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An Investigation

of the
UTILITY OF GULF COAST SALT DOMES
for the
STORAGE OR DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES
INSTITUTE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES
LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY
BATON ROUGE, LOUISIANA
Prepared for
THE OFFICE OF WASTE ISOLATION
UNION CARBIDE CORPORATION — NUCLEAR DIVISION
DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY
Y/OWI/SUB-4112/37 September 30, 1977
DISTRIBUTION OP THIS DOCUMENT IS UNLIMITED
\ ,
\
This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the
United States Government. Neither the United States nor the
Department of Energy, nor any of their employees, makes any
warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal l i a b i l i t y or
responsibility for the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of
any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or
represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights.
DISCLAIMER

This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an
agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States
Government nor any agency Thereof, nor any of their employees,
makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal
liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or
usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process
disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately
owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product,
process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or
otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement,
recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any
agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein
do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States
Government or any agency thereof.
DISCLAIMER

Portions of this document may be illegible in
electronic image products. Images are produced
from the best available original document.

An Investigation
of the
UTILITY OF GULF COAST SALT DOMES
for the
STORAGE OR DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES
INSTITUTE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES
LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY
BATON ROUGE, LOUISIANA
.V '■ Jt'
■4".-
•1
Prepared for
THE OFFICE OF WASTE ISOLATION
UNION CARBIDE CORPORATION — NUCLEAR DIVISION
DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY
Y/OWI/SUB-4112/37 September 30, 1977
■ " 2
This r e por t was prepared as an account of work sponsored by t he
United St at es Government. Nei t her t he Uni ted St a t e s nor t he
Department of Energy, nor any of t h e i r employees, makes any
war r ant y, express or i mpl i ed, or assumes any l egal l i a b i l i t y or
r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t he accuracy, compl et eness or usef ul ness of
any i nf or mat i on, appar at us , pr oduct , or process di s c l os e d, or
r epr es ent s t h a t i t s use would not i n f r i n g e p r i v a t e l y owned r i ght s ,
An I nve s t i gat i on
of t he
UTILITY OF GULF COAST SALT DOMES
f or t he
STORAGE OR DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES
by
J . D. Mart i nez, R. L. Thoms, C. G. Smi t h, J r .
C. R. Kolb, E. J . Newchurch, R. E. Wilcox
With
Cont r i but i ons by
A. L. Bachman, R. A. Barlow, R. C. Farmer, R. E, F e r r e l l , J r . ,
R. M. Gehle, B. Hoda, M. B. Kumar, A. J . Lewis, T. A. Manning, J r . ,
B. J . Mi l l e r , S. L, Oden, L. K. P a i l l e , R. Q, P e r r i t t ,
R. H. Pi l g e r , J r . , J . E. Rovik, M. T. Tumay, J . K. Whisman
- NOTICE-
This report was prepared as an
sponsored by the United States Government. Neither the
United States nor the United States Department of
Energy, nor any o f their employees, nor any o f their
contractors, subcontractors, or their employees, makes
any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal
liability or responsibdity for the accuracy, completeness
^or usefulness o f any information, apparatus, product or
r process disclosed, or represents that its ure would not
' infringe privately owned r i g h t s . ________ ____________
INSTITUTE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES
LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY
BATON ROUGE, LOUISIANA
Prepared f o r
THE OFFICE OF WASTE ISOLATION
UNION CARBIDE CORPORATION - NUCLEAR DIVISION
DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY
Y/OWI/SUB-4112/37
September 30, 1977
DISTRIBUTION OF THIS DOCUIIENT IS UNLIMTED
A U T H O R S B Y D E P A R T M E N T
INSTITUTE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES
J. D. Mar t i nez, Di r ect or
R. A. Barlow
B. Hoda
C. R. Kolb
E. J . Newchurch
C. G. Smi th, J r .
J. K. Whisman
R. E. Wi1cox
DEPARTMENT OF AGRONOMY
B. J . Mi 11e r
DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
R. C. Farmer
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
T. A. Manning, J r .
R. L. Thoms
M. T. Tumay
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
L. K. Pa i l l e
R. Q. P e r r i t t
DEPARTMENT OF ENGINEERING SCIENCE
R. M. Gehle
DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND ANTHROPOLOGY
A. J . Lewis
DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY
R. E. F e r r e l l , J r .
M. B. Kumar
R. H. Pi l g e r , J r .
S. L. Oden
J . E. Rovik
OFFICE OF ADVANCED STUDIES AND RESEARCH
A. L. Bachman
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The I n s t i t u t e wi shes t o acknowledge t he c ont r i but i ons of of f i c e
s t a f f Evelyn Jeansonne, Marie Champagne, Kay Cr ochet , Marianna
Ki egl ey, Vicki Pi l gr i m, El ai ne P o i r i e r , and Kathi Whitehead; and
al so t o draftswomen Norma Duffy and Suzanne Jambon t o t he pr epar ­
at i on of t h i s r e p or t .
CONTENTS
P a g e
Li s t of F i g u r e s .......................................................................................................... xi
Li s t of Tables . ....................................................................................................xvi i
I . INTRODUCTION AND APPRAISAL ....................................................................... 1
I I . SUMMARY OF FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . 9
A. Tect oni c S t a b i l i t y ................................................................................ n
1. F i n d i n g s ............................................................................................ H
2. Reconmendat i ons............................................................................... 13
B. Hydrologic S t a b i l i t y ........................................................................... 17
1. F i n d i n g s .......................... 17
2. Recommendat i ons............................................................................... 19
I I I . GEOMECHANICS..................................................................................................... 21
A. General . ................................................................................................. 23
B. Fi el d I nst r ument at i on ........................................................................... 29
1. T i l t m e t e r s .......................................................................... 29
2. Pr eci se Leveli ng . .................................................................. 32
3. Recording Sei s mogr aph...................... ........................................... 33
4. Ver t i cal Borehole Extensomet er ............................................ 33
5. Engi neeri ng Seismograph .............................................................. 34
C. Data Acqui si t i on S y s t e m....................................................................... 35
D. Numerical Modell ing of Possi bl e Dome Movement ......................... 45
E. In Si t u Domal Rock Sa l t P r o p e r t i e s ............................................. 51
F. In Si t u Soi l P r o p e r t i e s ....................................................................... 53
1. General Obj ect i ve, Scope and Si gni f i cance ...................... 53
2. Overview of Curr ent St at us ........................................ . . . 55
3. In Si t u St udi es a t Vacheri e D o m e .......................................... 57
VI
Page
4. Labor at ory S t u d i e s ........................................... 71
5. Concl usi ons and Recommendations ............................................ 75
G. Ground Water Flow and Sal i n i t y near a Sa l t Dome . . . . . 79
H. Mi crosei smi c Mo n i t o r i n g ....................... 85
I . Natural Temperature Di s t r i but i on around Sa l t Domes . . . 87
J . Fi ndi ngs and Recommendations ............................................. 91
1. F i n d i n g s ........................................... 91
2. Recommendat i ons................................... 93
IV. GEOHYDROLOGY.................................. 95
A. G e n e r a l ........................................ 97
B. Geohydrologic St udi es o f Vacheri e Dome ................................... 99
1. I n t r o d u c t i o n ........................................ 99
2. Wells Compl e t ed.......................... 100
3. Geologic I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Dr i l l i n g Resul t s ..................... I l l
4. Geohydrologic Resul t s of Test Wells ....................................... 113
C. Geohydrologic St udi es of Rayburn' s Dome.... ................................... 125
1. I n t r o d u c t i o n ......................... ...... .......................... .... 125
2. Resul t s of D r i l l i n g ............................................................................127
3. Acknowledgements . . . . . ...................................................... 128
D. Geohydrologic St udi es of Mi ssi ssi ppi S a l t Domes ...................... 129
1. I n t r o d u c t i o n ......................................................................................... 129
2. Procedure .....................................................................................131
3. Di scussi on . .................................................................................... 133
E. Caprock S t u d i e s ............................................................................................. 157
F. Hydrologic I s o l a t i o n of Mined Openings i n Sa l t Domes . . 161
1. I n t r o d u c t i o n ............................................................... 161
v i i
Page
2. Comparison of Gulf Coast Sa l t Mines . . . . . . . . . 164
3. Mine Hydrology - Weeks I sl and . ....................... 168
4. Mine Hydrology - Cote Blanche .................................... 193
5. Gas I nt r us i on in Sol ut i on-Mi ned Cavi t i es ....................... 203
6 . Concl usion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .................. 204
G. Fi ndi ngs and Recommendat i ons ............................................. 207
1. Fi ndi ngs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
2. Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . .................. . . 209
V. REGIONAL GEOLOGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
A. G e n e r a l ............................................................ ...... ....................................... 213
B. Computerized Mapping ............................................................................ 217
1. B a c k g r o u n d ........................................................................................ 217
2. St ages of Mapping . . . . ................... . . . . . . . . . 217
3. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Computer Maps . .................................... 223
C. Growth Rates of Sa l t Domes of t he North Loui si ana
Sa l t Basin . ......................................................... .... 225
1. I nt r oduct i on . . . . . . . . . . . .... ................................ . 225
2. A p p r o a c h .................. ........................................................ .... 225
3. Problems in Est i mat i on of Growth Rates . . . . . . . 230
4. Bases of Computations . . . . . . . . ............................... 243
5. Resul t s and Co n c l u s i o n s ....................... .... ...................................246
D. Seismic St udi es of Vacherie Sa l t Dome . .............................. .... 271
1. Background . . . . . . . . . . . 271
2. Pr ocessi ng of t he D a t a .......................................................... .... 272
3. R e s u l t s ............................................................................................. .... 272
4. Fut ure Work ................................ .... .............................. .... 306
5. Acknowledgements ................................ ......................... 307
v i i i
P a g e
E. Gravi t y I nve s t i ga t i ons of North Loui si ana
Sa l t Domes......................................................................................................309
1. B a c k g r o u n d ............................................................................................. 309
2. Data A c q u i s i t i o n ...............................................................................310
3. R e s u l t s ............................................... 313
4. Fut ure Wor k ............................................................................................ 313
5. Acknowledgements ........................................................................ 314
F. G e o c h e mi s t r y .................................................................................................. 315
1. B a c k g r o u n d ............................................................................................315
2. Scanning El ect r on Microscope (SEM) Techniques . . . . 315
3. Atomic Absorpt i on Spect roscopy ( A A S ) .................................. 316
4. Col or i met r i c Procedures ............................................................. 317
5. Sa l t S a m p l e s ........................................... 318
6 . Resul t s of SEM St udi es ............................................................. 319
7. Resul t s of Chemical Det ermi nat i ons . . . . . . . . . 330
8 . Summary and Reconmendat i ons........................................................ 332
9. Acknowl edgement s .................................. 332
G. Mineral Resource Maps of Vacheri e and Rayburn' s
Sa l t Dome A r e a s ...................................................................... 335
1. Oil and Gas . ...................................................................................335
2. Ground W a t e r .......................................................................... • • 335
3. Gravel ....................................................................................... 336
4. L i g n i t e .................................................... 336
5. Data S o u r c e s ....................................................................................... 336
6 . Acknowledgements ........................................................................... 337
IX
P a g e
H. Fi ndi ngs and Recommendations ............................................................ 349
1. F i n d i n g s .................................. ......................................................... 349
2. Recommendat i ons....................... ....... ................................................350
VI. QUATERNARY STUDIES .......................................................................................... 353
A. G e n e r a l .............................................................................................................. 355
B. Quat ernary Deposit s above Vacheri e and Rayburn' s Domes. . 357
1. Pl ei st ocene-Hol ocene Deposi t i on ............................................... 357
2. St at us of Boring and Seismic Programs a t Vacherie
Dome.......................................................................................................... 360
3. Resul t s of Boring and Seismic Programs a t Vacherie
Dome ........................................................................................ 366
4. St at us of Boring and Sei smi c Programs a t Rayburn' s
Dome..........................................................................................................373
5. Resul t s of Boring and Sei smi c Programs a t
Rayburn' s Dome.................................................................................... 373
6. Sunmar y..................................................................................................... 374
7. Acknowl edgement s ................................................................ 375
C. Li neat i ons on Vacheri e and Rayburn' s Domes ............................ 377
1. G e n e r a l ..................................................................................................... 377
2. Methods ........................................................... 377
3. Eval uat i on of Data S e t s .................................................................. 379
4. R e s u l t s ................................................................................. 380
5. Acknowledgements ............................................................................. 384
D. Pedol ogi c I nve s t i gat i ons .................................................................... 385
E. Nature of Quat ernary Warping above Domes ................................... 401
F. Terr ace L e v e l s .......................................................... 403
G. Topographic Lows above Domes ......................................................... 407
P a g e
H. Drainage Basin A n a l y s i s ...................... 415
I . Erosi onal Ef f ect s duri ng next 250, 000 Years ............................ 417
1. Regional Tect oni sm . . . . . . . . . . ............................ 418
2. G l a c i a t i o n ........................................................................... 419
J . Fi ndi ngs and Recommendat i ons .................................... 423
1. Fi ndi ngs . .............................................................. 423
2. Recommendat i ons........................................... . 424
VII. REFERENCES ........................................................................ . . . . . . . . 427
VI I I . APPENDICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437
A. Soundings and Bori ngs: Vacheri e Sa l t Dome . . . . . . . 439
B. Water Well Records: Vacheri e Sa l t Dome . . . . . . . . . 459
XI
FIGURES Page
Fi gure II-A-1 Schematic of I nst r ument at i on System......................
24
Fi gure II-A-2 I nt e r a c t i on of Ef f or t s - Moni t ori ng Dome
Movements. . . .............................................................
27
Fi gure I I -8-1 Locat i ons of Ti l t me t er Si t e s - Vacheri e
Dome ............................................ ......................................
30
Figure II -B-2 Locat i ons of Ti l t me t e r Si t e s - Rayburn' s
Dome ...................................................................................
30
Figure II -B-3 T i l t Data - Vacheri e Dome . ................................... ....
31
Figure II-C-1 Ti l t met er Data Acqui si t i on System - Remote
S i t e ................................................................................... 37
Figure II -C-2 Ti l t met er Data Acqui si t i on System - Cent ral
Si t e ...................................................................... .... . . 38
Figure II -C-3 Ti l t met er Data Acqui si t i on System - Complete .
42
Fi gure II-D-1 Vacherie Pl ane St r ai n Model. . ...............................
47
Fi gure II-D-2 Vacheri e Pl ane St r ai n Model - Imposed
Displacement .................................................................. 47
Figure II-D-3 Vacheri e Pl ane St r ai n Model - Moon Loading . . 48
Fi gure II-D-4 Vacheri e Plane St r ai n Model - Mat er i al s
Int er changed, Moon Loading . ............................... 48
Fi gure II-D-5 Deformed 3-D Fi n i t e Element Dome Model . . . . 49
Fi gure II- F- 1 Map of Borings and Soundings Locat i ons -
Vacherie Dome...................... .... ................................... 56
Fi gure I I - F- 2 "Undi st urbed" Samplers ................................................ 58
Figure I I - F- 3 Log of Boring No. 4 - Vacheri e Dome. ..................
61
Figure I I - F- 4 Types of Sounding Cones. . . . ...............................
64
Fi gure I I - F- 5 St ages of Sounding - Begemann Cone . .................. 65
Figure I I - F-6 El e c t r i c Fr i c t i on Cone Penet r omet er. .................. 67
Figure I I - F- 7 Cone Penet r at i on Test No. 4C1 - Vacherie Dome. 68
Fi gure I I - F-8 Cone Penet r at i on Test No. 4C2 - Vacheri e Dome. 69
Fi gure I I - F- 9 Cone Penet r at i on Test No. 4C3 - Vacheri e Dome. 70
Fi gure II - F- 10
Expansion/Load Cell Pr es sur emet er .......................... 76
X I 1
i gur e IV-B-1
i gur e IV-B-2
i gure IV-B-3
i gure IV-B-4
i gur e IV-B-5
i gure IV-B-6
i gur e IV-C-l
i gure IV-D-1
i gure IV-D-2
i gur e IV-D-3
i gur e IV-D-4
i gur e IV-D-5
i gur e IV-D-6
i gur e IV-D-7
i gur e IV-D-8
i gur e IV-D-9
i gur e IV-D-10
i gur e IV-E-1
i gur e IV-F-1
i gur e IV-F-2
i gur e IV-F-3
i gur e IV-F-4
i gur e IV-F-5
Geol ogi c Cross Sect i on A-A' - Vacheri e Dome. . 101
Geologic Cross Sect i on B-B' - Vacheri e Dome. . 102
Geologic Cross Sect i ons wi t h No Ver t i cal
Exaggerat i on - Vacherie Dome................................... 105
St r uct ur al Contour Map - Vacheri e Dome . . . . 107
Maximum Dissol ved Sol i ds Cont ent - Vacheri e
Dome.......................... 118
Observed Water Levels and Hydraul i c Head -
Vacheri e Dome..................................................................... 122
Well Locati on Map - Rayburn' s Dome ..................... 126
Locat i on Map - Mi ssi ssi ppi Sa l t Domes . . . . 130
Geohydrologic Cross Sect i on - Brui nsburg Dome. 135
Geohydrol ogic Cross Sect i on - Sar di s Church
Dome..................... 137
Geohydrol ogic Cross Sect i on - Gi l be r t Dome . . 139
Geohydrol ogic Cross Sect i on - Crowvi l l e Dome . 141
Geohydrologi c Cross Sect i on - County Line
Dome...................................................................................... 143
Geohydrologi c Cross Sect i on - Byrd Dome. . . . 145
Geohydrologi c Cross Sect i on A-A' - Leedo Dome. 147
Geohydrologic Cross Sect i on B-B' - Leedo Dome. 148
Geohydrol ogic Cross Sect i on - Richmond Dome. . 151
Or i ent at i on of Anhydri t e Cr ys t al s al ong Sa l t
Cr yst al Boundaries . . . 159
Plan f or Mine Hydrology I n v e s t i g a t i o n ....................162
Knob on J ef f er s on I sl and Dome..................................... 165
Conf i gur at i ons of Various Gul f Coast Sa l t
Dome Mi n e s ........................................................................ 166
Mine Plan and Locati on of Speci al Feat ur es -
Weeks Mi n e ........................................................................ 170
Water Seep - Weeks Mine..................................................172
X I 1 1
i gur e
i gur e
i gure
i gure
i gur e
i gure
i gur e
i gur e
i gur e
i gur e
i gure
i gur e
i gur e
i gur e
i gur e
i gure
i gure
i gur e
i gur e
i gur e
i gur e
V-F-6
V-F-7
V-F-8
V-F-9
V-F-10
V-F-n
V-F-12
V-F-13
V-F-14
V-F-15
V-F-16
V-F-17
V-F-18
V-F-19
V-F-20
V-F-21
V-F-22
V-F-23
V-F-24
V-F-25
V-F-26
i gur e IV-F-27
i gure IV-F-28
i gur e IV-F-29
Pools of Water - Weeks Mi n e ...................... 174
Ef f l or escence on Wall - Weeks Mine . 175
Ef f l or escence on Walls - Weeks Mi n e ......................... 176
S t a l a c t i t e s - Weeks Mine................................................... 177
Cl ust er s of S t a l a c t i t e s - Weeks Mine.........................178
St al agmi t es - Weeks Mine................................................ 179
Ver t i cal chimney - Weeks Mi n e ......................................181
Hori zont al Chimney - Weeks Mi n e ................................. 182
Large Sa l t Cr ys t al s - Weeks Mine................................. 184
Vein of Large Cr yst al s - Weeks Mi n e ........................ 185
Photomicrograph of Anhydri t e Band - Weeks Mine. 186
Sandstone I ncl usi on - Weeks Mine................................. 187
Photomicrograph of Sandst one I ncl usi on -
Weeks Mine.............................................................................188
Highly Fr act ur ed Sandstone I ncl us i on -
Weeks Mine.............................................................................189
Photomicrograph Showing Text ur e of Sandstone
I ncl usi on - Weeks Mine.................................................. 190
Highly Folded Layers of Impure Sa l t -
Weeks Mine..................... 191
Addi t i onal Views of Layers of Impure Sa l t -
Weeks Mine............................................................................ 192
Mine Plan and Locati on of Speci al Feat ures -
Cote Blanche Mi n e ...........................................................194
Sa l t Showing no Di s col or at i on from Oxidati on
of Rock Bol t s - Cote Blanche Mi n e ....................... 197
Ver t i cal Blow Out; Cote Blanche Mine....................... 198
Typi cal Chimney i n Cei l i ng - Cote Blanche Mine. 199
St r i ng of Chimneys - Cote Blanche Mine...................200
Banding of Sa l t - Cote Blanche Mi n e ....................... 201
I nt ensel y Fr act ur ed Sa l t - Cote Blanche Mine. .202
Fi gure V-C-1 St ages i n Sa l t St ock Evol ut i on ...................................
Figure-V-C-2 Domal Thinni ng Approach f or Growth Est i mat i on. . . 229
Fi gur e V-C-3 St r uct ur a l Rel i e f Approach f or Growth
Est i mat i on . . ..................................................................
Fi gure V-C-4 Fl ui d Mechanical Hypot hesi s f o r Dome Evol ut i on . . 231
Fi gure V-C-5 Sa l t Growth - S t r a t i gr aphi c Thi nning and
St r uct ur al Re l i e f . . . ............................... ....
Fi gure V-C-6 S a l t Growth - St r a t i g r a p h i c Thi nni ng, Magnitude
of Pi ercement and St r uct ur al Rel i ef . .................. . 234
Fi gure V-C-7 Al t e r na t i ve I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of Piercement Dome
Development...........................................................................
Fi gure V-C-8 Example of Computations f o r Piercement Dome. . . . 236
Fi gure V-C-9 Di f f er e nt Hi s t or i e s f or I dent i cal St r a t i g r a p h i c
Uni t s. ................................................................................... . 241
Fi gur e V-C-10 Problem of Dating and Est i mat i ng Pos t - Te r t i a r y
Upl i f t . .................................................................. ....
242
Fi gure V-C-11 I naccur aci es Resul t i ng from Inadequat e Well
Cont r ol ............................... .... ................................................
244
Fi gur e V-D-1 Locat ion of Sei smi c Lines - Vacheri e Dome 273
Fi gur e V-D-2a Seismi c Sect i on - ARCO Line A-2 ...................................
. 275
Fi gur e V-D-2b I nt e r pr et e d Sei smi c Sect i on - ARCO l i n e A-2. . .
. 277
Fi gure V-D-3a Sei smi c Sect i on - ARCO 1i ne A-6 . . ...........................
279
Fi gure V-D-3b I nt e r pr e t e d Sei smi c Sect i on - ARCO Li ne A-6 . . . 281
Fi gur e V-D-4a Seismic Sect i on - ARCO Line 9. . . ........................... 283
Fi gur e V-D-4b I nt e r pr et e d Seismi c Sect i on - ARCO Line 9. . . .
. 285
Fi gur e V-D-5a Seismic Sect i on - ARCO l i n e 39 ............................... ....
287
Fi gur e V-D-5b
I nt e r pr e t e d Seismic Sect i on - ARCO Line 39 . . .
. 289
Fi gur e V-D-6a Seismic Sect i on - ARCO Line 40 ...................................
291
Fi gure V-D-6b I nt e r pr et e d Seismi c Sect i on - ARCO Li ne 40 . . .
.293
Fi gure V-D-7
Vel oci t y-Dept h Rel at i ons . . . . . . ......................
