaji, Japan. Ka-shiu
San-pci
AWATA.
Awata,
see Kioto.
Banko
Kichibei,
established
by,
1652-60 at Koume-mu-
ra,
near
Tokio,
known as Yedo
Banko,
now closed,
imp
Ise Banko.
Nipon
Bartlo.
Shiba-ta
\
Made
by
Shibata
Banko,
tsukuru
J
Japan
DanTco.
...
imp
Articles known as Banko ware arc now made at
Kmvana, Yokka-ichi,
and
neighbourhood.
220
Pottery
and Porcelain.
Nipon
Yiu sctsu
Shi-gen,
name
imp
F* m
fe
t?o
i
\Noteasy
...
Nai
yasui J
Difficult.
Banko,
The eminent of flowers ... inc
Go-so,
name ... ... ...
imp
Bizen, supposed
date,
B.C. 97-30.
At Imbe-mura a kiln has been worked since 1390.
llo-kci
sci,
Made
by Rokei,
modern mark.
Fujina, commonly
called Idsumo ware.
Fujina, Matsuye.
Un-yei,
name.
Oriental. 221
Hirato,
Mikawaji, Hizen,
established 1655-57.
The ware was made for the use of a
prince
of the
Matsu-ura
family,
not for sale.
Ilirato, Mikawaji,
Hirato
Shi-aye tsukuru, Shiaye
maker.
Mikawaji.
Mori Cliikara tsUkuru.
Hirato.
tome
yaJcu,
The honourable close of
burning.
The
prince
closed the
factory
;
the article so marked
may
have been the last fired.
Hizen.
A
large
number of kilns have been worked in
this
province,
but
only
those so marked are named here.
Ilezen Arita Ka-mi. Arita is an
important
town where
many
noted kilns are situated.
Kami,
name.
Nisid Hczcn Arita
yama,
West Hezen.
Nan-di
sci,
Made
by
Nandi.
222
Pottery
and Porcelain.
f
* v^
%
;n
Shin-po tsuknrn,
Made
by Shinpo.
Reki-san
tsukuru,
Made
by
Rekisan.
Hizen.
Sara
yama.
Fuka-gawa (sci omitted),
Made
by
(
Yeizayemon}
Fuka-
gawa
at Arita.
Fukami
(Suminosukt}.
Fukami,
Arita
;
also
C_j_
Fuka with Hczen and Great
Japan.
^~
Eishu Arita.
Ten-tai
tsukuru,
Made
by
Tentai.
Oriental.
223
Z6-shun tci.
Sam-po sci,
Made
by Sampo
at the Zoshun
(inclosure
of
Spring)
Hall.
**
JEW
^
/MflE
Z6-shun tci.
Sai-chi
tsukuru,
Made
by
Saichi.
Arita ware is also known as Imari.
Nichi
Hizen.
FuJca-gcvwa sci,
Made
by Fukagawa
of
Nichi Hizen. On
Okawaji
ware.
Imado,
Tokio.
Origin
unknown
Go'Saburo,
name.
mp
Kaga
or Kutani
ware,
established about 17th
century.
Kutani,
The nine
valleys
...
...
p
red
Kutani
..
p gold
224 Pottery
and Porcelain.
..*
'&
H
~F
a/
ti/
Kutani tsukuTU
t
M.atle at Kutani
Kaija
Kutani
Kaga
Kutani
, ,
tsukuTU
Dai
Nipon,
Great
Japan.
Kutani
sei,
Made at Kutani
Kutani
Bokuzan,
name
Kutani,
in centre the name To
decorator
Dai
Nipon.
To zan no
in,
Seal of Tozan ...
red
Kaga
...
p
red
, . .
p
black
Mack
...
p
blue
a
...
p
red
Oriental.
225
To-zan
Kiyo-zan,
name
Pon-zan
,,
Diwo-zo
To-wo
Kutani
sei,
Made at Kutani.
Kaga,
Na-Tcen.
Kaga Long
house
Dai
Nipon Kutani,
omitted.
UcTii-umi
kichi-zo,
name
pred
imp
p
red
p
black
Pottery
and Porcelain.
Fw-zcwi, name,
Yuzan
Hall,
KutanL
,
happiness
Roku,
riches
Are often found on
Kaga
ware.