297
XV
Figure V-D-8 Rei nt er pr et ed Seismic Sect i on - Pet t y Ray Line A . 299
Fi gure V-D-9 Rei nt er pr et ed Sei smi c Sect i on - Pet t y Ray Line B . 301
Fi gure V-D-10 St r uct ur al Contour Map - Vacheri e Dome . . . . . . 303
Fi gure V-E-1 Bouguer Gravi t y Map - Vacherie Dome. . ...................... 311
Fi gure V-E-2 Bouguer Gravi t y Map - Pr ot hro and Rayburn' s Domes. 312
Fi gure V-F-1 SEM Photomicrograph - Weeks I sl and Sa l t Sample . . 321
Fi gure V-F-2 SEM Photomicrograph - Weeks I sl and Sa l t Sample . . 322
Fi gure V-F-3 SEM Photomicrograph - Weeks I sl and Sa l t Sample . , 324
Fi gure V-F-4 SEM Photomicrograph - Weeks I sl and Sa l t Sample . . 325
Figure V-G-1 Mineral Resources - Vacheri e Sa l t Dome Area. . . . 339
Fi gure V-G-2 Mineral Resources - Rayburn‘s S a l t Dome Area . . . 341
Figure VI-B-1 Index Map - Vacheri e Dome. . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
Figure VI-B-2 Index Map - Rayburn' s Dome . . . . . . 359
Fi gure VI-B-3 Vacherie Dome - Sect i on S-S' . . . . . . . . . . . 361
Fi gure VI-B-4 Vacheri e Dome - Sect i on B-M . . . . . . . . . . . 363
Fi qure VI-B-5 Undi st or t ed Subsurface Sect i on - Vacherie Dome
( S - l i n e ) .......................................................................................368
Figure VI-B-6 Undi st or t ed Subsurface Sect i on - Vacherie Dome
(B-M l i n e ) ........................................................ 372
Fi gure VI-C-1 Remote Imagery Li neat i ons - Vacheri e Dome. . . . . 381
Fi gure VI-C-2 Remote Imagery Li neat i ons - Rayburn' s Dome . . . . 332
Fi gure VI-D-1 Di s t r i but i on of Soi l s - Vacheri e Dome. . . . . . . 391
Fi gure VI-D-2 Soi l Sect i on A-A' - Vacheri e Dome. . . . . . . . . 393
Fi gure VI-D-3 Soil Sect i on B-B' - Vacheri e Dome. . . . . . . . . 394
Fi gure VI-F-1 Concordant Levels of Quat er nary Deposi t s Along
and Adj acent t o Bashaway Creek ................................... 405
Fi gure VI-G-1 Topographic Low over Vacheri e Dome . . . . . . . . 408
Fi gure VI-G-2 Hypot het i cal Ori gi ns of Topographi c Lows
over Domes . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409
Fi gure VI-G-3 Faul t Pat t er n over Hei del berg Sa l t Dome. . . . . . 412
XVI
Fi gure VI-I-1 El evat i ons of Quat er nar y Levels - Vacheri e
Dome Area. . .
418
Fi gure A-1 Log of Boring No. 1 - Vacheri e Dome. . .
441
Fi gur e A-2 Log of Boring No. 2 - Vacheri e Dome. . .
443
Fi gure A-3 Log of Boring No. 2C3 - Vacheri e Dome. .
444
Fi gure A-4 Log of Boring No. 3 - Vacheri e Dome. . .
446
Fi gure A-5 Cone Penet r at i on Test No. 5WC - Vacheri e Dome. a « 448
Fi gure A-6 Cone Penet r at i on Test No. 6WC - Vacheri e Dome. • 449
Fi gure A-7 Cone Penet r at i on Test No. 7WC - Vacherie Dome.

• 449
Fi gure A-8 Cone Penet r at i on Test No. ICl - Vacheri e Dome, • 450
Fi gur e A-9 Cone Penet r at i on Test No. 1C2 - Vacheri e Dome. « 450
Fi gure A-10 Cone Penet r at i on Test No. 1C3 - Vacherie Dome. 0

450
Fi gure A-11 Cone Penet r at i on Test No. 2C1 - Vacheri e Dome. • 451
Fi gure A-12 Cone Penet r at i on Test No. 2C2 - Vacherie Dome. • • 452
Fi gure A-13 Cone Penet r at i on Test No. 2C3 - Vacheri e Dome.

453
Fi gure A-14 Cone Penet r at i on Test No. 3C1 - Vacheri e Dome.

453
Fi gure A-15 Cone Penet r at i on Test No. 3C2 - Vacheri e Dome. • 454
Fi gure A-16 Cone Penet r at i on Test No. 3C3 - Vacheri e Dome. 0
455
Fi gure A-17 Cone Penet r at i on Test No. ACl - Vacheri e Dome. • •
456
Fi gure A-18 Cone Penet r at i on Test No. AC2 - Vacheri e Dome.

456
Fi gur e A-19 Cone Penet r at i on Test No. AC3 - Vacheri e Dome.

457
Fi gure A-20 Cone Penet r at i on Test No. B2C - Vacheri e Dome.

457
Fi gure A-21 Cone Penet r at i on Test No. BIOC - Vacheri e Dome •
458
Fi gure B-1 Geophysical Well Log, Well V-4 - Vacheri e Dome 0
469
Fi gure B-2 Geophysical Well Log, Well V-5 - Vahceri e Dome •
471
Fi gure B-3 Geophysical Well Log, Well V-6 - Vacheri e Dome
• 473
Fi gure B-4 Geophysical Well Log, Well V-7 - Vacherie Dome .
475
xv n
T A B L E S P a g e
Table I I I - F- 1 Soi l Cl a s s i f i c a t i on Paramet ers - Vacheri e
Dome...................................................................................... 72
Table III-G-1 Conservat ion Laws f o r Ground-Water Flows . . . 82
Table IV-B-1 El e c t r i c Logs - Vacherie Dome Cross Sect i ons . 103
Table IV-B-2 Dr i l l i ng and Completion Records - Vacherie
Dome Observat i on W e l l s ..................................... 104
Table IV-B-3 Water Qual i t y Analyses - Vacherie Test Wells . 115
Table IV-D-1 El e c t r i c Logs - Mi ssi ssi ppi Sa l t Dome
Cross S e c t i o n s .................................................................. 152
Table IV-F-1 Speci al Feat ures - Weeks I sl and Sa l t Mine . . 171
Table IV-F-2 Speci al Feat ures - Cote Blanche Sa l t Mine . . 195
Table V-B-1 Li s t of Computer Trend Maps - Webster
P a r i s h , North Loui si ana Sa l t Dome Basin . . 219
Table V-B-2 Li s t of Computer Trend Maps - Bi envi l l e Pari sh,
North Loui si ana Sa l t Dome Basin . . . . . . 220
Table V-B-3 Li s t of Computer Trend Maps - Winn Par i s h,
North Loui si ana Sa l t Dome B a s i n ............................221
Table V-B-4 Li s t of Isopach Trend and Resi dual s Maps -
North Loui si ana Sa l t Dome B a s i n ............................222
Table V-C-1 Sa l t Dome Growth Rates - North Loui si ana
B a s i n ......................................................... 247
Table V-C-2 Range of Sal t - Dome Growth Rates - North
Loui si ana Basin . . . . . . . . . 249
Table V-C-3 Range of Sa l t Dome Growth Rates - Nor t heast
Texas ............................................ 250
Table V-C-4 Computations f o r Sa l t Dome Growth Rates - North
Loui si ana Basin . ..................................................... 252
Table V-F-1 Locat ions of Sa l t Samples Col l ect ed - Weeks
Is l and and Cote Blanche Mines . . . . . . . 319
Table V-F-2 Chemical Analyses of Sa l t - Weeks I sl and and
Cote Blanche Mines . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
x v i i i
Page
Table V-F-3 Chemical Analyses of Sa l t Samples - Range of
V a l u e s .......................................................................................330
Tabl e V-F-4 Atomic Absorpti on Spect roscopy - Computations. . 331
Table V-G-1 Exi st i ng Wells - Vacherie Dome Area............... 343
Tabl e V-G-2 Exi st i ng Wells - Rayburn' s Dome A r e a .............347
Table VI-D-1 Soi l s , Parent Mat er i al s , Landscape P o s i t i o n ,
Pr o f i l e Thi ckness - Vacherie Dome ...................... 388
Tabl e B-1 Well V-4 Completion Descr i pt i on - Vacherie
Dome . ........................ .................................................... 461
Table B-2 Well V-5 Completion Descr i pt i on - Vacherie
Dome........................................... ............................................ 462
Table B-3 Well V-6 Completion Descr i pt i on - Vacherie
Dome ................................................................................... 463
Table B-4 Well V-7 Completion Descr i pt i on - Vacherie
Dome ....................................................................................... 464
Tabl e B-5 Well V-4 Dr i l l Cut t i ngs Descr i pt i on - Vacherie
Dome.................................. ........ ....................................... .... 465
Table B-6 Well V-5 Dri 11 Cut t i ngs Descr i pt i on - Vacherie
Dome.................................... 466
Table B-7 Well V-6 Dri 11 Cut t i ngs Descr i pt i on - Vacherie
Dome............................................................................................ 467
Table B-8 Well V-7 Dr i l 1 Cut t i ngs Descr i pt i on - Vacherie
Dome . . . . .................. . . . . . . . . . . . . 468
I. I N T R O D U C T I O N A N D A P P R A I S A L
I . INTRODUCTION AND APPRAISAL
J . D. Martinez
This t h i r d annual r e por t of t he Gulf Coast s a l t dome i nve s t i gat i on
by t he I n s t i t u t e f or Environmental St udi es f o r t he Of f i ce of Waste
I s ol a t i on under Sub- cont r act No. 4112 provi des an oppor t uni t y t o s a t i s f y
two requi r ement s. The f i r s t and most e s s e nt i a l one i s t o pr ovi de de­
t a i l e d r epor t s of t he work and accomplishments of each pr i nci pal a c t i v i t y
funded under t h i s c ont r a c t . A second i mpor t ant requi rement i s t o assess
now, i f pos s i bl e, t he e f f e ct i vene s s of t he methodology t h a t was s el ect ed
t o car r y t he st udy toward i t s ul t i mat e goal s. Thi s eval uat i on i s i n­
cor por at ed in t he vari ous s ect i ons of t h i s r e por t t h a t are wr i t t e n by
t he seni or i nve s t i gat or s who head up t he pr i nc i pa l s ect i ons of t he r e ­
search team.
This cont r i but i on of t he i ndi vi dual pr e s e nt a t i ons i s very usef ul and,
in f a c t , e s s e n t i a l . However, i t has become i nc r e as i ngl y obvious t h a t t he
var i ous subset s of t h i s e n t i r e program are i n e x t r i c a bl y bound t oget he r ,
and an assessment of t he v a l i d i t y of our approaches must be made a t a
l evel a t which t hese i n t e r r e l a t i o n s can be consi der ed, as wel l as a t t he
l evel of t he a c t i v i t i e s which have been i d e n t i f i e d as s p e c i f i c from t he
onset of t he i nve s t i gat i on.
At t he begi nning of t he st udy t he l i ne s of demarcat i on between t he
two pr i nci pal goal s: ( 1) a det er mi nat i on of t e c t oni c s t a b i l i t y and, ( 2)
a det er mi nat i on of hydrol ogi c s t a b i l i t y , were qui t e d i s t i n c t . Fur t her ­
more, even t he subset s of moni t or i ng of cur r ent movement. Quat ernary s t u d i e s ,
and regi onal geology and t e c t oni c s in one cat egor y, and plume s t udi e s and
caprock s t udi e s in t he ot her cat egor y, appeared t o be e s s e n t i a l l y i s ol a t ed
t opi c s .
As a l l of t hese s t udi e s have proceeded, t he I n i t i a l l y sharp 1i nes
of demarcat i on have become bl ur r ed, al t hough not t o t he ext ent of r equi r i ng
a r e o r i e n t a t i o n of or gani zat i on. What has happened i s an i ncr easi ng aware­
ness t h a t r e l a t i ons hi ps as out l i ne d below ar e very i mpor t ant in pur sui ng
s p e c i f i c goal s. Quat er nary s t u d i e s , designed t o eval uat e t e c t oni c s t a b i l i t y ,
must consi der s a l t di s s ol ut i on and evi dence provi ded by caprock in a s s e s s ­
ing t he s i gni f i ca nce of t opogr aphi c lows over i n t e r i o r domes i n c ont r a s t
t o t opographi c highs over t hose in t he coas t al b e l t . Any di s r upt i ons of
beds of Quat ernary age must be eval uat ed not onl y in terms of pos s i bl e
u p l i f t in t he Pl ei s t ocene or Holocene, but al so in terms of pos s i bl e
col l aps e due t o di s s ol ut i on which might be recorded in t he c har act er
and t hi ckness of caprock over t he dome in ques t i on. Al so, t e c t oni c
s t udi e s desi gned t o det er mi ne r a t e s of movement from t he s t r a t i g r a p h i c
r ecor d must i ncl ude a c ons i der at i on of amount and r a t e s of di s s ol ut i on
based on caprock t hi cknes s .
The dat a developed from wel l s d r i 11ed f or hydrol ogi c s t udi es has
cont r i but ed i mport ant evi dence p e r t i n e n t t o s t udi e s of t e c t oni c s t a b i l i t y .
Conversel y, s t r u c t u r a l and s t r a t i g r a p h i c r e l a t i o n s det ermi ned by r egi onal
and l ocal geol ogi c s t udi es provi de an i mpor t ant basi s f or cons t r uct i ng
models of di s s ol ut i on and hydrol ogi c t r a ns por t .
Fi na l l y, t he moni t ori ng of cur r e nt t e c t o n i c movement i s heavi l y
dependent on anal ys i s by numerical model l i ng which, in t u r n , i s abs ol ut el y
dependent on a thorough knowledge of geol ogi c paramet ers l a r ge l y determi ned
t hrough t hese ot her s t u d i e s .
Bearing t hese kinds of i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s in mind, one can make a
t e n t a t i v e assessment of t he methodology c ur r e nt l y bei ng employed in t he
var i ous ar eas of our i nve s t i g a t i o n . This appr ai sal r epr es ent s an overview
which i s de t a i l e d much more pr e c i s e l y in each s ect i on of t h i s r e por t .
A consi der at i on of pl anni ng, approaches, and Impl ement ati on of
t e c t oni c s t a b i l i t y s t udi es based on moni t or i ng dome movement l eads t h i s
wr i t e r t o t he concl usi on t h a t we ar e proceedi ng on t a r g e t . I t wi l l
be about two year s before est i mat es of exi s t ence and degree of movement
wi l l be s i g n i f i c a n t . The degree of s i gni f i c a nce wi l l Improve wi t h t i me.
In t he event a monitored s i t e I s s el ect ed f or f u r t h e r development, employ­
ment of t h i s Inst rument ed system f o r l ong-t i me obs er vat i on wi l l be most
Impor t ant .
The focus on t e c t oni c s t a b i l i t y through st udy of t he Quat ernary over-
l yl ng domes has become of I ncr easi ng Importance. I t Is e s s e n t i a l t o t he
I nves t i gat i on t h a t t h i s work cont i nue t o r ecei ve high p r i o r i t y . In t he
f i n a l anal ysi s I t may pr ovi de t he most d e f i n i t i v e of a l l evi dence of t he
degree of t e c t oni c s t a b i l i t y .
Mesozoic and Te r t i a r y s t u d i e s , sometimes t hought of In our group as
deep geology and of t en r e f e r r e d t o as regi onal geol ogy, has I n i t i a l l y
given our st udy a val uabl e I ns i ght concerni ng t he r egi onal and l ocal
s e t t i n g of Gulf Coast domes as wel l as f a c t or s Involved In t h e i r t e ct oni c
Implacement and movement. Much more needs t o be l ear ned of t h i s l a r ge r
problem. A pauci t y of dat a In t he North Loui si ana Sal t Dome Basin has
proved f r u s t r a t i n g In t h i s r egar d, p a r t i c u l a r l y In our assi gned goal t o
det ermi ne r a t e s of movement. A major advance has been made In our group
t h i s year In eval uat i ng and at t empt i ng t o appl y growth curves from s t r a t i ­
graphi c dat a t o a det er mi nat i on of t e c t oni c s t a b i l i t y . An e xc e l l e nt
anal ys i s has been made of t he method which I l l u s t r a t e s t he approach and
va r i a bl e s . I t Is obvious from t h i s anal ys i s t h a t t he assumpti ons r e ­
qui r ed make t h i s approach quest i onabl e. On t he ot he r hand, t he f a c t
t h a t pr el i mi nar y c al c ul a t i ons from nor t h Loui si ana ar e In general
agreement 1n magnitude wi t h t hose of Net herl and and Sewell In Texas
warr ant s a cont i nued e f f o r t . This e f f o r t I s f u r t h e r j u s t i f i e d by t he
I n t e r e s t of c e r t a i n In-house I nve s t i gat or s and ot her s In t h i s approach.
I t Is t oo e a r l y t o count t he r et ur ns In t h i s mat t er . More dat a wi l l
hel p t o r e f i n e our j udgement.
The s t udi es of hydrolog1c st ab111t y- - ut 11i z1ng wel l log dat a t o
det ermi ne t he pr esence or absence of s a l i n e plumes In underground
aqu1f ers- -cont 1nue t o appear r e l i a b l e and t o be a val i d methodology. The
use of wat er wel l s t o provi de d i r e c t v e r i f i c a t i o n of t h i s approach Is
underway. I ndi c a t i ons , so f a r , are t h a t e l e c t r i c log I nt e r pr e t a t i ons
of s a l i n i t y ar e e s s e n t i a l l y c or r e c t . This s uccess f ul pur s ui t of t he
problem l ends f u r t h e r encouragement t o t he work underway on numerical
model l i ng of domal s a l t plumes In ground wa t e r . Thus f a r , s t udi e s usi ng
t hese q u a n t i t a t i v e t echni ques and ot her more q u a l i t a t i v e det er mi nat i ons
have proven usef ul In t he development of pr el i mi nar y eval uat i ons of t he
presence and magnitude of d i s s ol ut i on.
Caprock s t udi e s have cont i nued wi t h t he ul t i mat e goal of ass ess i ng
long range hydr ol ogi c s t a b i l i t y . Pr ogress In t h i s e f f o r t has been much
sl ower t han a n t i c i p a t e d , p r i n c i p a l l y due t o I n a b i l i t y t o secur e adequate
cores of use t o t he st udy. However, I t Is very Import ant t o cont i nue
t h i s e f f o r t because of t he basi c need t o underst and caprock format i on
I ns of ar as ot her e f f o r t s ar e concerned, as well as because of I t s r ol e
In eval uat i ng hydrol ogi c s t a b i l i t y .
The st udy of hydr ol ogi c i s o l a t i o n of mined openings In s a l t domes,
which was undert aken a f t e r I n i t i a t i o n of t he OWI c o n t r a c t , has assumed
I ncr easi ng Import ance. The desi gnat i on which has been appl i ed t o t h i s
st udy underpl ays I t s p o t e nt i a l br eadt h. The st udy of hydrol og1c s t a b i l i t y
as o r i g i n a l l y conceived addresses t he quest i on of t he ext ent of d i s ­
s ol ut i on of s a l t from t he out er sur f ace of t he dome. The mine hydrol ogy
st udy i s , by way of c ont r a s t , equal l y broad and has t he purpose of
eval uat i ng pa s t , pr e s ent , and pot e nt i a l entrapment and movement of
f l u i ds through any pa r t of t he s a l t s t ock. I t deal s wit h i nt er nal
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t he e n t i r e st ock. Good pr ogr ess has been achieved
with t he f i r s t phase of t he st udy which i ncl udes mine i ns pect i ons and
i nt er vi ews wi t h r es pons i bl e mine personnel t o a s c e r t a i n t he pr esence
and ext ent of mine l eaks. Delays in t h i s phase have been p r i n c i p a l l y
due t o t he pr opr i e t a r y nat ur e of t he mine oper at i ons and r e l uc t ance of
some mine oper at or s t o gr ant access and t o review oper at i ng problems.
Conti nui ng e f f o r t s wi l l be made t o remove t hese d i f f i c u l t i e s .
I t i s most i mport ant t o assess c ur r e nt t he or i e s of l eaks in mines
and t o develop and t e s t new i de a s . The r a t i o n a l e of t h i s approach i s
t o develop s u f f i c i e n t l y vi abl e and suppor t abl e expl anat i ons t o provi de
base l i ne dat a from which an anal ys i s of cor es from st udy domes can be
used t o pr e di c t i nt e r nal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of p a r t of t he st ock or t he
e n t i r e st ock as t hey a f f ect movement of wat er . A d i r e c t approach which
appears most promi sing in a st udy of a ct i ve mines i s t he use of geo­
chemical t echni ques t o f i n g e r p r i n t and/ or dat e wat ers which fl ow i nt o
mine openi ngs.
Good progr ess has been made t h i s year in t he development of our
geochemical c a p a b i l i t y . I t shoul d be cont i nued and used whenever pos s i bl e
t o expand our knowledge and underst andi ng in a l l f a c e t s of t he st udy where
i t has a p p l i c a b i l i t y . I t s employment wi l l be c r i t i c a l in anal ys i s of
cor es t o be secured from pr oj ect ed deep hol es in s a l t .
Fi na l l y, our cont i nued progr ess wi l l be l a r ge l y dependent on new dat a
e i t h e r developed by t he I n s t i t u t e d i r e c t l y or t hrough out s i de c ont r a c t or s .
We must r e t a i n t he primary r ol e in pl anni ng f or dat a a c q u i s i t i o n , checking
oper at i ons which produce i t , and have cont r ol over anal yses of t he f i nal
dat a. In t h i s way sequent i al adj ust ment s wi l l be made t h a t wi l l permi t
advances i n knowledge of s a l t dome geology and provi de a bas i s f or
eval uat i ng s u i t a b i l i t y of Gulf Coast s a l t domes f or t he i s o l a t i o n of
r a di oact i ve wast es.
I I . SUMMARY OF FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
A. Tectonic St a b i l i t y
B. Hydrologic St a b il i t y

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I I . SUMMARY OF FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
E. J . Newchurch
The precedi ng sect i on of t h i s r e por t i ncl udes an appr ai s al of t he
over al l s a l t dome pr oj e c t underway a t t he I n s t i t u t e , and provi des a broad
sumnary of t he accomplishments t o dat e wi t hi n t he cont ext of achi evi ng our
basi c goal s. Meanwhile, in t he s ec t i ons f ol l owi ng, t he f i ndi ngs and
recommendations which flow from t he r es ear ch r epor t ed ar e enumerat ed. I t
wi l l be observed t h a t c e r t a i n of t he work which was o r i g i n a l l y desi gned t o
speak t o t he quest i on of t e c t oni c s t a b i l i t y i s provi di ng i nf or mat i on be ar ­
i ng on t he quest i on of hydr ol ogi c s t a b i l i t y . In ot her i ns t a nc e s , t he r e ­
verse i s t r ue .
In t h i s s e c t i on, an at t empt has been made t o summarize a l l of t he
s a l i e n t f i ndi ngs and recommendations, or dered as t o t h e i r bear i ng on t e c ­
t oni c s t a b i l i t y and hydrol ogi c s t a b i l i t y , r e s p e c t i ve l y, wi t hout r egar d t o
t he or gani zat i onal approach t o achi evi ng t he r e s u l t s . Thus, i t i s hoped
t h a t a l l of our r e s u l t s wi l l be put i nt o t he per s pect i ve of t he two prime
goal s which gave r i s e t o t he pr oj e c t a t t he I n s t i t u t e : (1) a det er mi nat i on
of t e c t oni c s t a b i l i t y , and (2) a det er mi nat i on of hydrol ogi c s t a b i l i t y ,
of nort h Loui si ana s a l t domes.
II^A. TECTONIC STABILITY
1. Fi ndi ngs
The growth r a t e s of s a l t domes i n t he North Loui si ana Sa l t Dome Basin
dur i ng Mesozoic and Te r t i a r y t i mes were est i mat ed from s t r a t i g r a p h i c
s t udi e s using a va i l abl e well dat a. The r e s u l t i n g maximum val ues of
average growth duri ng t he major s t r a t i g r a p h i c i n t e r v a l s f ol l ow. These
12
growth r a t e s ar e gener al l y cotnparable t o t hose r epor t ed by Net herl and
and Sewel1 f o r domes i n t he e a s t Texas basi n.
+ Cenozoic: 0. 03 mm/yr
+ Upper Cr et aceous: 0. 02 rnn/yr
+ Lower Cr et aceous: 0. 04 mm/yr
Def i ni t i ve concl usi ons concerni ng pos s i bl e t e c t oni c movement duri ng
Quat ernary time have not y e t been reached.
+ A pr el i mi nar y anal ys i s of a Quat ernary bori ngs program at
Vacherie dome i ndi c at es no d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s or warping t h a t can
be a t t r i b u t e d t o t e c t oni c i n s t a b i l i t y .
+ The el evat i on of t he Quat ernary deposi t s in t he val l ey over
Vacherie dome i s concordant wi t h t he e l eva t i ons of t he Quat ernary
deposi t s i n t he nei ghbori ng val l eys t o t he nor t h and s o u t h , again
suggest i ng no t e c t oni c i n s t a b i l i t y duri ng Quat ernary t i me.
+ In c o n t r a s t , ar cuat e l i n e a t i o n s i n Quat ernary deposi t s on t he eas t er n
f l ank of t he dome provi de t he onl y suggest i on of pos s i bl e upward move­
ment of t he s a l t duri ng Quat er nar y t i me.
Possi bl e c ur r e nt t e c t oni c movement i s bei ng st udi ed by a geomechanics
program which i s in a l a t e - i nt e r me di a t e st age of development.
+ Numeri cal model l i ng s t udi e s , suppor t ed by f i e l d dat a from t i l t m e t e r s ,
l a s e r r a ngi ng, pr eci s e l e vel i ng and engi neer i ng s o i l s s t u d i e s ,
are desi gned t o provi de r e a l i s t i c est i mat es of any c ur r e nt v e r t i c a l
c r us t al movements over Vacheri e and Rayburn' s domes, p a r t i c u l a r l y
a f t e r an addi t i onal two year s of dat a gat her i ng and a n a l y s i s .
+ The system developed f or es t i mat i ng ver t i cal dome movement al s o can
be used i n t he f ut ur e as a moni t ori ng syst em, i f one of t he st udy
domes i s s el e c t e d f or a p i l o t st or age f a c i l i t y .
1 3
i Addi t i onal fi ndi ngs bear i ng on t e c t on i c s t a b i l i t y and r e l a t e d sub­
j e c t s ar e enumerated below.
+ The ext ent of er osi on pr edi ct ed f o r t he next 250, 000 year s i s
too small to be of any concern as regards pos si bl e exposure of a
nucl ear waste r epos i t or y.
+ Fur t her anal ysi s of e a r l i e r seismi c s t udi es i ndi cat es t h a t t he base
of t he s a l t l ayer from which Vacherie dome rose i s a t 16 ,000 t o
17,000 f e e t below sea l e v e l .
+ I nt e r pr e t a t i ons of compiled gr avi t y dat a support previ ous views
t h a t Vacherie dome i s e l l i p t i c a l , and somewhat 1ar ger than Rayburn' s
and Prot hr o domes whi ch are more near l y ci r c u l a r .
+ Wat er- i nsol ubl e mineral gr ai ns from s a l t samples t aken in Weeks
I sl and and Cote B1anche mines (most ly anhydr i t e) show a va r i et y
of morphologi c and sur f ace c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t may prove usef ul
in i n t e r pr e t i ng t he di agenet i c hi s t or y of s a l t and perhaps t he
growth hi s t or y of t he s a l t domes.
+ A numeri cal model of t he nat ur al t emperat ure f i e l d around a s a l t
dome, now near l y compl et ed, may provi de i nfor mat i on on t he
connect i vi t y of t he dome t o i t s mother s a l t .
+ More than 500 s t r u c t ur a l and s t r a t i g r a p h i c maps of t he North
Loui si ana Bas i n, prepared usi ng computer compi l at i on and pl o t t i n g
methods, are on f i l e a t LSU.
2. Recommendations
§ Regional Geology s t udi es proposed f or f i s e a l 1978 ar e desi gned t o defi ne
more c l e a r l y t he shapes and t he s t r u c t u r a l and s t r a t i g r a p h i c s e t t i n g s of
Vacherie and Rayburn‘s domes, as well as t o f u r t h e r enhance our under­
st andi ng of the s t r u c t u r e , s t r a t i g r a p h y , and geol ogi c hi s t or y of t he
14
North Loui si ana Sa l t Dome Basi n. Proposed s t udi es i ncl ude t hose l i s t e d
below.
+ Conduct addi t i onal sei smi c surveys of Vacherie and Rayburn' s s a l t
domes, desi gned t o pr ovi de: (1) d e t a i l e d dat a on deformat i on above
and around t he domes down t o 5, 000 f e e t ; (2) simi 1ar dat a t o depths
of 20, 000 f e e t t o ai d i n devel opi ng t he growth h i s t o r i e s of t he
domes; (3) p r o f i l i n g of t he domes down t o 5, 000 f e e t , u t i l i z i n g
corehol es in t he domes f or geophone emplacement; and (4) a regi onal
l i ne through t h a t por t i on of t he basi n l yi ng between Vacherie and
Rayburn' s domes.
+ Conduct addi t i onal r epr ocessi ng of e x i s t i n g sei smi c dat a usi ng
mi gr at i on t echni ques and ot her computer methods.
+ Compile and anal yze addi t i onal gr avi t y dat a from nort h Loui si ana
purchased from i ndus t r y sources in l a t e f i s c a l year 1977. Al so,
conduct de t a i l e d gr avi t y surveys of Vacherie and Rayburn' s s a l t
domes i n or der t o f u r t h e r e l uci dat e t he exact shape and form of
t he uppermost por t i ons of t he s a l t st ocks and any caprock pr es ent .
+ Continue anal ys i s of t he comput er-gener at ed s t r u c t u r a l and s t r a ­
t i gr a phi c maps of t he North Loui si ana Basin.
+ Review and r evi s e t he growth h i s t o r i e s of Vacherie and Rayburn' s
domes as addi t i onal well dat a and sei smi c dat a become a vai l abl e .
+ Continue geochemical anal yses of s a l t and ot her mi ne r a l s , b r i n e s ,
ga s e s , and hydrocarbons from Gulf Coast s a l t domes.
+ Conduct d e t a i l e d anal yses of s a l t cores from Vacherie and Rayburn' s
domes by a va r i e t y of geochemical, pe t r o l o g i c , and s t r u c t u r a l methods,
+ Conduct ext ensi ve Mesozoic and Te r t i a r y bor i ng, and s e l e c t ed
cori ng programs duri ng t he next two f i s c a l y e a r s , i n or der to
15
prepare de t ai l ed geol ogi c maps of t he Vacherie and Rayburn' s
s a l t dome a r e a s ,
Quat ernary Geology s t udi es proposed f or f i s c a l ye ar 1978 wi 11 expand
both t he d e t a i 1 and t he scope of t he work completed t o dat e. Such
s t udi es i ncl ude t hose l i s t e d below.
+ Continue the Quat ernary bori ngs program at Vacherie and Rayburn' s
domes, and ext end t hese s t udi es i nt o areas where 1and access was
denied duri ng t he past s t u d i e s .
+ Del i neat e t he cont act between t he Quaternary and t he pre-Quat er nar y
through t he use of sei smi c r e f r a c t i on met hods, support ed by
s e l e c t ed bori ngs or up-hol e sei smi c s t udi es where anomalous
s i t ua t i ons are found.
+ Determine t he l a t e r a l ext ent of anomalous l ows, and through use
of pol l en anal ys i s or pos si bl e r adi oact i ve da t i ng, det ermi ne t he
age of t he mat er i al in t hese lows. Attempt deeper penet r at i on
wi t h sei smi c methods i n or der t o l ocat e pos s i bl e col l apse of cap­
rock beneat h sur f ace l ows.
+ Continue pedol ogi c s t udi es t o det ermine t h e i r e f f e c t i ve ne s s in de­
t e c t i ng i r r e g u l a r i t i e s t h a t suggest warping of t he s oi l pr of i l e s
formed above t he dome.
+ Study cases of known Quat ernary warping above s a l t domes, e . g . ,
Five I s l a n d s , German and Dutch domes, e t c . , i n or der t o b e t t e r
i n t e r p r e t bori ng and sei smi c pr o f i l e s a t Vacherie and Rayburn' s
domes.
+ Continue s t udi es of t he s i gni f i c a nc e of the t opogr aphi c lows
above t he nort h Loui si ana domes, employing drai nage basi n a nal ys i s .
16
+ Col l ect as much d e t a i l e d el eva t i on dat a as pos si bl e in a broad
zone around both Vacherie and Rayburn' s domes i n or der t o map
t he e xt ent and t he el evat i on di f f er ences of t he Quaternary
s u r f a c e s .
+ Refine t he pr el i mi nar y concl usi ons pr esent ed here on predi ct ed
er osi onal e f f e c t s at Rayburn' s and Vacherie duri ng t he next
250, 000 y e a r s .
Geomechanics s t udi e s proposed f or f i s c a l year 1978 wi l l provi de f or
cont i nui ng dat a col l e ct i on from t he i ns t r ument at i on i n s t a l l e d t o dat e,
as well as f or expanding t he dat a base through t he impl ementat ion of
addi t i onal i ns t r ument at i on s t udi es now in t he f i nal pl anni ng s t age.
Proposal s are l i s t e d below,
+ I n s t a l 1 a t l e a s t one l i qui d l evel t i I t me t e r over Vacherie dome as a
"back-up" i nst r ument t o t he borehol e t i l t me t e r s whi ch have been
observed t o be s ubj ect t o l ocal anomal ies ( pos si bl y ass oci at ed
wi th met eorol ogi cal event s) and i nst r ument at i on d r i f t .
+ Incl ude t el emet r y in t he dat a a cqui s i t i on syst em, such t h a t f i e l d
dat a from t he r e l a t i v e l y d i s t a n t st udy domes can be recorded and
anal yzed da i l y a t LSU.
+ Conduct pr ec i s e r e l evel i ng of t he networks over t he Vacherie and
Rayburn' s s a l t domes duri ng t he summer of 1978.
+ Implement pi ans f or l a s e r rangi ng surveys over Vacherie and Rayburn' s
domes in t he near f ut ur e.
+ De-emphasize t he concept of ver t i cal borehol e ext ensomet ers i nt o
s a l t domes. (Ot her r esear cher s have encount er ed t echni cal di f f i cul -
t i e s wit h hi ghl y s e n s i t i ve and deep ve r t i cal ext ens omet er s .)
1 7
+ Continue numerical modell ing of t he domes, and update t he model
as addi t i onal s i t e - s p e c i f i c dat a are obt ai ned.
+ Determine in s i t u pr oper t i es of s oi I s over Rayburn' s dome, by a
program s i mi l a r t o t ha t employed over Vacheri e.
+ Implement t he borehol e cl osur e st udy t o anal yze in s i t u domal
rock s a l t p r o p e r t i e s , as pl anned, when an appr opr i at e borehol e
(or corehol e) becomes a va i l abl e .
I I - B. HYDROLOGIC STABILITY
Findings
Four obser vat i on wat er wel l s have r ecent l y been d r i l l e d and logged a t
Vacherie dome. Based on t h i s f i e l d work:
+ Ea r l i e r f i ndi ngs are c or r obor at ed, suggest i ng t h a t t he s al i ne
"plume" e a s t of Vacherie dome does not i ndi cat e a s i g n i f i c a n t amount
of hydr ol ogi c i n s t a b i l i t y .
+ The r e l a t i ons hi p between e l e c t r i c log r e s i s t i v i t y and wat er qua l i t y
t ha t was used e a r l i e r t o map t he s a l i ne ground wat er e a s t of
Vacherie dome was confirmed.
+ The hi gher hydr aul i c head of t he caprock we l I s , as compared t o
t hose in t he Wilcox s a nds , r eveal s a pos s i bl e source f or t he s a l i ne
wat er "plume" e a s t of Vacherie dome.
+ The Cane River f or mat i on, pr evi ousl y t hought to have been eroded
from t he top of t he dome, was found more than 300 f e e t below t he
s u r f a c e , suggest i ng subsi dence fol l owi ng s a l t di s s ol ut i on
subsequent t o Cane Ri ver de pos i t i on, 48 mi l l i on year s ago.
18
Quat ernary bori ngs at t he west ern end of Vacherie dome encount ered
t hr ee anomalous zones where oxi di zed f i ne sandy s i l t s and s i l t y sands
reach depths of a t l e a s t 200 f e e t .
+ These are i n t e r p r e t e d as lows caused by di s s ol ut i on and col l apse
of t he underl yi ng s a l t i n pre-Quat er nar y ( e . g . , Miocene or PI i ocene)
t i me s .
Resul t s of t he r e cent l y completed d r i l l i n g program a t Rayburn' s dome
are s t i l l bei ng anal yzed.
+ These wel Is have hel ped t o def i ne t he 1i mi t s of t he s a l t .
+ The e a r l i e r concl usi ons regar di ng t he d i s t r i b u t i o n of wat er qua l i t y
around t h i s dome are t e n t a t i v e l y support ed.
Ef f or t s t o map s a l i ne anomal ies in t he ground wat er around Mi ssi ssi ppi
s a l t domes met wi t h l i mi t ed success because of t he r e l a t i v e l ack of
wel 1 dat a f or t hese domes.
+ Evidence of s a l i ne ground-wat er anomal i es, suggest i ve of hydro-
l ogi c i n s t a b i l i t y , was found in Te r t i a r y aqui f er s a t Crowvi ll e
and Leedo domes. The remaining s i x domes showed no anomal i es.
Pet r ogr aphi c s t udi es of s a l t and caprock from Gibsl and dome (Loui si ana)
and Moss Bl uf f dome (Texas) reveal t h a t :
+ No c ons i s t ent t r ends in anhydr i t e concent r at i on near t he s a l t /
caprock i nt e r f a c e were found.
+ At Gibsl and dome, euhedral c r ys t a l s of anhydri t e concent r at e al ong,
and o r i e n t wi t h, s a l t cr ys t al boundari es (a pr evi ousl y unreport ed
f i n d i n g ) . The anhydri t e appears t o have moved through t he s a l t mass
Hydrologic s t a b i 1i t y of s a l t mines in Gulf Coast domes was assessed
by i nspect i on v i s i t s , wi t h r e s u l t s as f ol l ows.
+ Grand Sal i ne and Hockley domes in nor t he a s t Texas, and Cote 81anche
1 9
dome in sout h Loui si ana were e s s e n t i a l l y dry.
+ Weeks I sl and dome, al t hough e s s e n t i a l l y dry f or cur r e nt mining
oper at i ons , was det ermi ned t o r e pr e s e nt a mine wi t h s u f f i c i e n t i n ­
flow of wat er t o possi bl y j eopar i dze long term i s o l a t i o n of wast e.
2. Recommendations
i Geohydrology s t udi es duri ng f i s c a l year 1978 are desi gned t o ext end
our underst andi ng of t he hydr ol ogi c s t a b i l i t y of Vacherie and Rayburn' s
doires.
+ Dr i l l addi t i onal wel l s a t Vacherie s a l t dome t o det ermi ne ground­
wat er flow r at es and di r e c t i o n s , as wel 1 as aqui f e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i cs,
f or t he Wi1cox group sands. Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i s t he eas t er n
end of t he dome i n t he v i c i n i t y of t he s a l i ne "pl ume. "
+ Assess t he new dat a from shal l ow bor i ngs , desi gned t o st udy t he
Quaternary and Te r t i a r y sedi ment ary s t r u c t u r e over Vacheri e dome,
from t he vi ewpoint of eval uat i ng t he geohydrology of t he dome.
+ Dr i l l a minimum of two obser vat i on wel Is a t t he west end of
Vacherie dome, where dat a on wat er qua l i t y are l acki ng.
+ Study t he geochemical s i gni f i c a nc e of va r i a t i ons in wat er qua l i t y
observed in t he wat er samples c ol l e c t e d from t he wel l s at Vacherie
and Rayburn' s domes, Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t ar e: 1) t he r e l a t i o n -
shi p between caprock (and f a l s e caprock) format i on and t he chemi st r y
of t he nat i ve wat er ; and 2) pos s i bl e c or r e l a t i ons between br acki sh
t o s a l i ne wat er in t he Wi 1cox sands and s a l i ne wat er in t he caprock.
+ Conduct a thermal i nf r a r e d survey over s a l t dome areas of i n t e r e s t
in nor t h Loui si ana and Texas. Such surveys have been usef ul in
de t ec t i ng s oi l moi st ure di f f er ences along l i ne a t i ons and ground
wat er seeps . In t he case of s a l t domes, t h i s survey may l ocat e
20
l i ne a t i ons and f a u l t s which ar e ar eas of ground-wat er di schar ge.
Li neat i ons and r epor t ed "mineral spr i ngs" on Vacheri e dome are
primary t a r g e t s .
Continue pet r ogr aphi c s t udi e s of s a l t and caprock i n an e f f o r t t o
improve our underst andi ng of caprock format i on and mechanisms of
s a l t di s s ol ut i on near t he c a pr oc k/ s a l t i n t e r f a c e . Fut ure s t udi es
are planned t o sample areas of i n t e r e s t i n Weeks I si and dome, and
caprock and s a l t cores from t he proposed t e s t hol es a t Vacherie
and Rayburn' s domes.
Continue t he i ns pect i on of hydr ol ogi c condi t i ons in Gulf Coast s a l t
dome mi nes, wit h pa r t i c ul ar a t t e n t i o n t o anomalous f e a t ur e s such as
seeps of o i l , g a s , and wat er ; ar eas of l ar ge c r y s t a l s whi ch suggest
pas t di s s ol ut i on and r e c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n ; and bl ow-out s in t he c ei l i ngs
and wal l s of mined c a v i t i e s .
Continue e f f o r t s , and seek new appr oaches, t o obt ai n ent r y i nt o
J ef f er s on I s l a nd, Bel l e I s l e , and Avery I sl and s a l t mi nes f o r t he
purpose of i ns pect i ng hydr ol ogi c condi t i ons .
Continue p e t r o l o g i c a l , geochemical and s t r u c t u r a l s t udi e s which
may ai d in det ermi ni ng sources of mine wat er s and condi t i ons which
permi t wat er movement i nt o t he mines. Close cooper at i on between
cur r e nt Department of Energy s t udi es of s a l t domes f or crude oi l
st or age and our i nve s t i ga t i ons should prove benef i ci a l t o both
e f f o r t s .
21
I I I . GEOMECHANICS
A. General
B. Field Instrumentation
C. Data Acquisition System
D. Numerical Modelling of Possible Dome Movement
E. In Situ Domal Rock Salt Properties
F. In Situ Soil Properties
G. Ground Water Flow and Sal i ni t y near a Sal t Dome
H. Microseismic Monitoring
I . Natural Temperature Distribution around Salt Domes
J. Findings and Recommendations
2 3
I I I - A. GENERAL
R. L. Thoms
In previ ous annual r epor t s f o r t h i s st udy ( Mart i nez, e t . a l . , 1975,
1976), i t was noted t h a t one of t he main obj ect i ves of t he geomechanics
e f f o r t was t o determi ne c ur r e nt r a t e s of any pos s i bl e ongoing s a l t dome
movement. This obj ect i ve f a l l s wi t hi n t he scope of t he s a l t dome t e ct oni c
s t a b i l i t y st udy phase of t he over al l st udy. A major por t i on of t h i s
r e por t on t he geomechanics e f f o r t i s dedi cat ed t o t he dome moni t or i ng
st udy; however, mat er i al on ground- wat er model l i ng and numerical model1ing
of nat ur al t emperat ure d i s t r i b u t i o n s around s a l t domes ar e al s o i ncl uded.
The obj ect i ves of t hese two s t udi e s f a l l wi t hi n t he scope of hydr ol ogi c/
t e c t oni c s t a b i l i t y and t e c t oni c s t a b i l i t y a nal ys es , r e s p e c t i v e l y , as wi l l
be noted in t he t e x t s p e c i f i c t o t hose s ubs ect i ons , i . e . , I I I - G and I I I - I .
In t he e a r l i e r annual r e p o r t s , t he basi c components of a system f or
moni t or i ng any pos si bl e ongoing s a l t dome movement were descr i bed in a
r e l a t i v e l y pr el i mi nar y form. The moni t ori ng system and as s oci at e d pl anni ng
f or e f f e c t i v e implement at ion have been devel oped f u r t h e r duri ng t he 1977
f i s c a l year and may be descr i bed now as being i n a l a t e i nt er medi at e
st age of development. Although t he basi c components of t he system were
descr i bed in t he f i r s t annual r e po r t by Thoms ( Mart i nez, e t a l . , 1975),
a review of t he cur r ent s t a t us of t he system appears appr opr i at e a t t h i s
t i me. Much of t he mat er i al pr esent ed here i s based on r e por t s spr i ngi ng
from t h i s r esear ch and now publ i shed as t echni cal l i t e r a t u r e (Thoms and
Manning, 1976, 1977; and Thoms, e t a l . , 1977).
Fi gure I I I - A- 1 depi ct s s chemat i cal l y some of t he f i e l d i nst r ument a­
t i on t h a t wi l l be employed t o moni t or any movement of t he geomechanical
L-R LASER RANGING HORIZONTAL MOVEMENTS
M-S MICROSEISMIC MONITORING ACOUSTIC EMISSIONS
P-L PRECISE LEVELING VERTICAL MOVEMENTS
TM TILTMETER ROTATIONS
PO
FIG. I II -A"! SCHEMATIC OF INSTRUMENTATION SYSTEM
25
system cons i s t i ng of a s a l t dome, wi t h capr ock, and t he sur roundi ng geo­
l ogi c for mat i ons.
As i ndi cat ed in Figure I I I - A- 1, a rim of e nci r cl i ng h i l l s t y p i c a l l y
occurs over t he f l anks of t he domes c ur r e nt l y under st udy i n nort h
Loui si ana. I f one of t hese s a l t domes i s moving v e r t i c a l l y upward, then
t he enci r c l i ng h i l l s wi l l undergo t i l t i n g outward from t he cent er of t he
dome. Si mul t aneousl y, t he di amet er of t he " c i r c l e " of h i l l s wi l l i nc r e as e,
and t her e wi l l be ve r t i c a l movement of t he ground sur f ace over t he dome
r e l a t i v e t o a remote benchmark. Fur t her , t he gradual movement of t he
p l a s t i c domal s a l t wi l l s t or e pot e nt i a l energy i n t he over l yi ng, r e l a ­
t i v e l y b r i t t l e capr ock, unt i l i t f r a c t u r e s and t hereby emi t s acous t i c
s i gna l s . The caprock t hus wi l l a c t as a geoampl i f i er f or domal movement,
wi th i t s f r a c t ur i ng possi bl y p r e c i p i t a t e d by e f f e c t s of d i s t a n t ear t hquakes.
The i nst rument s used t o moni t or t he above e f f e c t s ar e al so depi ct ed
schemat i cal l y in Fi gure I I I - A- 1. An ar r ay of t i l t me t e r s i s l ocat ed in
t he rim of h i l l s around t he dome. These ar e s i mi l a r t o i nst r ument s cur ­
r e nt l y being used in Cal i f or ni a f o r ear t hquake pr edi ct i on s t u d i e s , and
t hey ar e descr i bed as having a s e n s i t i v i t y of 1 X 10"8 r a di a ns . As noted
l a t e r in Sect i on I I I - B, e i ght such t i l t me t e r s c ur r e nt l y ar e oper at i ng
over t he two st udy domes, Vacherie and Rayburn' s , i n nor t h Loui si ana.