Ju, long
life /
Kioto. A
potter
entitled
Nin-sei, 1644-51,
erected
kilns in various
places
; amongst
them were those still
working
at
Awata, Kinkozan,
and Kiomidzu.
Nin-sei,
Mark of Nonomura Ninsei about 1650
imp
Awata ware.
Nipon
Kioto, Japan,
Kioto.
Kin ko zan
tsukuru,
Made
by
Sobei Kinkozan
p gold
Kin ko zan .
. . .
imp
Oriental.
227
Ichi-gaya.
Tan-zan,
Mark of Seikai Tanzan
Tanzan ...
imp
...
p
black
Iiva-kura-zan,
Mark of I.
Kichibeye
...
imp
Ho
zan,
name
228
Pottery
and Porcelain.
m
A
04
Ken-zan
t
Mark of
Ogata
Shinsho,
about
1730... ... ... ...
p
brown
Kiomidzu ware.
Sei lean
ji,
Name of
village
whence came
the maker.
Ddhctchi,
name
imp
(Takahashi D.)
... ... inc
Kan-zan, name,
K. Denshichi...
Sei-fu,
name ... ...
p
With "Great
Japan,"
"maker,"
etc.
Ki-tei, name,
Wake Kitei.
Oriental.
229
Kishiu ware.
Wakayama,
an old-established kiln
;
wares
greatly improved
in 1827.
Kai-raku
} ,.. , ,, ,
f Made at the
garden
of
yen-sai }
mingled enjoyment
...
imp
Shu-ka
Do, Early
flower Hall.
Yeiraku
ware,
made at an old establishment
by
the
Zengoro family. Riyozen (the
10th
generation)
was the
first to make
porcelain.
The Prince of Kii honoured him
with the title
Yeiraku,
and
presented
him with the
seals used as marks.
^
The branch
factory
of the river. Seal
used
by
Yeiraku
Riyozen
about 1810.
Yci-raku, Perpetual enjoyment.
Dai
Nipon.
Yca-raJcu tsukivru.
Makuzu,
near Kioto.
Fu-ji yo,
Made at the
Fuji
kiln of Makuzu.
Ma-kuzu tsukuru.
Pottery
and Porcelain.
Makuzuyo
... ... ...
p
blue
Ko-zan
tsukuru,
Made
by
Kozan at the Makuzu kiln.
Minato
ware,
near
Saki,
Idsumi. Of
great antiquity,
it is believed that
Giyeji,
the inventor of the
potter's
wheel,
was the first to work here.
Minato
yaki,
Minato ware ... ...
imp
Mino ware. Worked in 17th
century.
Porcelain first
made in 1810.
Nipon
Mi
Kaito
i\
Made
by
vince of
the
pro
.
Raku
ware,
used in the tea ceremonies.
Introduced
by
a Corean named
Ameya,
1658-69. He settled at
Kioto,
and worked with
clay
found at Juraku. Taiko
Hideyoshi
honoured the son of
Ameya, Chojiro,
with a
seal
engraved RaTcu, enjoyment,
since which it is called
Raku
yaki,
and marked with a seal so inscribed.
Sen-raku "\ Made at the Senraku
garden.
Seal
> used
by Chojiro Kichizayemon
of
yen
sei
)
the llth
generation.
Oriental.
231
6hi
Raku,
Ohi-machi,
Kaga.
Founded 1680
by
Chozayemon.
OM,
seal used
by
the fourth C.
Osaka
Raku,
made
by Kikko,
187-.
Kitzu-ko or Kikko.
Tokio
Raku,
made
by
Kozawa
Benshi,
who is still
working.
Ni-pon,
To-kio\
MoRaku-ho
J
Ja
P
an
Sado ware. Made of a material found in the mines
;
the ware is
scarce,
and in
Japan
is valued both as a
curiosity
and as
having
some medicinal
quality.
Small
portions
are broken
off,
crushed in the mouth and
swallowed for no
special
disorder,
but
simply
as a
good
thing
to take.
Sado kin
gin
zan wo moltci mu-mci di kore wo tzukuru.
Made of an unnamed material found in the
gold
and silver mines of Sado.
Pottery
and Porcelain.
Sho
ju
sen nen
May you
live 1000
years.
Jo-zan,
name.
All written on the soft
clay
with a
point.
Satsuma,
established 1467-86. The Prince
brought
potters
from Corea about
1592,
when the well-known
ware was first made. No mark is found on old ware.