Laser rangi ng can be performed between t i I t me t e r s i t e s t o det er mi ne
any hor i zont al movements. G. R. Hugget t , of t he Applied Physi cs Lab a t
t he Uni ver si t y of Washington, has devel oped a l a s e r rangi ng i nst r ument
s ui t a bl e f or t h i s t a s k. He has v i s i t e d t he Vacherie s i t e , and has made
recommendations which wi l l be i ncor por at ed i n a l a s e r rangi ng e f f o r t over
Vacherie and Rayburn' s domes now planned f o r t he 1978 f i s c a l ye ar .
26
Pr eci s e l e vel i ng can be employed t o measure small v e r t i c a l c r us t a l
movements, and t he Nat ional Geodet i c Survey has completed t he i n s t a l l a ­
t i on and f i r s t l e vel i ng of networks over bot h Vacheri e and Rayburn' s
domes. These l evel i ng networks were pl anned and desi gned by LSU personnel
t o complement ot he r components of t he moni t ori ng syst em. More d e t a i l on
t h i s i s pr esent ed i n Sect i on I I I - B.
Mi crosei smi c moni t or i ng, wi t h an ar r ay of geophones and r e c o r d e r s ,
i s al s o i ndi c at ed i n Fi gure I I I - A- 1. Sect i on I I I- H i ncl udes a summary of
t he c ur r e nt s t a t u s of t h i s work.
Ef f ect s of d i s t a n t ear t hquakes wi l l be monit ored over a st udy dome
by a sei smograph. Thus, any coi nci dent and perhaps r e l a t e d out put from
ot he r components of t he i ns t r ument at i on system can be t i me- l i nked t o
pos s i bl e ear t hquake e f f e c t s . J . Dorman, of t he Marine Geophysical Labor­
at or y of t he Uni ver s i t y of Texas a t Gal vest on, and c ons ul t ant t o t h i s st udy,
has v i s i t e d t he Vacherie s i t e and al s o has made recommendations r e l a t i v e
t o appr opr i at e sei smi c equipment. Sect i on I I I - B i ncl udes a more de t a i l e d
t r eat ment of t h i s t o pi c .
The descr i bed i nst r ument at i on system f o r moni t or i ng domal movement
wi l l gener at e a r e l a t i v e l y l ar ge body o f dat a f o r i nput i nt o an ana l ys i s
of dome movement. Thus a syst emat i c pl an i s j u s t i f i e d f o r t he subsequent
anal ys i s of t he mul t i t ude of dat a t h a t wi l l be obt ai ned. Fi gur e I I I - A- 2
depi ct s a "flow char t " f o r t he i n t e r a c t i o n of e f f o r t s r e l a t e d t o moni t or­
i ng c ur r e nt r a t e s of dome movement. The over al l obj ect i ve i s t o anal yze
dat a from t he moni t or i ng system and t o det ermi ne t he c ur r e nt r a t e of r e l ­
a t i v e dome movement, which may be upward ( p o s i t i v e ) , zer o ( s t a t i o n a r y ) ,
or pos si bl y downward ( negat i ve) due t o dome d i s s ol ut i on by ground wat er .
2 7
Geol ogy
nst r ument ot i on ;
Ti l t me t e r s
Pr e c i s e Level i ng
Los er Rangi ng^
Expl o r a t i on
Geophys i cs
/ Mi cr os ei s mi c,
Sei smi c Moni t or i ng
Fi e l d Dat a
on Dome
Movement
Dat a on Dome
Conf i gur a t i on
Sa l t Test i ng
Da t a
Tel e me t r y ,
Pr o c e s s i ng
Ge ohydr ol ogy
Domal Sal t
P r o p e r t i e s
Gr ound wa t e r
Model l i ng
Fi ni t e El eme nt
Model l i ng of
Dome Movement
Di s s ol ut i on ?
S u bs i de nc e ?
Soi l s
P r o p e r t i e s
Da t a I nt er pr et at i on
Dome Movement
FIG. m - A - 2 INTERACTION OF EFFORTS RELATIVE TO
MONITORING CURRENT RATES OF DOME MOVEMENTS
2 8
Figiire n i - A- 2 i s e s s e n t i a l l y s e l f expl anat or y. I t should be noted
t h a t some of t he "boxes" r epr e s ent i ng e f f o r t ar e coupl ed i n more ways than
t hose i ndi cat ed by connect i ng di r e c t i o n f l ow- of - i nf or mat i on arrows depi c­
t ed i n t he f i g u r e . For example* t e s t i n g t o det er mi ne i n s i t u pr oper t i es
of s o i l s and domal s a l t c e r t a i n l y would be gui ded by geol ogi cal i nforma­
t i on as s oci at ed wi t h a st udy dome.
The r eader wi l l not e by Fi gur e I I I - A- 2 t h a t t he main dat a i n t e r p r e ­
t a t i o n ai d wi l l be f i n i t e el ement model1ing of s a l t movement. Sect i on
I I I - D t r e a t s t h i s t opi c i n d e t a i l . Obviously t he f i d e l i t y of numerical
model1ing of any geomechanical system i s l i mi t ed by t he q u a l i t y of i nput
dat a on conf i gur at i on and mat er i al behavi or of t he geol ogi c components
i nvol ved. Sect i on I I I - F descr i bes t he t e s t i n g program desi gned and imple­
mented t o obt ai n t he mechanical pr ope r t i e s of t he s o i l s over Vacheri e
dome, wi t h p a r t i c u l a r emphasis on t he s o i l s around t he t i l t me t e r s where
l ar ge amounts of dat a wi l l be c o l l e c t e d . Other i nt e gr a l components of
t he dome moni t ori ng syst em, as depi ct ed i n Fi gure I I I - A- 2, i ncl ude f i e l d
dat a a c qui s i t i on and processi ng systems and t e s t i n g f or i n s i t u domal
rock s a l t pr o p e r t i e s . These t opi c s ar e di scussed i n Sect i ons I I I - C and
I I I - E, r e s pe c t i ve l y.
With t h i s r e l a t i v e l y b r i e f overview of t he geomechanics e f f o r t , t he
r eader now should be prepared t o: (1) i n t e g r a t e t he ma t e r i a l s pr es ent in
t he fol l owi ng subsect i ons (pr epared by i ndi vi dual aut hor s as i ndi c a t e d) ,
and (2) r e l a t e t hese ma t e r i a l s t o t he over al l obj e ct i ves of t h i s st udy.
29
I I I - B. FIELD INSTRUMENTATION
R. L. Thoms and T. A. Manning
1. Ti l t met er s
As conceived and proposed e a r l i e r in t h i s s t udy, e i ght t i l t me t e r s
cur r e nt l y are in oper at i on over t he st udy domes, wi t h f our oper at i ng over
Vacherie and t hr ee over Rayburn' s dome. The l oc at i ons of t he t i I t me t e r
i n s t a l l a t i o n s ar e depi ct ed in Fi gur es II I-B-1 and I I I - B- 2.
Ti I t met er s i t e TM-4 on Vacheri e dome i s appar ent l y over a perched
a qui f e r , with t he wat er t a bl e r i s i n g t o wi t hi n two t o t hr ee f e e t of t he
sur f ace duri ng r ai ny weat her. Thus, pl ans now ar e bei ng f or mul at ed t o
move i t t o a more s u i t a b l e l ocat i on.
The t i I t me t e r s i t e s wit h s ubs t a nt i a l amounts of r e l a t i v e l y r e l i a b l e
dat a i ncl ude s i t e s TM 2 andTM-31 over Vacheri e. I n s t a l l a t i o n TM-1 over
Vacherie and al l of t hose over Rayburn' s dome ar e r e l a t i v e l y new. Vacherie
TM-1 was i n s t a l l e d in l a t e Spring of 1977, and t he t i l t me t e r s over
Rayburn' s dome were a l l i n s t a l l e d in l a t e Summer of 1977. From pas t
exper i ence wi t h e a r l i e r i n s t a l l a t i o n s , t he s oi l around t he i n s t a l l a t i o n s
can be expect ed t o consol i dat e consi der abl y duri ng t he f i r s t few months
of heavy r a i n f a l l . Thus t he i nst r ument s have been s e t a t a f a i r l y low
s e n s i t i v i t y unt i l t he s oi l packs around t he s t ee l 1i ner s of t he i n s t a l l a t i o n
p i t s .
T i l t dat a as s oci at ed wit h Vacherie i n s t a l l a t i o n s tM-2 and TM-3 are
depi ct ed in Fi gure I I I - B- 3. Di s c ont i nui t i e s i n t he dat a i ndi c a t e a l ack of
recorded dat a. Si gni f i c a nt d i f f i c u l t i e s were exper i enced wi t h t he s t r i p
c har t r ecor der s employed t o recor d dat a. As descr i bed i n Sect i on I I I - C,
3 0
TM-3
TM-4
PARISH
PARISH
WEBSTER
BI ENVI LLE
TM-2
20 22
TM-1
FIG. m - B - l LOCATIONS OF TILTMETER SI TES,
VACHERIE DOME
30 25
TM-3
ITM-2
FI G. m - B- 2 LOCATIONS OF TI LTMETER SITES,
RAYBURN'S DOME
3 1
TILT
/tfrad
EAST
WEST
\ ,
1 2 / 5 / 7 6
30
20
10
0
TILT
^irad
1 / 5 / 7 7 2 / 5 / 7 7
SOUTH
4 / 5 / 7 7
TEMPERATURE, ®C
NORTH
T M- 2
TILT
■ / i r a d
TILT
/ i r o d
EAST
WEST
SOUTH
NORTH
V
- - ...... N-
NJ.
V;
/
t-.
1
j
------
9 / 5 / 7 6 11/5/76 1 / 5 / 7 7 4 / 5 / 7 7
TM- 3
F I G . m - B - 3 TILT DATA COLLECTED OVER
VACHERIE SALT DOME
32
t hese r ecor der s wi l l be r epl aced wit h more r e l i a b l e c a s s e t t e r ecor der s with
more ext ensi ve r anges.
At s i t e TM-3, a gener al t r end of t i l t appears t o have occur red i n a
nor t hwest er l y d i r e c t i o n . Thi s di r e c t i on of t i l t would not be a s s oci at ed
wi t h a general v e r t i c a l "plug movement" of t he dome; s i nce t i l t i n a s out h­
west er l y ( or n or t he a s t e r l y) di r e c t i on coul d be a nt i c i p a t e d a t TM-3 in
t h a t case.
Si t e TM-4 was f l ooded i n e a r l y t o mi d-February of 1977. Subsequent
r e p a i r and r e i n s t a l l a t i o n reduced t he t o t a l amount of r ecor di ng time
s u b s t a n t i a l l y .
When more r e l i a b l e r ecor der s ar e employed i n r e l a t i v e l y s t a bl e
i n s t a l l a t i o n s t he dat a should become more r e l i a b l e and cont i nuous. At t h a t
t ime appr opr i at e f i n i t e el ement models of i ndi vi dual s i t e s , as descr i bed in
Sect i on I I I - D, wi t h s i t e s p e c i f i c s o i l s p r o p e r t i e s , c ol l e c t e d as descr i bed
i n Sect i on I I I - C, wi l l be employed t o i n t e r p r e t t he dat a. At t h a t t ime t he
dat a and corr espondi ng i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s wi l l achi eve t h e i r f u l l s i gni f i c a nce
r e l a t i v e t o pos s i bl e dome movement.
2. Pr eci se Leveling
The Nat ional Geodet i c Survey e s t a bl i s he d monuments and performed f i r s t
or der l evel i ng* over Vacheri e and Rayburn' s s a l t domes in t he e ar l y summer
of 1977. The networks were planned and desi gned by LSU personnel t o moni t or
any v e r t i c a l movement of t he ground sur f ace over t he st udy domes.
*A11 l i ne s c l os e upon f i r s t or der l e vel i ng t o form c i r c u i t s . The
1i nes ar e di vi ded i nt o s ect i ons 1 t o 2 km i n l engt h, and each s ect i on
i s l evel ed forward and backward. The di f f er enc e in t he two l evel i ngs
must not exceed 3. 0 mm ( k) ^, where K i s t he di s t a nce i n ki l omet er s.
33
The l evel i ng networks al so t i e t oge t he r t i l t me t e r s i t e s . Each l ocal network
i s t i e d i nt o t he nat i onal network of t he Nat i onal Geodet ic Survey, and
el evat i ons f or t he l ocal networks wi l l be pub!i shed by t he Survey a t a l a t e r
dat e. Annual r e l e vel i ngs ar e planned f or t he networks as a cont i nui ng phase
of t he monit ori ng e f f o r t .
3. Recording seismograph
A recordi ng seismograph wi l l be i n s t a l l e d a t t he s i t e RS-1 over Vacheri e
dome as i ndi cat ed on Fi gure I I I - B- 1 . The sensor (sei smometer) wi l l be
l ocat ed in t he s a l t vi a an e x i s t i n g wat er obser vat i on well t h a t was d r i l l e d
f i f t y f e e t i nt o t he s a l t a t t h a t l oc a t i on. The major components of t he
system have been or der ed. I n i t i a l l y , seismograph r ecor di ngs wi l l be t r i g ­
gered when a pr es et t hr es hol d of sei smi c a c t i v i t y i s exceeded. When t e l e ­
metry t o LSU becomes a v a i l a b l e , a cont i nuousl y r ecor di ng system wi l l be
i n s t a l l e d .
4. Ver t i cal Borehole Ext ensometer
This st udy has been deemphasized over t he pa s t year due t o t he l ack
of a s ui t a bl e borehol e. In a ddi t i on, some of t he t echni cal problems appear
formi dabl e f or a v e r t i c a l borehol e ext ensomet er t o be anchored i nt o t he
Vacherie dome. Vacherie dome l i e s appr oxi mat el y 800 f e e t below ground
s ur f a ce , and a l i n e - o f - s i g h t s t r a i g h t borehol e would be d i f f i c u l t t o d r i l l
t o t h i s dept h. The s e n s i t i v i t y r equi r ed f or t h i s appl i c at i on would be much
gr e a t e r t han t h a t r equi r ed f or convent i onal subsi dence s t u d i e s . Thus, a
l i n e - o f - s i g h t borehol e i s hi ghl y de s i r a bl e t o avoi d s i de wall f r i c t i o n a l
e f f e c t s on t a u t cabl es connect i ng anchors t o a near s ur f ace sensi ng head.
3 4
5. Engi neeri ng Seismograph
A Nimbus 1200 por t abl e engi neer i ng seismograph has been purchased and
employed over both Vacheri e and Rayburn' s domes. The Quat ernary geology
group has employed t he seismograph in t h e i r work as descr i bed i n Sect i on
VI-B. Thei r pr el i mi nar y r e s u l t s i ndi c a t e t h a t t he caprock and s a l t over
Rayburn' s dome can be det ect ed wi t h t he seismograph as pr evi ousl y proposed.
Det ai l ed r e s u l t s wi l l be a va i l a bl e a t a l a t e r dat e.
35
I I I - C. DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM
L. K. P a i l l e and R. Q. P e r r i t t
Over t he pas t y e a r , ei ght t i l t m e t e r i n s t a l l a t i o n s have been emplaced
over Vacherie and Rayburn' s domes. I n t e r e s t i n g dat a was obt ai ned al most
i mmediately on ground s ur f ace movements due t o n a t ur a l l y occur r i ng phe­
nomena such as d i s t a n t ear t hquakes and met eor ol ogi cal event s (Thoms and
Manning, 1976; Thoms, e t a l . , 1977).
The ba t t e r y powered s t r i p c ha r t dat a r ecor di ng systems employed have
been s a t i s f a c t o r y f or a ppl i cat i ons where r e l a t i v e l y f r equent s er vi ci ng t r i p s
could be made. However, as t he number of oper at i ng t i l t me t e r s has i ncr eas ed,
a system r equi r i ng l es s f r equent s er vi ci ng i s hi ghl y de s i r a bl e .
Each t i 1t met er s i t e c ur r e nt l y i s powered by t hr ee 80 amp-hr automobi l e
b a t t e r i e s which must be changed mont hl y. With convent i onal ba t t e r y r e ­
chargi ng pr ocedur es, monthly s er vi ci ng t r i p s f or ei ght t i l t me t e r s would
r equi r e t he t r a n s p o r t of 24 b a t t e r i e s (1000 l b s . ) r oundt r i p from Baton Rouge
t o nort h Loui si ana.
The t ake- up spool s on t he s t r i p c ha r t r ecor der s have become jammed on
occasi on, t hus causi ng char t advancement t o st op wi t h subsequent l os s of
dat a. Furt hermore, t he r ecor di ng range of t he s t r i p c ha r t r ecor der s has
been mar gi nal l y adequate when t he t i l t me t e r s were oper at i ng a t t he s e n s i ­
t i v i t y l evel r equi r ed t o moni tor pos s i bl e dome movement. Ti 1t met er out put
due t o nat ur al event s , such as s o i l c ons ol i dat i on, sometimes caused t he
r ecor der pen t o d r i f t o f f s c a l e , t hus causi ng t he l os s of f ut ur e dat a. Al so,
i t has been concluded t h a t a d i g i t a l out put would be more s u i t a b l e f or
comput er-ai ded dat a reduct i on and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .
36
Af t er car ef ul assessment of t he above c ons i d e r a t i ons 5 t he deci s i on was
made t o desi gn a new improved dat a a c qui s i t i on syst em. The system wi l l i n ­
vol ve two t ypes of s1t es- "r emot e s i t e s and a cent r al s i t e . The remote s i t e s
wi l l be desi gned f or low power consumption so t h a t ba t t e r y oper at i on I s
p r a c t i c a l . AC power wi l l be a va i l a bl e a t t he c ent r al s i t e so power
consumption wi l l not be a major concer n. The remote s i t e c i r c u i t wi l l ac­
qui r e t he d a t a , conver t i t t o d i g i t a l form, t hen t r ans mi t i t vi a r adi o l i nk
t o t he c e nt r al s i t e c i r c u i t . The sample i nt e r va l i s s wi t c h- s e l e c t a bl e from
1 sample/min t o 1 sampl e/ day. With t he remote s i t e c i r c u i t equi pped wi t h a
d i g i t a l c a s s e t t e r ecor der , a l l dat a wi l l be recorded before i t i s t r a n s -
mi t t ed. The remote s i t e c i r c u i t can be oper at ed as a t o t a l l y i ndependent
dat a a c q u i s i t i o n system when t he d i g i t a l r ecor der i s i n s t a l l e d and t he
t r a n s mi t t e r removed. A cal endar cl ock wi l l be i n s t a l l e d i n t he remote s i t e
c i r c u i t so t h a t t i me i s recorded on t he c a s s e t t e . A bl ock diagram f o r t he
remote s i t e i s shown in Fi gure I I I - C- 1 .
The c ent r al s i t e c i r c u i t wi l l r ecei ve t he dat a from t he remote s i t e
c i r c u i t s and r ecor d i t on magnet i c t ape. I t wi l l al s o read i t s own i n s t r u ­
ment s, conver t t h e i r out put t o d i g i t a l form and recor d i t on t ape. The
c ent r al s i t e wi l l al s o have a cal endar cl ock so t he t ime can be r ecorded wit h
each sample. Af t er t he system i s i n s t a l l e d , t he c ent r al s i t e can be
connect ed t o Baton Rouge vi a t el ephone 1i n e . Thi s wi l l enabl e t r ansmi ssi on
of t he dat a al most i nmedi at el y a f t e r i t i s obt ai ned. The oper at i on of t he
system can be checked every t i me t he system c a l l s i n t he dat a by a b u i l t -
i n t e s t r out i ne . The cent r al s i t e bl ock diagram i s shown i n Fi gur e I I I - C- 2.
Both remote s i t e and cent r al s i t e systems wi l l be mi cr opr ocessor con­
t r o l l e d . This wi l l gi ve t he remote and cent r al s i t e systems t he a b i 1i t y t o
make deci s i ons and perform si mpl e a r i t hme t i c oper at i ons . The s ubt r a ct i on
1 0 0 kHZ
OSC
DIVIDER
CHAIN
RESET/
START-UP
LOGIC
CALENDAR
CLOCK
(OPTIONAL)
16
ANALOG
INPUTS
/
ANALOG
MULTIPLEX ER
.......
SCALER A/ D
^ Z ^ ^ Z Z Z Z Z Z ZZZZZZZZ:ZZ2
MICROCOMPUTER
2 ZZ>
DIGITAL
CASSETTE
RECORDER
(OPTIONAL)
FSK
DEMOD.
TRANS­
MITTER
(OPTIONAL)
CO
FIG. I l l - C - I TILTMETER DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM, REMOTE SITE
100 kHZ DIVIDER
CHAIN
RESET/
START-UP
LOGIC
CALENDAR
CLOCK
7ZZZZZ2>
YZZZZ2>
2ZZZZ^
ANALOG {
INPUTS
ANALOG
MULTIPLEX ER
SCALER
^Z2ZZZZZZZ^ZZZZZZZ77777Z
RECEIVER
FSK
DEMOD.
MICROCOMPUTER
DIGITAL
CASSETTE
RECORDER
(OPTIONAL)
TELEPHONE
MODEL
(OPTIONAL)
TO
TELEPHONE
LINE
F I G . i n - C - 2 TILTMETER DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM, CENTRAL SITE
CJ
00
3 9
i ns t r uc t i ons can be used t o s u b t r a c t of f t he e r r o r caused by t he o f f s e t v o l t ­
age of t he oper at i onal ampl i f i e r s . By usi ng t he deci si on making c a p a b i l i t y
of t he pr ocessor , t he high and low val ues of a given channel of dat a can be
determined f or a given t ime span.
To pr ot e c t t he system from t he el ement s, t he e l e c t r o n i c s package f or
each s i t e wi l l be encl osed in a wa t e r t i ght box and wi l l have b u i l t - i n
l i ght ni ng pr ot e ct i on.
The i nst r ument at i on f or each s a l t dome wi l l c o n s i s t of t hr e e remote
s i t e s and one cent r al s i t e . More remote s i t e s can be added i f necessar y.
The desi gn obj e ct i ves of t h i s dat a a c q u i s i t i o n system ar e 1i s t e d below.
1) 16 Analog vol t age or c ur r e nt i n p u t s . The remote s i t e s and t he
cent r al s i t e should be capabl e of handl i ng up t o 16 anal og i nput s .
Three of t hese Input s wi l l be used f o r e r r o r c or r e ct i ng and s e l f - c he c ki ng,
l eavi ng 13 channel s a vai l abl e f or anal og dat a.
2) Cal endar cl ock i nput ( p a r a l l e l d i g i t a l i n p u t ) . The c e nt r a l and
remote s i t e c i r c u i t s shoul d be capabl e of readi ng dat a from t he cal endar
cl ock. When t he remote s i t e c i r c u i t i s used as an i ndependent dat a ac­
q u i s i t i o n system ( t r a n s mi t t e r not us e d) , i t must be capabl e of r eadi ng dat a
from t he cal endar cl ock.
3) Low power consumption of remote s i t e c i r c u i t . This i s one of t he
most i mport ant desi gn obj e ct i ves . When t he c i r c u i t i s in t he st andby mode
( wai t i ng f or next read cycl e t o begi n) , t he power consumption of t he dat a
a c qui s i t i on system shoul d be n e gl i gi bl e when compared t o t he t i l t me t e r
power consumpt ion. For t he remote s i t e power sour ce, a high capaci t y non-
r echar geabl e b a t t e r y , such as McGraw Edi son' s Carbonai r e b a t t e r y , can be
used. Thi s would r equi r e a ba t t e r y change once a year . Al t e r n a t i v e l y , a
low capaci t y ba t t e r y may be used wi t h a rechar gi ng c i r c u i t dr i ven by s o l a r
40
panel s. Thi s i s t he more de s i r abl e case s i nce t he ba t t e r y repl acement
can t hen be el i mi nat ed.
4) System should have comput at i onal a b i l i t y . Both remote snd cent r al
s i t e s should be abl e t o perform si mpl e a r i t hme t i c and l ogi c opfccstions.
Thi s means t h a t t he remote and c ent r al s i t e c i r c u i t s wi l l hava t o be mi cro­
pr ocessor c ont r ol l e d. By usi ng s ubt r a ct i on i n s t r u c t i o n s » i t Is pos s i bl e to
s ub t r a c t o f f t he e r r o r caused by t he o f f - s e t vol t age of t he oper at i onal
a mpl i f i e r . I t i s al so pos s i bl e t o det ermi ne t he high and low val ues of a
given channel of dat a f or a given t ime span. This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y useful
i f t emperat ure i s being moni t or ed- - t he high and low t emperat ure f or t he day
can be det ermi ned.
5) V e r s a t i l i t y . The sequence of oper at i ons of t he remote or cent r al
s i t e systems should be easy t o change. With a mi cr opr ocessor c ont r ol l e d
syst em, changi ng system oper at i on r e qui r es onl y t h a t t he program be changed.
6) Bu i l t - i n t e s t i n g r out i ne f or remote and cent r al s i t e s . Before t he
t el ephone 1i ne i s I n s t a l l e d , t he onl y way t o check t he system oper at i on i s
t o make a t r i p t o t he dome and obser ve t he oper at i on of t he syst em. With
a t e s t r out i ne b u i l t i nt o t he pr ocessor program, i t wi l l be easy t o check
system ope r a t i on. Once t he t el ephone l i n e i s i n s t a l l e d , system oper at i on
can be evaluated by obser vi ng t he incoming dat a. The ba t t e r y vol t age wi l l
be moni t ored by each remote and c ent r al s i t e so t h a t t he power source and
r echar gi ng c i r c u i t can be checked by moni t ori ng t he ba t t e r y vol t age as i t
comes over t he t el ephone l i n e .
7) R e l i a b i l i t y . Both remote and c ent r al s i t e c i r c u i t s should be
desi gned t o be as r e l i a b l e as pos s i bl e t o minimize dat a l o s s . Every remote
s i t e c i r c u i t wi l l r ecor d i t s dat a on magnet ic t ape before i t i s t r ans mi t t e d
t o t he c ent r a l s i t e t o avoi d l os s of dat a i f t he r adi o l i nk f a i l s . At t he
41
cent r al s i t e t he dat a can be recorded before i t 1s t r ans mi t t ed t o pr event l oss
o f dat a on t he t el ephone l i n e .
8) Minimize system mai nt enance. The two items t h a t wi l l r equi r e
maintenance ar e b a t t e r i e s and t ape c a s s e t t e s . I f low capaci t y b a t t e r i e s ar e
used wit h some s o r t of r echargi ng devi ces t hen b a t t e r i e s wi l l not have t o be
changed. High capaci t y nonrechargeabl e b a t t e r i e s can be used, but t hey wi l l
have t o be changed ye ar l y. The c a s s e t t e s wi l l have t o be changed when t hey
get f u l l . The c a s s e t t e s wi l l l a s t up t o 6 months depending on how many i n ­
put s are sampled and what t he sample r a t e i s .
Thi s dat a a c qui s i t i on system wi l l be i n s t a l l e d i n t hr ee s t age s . F i r s t ,
t he remote s i t e c i r c u i t s wi l l be i n s t a l l e d as i ndependent dat a a c qui s i t i on
systems. The second s t age wi l l c ons i s t of adding t he c ent r al s i t e c i r c u i t s
and t he t r a ns mi t t e r s f or t he remote s i t e s . At t h i s poi nt t her e wi l l e x i s t
one dat a a cqui s i t i on system f or each s a l t dome wi t h out put s t or ed on a mag­
ne t i c t ape c a s s e t t e l ocat ed a t t he c e nt r a l s i t e . The t h i r d and f i na l s t age
wi l l be t he addi t i on of t he t el ephone l i n e t o Baton Rouge. Fi gure I I I - C- 3
shows a block diagram of t he e n t i r e syst em.
The components descr i bed above wi l l t oge t he r comprise a very powerful
dat a a cqui s i t i on syst em. Fi el d dat a wi l l be i nmedi at el y a va i l a bl e . Fur t her ­
more, i f a system f a i l u r e i s det ect ed from t he incoming da t a, pl ans can be
made immediately t o r e p a i r t he syst em, t hus gr e a t l y reduci ng down t i me.
At t h i s time (September 1977), t he remote s i t e c i r c u i t i s al most com­
pl e t e . There ar e a few l a s t minute desi gn changes t h a t must be made, but
p a r t or a l l of t he remote s i t e c i r c u i t s shoul d be i n s t a l l e d by l a t e December
1977. Si nce t he cent r al s i t e has much i n common wi t h t he remote s i t e c i r c u i t s ,
T U
TELEPHONE
-1 LINES
RAYBURN S
SALT
DOME
VACHERIE
SALT
DOME
REMOTE
SITE
REMOTE
SITE
REMOTE
SITE
CENTRAL
SITE
CENTRAL
SITE
REMOTE
SITE
REMOTE
SITE
REMOTE
SITE
BATON ROUGE
RECEIVING
STATION
4:^
ro
FIG. m - C - 3 TILTMETER DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM, COMPLETE
43
i t s desi gn shoul d not be d i f f i c u l t . By June of 1978 t he cent r al s i t e s
should be i n s t a l l e d . The t el ephone l i n e hook-up should f o l 1ow s h o r t l y ,
provi di ng appr opr i at e arrangement s can be made wi t h t he l ocal t el ephone
company.
45
I I I - D. NUMERICAL MODELLING OF POSSIBLE DOME MOVEMENT
R. L. Thoms, R. M. Gehl e, and J . K. Whisman
Pr el i mi nar y 2-D and 3-D f i n i t e el ement anal yses of pos s i bl e s a l t
movement have been performed i n a ddi t i on t o t hose descr i bed in t he 1976
annual r e po r t . Fi gures I I I - D- 1 t hrough I I I - D- 5 de pi ct an unloaded r e f ­
erence conf i gur at i on (Fi gure I I I - D- 1) and numerical s ol ut i ons f o r pl ane
s t r a i n and 3-0 models of an i de al i zed Vacheri e s a l t dome (Thoms, e t al
1977).
Fi gure II I - D- 2 depi ct s di spl acement s as s oc i at ed wi t h a 2 mm imposed
par abol i c di spl acement mode a t -5000 f t . Corresponding t o t he imposed
di spl acement of 2 ran a t -5000 f t , t he maximum r e l a t i v e v e r t i c a l di s pl a c e ­
ment a t ground s ur f ace was approxi mat el y 1. 2 mm over t he dome c ent e r .
Maximum t i l t was approxi mat el y 0. 8 prad over t he dome f l ank.
Fi gur es II I - D- 3 and II I - D- 4 r e pr e s e nt l oc al i z e d di spl acement s of t he
system as s oci at ed wi t h t he g r a vi t a t i ona l a t t r a c t i o n of t he moon. These
r e s u l t s ar e from numerical experi ment s which ar e s i mp l i s t i c a t t h i s s t age;
however, t hey were c ar r i e d out t o obt ai n an i ndi c a t i on of t he f e a s i b i l i t y
of u t i l i z i n g ear t h t i d e dat a t o obt ai n some measure of mat er i al pr ope r t i e s
(Har r i son, 1976a). In Figure I I I - D- 4, t he r e l a t i v e l y "sof t " s ur f ace sands
and t he " s t i f f " confi ned sands a t a dept h of -2000 f t were i nt erchanged
i n t he model. I t can be observed t h a t di f f e r e nc es i n t he sur f ace d i s ­
placements di d occur ; however, concerns must e x i s t wi t h uni queness in
i n t e r pr e t i ng mat er i al pr oper t i es from di spl acement s of nonhomogeneous
syst ems.
The boundary condi t i ons imposed f o r t he moon l oadi ngs of Fi gures
I I I - D- 3 and I I I - D- 4 di d not t ake i nt o account as s oci at e d general
4 6
di spl acement s of t he e a r t h ' s c r u s t . Boundary element s appear appr opr i at e
f or t h i s t ask (Zi enki ewi cz, 1976).
Fi gure I I I - D- 5 r epr es ent s a 3-D s ol ut i on f or a s ol i d quadr ant of
t he Vacheri e dome. A maximum 2 mm di spl acement ampl i t ude was imposed
vi a an e l l i p t i c par abol oi d as depi ct ed i n t h i s f i g u r e . Mat eri al pr oper ­
t i e s were based on t hose assumed f o r t he pl ane s t r a i n models.
All of t he above models wi l l be r ef i ned as more i nf or mat i on s p e c i f i c
t o t he Vacheri e dome s i t e i s c o l l e c t e d . Subsequent l y, t he numeri cal dome
models can be employed t o i n t e r p r e t i ns t r ument at i on dat a r e l a t i v e t o dome
movement wi t h a r e l a t i v e l y high degree of conf i dence.
i ,
SPATIAL SCALE, 1000 ft.
F I G . m - D - l VACHERIE PLANE STRAIN MODEL
I_____
DISPLACEMENTS SCALE, Vmm*
FI6. i n - D - 2 VACHERIE PLANE STRAIN MODEL-
IMPOSED DISPLACEMENT
-Sa,
DISPLACEMENTS SCALE, . 003 mm
FIG. n r - D - S VACHERIE PLANE STRAIN MODEL-MOON LOADING
4s.
00
FIG. n i - D - 4 VACHERIE PLANE STRAIN MODEL-
MATERIALS INTERCHANGED, MOON LOADING
1
;p’^Vr*:vVt7
/ y / i s i i p i i i F - '
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F!G.ni~"D-"5 DEFORMED 3 - D FINITE ELEMENT DOME MODEL
51
I I I - E. IN SITU DOMAL ROCK SAIT PROPERTIES
R. L. Thoms
Planning has been performed t o devel op a t echni que f o r det er mi ni ng
in s i t u pr oper t i es of rock s a l t . Some wr i t e r s have not ed t h a t convent i onal
1abor at or y t e s t s may be suspect f or det er mi ni ng mechanical pr oper t i es
of domal rock s a l t because of t he r e l a t i v e l y l ar ge s i z e ( e . g . , 1 Inch) of
t he s a l t c r y s t a l s . Thus, pl anni ng f or an in s i t u t e s t t o det er mi ne rock
s a l t pr ope r t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y as t hey r e l a t e t o s a l t dome t e c t o n i c s ,
appears appr opr i at e.
A borehol e t e s t i n g method f o r det ermi ni ng In s i t u pr ope r t i e s of rock
s a l t which may be employed f or a nal ys i s of t ime dependent t e c t o n i c dome
movement (Thoms, e t a l . , 1977) I s proposed.
Borehole t e s t i n g of rock s a l t was appar ent l y I n i t i a t e d by Busch around
1907 (Busch, 1907). More r e c e nt l y, r e l a t i v e l y s ophi s t i c a t e d s t udi es have
de a l t wit h borehol e s t a b i l i t y In ot her rocks a t dept h (Desal and Johnson,
1974, and Gnirk, 1972).
Inst rument s f or t e s t i n g bor ehol e wal l s have been developed ( e . g . , by
Menard, 1957; Goodman, e t a l . , 1968; Rocha, e t a l . , 1969; Se r a t a , 1974; and
Handy, e t a l . , 1976). Typi cal l y, t hese Inst r ument s employ some means of
l oadi ng t he borehole "wal l s" and moni t ori ng r e s u l t a n t di spl acement s and/ or
f a i l u r e l oads.
The st udy would r equi r e moni t or i ng t he di amet r i cal di spl acement of
pr evi ousl y undi st urbed rock s a l t around a borehol e si mul t aneousl y a t several
dept hs I nt o t he dome. A s e r i e s of r e l a t i v e l y si mple f i xe d- l n- pl a c e cl osur e
moni t or i ng c a l i pe r s would be I n s t a l l e d a t pr e s el e ct ed e l evat i ons In a bor e­
hol e f 111ed wit h dense d r i l l i n g f l u i d . The f l u i d would be t he same f l u i d
5 2
used in d r i l l i n g t he borehol e i nt o s a l t , and would not be pumped out p r i o r
t o I n s t a l l a t i o n c f t he c a l i p e r s . Thus t he mat er i al around t he borehol e
would be r e l a t i v e l y unloaded from i t s or i gi na l ge o s t a t i c s t r e s s s t a t e
p r i o r t o i n s t a l l a t i o n of t he moni t or i ng c a l i p e r s .
The load on t he borehol e wall coul d be changed by varyi ng t he l evel
of t he f l u i d . Subsequent cl os ur e a t t he f i xe d- i n- pl a c e c a l i p e r s would be
recorded as t ime dependent mat er i al response. For boundary c ondi t i ons , t he
s t r e s s s t a t e a t some di s t a nce from t he borehol e i n t he p l a s t i c rock s a l t
would be assumed t o be hydr os t a t i c in c har ac t e r and of a magnitude due t o
overburden (Obert , 1962). Thi s st udy would have t he advantage of moni t or i ng
t he l oadi ng ( or unl oadi ng) of dome rock s a l t in a r e l a t i v e l y undi st ur bed s t a t e .
A number of successf ul i nve s t i gat i ons of rock s a l t behavi or have been
ca r r i e d out wit h physi cal models (Bradshaw, e t a l . , 1966; Lomenick, 1968;
and Ober t , 1964). Ther ef or e, assuming s cal e e f f e c t s could be di scount ed,
t he g e os t a t i c s t r e s s dr i ven cl osur e of a borehol e could be used t o obt ai n
a s i t e s p e c i f i c est i mat e of cl osur e r a t e s of st or age caverns t o be const r uct ed
a t s i mi l a r dept hs i n a p a r t i c u l a r s a l t dome.
53
I I I - F, IN SITU SOIL PROPERTIES
M. T. Tumay
1. General Obj ect i ve, Scope and Si gni f i cance
St udi es so f a r have i ndi cat ed t he appr eci abl e l a t e r a l and ve r t i c a l
ext ent of Quat ernary and Te r t i a r y depos i t s wi t h vari ous geot echni cal
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s surroundi ng both Vacheri e and Rayburn' s domes (Mart i nez,
e t a l . , 1975, 1976). From t he geomechanics vi ewpoi nt i t has been shown
t h a t deposi t s d i r e c t l y above t he f l anks of t he domes would be most s us ­
c e pt i bl e t o ongoing ( i f any) dome movement. Previ ous annual r e por t s out ­
l i ned t he proposed in s i t u dome movement moni t or i ng syst ems, and t he
numerical f i n i t e element model li ng of dome movement. Four t i l t me t e r s are
pr e s e nt l y oper at i onal over t he Vacheri e dome; numerical exper i ment at i on
wi t h pos s i bl e domal di spl acement modes i s di scussed in Sect i on I I I - D of
t h i s r e por t .
Thoms, e t a l . , (1977) r e por t t h a t t he f i d e l i t y of numerical model li ng
of any geomechanical system wi l l be l i mi t ed by t he q u a l i t y of i nput dat a
on conf i gur at i on ( s pa t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n ) and t he c o n s t i t u t i v e r e l a t i o n s
(mat er i al behavi or paramet ers) of t he geol ogi c components ( s a l t and s u r ­
rounding s oi l s / r oc ks ) . The i mportance of proper c o n s t i t u t i v e laws can not
be over emphas i zed- - par t i cul ar l y i n t he case of geol ogi c media. Computer
out put from a f i n i t e element computer run i s of no s i gni f i c a nc e unl ess t he
mat er i al was pr oper l y char act er i zed i n t he f i r s t pl ace.
A c o n s t i t u t i v e (or s t r e s s - s t r a i n ) law f o r a geol ogi c medium i s
dependent on a number of f a c t or s such as dens i t y, r es i dua l s t r e s s e s , s t r e s s
h i s t o r y , exi st ence of d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s , t emper at ur e, t i me, and exi s t ence of
l i qui ds i n t he pores. Many l abor at or y and f i e l d experi ment s ar e necessar y
t o eval uat e t he paramet ers t h a t def i ne mat er i al behavi or . Gener al l y t hese
5 4
paramet ers ar e eval uat ed in t he l abor at or y on "undi st urbed" samples
obt ai ned in t he f i e l d . Drained or undrai ned t r i a x i a l , d i r e c t s hear , and
cons ol i dat i on t e s t s ar e commonly employed f o r t h i s purpose. The l a bor at or y
experi ment s al one may not be c or r e c t s i nce i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o obt ai n a
homogeneous s t a t e of s t r e s s and s t r a i n in t he e n t i r e t e s t specimen; t h e r e ­
f or e a t e s t wi l l si mul at e t he f i e l d s i t u a t i o n onl y appr oxi mat el y. Perhaps
t he best way t o obt ai n a r e a l i s t i c c o n s t i t u t i v e r e l a t i o n i s t o der i ve i t
from a number of d i r e c t f i e l d measurements of t he response of geol ogi c media
t o appl i ed pe r t ur ba t i ons ( Des ai , 1972).
A survey of in s i t u eval uat i on methods ( bor i ngs, st andar d pe ne t r a t i on,
cone pe ne t r a t i on, vane shear and pr essur emet er are t he most common) in terms
of s hor t term a v a i l a b i l i t y , economi cs, and a p p l i c a b i l i t y , r eveal ed t h a t
e l e c t r i c a l cone soundings coupl ed wi t h sever al bori ngs a t which di s t ur bed
and undi st ur bed samples are acqui r ed would bes t s u i t t he immediate goal s of
t h i s st udy, and hel p l ay t he gui del i nes f o r f ut ur e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . The most
v e r s a t i l e , rugged, and wi del y used e l e c t r i c a l cone sounding system i s manu­
f act ur e d by Fugro-Cesco of Hol l and, and i s l o c a l l y ava i l abl e t hrough Fugro
Gul f, Houston, Texas. Inf or mat i on r e l a t i n g t o accuracy and r e l i a b i l i t y of
cone penet r omet ers as a whole, and t he Fugro e l e c t r i c a l cone penet r omet er
in p a r t i c u l a r , i s r e a d i l y a vai l abl e in t he l i t e r a t u r e ( deRui t er , 1971;
Schmertmann 1970, 1976).
I t was pl anned t o eval uat e in s i t u s o i l pr ope r t i e s in t he v i c i n i t y of
Vacheri e dome wi t h p a r t i c u l a r emphasis on r egi ons where s o phi s t i c a t e d
equipment t o moni t or dome movement were i n s t a l l e d . I nve s t i gat i ons were
extended t o an approxi mate depth of 150 f t from t he s ur f ace. El e c t r i c a l
cone penet r omet er sounding t echni ques were c a r r i e d out i n conj unct i on wi t h,
and t o be s t a t i s t i c a l l y c or r e l a t e d t o , t he r e s u l t s of bori ngs a t which con­
t i nuous undi s t ur bed/ di s t ur bed s o i l sampl ing and t e s t i n g were cont empl at ed.
55
The geot echni cal paramet ers and c o n s t i t u t i v e r e l a t i o n s eval uat ed as a r e s u l t
of such a scheme should achi eve t he fol l owi ng:
1) Help I ncr ease r e l i a b l e I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t he out put of s ophi s ­
t i c a t e d i nst r ument at i on ( i . e . , t i l t me t e r s , bor ehol e cl osur e c a l i p e r s ,
l a s e r rangi ng equipment) embedded and/ or emplaced on t hese deposi t s t o
st udy dome movement.
2) Provi de an in s i t u c o n s t i t u t i v e dat a base (modulus of e l a s t i c i t y ,
E; Poi s s on' s r a t i o , n ) t o be fed i nt o t he numeri cal model of t he dome.
3) I ncr ease t he economy and e f f i c i e nc y of f u r t h e r geot echni cal
i nve s t i ga t i ons .
4) Help eval uat e t he f e a s i b i l i t y of ot her methods of dat a r e t r i e v a l
( i . e . , ground-water l evel f l u c t u a t i o n s and hydr aul i c conduct i vi t y, e l e c t r i c a l
conduct i vi t y of ground wat er , t emperat ure measurement, acous t i c emi ssi on,
e t c . ) from deep deposi t s by probi ng t echni ques.
2. Overview of Curr ent St at us
The proposed i nve s t i ga t i on of in s i t u s o i l pr ope r t i e s f or Vacheri e
dome was approved October 1976, and t he f i e l d work was c a r r i e d out duri ng
Jul y and August of 1977. Fi gur e I I I - F- 1 depi ct s t he l ocat i on of t he bori ng
and cone penet r at i on ( he r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as soundi ng) s i t e s .
During t he 1977 f i s c a l year , s t eps were al s o t aken t o e s t a b l i s h a s oi l
mechanics t e s t i n g c a p a b i l i t y f o r det ermi ng s o i l c o n s t i t u t i v e r e l a t i o n s .
The system cons i s t s of : (1) a 5 t on capac i t y t r i a x i a l shear devi ce which
i s adapt abl e t o s hor t term undr ai ned/ l ong t erm dr ai ned t e s t i n g of s o i l s
wi th or wi t hout pore pr es sur e measurement (wi t h l i t t l e modi f i cat i on, rock
and s a l t t e s t i n g wi l l al so be f e a s i b l e ) ; ( 2 ) oedometers wi t h swell t e s t
att achment t o measure c ompr es s i bi l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; (3) an unconfi ned
compression devi ce; and (4) a l abor at or y penet r omet er t o determi ne r e l a t i v e
IgCe^traf S^h
:;344
'liKpr i
±0.00
ee Sch
’>^73
2 0 'AC4- j 21
■.
-r 5 WG
', Pleasaht'Hill
' St=^ *
t. Legend
% S'OONDINGS . {
j » BORINGS
■‘k!^TNlETE;R SITEfe
. ■- ^ .Q- -----------4-
, ! 1 , i ■' I ‘ "
P“ L _. - ^ ! .N G „ AND .goUNDING I^ ^ T ! O ^ ^ A P - | ^ T
in
m
57
s t r e ngt h. The bi d f or t he system, s pe c i f i c a t i ons f or which were hel d on
r es ear ch qua l i t y l e ve l , was awarded t o Geonor of Norway on June 1, 1977.
Since t hen, shipment has been made and t he system wi l l be oper at i onal s h o r t l y .
Test s f or s oi l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ( i . e . , consi s t ency, gr ai n s i ze d i s t r i b u ­
t i on) of di s t ur bed samples obt ai ned from bori ngs made along B-M-S 1i nes
(Fi gures VI-B-3 and -4 in t h i s r e por t ) c o n s t i t u t e t he bulk of t he l abor at or y
work done a t t h i s t i me. To dat e (September 1977) 218 consi s t ency l i mi t s ,
300 si eve anal yses and 59 hydrometer anal yses have been performed. When
completed, t h i s st udy wi l l provi de a s t a t i s t i c a l eval uat i on of t he s pa t i a l
d i s t r i b u t i o n of t he upper s t r a t i f i c a t i o n in t he v i c i n i t y of Vacherie dome.
The wr i t e r hopes t o c o r r e l a t e t h i s dat a wi t h mat er i al behavi or c h a r a c t e r i s ­
t i c s of t he s o i l s i nvol ved.
A more de t ai l e d pr e s ent a t i on and di s cus s i on of t he in s i t u f i e l d work
and l abor at or y s t udi es f ol l ows.