Satsu-ma.
Naka-jima (sei),
Made
by
N. ... ...
p gold
187-
Seto, Owari,
of
great antiquity
;
date unknown.
Dai
Ni-pon.
Se-to
sei,
Made at
Seto,
Great
Japan.
Nipon,
Seto.
Japan,
Seto.
Kawa
moto,
Masu-kichi
tsuTcuru,
Made
by
M. Kawamoto.
Oriental.
2
33
LU.
Dai
Hi-pon,
Great
Japan
... ...
p
blue
Han-mTci
sei,
Made
by
Hansuke Kawamoto.
Nipon,
Seto.
(?)
Sei-getsa,
name of a celebrated
painter
of
porcelain.
Ai-wo,
name.
Sin-nan
fude,
name of decorator.
234 Pottery
and Porcelain.
U4
I
i*
i
Yama-moto
Sho-tan,
Name of a celebrated
painter
of
porcelain.
Seto-Suke, Yokkaichi,
established 1764-80.
Se-to-sukt,
Name of
factory.
Shiba.
Resident of SMba in ToJcei.
Sei-un-tei, Factory.
Hikomaro,
name ... ... ...
p
black
Soma
ware, Naga-mura.
It is a
popular
belief in
Japan
that this is the oldest ware made
there,
and the
possessors
of
specimens prize
them
highly.
The
running
horse with which
they
are decorated
probably
dates
from 1670.
So
ma,
name
imp
Oriental.
235
riga,
name
Tokio.
Dai
Ni-pon.
Dio-to
sei,
Maker's name
Kanc-shige
name
Tokio.
Matsu-moto
Name
imp
..
p
blue
..
p
red
yashi-nobo )
Both marks on one
piece.
Dio-to,
Maker.
Toyo-ura ware, Nagato,
established 1716-35.
Toyo-ura yama,
Name of
factory
...
imp
Tozan
ware, Himeji.
Hime-ji sei,
Made at
Himeji.
236
Pottery
and Porcelain.
FLOWER.
Many
varieties of this mark occur on
porcelain
both
old and of recent date.
LEAF.
And other varieties are often found on
porcelain.
INSCRIPTIONS
Of a similar character to the Chinese are found on all
kinds of ware.
Dzou, long
life.
So-wo,
name
Kami
sci, Kami,
maker
RaTcu-masa tsukuru
,,
maker.
Huji-nori,
name ...
...
hp imp
...
pblue
...
pred
,, pblue
Oriental.
237
A P
238 Pottery
and Porcelain.
To
giyoku yen
Gosuki sei
Made
by
Gosuki at the
jade
n*.
rr
pottery
house, h
p p
blue
/
*
~*
WR
The Chinese dates Seuen-tih and
Ching-hica
are often found on Hezen ware decorated
with old Nankin
patterns.
Made in the Gen-ki
years
1570-73.
The work of
Kameyama.
_
Made
by Giyokusei
at
Returning
Spring
House.
Kame
yama
Zo no
Fuku-sJiun ken
GiyoTcu-sd
sei
Oriental.
239
Ki-to Teen
Hoku-han sei
Made
by
Hokuhan at the Curious
Pottery
House.
SQUARE.
Called House Marks.
Haict,
name of a
factory
... ...
hp p
red
)
mountain
middle,
name
,, p
blue
Yeh-san or
Itsi-yama
j
Ka, felicity.
Goa, strong,
name
one
mountain,
name ..
240 Pottery
and Porcelain.
IIP
M
All on blue decorated ware called Hezen
;
marks such
as these are found in
great variety, they
often differ
in a set of
cups
and saucers that are
evidently
from the
same hand.
Eoku,
wealth.
Aoi,
blue.
This
appears
to be
"happiness."
So-wo,
name.
Fuku, happiness.
VASE.
This curious mark is
impressed
and coloured
;
it re-
presents
a sacred vessel used in
sacrificing
and is in-
scribed with the characters
Fuku, happiness,
and
ju,
longevity.
^3259 4
o
-
i
.
BINDING
SECT.
JUN
j 5
NK
Hooper,
William Harcourt
215
A
manual
of marks on
H6
pottery
and
porcelain
PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE
CARDS OR SLIPS FROM THIS POCKET
UNIVERSITY
OF TORONTO LIBRARY