3. In Si t u St udi es a t Vacheri e Dome
A t o t a l of 5 bori ngs and 25 soundi ngs were performed under r i g i d spec­
i f i c a t i o n s s p e c i f i c a l l y prepared f or t h i s purpose. Of t he 25 soundings
performed, 5 c ons t i t ut e d pr el i mi nar y t r i a l s wi t h cones of varyi ng t ypes
and c a p a c i t i e s . All 5 bori ng and 20 sounding l ogs ar e pr esent ed i n t h i s
s ect i on and in Appendix A.
a. Bori ngs. A review of t he previ ous bori ng oper at i ons done a t
Vacheri e dome f or Quat ernary s t udi es r eveal ed t h a t di s t ur bed cont i nuous
sampling t o average depth of 150 f t were s uc c e s s f ul l y done wi t h wall
(Shelby t ube) sampl ers wi t h an approxi mat e ar ea r a t i o of 15 per cent . To
improve f ur t he r on t he qua l i t y of t he samples sought f o r t h i s st udy,
wall s t a t i o na r y pi st on sampl ers (Fi gure I I I - F- 2 ) were i n i t i a l l y s pe ci f i ed
This i s ba s i c a l l y a Shelby t ube sampl er wi t h a p i s t o n , pi s t on r od, and a
modifi ed sampl er head. The pi s t on rod i s 1/2 i nch i n di amet er and f i t s
Sampler Head
Piston Rod Lock
{Conical Catch)
Ports
Brass or Steel Tube
Piston Assembly
Leat her Gasket
PISTON TUBE SAMPLER
Drilling Fluid Drilling Fluid
-Ball Bearing
Monger
Sliding Valve
(Open)
■Drilling Fluid
Ret urn
Spri ng
•Valve Seal
•Rot at i ng Out er
Barrel
n Coring Bit
Sampli ng Tube
St at i onar y Thi n-
vfoll Sampli ng Tube
ULi<
SAMPLER BEING LOWERED
INTO DRILL HOLE
Drill Rod
Vent for Drilling Fluid
from Sampling Tube
Sliding Valve
(Closed)
Drilling Fluid Return
Drilling Fluid
Diverted to
Annular Space
Coring Bit Leads
Thin-wall Tube
Thin-wall Tube
Leads Outer Barrel
Coring Bit
SAMPLER DURING SAMPLING
OF SOFT SOILS
PITCH BARREL SAMPLER
SAMPLER DURING
SAMPLING OF
STIFF OR
DENSE SOILS
FIG. m - F - 2 " U N D I S T U R B E D " S A M P L E R S U S E D I N T H E I N V E S T I G A T I O N
e a s i l y i ns i de t he hollow d r i l l rod used t o lower t he sampl er i nt o t he
hol e. The uni t i s lowered on t he d r i l l rod s i nce a coni cal bal l bear i ng
cat ch prevent s t he pi s t on rod from s l i ppi ng down. When t he sampler r eaches
t he bottom of t he hol e, t he pi s t on rod i s hel d f i xed r e l a t i v e t o t he ground
s ur f ace, and t he t hi n wal l ed t ube i s pushed i nt o t he s o i l . A t hi n wal l ed
t ube wi t h an out s i de di amet er (Do) of 3 1/2 i nches and an i ns i de di amet er
of (D| ) of 3 3/ 8 i nches was u t i l i z e d in t h i s work wi t h an ar ea r a t i o of 9
per cent . The pi s t on sampl er funct i oned very s a t i s f a c t o r i l y in t he r e l a t i v e l y
s of t upper l a ye r s . However, denser s t r a t i f i c a t i o n encount ered gener al l y
below 50 f t ne c e s s i t a t e d t he use of pi t c h ba r r el sampl ers.
The pi t ch bar r el sampl er (Fi gure I I I - F - 2 ) i s e s s e n t i a l l y a Denison
sampler in which t he i nner bar r el i s s pr i ng loaded so as t o provi de aut o­
mat ic adj ust ment of t he di st ance by which t he c ut t i ng edge of t he bar r el
l eads t he cori ng b i t . As shown in t he f i g u r e , t he out er r o t a t i n g core
bar r el wi t h a b i t and an i nner s t a t i o n a r y , s pr i ng- l oaded, t hi n wall sampling
t ube l eads or t r a i l s t he out er bar r el d r i l l i n g b i t , depending on t he
hardness of t he mat er i al being sampled (Lowe and Zaccheo, 1975). In s o f t e r
St r a t a t he sampling i s t he same as a t hi n wall sampl er, and t he b i t merel y
ser ves t o remove t he mat er i al from around t he t ube. In har der ma t e r i a l s ,
t he out er bar r el cut s a core which e nt er s t he t ube as t he sampl er p e n e t r a t e s .
In e i t h e r case, t he t ube pr ot e c t s t he sample from er os i ve act i on of t he
d r i l l i n g f l u i d .
The pi t c h bar r el sampl er used was Dq = 3 i nch and Di = 2 1/4 i nch,
wi t h an area r a t i o of 7 per cent . Even in t he very dense red and t an
f i n e sands and t he hard gray s i l t y c l ays , t h i s t ype of sampl er gave s a t i s ­
f ac t or y r e s u l t s .
The di s t ur bed and undi st urbed samples r e t r i e v e d ar e pr e s e nt l y being
c l a s s i f i e d and cat al ogued. Af t er t he c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of t he di s t ur bed samples
60
i s compl et e, l ong term (dr ai ned) t r i a x i a l , and c ons ol i dat i on/ s we l l i ng
t e s t s wi l l be performed on t he undi st ur bed sampl es. From t he t echni cal
vi ewpoi nt , t he t ime l apse between sampl ing and t e s t i n g could be r egarded
as de t r i me nt a l . Arman and McManis (1976) in t h e i r st udy on Loui si ana
s o i l s have shown t he basi c f a l l a c y of undi st ur bed sampl es, and t he t ime
l apse i n t e s t i n g i s but one of t he f a c t o r s t hey concl ude as causi ng d i s ­
crepancy between 1abor at or y and i n s i t u condi t i ons . However, i t shoul d
be not ed t h a t i t i s t he i n t e n t here t o eval uat e t he p o s s i b i l i t y of an in
s i t u t e s t i n g method, and t h a t l abor at or y s t udi es wi l l ser ve as t r end s e t t i n g
t echni ques.
A revi ew of t he bori ng logs ( Fi gures I I I - F- 3 , and Fi gures A-1 through
-4 in Appendix A) shows t h a t a l l of t he t i l t me t e r s 1t e s , wi t hout except i on,
di s pl ay d i f f e r e n t geot echni cal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of
t he t i l t me t e r dat a wi l l bear g r e a t l y on t he ext ent and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of
t he s t r a t a in which t he t i l t me t e r s are s i t u a t e d . A gener al and pr el i mi nar y
eval uat i on i s given below;
1) Ti l t me t er s i t e No. 1. The s i t e i s s i t u a t e d in dense s t r a t a ;
t he r e f or e minimum i nt e r f e r e nc e from ground-wat er e f f e c t s shoul d be expect ed.
2) Ti l t met er s i t e No. 2. Presumably t h i s s i t e i s t he be s t s i t e as f a r
as t ype and de ns i f i c a t i on of s o i l s ar e concerned. However, a very s o f t
st r at um was encount ered a t a dept h of 77-99 f t , 84 f t SE of t he t i l t me t e r ,
t he ext ent of which war r ant s f u r t h e r st udy. (See Fi gur e A-2, Appendix A. )
3) Ti 1t met er s i t e No. 3. The t i l t me t e r i s l ocat ed in a cl ayey s i l t
which can c r e a t e problems when wet.
4) Ti 1t met er s i t e No. 4. The t i l t me t e r i s l ocat ed in t he l e a s t com­
pact ed s t r a t a encount ered in t h i s st udy. The l ocat i on and t hi ckness of t he
cl ay l ayer cl ose t o t he ground s ur f ace f u r t h e r decr eases t he val ue of t he
s i t e due t o pot e nt i a l ground-wat er e f f e c t s . I t i s recommended t o abandon
t h i s s i t e .
61
SOIL DESCRIPTION
1 0 -
SURFACE ELEV.:
FINE sand w i f H 7 i . ) p -
iTAN CLAYEY SILT ( 4* ) ! “
VERY DENSE TAN CLAYEY SAND WITH
- CLAYEY SILT POCKETS
- LIGHT GRAY AND TAN BELOW 8*
( 1 7 ' )
HARD LIGKT GRAY AND TAN SANDY
CLAY WITH SAND POCKETS AND
PARTINGS
- 30-
- 40-
- 50
- 60 .
- 70-
-80 -I
-90
GRAY BELOW 5 0 '
( 63* )
HARD GRAY SILTY CLAY w i t h s i l t
POCKETS
( 7 7 ' )
LIGNITE
( 8 2 ' )
HARD GRAY SILTY CLAY w i t h s i l t
POCKETS
-IOC
(CONTINUED' ON PLATE 2 )
SHEAR STRENGTH, TSF
9 Unconfin«d ComprMtion
O Poekpt P«netrom®t®r
■ Trioxiol Compressi on
A Torvane
0.5 1.0 1.5
*
tz
w
CD
53
24
37
37
88
44
130
97
82
72
aw
WH
< 0
OS
- 1 - 1
H O +
10 20 30 40 50 60
1 1 5 / 5 '
5 0 / 6 '
5 0 / 6
9 7
COMPLETION DEPTH: 2 0 0 ' M r 140 LB. HAMMER DROPPED 3 0 - INCHES.
DATE- 8 / 8 / 7 7
LEGEND;
H PISTON SAMPLE
LOG OF BORING NO. I4
FIG. m -F-3
^ SPT DRIVE SAMPLE
^ 3 " TUBE SAMPLE
VACHERIE SALT DOME
DUBERLY, LOUI SI ANA PAGE 1 OF 2
FUORO OULF, INC.
c onsul ti ng E n g i n e e r s and Geol ogi sts PLATE 1
62
1" _i
LU
«* W 1
X m ^
h~ ^
a ^ ^
lU ^ <
Q W
SOIL DESCRIPTION
SURFACE ELEV.5
SHEAR STRENGTH, TSF
0 Unconfinsd Comprestion
O Pocket P«natrompter
■ Triaxiol Compression
Jk Torvane
0 . 5 1.0 1.5
h -
U.
\
CO
E
_ j
m
~ 5 „
f e t | f c
3 1 o s
( L - j 5 0 3 Z j
^ ------------------------ © ----------------------------- 1_
10 2 0 3 0 4 0 3 0 6 0
HARD GRAY SILTY CLAY w i t h s i l t
POCKETS
- DARK GRAY BELOW 11 3 '
---------- ( 1 2 3 . 5 ' )
101
5 5 /
103
99
■70 7
6"
— H r l i g n i t e ( 1 2 5 ' )
r"
HARD GRAY SILTY CLAY WITH SILT
.....JNntX POCKETS ( 1 3 0 ' )
1
5 5 / 6 "
-------------i t f o ^LRY dense gray clayey s i l t WITH
- W E SILT POCKETS
W ( 1 3 8 ' )
5 0 /
86
88
88
77
5 0 /
j"
HARD GRAY SILTY CLAY w i t h s i l t
POCKETS AND PARTINGS
( I S O’ )
^ VERY DENSE GRAY CLAYEY SAI® WITH
------ ^ ^ E SANDY CLAY SEAMS AND POCKETS
• 1 6 0 ^ ^ ( 1 6 2 ' )
50/ <
5 0 / (
- HARD DARK GRAY SILTY CLAY w i t h
------ J S S SILT POCKETS AND PARTINGS
____ IV » ( 1 9 2 . 5 ' )
5”
5 0 / '
88
60/ i
5 0 / i
■n
3”
50/ ^
5 0 / :
LIGNITE
. . .
WITH
3"
“ 1 TERMINATION DEPTHi 2 0 0 f t .
COMPLETION DEPTH: 2 0 0 ' * 140 LB. HAMMER DROPPED 30- INCHES.
DATE: 8 / 8 / 7 7
LOG OF BORING NO. k FIG. HI-F-3 (cont’d)
SEE SHEET 1 FOR VACHERIE SALT DOME
LEGEND DUBERLY, LOUISI ANA 2 O P 2
FU6R0 eULF, INC.
Consulting E n g i n o tr s and Goologitlt
PLATE 2
6 3
b. Soundi ngs. The t r a d i t i o n a l method of measuring cone penet r omet er
r e s i s t a n c e i nvol ves t he advancement of a st andar d cone wi t h a base ar ea
of 10 cm^ and an apex angl e of 60°, a t a r a t e of 2 cm/sec usi ng a double
s t r i n g of r ods. Fi gure I I I - F - 4 shows t he t ypes of cones c ur r e nt l y a v a i l ­
abl e f or var i ous sounding purposes. In t h i s st udy, emphasis was put on
t he e l e c t r i c a l cone penet r omet er wi t h f r i c t i o n sl eeve. However, in one
s i t e t he f e a s i b i l i t y of usi ng t he mechanical Begemann f r i c t i o n cone was
al so t e s t e d.
For a b e t t e r underst andi ng of t he advant ages of t he e l e c t r i c a l cone,
a b r i e f summary of t he t r a d i t i o n a l Begemann cone (an ext ensi on of t he
Dutch cone) wi l l be given f i r s t . Thi s t ype of penet r omet er has, i n addi t i on
t o t he cone t i p t h a t can move i ndependent l y of t he i n s e r t i n g r ods, a
s epar at e f r i c t i o n sl eeve wit h a wal l ar ea of 150 cm2 which i s i ns er t ed
above t he cone and can al so be moved i ndependent l y of t he out er r ods.
The procedur e of a f u l l cone penet r at i on r eadi ng (Fi gur e I I I - F - 5 ) , wit h
cone r e s i s t a n c e , q^., and f r i c t i o n a l r e s i s t a n c e , f g, i s as f ol l ows;
1) The out er rods are kept s t a t i o n a r y . The i nner rods ar e pushed
down t o advance t he cone 4 cm duri ng which i nt e r va l cone r e s i s t a n c e , q^,
i s hydr a ul i c al l y r ecorded.
2) The i nner rods are advanced anot her 4 cm. The cone engages
t he f r i c t i o n sl eeve and t he cone and s l eeve move down t oge t he r . The
combined val ue of cone r e s i s t a n c e and f r i c t i o n s l eeve i s agai n hydr a ul i c a l l y
r ecorded.
3) The out er rods are pushed down 20 cm and t ake along t he f r i c t i o n
s l eeve over t he l a s t 16 cm and t he cone over t he l a s t 12 cm. Subsequent l y
t he procedure can be r epeat ed.

6 4
A. GEONOR PIEZOMETER CONE
B. MECHANICAL BEGEMANN FRICTION CONE PENETROMETER
C. MECHANICAL DUTCH (DELFT) CONE PENETROMETER
D. ORIGINAL MECHANICAL CONE PENETROMETER
E. ELECTRICAL CONE PENETROMETER WITH FRICTION SLEEVE
FIG. m - F - 4 TYPES OF SOUNDING CONES
6 5
Push outer rod to bring
cone to the desired
t est eievotion
Push
i nner rod
Continue
inner rod push
/ At t a c hed to
'' outer r ods
Fr i ct i on
Sl eeve
Cone
Shaf t
Cone
Point
Moving to
new depth
Cone oniy advances
for bearing capacity
det er mi nat i on
Both cone and friction
si eeve advance for total
r esi st ance d e t e r mi n a t i o n
FIG. m - F - 5 STAGES OF SOUNDING WITH BEGEMANN CONE
6 6
Although t he s i mpl i c i t y of t he equipment and t he oper at i on of t he
mechanical cone i s a g r e a t advant age, t her e ar e sever al major di sadvant ages.
For example, s i nce t he measurement of and f^ are made hydr aul i c al l y
a t t he s ur f a c e , e l a s t i c compression of t he s t e e l rods r e s u l t s i n l ar ge
var i a t i ons i n t hes e measurements. Also f r i c t i o n can devel op between t he
i nner and out er r ods; s oi l p a r t i c l e s can l odge between t he cone and t he
f r i c t i o n a l s l eeve and t her eby hi nder smooth oper at i on. Fi gure A-15, in
Appendix A shows a cone penet r at i on t e s t i n which t he f r i c t i o n sl eeve
di d not f unct i on pr oper l y below 29 f t .
Fi gures I I I - F- 4e and I I I - F -6 de pi ct t he gener al view and t he cr oss
s ec t i onal d e t a i l of t he e l e c t r i c cone penet r omet er used i n t h i s st udy.
Base a r e a, apex angl e, and t he area of t he f r i c t i o n a l sl eeve ar e t he same
as t he st andar d Begemann cone wi t h t he major advant ages: 1) t he penet r o­
met er has no moving p a r t s ; 2) i t measures q^. and fg d i r e c t l y a t depth by
t r ans ducer s t hus pr ovi di ng v i r t u a l l y cont i nuous soundi ngs; and 3) i t has
g r e a t e r s t r u c t u r a l s t r e ngt h si nce t he rods and t he cone form one s t r a i g h t
c yl i nde r i c a l s h a f t .
A d e t a i l e d di s cus s i on and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t he soundings shown i n
Fi gur es I I I - F- 7 t hrough 9, and Appendix A would be premature a t t h i s
t i me. However some gener al obser vat i ons can be made.
1) Except f or over consol i dat ed s i l t y cl ays and very dense f i ne sands
croppi ng near t he s ur f a c e , t he pe net r at i ng a b i l i t y of t he cone proved ade­
quat e (range 6. 5 f t t o 123 f t ) . The sounding dept hs can be gr e a t l y improved
by means of i ncor por at i ng hi gher r e a ct i on l oads (a 15 t on t r uck was used
i n t h i s st udy) and some means of f l u i d c i r c u l a t i o n t o pi er ce t he dense
1a y e r s ; however, t h i s would somewhat c u r t a i l t he economic advant age ( i . e .
pr es ent c os t of soundi ng i s approxi mat el y 1/ 3 t o 1/ 4 or bor i ng wi t h sampl ing)
1
4
3 e
m
V
1
f ......... ...................................f ■
1 Conical point (1 0 cm
2 Load cell
3 Strain gauges
4 Friction sleeve
5 Adjustment ring
6 Waterproof bushing
7 Cable
8 Connection with rods
GRO*CESCO
ELECTRIC FRICTION CONE PENETROMETER
FIG. f f l - F - 6
6 8
FRICTION RATIO,% CONE RESISTANCE,< fc,TSF—
100 125 150 175 200 2i
SOIL
DESCRIPTION
25 75 50 275
DENSE SANDY SILT
- CLAY LAYER AT
dense clayey
SAND
- 10-
VERY S T I F F TO
HARD SANDY
CLAY WITH
SILT SEAMS
‘SO­
SO-
s o ­
l o
SLEEVE FRICTION, !§, TSF
SURFACE ELEV.:. COMPLETION DEPTH:, 56 FT. DATE: LOCATION: DIBBERLY, LOUISIANA
ASTM TEST METHOD
D344I-7ST
CONE PENETRATION TEST NO. Cl
VACHERIE m m
CONICAL TIP,
FIG. rn-F-7
^
S O I L
DESCRIPTION
CONE R E S I S T A N C E , * , TSF-
100
FRICTION RATIO,%
T O
75 175 250 275 25 50 150 225
DENSE SILTY
SAND TO SANDY
S I L T
1 0 -
VERY S T I F F TO
HARD SANDY
CLAY WITH
SAND AMD SILT
SEAMS AND
LAYERS
■20“
- FIRM 2 9 ' - 3 0 '
‘30-
SANDY SILT
3 3 * - 3 8 '
SO­
TO-
10
SLEEVE FRICTION, fg, TSF-
SURFACE ELEV.:. CMPLEnOMDFPTH-. .81 FT. n&TF: 6 / 2 4 / 7 7 | n CflTimi: DUBBERLY. LOUISIANA
ASTMTEST «*THa3
D3441-TSr
COi E PENETRATI ON TEST W . C 2
VACERIEm «
4
36
7 0
CONE RESISTANCE.qc, TSF—
100 125 150 175 200 225
SOIL
DESCRIPTION
FRICTION RATIO,%
25 50 75 250 275
DENSE SILTY
SAND
DENSE CLAYEY
SAND
10-
VERY S T I F F TO
HARD SANDY
CLAY WITH
SAND ORS I L T
SEAMS
20'
HARD BELOW 26
•30-
40-
50-
- FIRM 53' - 54'
60*
•70-
80-
•90"
100-
HIO-
i Z O
•130
10
SLEEVE FRICTION, fc, TSF
SURFACE ELEV.:. COMPLETION d f p t h :^ 3 f t . n a T F : 6/ 24/77 i nn AT in M: d u b b e r l y , L o u i s i a n a
ASTM TEST ftCTHOD
0 344I-75T
CONE PENETRATION TEST NO. 4C3
VACHERIE m D «
CONICAL TIP,
FIG. i n- F. 9
m
71
2) Sounding logs provi de a r e l i a b l e cont i nuous p r o f i l e of s t r a t a
encount ered wit h de t a i I s t h a t would be very hard and c os t l y t o obt ai n by
r egul ar bor i ngs. Fi gures I I I - F- 3 and -9 depi ct t he consi der abl e de­
t a i l i n g t ha t can be achi eved by soundi ngs in comparison t o bor i ng;
Figures I I I - F- 7 through -9 show t he r e l i a b l e r e p l i c a t i o n .
3) A general survey of t he sounding l ogs shows t h a t val ues
2 2
gener al l y vary between 50 and 200 kb/cm ( t o n / f t ) . According t o t he s t a t e
of t he a r t r e por t of Mi t chel l and Gardner (1976), we could est i mat e t he
^ p r
s t r e s s - s t r a i n modulus of t he s ur f ace s o i l s as 0. 5 x 10 l b / f t - 1. 5 x 10
2
l b / f t . Fur t her in s i t u t e s t i n g and complementary 1abor at or y eval uat i ons
wi l l produce more r e pr e s e nt a t i ve and s p e c i f i c va l ue s .
4) Probing t echni ques can be used t o measure ground- wat er f l uc t ua t i ons
and t emperat ure down t o r easonabl e dept hs (appr oxi mat el y 70 f t ) i n vari ous
l o c a t i o n s . For gr ea t e r depths ( t o 150 f t ) , a combination of wash bori ng
and sounding would be necessar y.
4. Laborat ory St udi es
Resul t s of t he s oi l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t e s t s run on samples obt ai ned from
bori ngs made along B-M-S l i ne s ( depi ct ed in Fi gures VI-B-3 and -4 in t h i s
r e por t ) are summarized in Table I I I - F- 1 . Most of t he samples e xh i bi t s i l t y
s oi l c h a r a c t e r i s i t e s . A review of t he f r i c t i o n r a t i o (F^ = fg/q^.) paramet er
of t he sounding logs of t he t i l t me t e r s i t e s al so r eveal s t he abundance of
s i l t y s o i l s in t he immediate v i c i n i t y of t i l t me t e r s . Thi s c l e a r l y i ndi c at es
t h a t t he r e i s t he p o s s i b i l i t y of c a p i l l a r y act i on (and f r o s t heave a t low
t emper at ur es ) . To model t he causes of t i l t r e l i a b l y , i t i s recommended to
r ecord long term ground-wat er f l u c t u a t i o n s .
Due t o t he very r ec ent es t abl i s hment of t he s oi l mechanics t e s t i n g
c a p a b i l i t y , no s t r engt h and c ompr e s s i bi l i t y t e s t r e s u l t s ar e r epor t ed a t
t h i s t i me.
Table I I I - F - l . Soi l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n par amet er s.
BORING NO. DEPTH. FT
LIQUID
LIMIT
PLA3TICITY
INDEX
% PA33.
NO 4
% PASS.
2 MILLIM
% PASS.
NO 200
% PASS.
2 MICRON
CLASSIFICATION
AASHO UNIFIED
M009 2 4. 3 2 6. 0 2 6. 5 8. 90 100 100 49.1 18. 0 A-4( 3 . ) 3C(CL)
M009 2 . 3 4. 0 2 5. 0 10. 9 99.7 99. 0 60. 6 15. 0 A-6( 5 . ) CL
M009 2 0. 8 2 2 . 0 2 3. 0 4. 6 99. 4 99. 4 51. 2 2 0. 0 A-4( 3 . ) CL
MOU 10. 0 11. 4 57. 5 30. 7 100 100 100 50. 0 A- 7- 6( 19. ) CH
M014 12 . 5 13. 8 2 3. 5 1. 8 100 100 84. 6 2 5. 0 A-4( 8 . ) ML
3001 2 . 5 3. 5 32 . 0 2 4. 8 100 100 66. 5 2 5. 0 A- 6( 12 . ) CL
5001 4. 6. 100 100 91. 0 2 2 . 0 A-4( 8 . )
3002 1. 5 100 100 65. 0 16. 0 A-4( 6 . )
3002 11.5 13.1 96. 0 95. 0 59. 0 6. 0 A-4( 5 . )
3005 0. 9 100 100 57. 0 5. 2 A-4( 4 . )
3005 2 . 0 3. 6 100 100 56. 2 15.0 A-4( 4 . )
r o
3005 19.3 2 1. 5 43. 0 18.5 100 100 70.7 15. 0 A- 7- 6( 11. ) CL
3005 2 1. 5 23. 40. 0 10.3 100 100 85. 0 0. 0 A-6{ 8 . ) ML
31OA 7. 5 8. 6 2 6. 8 5. 9 100 100 67. 0 2 5. 0 A-4( 6 . ) CL
31OA 32 . 5 34. 5 33. 0 11. 9 100 100 49. 9 15. 0 A-6( 4 . ) 3C(CL)
3011 1. 0 96. 9 95. 0 44. 7 5. 8 A-4( 2 . )
3011 5. 0 8. 0 100 100 42.1 2 2 . 0 A-4( 1 . )
3011 8. 0 9.1 2 8. 0 8. 5 100 100 33. 2 16.0 A- 2 - 4{ 0 . ) 3C(CL)
3011 9.1 10. 4 100 100 63.1 2 5. 0 A-4( 6 . )
3011 11. 0 14. 0 95.1 92 . 0 2 0. 5 10.5 A - 3 ( 0 . )
3011 2 0. 0 2 4. 5 78. 0 51. 3 100 100 100 57. 5 A- 7- 6( 2 0. ) CH
3013 0. 7 2 . 0 16. 0 0. 7 99. 4 99. 0 54. 7 7. 5 A-4( 4 . ) CL
3013 6.1 7. 3 43. 0 15.6 100 100 69.1 37.5 A- 7- 6( 10. ) ML
Table I I I - F- 1, cont i nued.
LIQUID PLASTICITY % PASS. % PASS. % PASS. % PASS. CLASSIFICATION
BORING NO. DEPTH. FT LIMIT INDEX NO 4 2 MILLIM NO 200 2 MICRON AASHO UNIFIED
BOOT 16,7 19.2 100 100 100 46. 0 A-4{ 8 . )
BOOT 35. 0 36. 0 32 . 0 7. 9 100 100 87. 2 10. 0 A-4( 8 . ) ML
BOOT 40. 5 42 . 0 54. 0 32 .5 100 100 92 . 0 41. 0 A- 7 - 6( 19 . ) CH
BOOT 42 . 6 43. 6 32 . 0 9. 2 100 100 86. 2 16. 0 A-4( 8 . ) CL
BOOT 50. 0 54. 0 2 5. 0 2 . 0 100 100 46. 2 5.1 A-4( 2 . ) SM(ML)
BOOT 2 0. 6 72 .2 2 3. 0 4. 2 100 100 2 7. 3 2 . 5 A- 2 - 4( 0 . ) SC(CL)
B003 2 . 0 3. 0 76. 5 69. 0 17. 0 12 . 0 A- l - B( 0 . )
B003 2 0. 0 2 1. 0 2 2 . 0 5. 4 100 100 51. 3 12 . 5 A-4( 3 . ) CL
to
B003 50. 0 50.5 31. 5 10.7 100 100 60. 9 30. 0 A-6( 5 . ) CL
B003 57. 0 59. 0 36. 3 10. 5 100 100 67. 4 15. 0 A-6( 7 . ) ML
MOOT 7. 0 8. 4 30. 0 14. 4 98. 4 98. 0 62 . 7 14. 0 A-6( 7 . ) CL
MOOT 2 2 , 5 2 4. 5 100 100 92 . 7 43. 0 A-4( 8 . )
MOOl 2 4. 5 2 6. 5 100 100 92 . 7 33. 0 A-4( 8 . )
M002 2 9. 8 33. 0 40. 5 26.1 100 100 72 . 8 31. 0 A- 7- 6( 14. ) CL
M002 37. 0 39. 0 36. 5 17. 0 100 100 96. 6 2 0. 0 A - 6 ( l l . ) CL
M002 124.0 12 8. 0 80. 0 52 . 7 100 100 98. 0 42 . 5 A- 7- 6( 2 0. ) CH
M006 32 . 9 34. 0 40. 0 8. 8 100 100 80. 7 32 . 5 A-4( 8 . ) ML
M007 33. 5 36. 0 46. 0 17. 8 100 100 97. 0 39. 0 A- 7- 6( 12 . ) ML
M007 88. 0 90. 0 100 100 10.6 1. 0 A-3( 0 . )
M007 2 0. 0 30. 0 77. 0 51. 7 100 100 100 60. 0 A- 7- 6( 2 0. ) CH
M007 160.0 161.5 100 100 2 1. 0 4. 0 A-3( 0 . )
M007 48. 0 49. 0 100 100 34. 0 2 2 . 0 A-3{ 0 . )
Tabl e I I I - F - 1 , cont i nued.
BORING NO. DEPTH. FT
LIQUID
LIMIT
PLASTICITY
INDEX
%PASS.
NO 4
% PASS.
2 MILLIM
% PASS.
NO 200
% PASS.
2 MICRON
CLASSIFICATION
AASHO UNIF
S013 38. 0 40. 32 . 5 10. 5
100 100 66. 3 13. 0 A-6( 6 . ) CL
SOI 3 35. 0 36. 4 2 7. 0 6. 4 98. 4 98. 0 73.7 14. 0 A-4( 8 . ) CL
S14A 2 . 4 4. 0 99.1 98. 0 56. 5 2 6. 0 A-4( 4 . )
S14A 6. 5 8. 5 2 9. 5 7. 3 99. 6 98. 0 52 . 3 2 1. 0 A-4( 3 . ) CL
3016 4. 3 5. 6 36. 0 13.3 96. 6 95. 0 56. 3 2 7. 0 A-6( 6 . ) CL
3016 14. 4 15.7 18. 0 1. 2 100 100 62 . 8 12 . 5 A- 4( 6 . ) CL
3016 18. 8 19. 6 2 1. 0 2 . 6 100 100 56. 4 12 .0 A-4( 4 . ) CL
3016 2 6. 5 30. 7 65. 0 45. 2 100 100 98.1 36. 0 A- 7- 6( 2 0. ) CH
3016 30. 5 32 . 5 54. 0 2 9. 2 100 100 93. 5 2 5. 0 A- 7- 6( 18. ) CH
3016 17.5 18. 0 98.2 98. 0 64. 9 7. 5 A-4( 6 . )
7 5
5. Concl usions and Recommendations
1) A pr el i mi nar y eval uat i on of t he t i l t me t e r s i t e s a t Vacherie
dome was made. Ti l t met er s i t e no. 4 was found t o be i nadequat e from
t he vi ewpoint of l oose subsoi l condi t i ons and p ot e nt i a l ground-wat er
hazard. Plans e x i s t t o move t h i s s i t e t o a new l oc a t i on. Fur t her st udy
of t i l t me t e r s i t e No. 2 i s al s o recommended due t o an unst abl e s oi l
st r at um t h a t was encount ered a t dept h i n t he v i c i n i t y of t he t i l t me t e r .
2) I t i s f u r t h e r recommended t o make a s i mi l a r shal l ow sounding
st udy a t Rayburn' s dome, wit h di s t ur bed and undi st ur bed sampl ing i ncor ­
porat ed i nt o t he bori ng oper at i ons of t he ot her s t udi e s ( i . e . Quat er nar y) .
3) Consi deri ng t he i mportance of t he t i l t me t e r s i n moni t ori ng pos s i bl e
domal di spl acement s, i t i s recommended t o i nst r ument one t i l t me t e r s i t e
each at Vacherie and Rayburn' s domes wi t h load c e l l s and pi ezomet ers f or
long term measurement of v e r t i c a l and hor i zont al e a r t h r e s i s t a n c e and
ground-wat er f l u c t u a t i o n s , r e s pe c t i ve l y. This wi l l pr ovi de v i t a l informa-
t i on f or t he event ual numerical model l i ng of t i 1t met er behavi or .
4) I t i s proposed t o s t r e s s f u r t h e r t he i n s i t u t e s t i n g t echni ques
f or t he s pe c i f i c requi rement s of t he s o i l s in t he ar ea by d i r e c t measure­
ment of t he s t r e s s - s t r a i n modulus and c ompr e s s i bi l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .
Fi gur e I I I - F- 10 shows an expansi on/ l oad c e l l pr essur emet er developed a t
Cambridge, England (Wroth, 1976). This i nst r ument was developed i n response
t o problems wit h c ur r ent s o i l s l abor at or y t e s t s , which of t en f a i l t o
accur at el y pr e di c t t he in s i t u behavi or of s o i l s .
As shown in t he f i g u r e , t he r e ar e e s s e n t i a l l y two basi c i nst r ument s,
each performi ng a d i f f e r e n t t e s t .
1) The s e l f bori ng expansion pr essur emet er l oads t he s oi l r a d i a l l y
by i n f l a t i n g a membrane agai ns t i t using gas pr e s s ur e. I t provi des a pl ot
76
FLUSHING WATER
EXPANSION SENSING SYSTEM
(Membrane in expanded position)
SLURRIED WATER
AND SOIL
CABLE AND GAS
PRESSURE TUBE
STRAIN GAUGES
ATTACHED TO
BENDING WEB
CELL CAP
AND SEALING
RING
rr
BENDING WEB LOAD CELL
(one of two)
PORE V
PRESSURE
CELL
CUTTER
SHOE
MEMBRANE
STRAIN GAUGES
SPRING
PIVOT
FOLLOWER IN
LIGHT CONTACT
WITH MEMBRANE
RADIAL STRAIN
CUTTER DRIVE ROD
SOIL AND WATER
BOTTOM BEARING
TAPERED PASSAGE
LOW DISTURBANCE INSERTION SYSTEM
l S a ^ ce' T l i p r e s s u r e m e t e r
FIG. m - F - I O EXPANSION/LOAD CELL PRESSUREMETER
77
of r adi a l s t r a i n agai ns t appl i ed pr essur e from which t he shear s t r e s s /
shear s t r a i n diagram f o r t he s oi l i s det er mi ned, t hus provi di ng t he s t r e s s -
s t r a i n modulus and Poi s s on' s r a t i o .
2) The s e l f bor i ng load c e l l pr essur emet er senses t he hor i zont al
component of t he in s i t u ground s t r e s s by bal anci ng t he ext er nal load
on t he i nst r ument from t he s oi l agai ns t an i n t e r na l gas pr es sur e so as
t o nul l t he out put of a load c e l l f i t t e d f l us h wi t h t he ext er nal curved
sur f ace of t he i nst r ument .
Both i nst r ument s al so provi de a measurement of t he pore wat er pr es sur e
usi ng small volume pr essur e sensors which, in t he expansion pr essur emet er ,
ar e ar ranged t o move outward as t he membrane expands. Both i nst r ument s
ar e l ar ge in s i ze and t e s t a s ubs t a nt i a l volume of s o i l . In p a r t i c u l a r
t he expansion pr essur emet er uses an expanding por t i on near l y h a l f a met er
long.
Both i nst r ument s use t he s e l f t unne l l i ng t echni que wi t h d r i l l i n g
f l u i d c i r c u l a t i o n developed a t Cambridge and shown t o cause a minimum of
di s t ur bance. There i s evi dence showing t h a t i t causes, wi t h car e, l e s s
t han 0. 5 per cent r a di a l s t r a i n . Both i nst r ument s can be used i n s o f t
cl ays , in s t i f f c l ays , and in sands. Ei t her i nst r ument can be used wi t h
s ui t a bl e a n c i l l a r y appar at us as a r i g so t h a t t e s t s can be made compl et el y
i ndependent l y of a d r i l l i n g r i g .
Personal communication wit h t he manufact ur er s of t h i s i nst r ument
(Dal t on, 1977) convinced t he wr i t e r t h a t such an a cqui s i t i on shoul d r epl ace
bori ngs and soundings in t he f u t u r e , and would pr ovi de gr e a t e r e f f i c i e nc y
and freedom in t he r e t r i e v a l of t he in s i t u i nf or mat i on.
7 9
I I I - G. GROUND WATER FLOW AND SALINITY NEAR A SALT DOME
R. C. Farmer
Consider t he case where ground wat er flows t hrough t he porous media
which surround t he s i des of a s a l t dome. The s a l t dome and t he aqui f e r
may both be assumed t o r e s t on an i mpervi ous, hor i zont al pl ane. The r oof
of t he aqui f er (and t he caprock over t he dome) may or may not be imper-
vi ous - - t hus making t he flow i n t he a qui f e r confi ned or unconfi ned, or a
mi xt ure of t he two.
Assume, f or t he case under c ons i de r a t i on, t h a t t he s a l t i n t he dome
i s l eached by t he wat er but not by a si mpl e s ol ut i on mechanism. An anhy-
d r i t e c r u s t forms which pr ot e c t s t he dome from bei ng di s s ol ved. The r a t e
of s a l t t r a n s f e r i s c ont r ol l e d by a s ol ut i on r a t e of t he wat er and s a l t a t
t he a n h y d r i t e / s a l t i n t e r f a c e ; a mol ecul ar , count e r - di f f us i on of t he f r es h
wat er i n s a l t wat er out t hrough t he anhydr i t e; and by t he anhydr i t e com­
pact i on process.- The r at e- det er mi ni ng s t eps of t hese pr ocesses have not
y e t been e s t a bl i s he d.
The des cr i pt i on of t he source of s a l t i n ground wa t e r s , as s t a t e d above,
per t a i ns t o s a l t domes as t hey e x i s t t oday. More complex e x i s t i n g de s c r i p­
t i ons r e l a t e d t o caprock format i on ar e i ndi c a t i ve of why s a l t di f f us e s from
t he dome a t a c e r t a i n r a t e , but do not i ncl ude a pr e di c t i on of what t h a t
r a t e of di f f us i on i s (Walker, 1972). For t he pr es ent st udy, est i mat es of
e i t h e r ground-water s a l i n i t i e s or s a l i n i t y gr adi ent s a t t he dome s ur f ace
wi l l be used t o pr e di c t s a l i n e piumes di s pe r s i on. To make t he problems
of flow t hrough porous media t r a c t a b l e , t he medium i s assumed t o be a
maze of i nt er connect i ng pores such t h a t a continuum of fl ow i s pos s i bl e.
The r e s i s t a nc e t o flow in such a model t akes t he form of very high
80
appar ent v i s c o s i t i e s which ar e f unct i ons of t he por os i t y and permea-
b i l i t y of t he medium. Usual l y, such flows resemble cr eepi ng motion.
Where a s a l i n e plume develops downstream from a dome, ambient f r es h
wat er wi l l flow over t he plume because of buoyancy. Mixing of t he
st reams i s a r e l a t i v e l y slow pr oce s s . The high appar ent v i s c o s i t i e s which
c or r e c t l y consume momentum wi l l not be a va i l a bl e t o t r a n s f e r mass.
An appr opr i at e syst em of conser vat i on equat i ons t o descr i be t hese
flows i s shown in Tabl e I I I - G- 1. Numerical s ol ut i ons t o t hese equat i ons
by P i t t s have been r epor t ed (1976). The equat i ons shown i n Table III-G-1
d i f f e r from t he r ef er enced s ol ut i ons onl y i n t he r e pr e s e nt a t i on of t he
vi scous term. Flow r e s i s t a n c e s i n vi scous flows ar e pr opor t i onal t o
ve l oci t y gr a di e nt s , whereas t hose i n porous flows ar e pr opor t i onal t o
ve l oc i t y (Baer, 1972). This modi f i cat i on r e s u l t s i n a si mpl er c a l c ul a ­
t i o n . Appropri at e t r a n s p o r t c o e f f i c i e n t s must be s pe c i f i e d. These pr o­
p e r t i e s may be used i n t he c a l c ul a t i ons as f unct i ons of p o s i t i on, but
onl y approxi mat e, cons t ant val ues ar e known. The s a l t dome may be i n i t i a l l y
i de a l i z e d, geomet r i cal l y, as a l ar ge bump on t he bottom s ur f ace of a
porous medium. Such a d i s t o r t i o n of t he bottom s ur f ace r equi r es car e in
t r e a t i n g l ocal boundary condi t i ons . P i t t s ' s ol ut i ons (1976) cor respond to
flow in an unconfi ned a q ui f e r . The confi ned a qui f e r case shoul d be
si mpl er and t he s ol ut i on more s t a b l e . I f pr es sur e o s c i l l a t i o n s occur in
t he confi ned a qui f e r c as e , t he approximat e s ol ut i on r epor t ed by Wu (1976)
may be used, al t hough t he need t o use Wu' s approxi mat e s ol ut i on i n not
expect ed. The f r e e - s u r f a c e flows r epor t ed by P i t t s (1976) ar e f or condi ­
t i ons of l a r g e r convect i ve t r a n s p o r t t han vi scous t r a n s p o r t .
Other s ol ut i on schemes ar e pos s i bl e , but none has been r epor t ed
which i s as appr opr i at e as t hose r ef er enced. I f t he convect i ve terms
81
ar e negl ect ed, t he flow around t he dome may be approximated as a two-
dimensional pot ent i a l flow. From t h i s s o l u t i o n , t he s peci es conserva­
t i on equat i ons may be sol ved t o det er mi ne s a l i n i t y p r o f i l e s . Unless t he
s ol ut i on proves much more d i f f i c u l t t han expect ed, t he t wo-dimensional
s ol ut i on wi l l probabl y not be needed. Act ual l y, t he t wo-dimensional
s ol ut i on could be used as an i n i t i a l guess t o s t a r t t he t hr ee- di mensi onal
program, but t h i s t oo might not be wort hwhi l e.
Geometric s p e c i f i c a t i ons t ypi cal of a s a l t dome "submerged" i n a
porous medium have been made i n a program which has pr evi ousl y been used
t o descr i be Mobile Bay ( P i t t s , 1976). From well dat a i n nor t h Loui si ana,
head gr adi ent s ar e of t he or der of 1 t o 3 ( f t / mi ) . Typi cal c o e f f i c i e n t s
of per meabi l i t y f or Wilcox sands ar e 100 gal l ons per day per squar e f oot
( s p d / f t ^ ) ; t h e r e f o r e , average ground wat er v e l o c i t i e s ar e about 5 x 10"3
( f t / d a ) (Mart i nez, e t a l . , 1975). Po r os i t i e s f or Wi1cox sand have been
cal cul a t e d from soni c log and dens i t y log dat a f o r a well a t Vacheri e
dome. This por os i t y i s about 46 per cent . The domes ar e approxi mat el y
one mi l e i n di amet er . Wilcox sand l ayer s ar e of t he or der 500 t o 1000 f t
t hi c k. These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i ndi c a t e t h a t t he fl ow i s creepi ng and t h a t
t echni ques t o a cc e l e r a t e convergence of i t e r a t i o n schemes ar e necessar y.
I n i t i a l c a l c ul a t i on r e s u l t s ar e expect ed in Oct ober 1977. Anal yt i cal
est i mat es of t he f l owf i el d wi l l be devel oped and used as i n i t i a l guesses
f or t he i t e r a t i o n schemes. S t a b i l i t y anal yses wi l l be made t o det ermi ne
c a l c ul a t i on t imes f or t he f l owf i el ds of i n t e r e s t .
8 2
Tabl e I I I - 6 - 1 . Conservat i on laws f or ground wat er fl ows*
Densit y dependence on s a l i n i t y :
P = 1 - ( | | - ) t S
Conservat i on of mass when dens i t y i s i ndependent of pr essur e:
3U ^ 8V . 9W . „ Tf
ax 9y az ® v • V
Conservat i on of momentum f o r near l y pa r a l l e l f 1ows;
II - = - V • (u V) - i l f . + y n u/2000 k
3t p ax
= - v - ( v V ) - J - f f + v n v/2000 k
Conservat i on of s a l i n i t y :
a S _ / . a / r \ a S \ , a / « a S \ , a / _ a S \
— - - V • ( S ¥ ) ( D x g ^ ) g y ( D y g y ) g^. ( g ^ )
where:
x, y, z = Car t esi an coor di nat es
P
= pr essur e
S
= s a l i n i t y
V
= ve l oci t y
g
= gr avi t y
8 3
Table I I I - G- 1, cont i nued.
= eddy di f f us i on in di r e c t i on i
u = t he ve l oci t y component of Yi n t he x d i r e c t i o n
V = t he vel oci t y component of V" in t he y d i r e c t i on
w = t he vel oc i t y component of Vin t he z di r e c t i on
I = t emperat ure
y = vi s c os i t y
n = por os i t y
k = per meabi l i t y
*A11 var i abl es i n t h i s t a bl e have been non-di mensi onal i zed by usi ng
r ef er ence val ues of wat er dens i t y, maximum a q ui f e r dept h and v e l oc i t y,
and t he magnitude of t he maximum change in s a l i n i t y . Darcy' s law has
been used f or t he vi scous t erms.
85
III-H. MICROSEISMIC MONITORING
T. A. Manning
In consul t at i on with R. Hardy of t he Rock Mechanics Laborat ory at
Pennsylvania St at e Uni versi t y, a mi croseismi c moni tori ng system has been
designed and i s cur r ent l y being assembled. The system consi st s of seven
channels of ampl i fi cat i on and f i l t e r i n g f or moni tori ng t he out put of seven
t ransducers. Recording capabi l i t y consi st s of a four channel cas s et t e r e ­
corder and a twelve channel osci l l ogr aph. To ai d in t he i nt er pr et at i on of
t he dat a, an el ect r oni c event count er i s on order and wi l l be added t o t he
monitoring system.
I n i t i a l appl i cat i on of t he moni tori ng system wi l l be on a south
Louisiana dome which cont ai ns an act i ve s a l t mine. Access t o exi st i ng bore­
holes over Jeff erson Isl and s a l t dome has been obt ained from Diamond Crystal
Sal t Company, and logs of t he boreholes have been acqui red from t he d r i l l e r
of t he hol es. Depth measurements i ndi cat e t ha t four of t he holes are open
t o the surface of t he dome and wi l l be s ui t abl e f or i n s t a l l a t i o n of micro­
seismic monitoring t ransducer s. Mining a c t i v i t y as well as domal subsi dence
should provide s uf f i c i e nt "noise" t o check out and tune t he monitoring
system. When t he system i s checked out i t wi l l be t r ansf er r ed t o one
of t he north Louisiana study domes.
87
I I I - I . NATURAL TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION AROUND SALT DOMES
R. L. Thoms and S. L. Oden
I t i s well known t h a t rock s a l t i s a good thermal conduct or r e l a t i v e
t o ot her geol ogi c mat er i al s t y p i c a l l y adj oi ni ng Gul f Coast s a l t domes.
Because of t he mat er i al conduct i vi t y c o n t r a s t , an anomaly i n t he sub­
r egi onal t emperat ure f i e l d wi l l be pr es ent near a s a l t dome. That i s , a
s a l t dome wi l l a c t as a r e l a t i v e l y s uper i or heat conduct or so as t o s us ­
t a i n a lower thermal gr adi ent i n t he v e r t i c a l d i r e c t i on wi t hi n t he s a l t as
compared t o t he adj oi ni ng geol ogi c f or mat i ons. Thus, i t fol l ows t h a t
t emperat ures should be hi gher over a r e l a t i v e l y shal l ow dome t han in
ma t e r i al s found some di s t ance away from t he dome, a t t he same dept h.
Sel i g and Wall i ck (1966) numer i cal l y v e r i f i e d t he above gener al l y
accept ed concepts wi t h f i n i t e di f f e r e nc e model l i ng of t emperat ure f i e l d s
as s oci at ed wi t h s a l t domes. They al s o i nve s t i ga t e d e f f e c t s on t he tem­
per at ur e f i e l d s due t o connect i vi t y ( or di s c onne c t i vi t y) of t he s a l t plug
t o i t s source (mother) s a l t bed. Di f f er ences in t emperat ure f i e l d s were
det ect ed depending upon whet her a dome was connect ed or di sconnect ed t o
i t s source s a l t bed.
Connect i vi t y of s a l t domes has d i r e c t s i gni f i c a nc e f or t he t e c t oni c
s t a b i l i t y phase of t he LSU st udy. For exampl e, Gera (1972) has pos t ul at ed
t h a t s a l t domes cease t o move v e r t i c a l l y i f t hey become separ at ed from t he
source s a l t bed. However, t h i s pos t ul a t e can be quest i oned on t he basi s
t h a t a separ at ed plug wi l l cont i nue t o r i s e i f a s u f f i c i e n t bouyant f or ce
e x i s t s t o dr i ve i t upward through over l yi ng sedi ment s, de s pi t e a l ack of
"cont i nui ng feed" from a source s a l t bed. In any event , i nfor mat i on on
t he conf i gur at i on of a s i t e - s p e c i f i c dome can be gai ned by a numer i cal , and
reasonabl y r e a l i s t i c , study of i t s a s s oci at ed t emper at ur e f i e l d s .
88
Fi ni t e el ement modell ing of t he nat ur al t emperat ure f i e l d around
s i t e - s p e c i f i c s a l t domes i s well underway a t LSU. This st udy f a l l s wi t hi n
t he scope of det er mi nat i on of s a l t dome conf i gur a t i on. Dwyer and Thoms
(1975) f i r s t employed t he f i n i t e el ement method t o determi ne t he st eady
s t a t e t emper at ur e d i s t r i b u t i o n wi t hi n and around an i de al i zed s a l t dome
wi t h s t or ed hot wast es; and t hus , e xpe r t i s e i n t h i s st udy ar ea exi s t ed
a t LSU previ ous t o t he cur r e nt st udy.
I t i s r e l a t i v e l y well known t h a t l i t t l e d i s t i n c t i o n e x i s t s i n pr i n ­
c i p l e between f i n i t e di f f er ence methods as employed by Sel i g and Wal l i ck,
and f i n i t e el ement method (FEM) programs (codes) f or t emperat ure s t u d i e s ,
p a r t i c u l a r l y i f t he l a t t e r uses a "lumped" heat capaci t y r e pr e s e nt a t i on .
However, most FEM codes t y p i c a l l y ar e more user or i ent ed i n t he sense
t h a t nonr ect i 1i near boundari es of bodi es and d i f f e r e n t ma t e r i a l s can be
r e a di l y r epr es ent ed. This makes FEM t emper at ur e codes p a r t i c u l a r l y use­
ful f or model l i ng f i e l d problems i n geomechanical syst ems.
For t h i s problem a t hand, a s i g n i f i c a n t amount of downhole "shut i n"
t emperat ure dat a has been c ol l e c t e d around a sout h Loui si ana s a l t dome
(Weeks I s l a n d ) . The dat a were made a va i l a bl e through t he gener osi t y of
t he Shel l Oil Company. Thi s dat a wi l l be used t o ve r i f y a f i n i t e el ement
model of t he nat ur al t emperat ure f i e l d of Weeks I sl and s a l t dome and i t s
surroundi ng geol ogi c ma t e r i a l s .
When v e r i f i e d , t he numerical model l i ng exper i ence wi l l be appl i ed
immedi at el y t o one of t he nort h Loui si ana st udy domes. A nor t h Loui si ana
s a l t dome was not s e l e c t ed f or i n i t i a l t emper at ur e model 1ing because down­
hol e t emper at ur e dat a were not a va i l a b l e f o r v e r i f i c a t i o n of numeri cal
r e s u l t s .
8 9
I t i s a nt i c i pa t e d t h a t addi t i onal i nfor mat i on wi l l be gat her ed
from t he t emperat ure st udy f or a s i t e - s p e c i f i c st udy dome, p a r t i c u l a r l y
i n r e l a t i o n t o i t s connect i vi t y t o t he source s a l t bed. Thi s wi l l be a
val uabl e ai d i n i n t e r p r e t i n g geophysi cal dat a f or which mul t i pl e i n t e r ­
pr e t a t i ons sometimes ar e pos s i bl e r e l a t i v e t o t he conf i gur at i on of
s a l t domes a t dept h.
91
I I I - J . FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
R. L. Thoms
1. Fi ndi ngs
1) The over al l geomechanics program may be c l a s s i f i e d as in a l a t e
i nt er medi at e st age of development. At t he pr es ent t i me, bounds on v e r t i ­
cal dome movement may be est i mat ed. More pr ec i s e bounds on movement can
be e s t a bl i s he d a f t e r addi t i onal dat a i s obt ai ned. In p a r t i c u l a r , f i e l d
dat a from t i 1t me t e r s , l a s e r r angi ng, and pr e ci s e r e l e ve l i ng ( i n t he summer
of 1978), coupled wi t h numerical model l i ng, shoul d permi t r e a l i s t i c e s t i ­
mates of any cur r ent v e r t i c a l c r us t a l movements over Vacheri e and Rayburn' s
s a l t domes. The system developed f or es t i mat i ng v e r t i c a l dome movement
al so can be used i n t he f ut ur e as a moni t or i ng system i f one of t he st udy
domes i s s e l e c t ed f or a p i l o t s t or age f a c i l i t y .
2) The t i 1t met ers i n s t a l l e d over Vacheri e and Rayburn' s domes have
yi e l de d, and wi l l cont i nue t o y i e l d , usef ul i nfor mat i on on s ur f ace t i l t i n g
over t he f l anks of t he domes. However, t hese borehol e t i 1t met er s ar e
af f e ct ed by met eorol ogi cal event s ( r a i n f a l l , t emper at ur e v a r i a t i ons ) and
i nst r ument at i on d r i f t . The or i gi nal c h a r t r ecor di ng systems i n s t a l l e d
wi t h t he t i 1t met ers have proved usef ul f o r pr e l i mi nary dat a a c qui s i t i on i n
t he f i e l d . Now, a more f l e x i b l e dat a a c q u i s i t i o n syst em, wi t h gr e a t e r
range, i s bei ng developed which shoul d be val uabl e f or more ext ens i ve dat a
c o l l e c t i o n . The r e s u l t i n g system wi l l permi t t he c o l l e c t i on of cons i der ­
abl e amounts of dat a over long t i me per i ods of dome moni t or i ng.
3) I n s t a l l a t i o n of a network of monuments and i n i t i a l f i r s t or der
l evel i ng have been performed over both Vacheri e and Rayburn' s domes. I f
r el evel ed around t he summer of 1978, t he r e s u l t i n g v e r t i c a l movements dat a
9 2
shoul d be usef ul f or i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t i l t and dome movement. The I n i t i a l
dat a ar e c ur r e nt l y bei ng employed by a number of workers in a l l phases of
t he pr oj e c t .
4) Pl anni ng i s well along f o r a l a s e r rangi ng survey over Vacheri e
s a l t dome. The as s oci at ed pr e ci s e hor i zont al di s t ance dat a, when a v a i l ­
abl e, wi l l be used i n conj unct i on wi t h t i l t and pr e ci s e r e l e ve l i ng ( ve r t i c a l
di spl acement s) dat a t o anal yze pos s i bl e dome movement.
5) Pl anni ng i s completed and t he major components have been ordered
f or t he i n s t a l l a t i o n of a r ecor di ng seismograph over t he Vacheri e dome.
This i n s t a l l a t i o n should be completed around February, 1978.
6) A por t abl e engi neeri ng sei smograph, o r i g i n a l l y proposed by t he
geomechanics group, has been ext ens i ve l y employed i n i t i a l l y by t he Qua­
t er nar y geology group over both Vacheri e and Rayburn' s domes. I t appears
t o be pos s i bl e t o map t he out l i n e of t he very shal l ow Rayburn' s dome, as
o r i g i n a l l y proposed, and a l s o t o anal yze shal l ow geol ogi cal for mat i ons as
descr i bed i n t he s ect i on on Quat ernary geol ogy.
7) Numerical model l i ng of t he Vacheri e s a l t dome has devel oped t o
t he s t age where more r e a l i s t i c 3-D and pl ane s t r a i n models have been em­
pl oyed. Det ai l ed i nfor mat i on on mat er i al pr ope r t i e s and conf i gur at i ons of
t he geol ogi c uni t s over and around t he dome i s bei ng c o l l e c t e d . A second
gener at i on 3-D model of t he Vacherie dome i s well al ong toward compl et i on,
and t h i s model wi l l t ake advant age of t he l a t e s t a va i l a bl e s i t e - s p e c i f i c
i nf or mat i on.
A numeri cal model of t he nat ur al t emperat ure f i e l d around a s a l t dome
al s o i s near i ng compl et i on. Thi s model wi l l be used t o gai n i nfor mat i on
on t he c onnec t i vi t y of a dome t o i t s "mother" s a l t bed.
8) The i n s i t u pr oper t i es of s o i l s around t he t i 1t met er s i t e s over
Vacheri e dome have been anal yzed by cone penet r omet er t e s t s . In a ddi t i on,
93
convent i onal l a bor at or y t e s t s have been performed t o a s s i s t i n t he de­
t er mi nat i on of t he mechanical pr ope r t i e s of t he s o i l s . These s i t e -
s p e c i f i c pr ope r t i es wi l l be used i n t he numerical model l i ng pr evi ousl y
descr i bed so as t o ai d i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of f i e l d dat a.
9) Pl anning has been compl et ed, i n ge ne r a l , t o anal yze i n s i t u
domal rock s a l t pr oper t i e s by a bor ehol e cl osur e st udy i n one, or bot h,
of t he st udy domes.
10) A 3-D f i n i t e di f f er ence program i s bei ng adapt ed t o model s a l i ne
piumes around s a l t domes. The program shoul d be usef ul f or det ermi ni ng
r a t e s of s a l t di s s ol ut i on and a s s oc i at e d hydr ol ogi c s t a b i l i t y of s a l t domes.
11) A mi crosei smi c moni t or i ng system f or de t ect i ng acous t i c emi ssi ons
i s al most completed. Af t er i t has been checked out over an a c t i v e l y mined
sout h Loui si ana s a l t dome i t wi l l be t r a n s f e r r e d t o one of t he nort h
Loui si ana st udy domes. There i t wi l l be used t o moni t or pos s i bl e mi cro­
seisms due t o any dome growth or di s s o l u t i o n .
2. Recommendations
1) Si nce t he borehol e t i l t me t e r s have been observed t o be s ubj e c t t o
l ocal anomal ies ( possi bl y as s oc i at ed wi t h met eor ol ogi cal event s) and i n­
st r ument at i on d r i f t , i t i s recommended t h a t a t l e a s t one l i q u i d l evel
t i l t me t e r (Hugget t , e t a l . , 1976) be i n s t a l l e d over Vacheri e dome as a
"back-up" i nst r ument .
2) The dat a a cqui s i t i on system shoul d i ncl ude t el emet r y such t h a t
f i e l d da t a from t he r e l a t i v e l y d i s t a n t st udy domes can be recor ded and
anal yzed da i l y a t LSU.
3) Pr eci se r e l e vel i ng of t he networks over t he Vacheri e and Ray­
bur n' s s a l t domes shoul d be performed around t he summer of 1978.
9 4
4) Laser rangi ng surveys over Vacheri e and Rayburn’s domes shoul d be
performed In t he near f ut ur e,
5) The concept of a ve r t i c a l borehol e ext ensomet er over t he s a l t
domes shoul d be de-emphas1zed. In addi t i on t o consi der at i ons not ed pr e ­
vi ous l y In t h i s r epor t s r es ear cher s a t t he Of f i ce of Eart hquake St udi es
1n Menlo Park have r epor t ed t echni cal d i f f i c u l t i e s wi t h hi ghl y s e n s i t i v e
and deep v e r t i c a l ext ensomet ers t h a t employ t a u t cabl es between t he anchor
poi nt s 1n t he borehol e and t he sensi ng head (Mortensen, persona! communica­
t i ons August , 1977),
6) Numerical model l i ng of t he domes shoul d cont i nue and be updat ed
as addi t i onal s i t e - s p e c i f i c dat a I s obt ai ned.
7} In s1t u pr ope r t i e s of s o i l s over Rayburn' s dome should be d e t e r ­
mined by a program s i mi l a r t o t h a t employed over Vacheri e,
8) The borehol e cl osur e st udy t o anal yze 1n s1t u domal rock s a l t
pr ope r t i e s shoul d cont i nue as planned when an appr opr i at e borehol e (or
cor ehol e) becomes a va i l a bl e .
In concl us i on, t he ongoing work shoul d cont i nue as recommended.
Es s e n t i a l l y no new maj or f i e l d e f f o r t s have been i nt r oduced s i nce t he
annual r e por t of 1976. However, some former pl anni ng e f f o r t s now ar e
reconmended f or Impl ement at i on, and one e f f o r t (bor ehol e ext ensomet er)
has been recommended f or de-emphasi s.
95
IV. GEOHYDROLOGY
A. General
B. Geohydr ol ogi c St udi e s of Vacher i e Dome
C. Geohydr ol ogi c St udi e s of Raybur n' s Dome
D. Geohydr ol ogi c St udi e s of Mi s s i s s i p p i S a l t Domes
E. Caprock St udi es
F. Hydrol ogi c I s o l a t i o n o f Mined Openi ngs i n S a l t Domes
G. Fi ndi ngs and Recommendations
9 7
IV-A. GENERAL
C. G. Smi t h, J r .
During f i s c a l year 1977, geohydr ol ogi c s t udi es have evol ved from t he
as s i mi l at i on and eval uat i on of e x i s t i n g dat a f or t he vari ous Gulf Coast
s a l t basi ns t o i ncl ude d r i 1l i ng e xpl or at i on- obs er vat i on wel l s t o develop
new geohydrol ogi c dat a a t two s i t e s in t he nort h Loui si ana Sa l t Dome Basin:
Vacherie and Rayburn' s domes.
Dri 1l i ng of obser vat i on wel Is a t Rayburn' s dome i s proceedi ng whi le
t h i s r epor t i s being wr i t t en (September 1977). Only one wel 1 has been
completed t o dat e. A pr ogr ess r e por t of t he d r i 1l i ng a ct i vi t y a t Rayburn' s
dome i s i ncl uded. Anal ysi s of t he completed wel l s wi l l be t he s ubj ec t of
a f ut ur e r e por t .
Dri 1l i ng of t e s t wel l s on Vacherie dome has proven t o be very val uabl e
f or r eveal i ng t he geol ogi c s t r u c t u r e over t he dome. The i n i t i a l and
t e n t a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t he sequence encount ered i n t he wat er wel l s
i ndi c at es t ha t t he arrangement of sedi ment s above t he s a l t i s , a t l e a s t
i n p a r t , a consequence of s a l t d i s s o l u t i o n . Geohydrologic dat a from t hese
wel l s have been 1i mi t ed t o wat er samples and a few wat er l evel measurement s.
However, t hese pr el i mi nar y dat a are begi nni ng t o ai d in t he expl anat i on of
t he ground-wat er condi t i ons at Vacherie dome. The r e s u l t s of t he d r i 1l i ng
r epor t ed here are t e n t a t i v e , as pr es ent wel l s and f ut ur e wel l s wi l l y i e l d
new and more s i g n i f i c a n t i nfor mat i on as t he number of wel Is and t he per i od
of obser vat i on and dat a col l e c t i on i ncr eas e.
The st udy of ground-water s a l i n i t y pa t t e r ns near s a l t domes of t he
Mi ssi ssi ppi Sa l t Basin l i s t e d as "unr ej ect ed" by Anderson, e t a l . , (1973)
was concl uded. The r e s ul t s of t h i s st udy are r epor t ed l a t e r i n t h i s s ect i on.
A thermal i nf r a r e d survey of t hr ee domes i n nort h Loui si ana and t hr e e domes
98
i n e a s t Texas was planned and a cont r act f or t he work awarded in February
1977. However, a con±)ination of r a i n s , wet s ur f ace condi t i ons and r api dl y
i ncr eas i ng Spri ng f ol i age in t he t a r g e t areas for ced t he s ubcont r act or t o
recommend t he survey be postponed u n t i 1 t he coming Wi nt er, when s o i 1
condi t i ons are dr y, f ol i age i s minimal and s oi l moi st ur e di f f er ences are
more r e a di l y det ect ed.
Pet r ogr aphi c s t udi es of caprock have been advanced t h i s year wi t h
core samples from t he s al t / c a pr oc k cont act of Moss Bl uf f and Gibsl and
domes. These samples are descr i bed t oge t he r wi t h a sample of t he cont act
between s a l t and i ncl uded sedi ment i n t he Weeks I sl and mine.
Fi n a l l y , t he st udy of hydro1ogi c i s o l a t i o n of mined openings i n s a l t
domes i n Loui si ana and Texas pr ogr essed duri ng t he year wi t h v i s i t s by
I n s t i t u t e i nve s t i ga t or s t o t he Weeks I sl and and Cote Blanche mi nes. The
c ont r as t i ng hydr ol ogi c condi t i ons of t he mines and pos s i bl e r e l a t i ons hi ps
between mine dryness ( or wet ness) and s a l t dome-mine conf i gur at i on i s
pr esent ed.
9 9
IV-B. GEOHYDRQLOGIC STUDIES OF VACHERIE DOME
C. G. Smi th, J r .
1• I nt r oduct i on
Vacherie dome has been a pr i nci pa l ar ea of focus f o r geohydrol ogi c
s t udi es s i nce i t s s e l e c t i on as a proposed st udy ar ea ( Mart i nez, e t a l . ,
1976). The only negat i ve f a c t o r i d e n t i f i e d f or t h i s dome i n t he 1976
anal ys i s of nor t h Loui si ana domes was i t s appar ent hydr ol ogi c i n s t a b i l i t y —
a desi gnat i on made a f t e r anal yses of e l e c t r i c l ogs showed t h a t anomalously
s a l i ne ground wat er e xi s t s i n t he Wilcox sands e a s t of t he dome. The dat a
pr esent ed i n Mart i nez, e t a l . , (1975), has been r e eval uat ed, and a r e ­
duced es t i mat e of t he di ssol ved s ol i ds cont ent of t he wat er i s i ndi cat ed.
The maximum di ssol ved s ol i ds cont ent of wat er i n t he anomaly i s appr oxi ­
mat el y 4000 ppm. Furt hermore, because t he Wilcox group appeared t o be
s epar at ed from t he s a l t of t he dome by Midway c l a y s , i t was concluded
t h a t t he anomalous s a l i n i t y may not be a r e s u l t of a c t i ve di s s ol ut i on
of s a l t .
A program of wat er wel l s was desi gned t o obt ai n ground wat er samples
t o t e s t t he s a l i n i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n e a s t of t he dome and t o t e s t aqui f er s
al ong t he nort h and sout h f l anks of t he dome. These wel l s would check
t he s a l i n i t y est i mat es made from e l e c t r i c l ogs and i ndi c a t e ground-wat er
flow di r e c t i ons i n t he Wi1cox sand. Thi s pl an was a l t e r e d because land
f or d r i l l s i t e s was not ava i l abl e e a s t of t he dome. Thus, a l t e r n a t e well
l ocat i ons were s el ect ed al ong t he eas t - we s t c e nt r al axi s of t he dome t o
i nve s t i ga t e hydrol ogi c condi t i ons near t he c a pr oc k/ s a l t i n t e r f a c e . Det er­
mi nat i on of ground-wat er flow and s a l i n i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n i s c r i t i c a l t o an
underst andi ng of s a l t dome hydrology.
100
Four wel l s were d r i l l e d dur i ng 1977 on Vacheri e dome. The anal ys i s
of dat a from t hese wel l s i s cont i nui ng. Continuous wat er l evel r ecor der s
have not y e t been i n s t a l l e d on t he wel 1s , pending a f i na l round of wat er
sampl ing by t he U.S. Geol ogical Survey (USGS). Anal yses of wat er chemi st r y
and wat er l evel r ecor ds wi l l cont i nue f or t he dur at i on of t he pr es ent i n ­
ve s t i ga t i on. Resul t s of t he dat a a va i l a bl e t o dat e f ol l ow, begi nni ng wit h
des cr i pt i ons of wel 1s , f o l 1owed by des c r i pt i ons of t he geology encount ered,
and concl udi ng wi t h a di s cus s i on of t he ground-wat er samples and wat er
l evel dat a obt ai ned.
2. Wells Completed
Four obser vat i on wel l s were d r i l l e d on Vacheri e dome duri ng March,
April and May, 1977. These wel l s have been c or r e l a t e d wi t h e l e c t r i c logs
of e xi s t i ng wel 1s . Det ai l ed cr oss s ect i ons i ncor por at i ng t hese e l e c t r i c
logs ar e shown i n Fi gur es IV-B-1 and IV-B-2. The e l e c t r i c l ogs used in
t hese cr oss s ect i ons ar e l i s t e d i n Tabl e IV-B-1. Fi gur e IV-B-3 pr esent s
t he same cr oss s ect i ons wi t hout v e r t i c a l exagger at i on. Fi na l l y, a l l a v a i l ­
abl e well l ogs were used i n Fi gur e IV-B-4 t o show t he c ur r e nt i n t e r p r e -
t a t i o n of t he el evat i on of t he base of t he Wi1cox group sands a t Vacheri e
dome.
Two of t he t e s t wel l s ( desi gnat ed V-4 and V-5) a r e l ocat ed on t he
nor t h and sout h f l anks of t he dome, r e s p e c t i v e l y , and were expect ed t o
penet r at e as deep as t he Midway f or mat i on. Two ot he r wel l s ( desi gnat ed
V-6 and V-7) ar e s i t u a t e d on t op of t he dome wi t h t he i n t e n t of pene­
t r a t i n g t he over l yi ng sedi ment , capr ock, and s a l t . Tabl e IV-B-2 l i s t s
t he geol ogi c i n t e r v a l s d r i l l e d and t he compl et i on i nfor mat i on on each of
t he we l l s . Well compl et i on des c r i pt i ons suppl i ed by t he d r i l l i n g cont r ac­
t o r s , geophysi cal l ogs of each we l l , and d r i l l e r s l ogs ar e pr esent ed i n
Appendix A.
(V-4)
2
(V-6)
4
(V-5)
5
ohms
m .
/SPARTA
WX.?
WILCOX
midway
™p u ^ ^ ~ c r e t a c e o u s
><
0.5
MILE
VACHERIE SALT DOME
CROSS SECTION A-A'
APPROX . VERTICAL EXAGGERATION 2.5
SEE FIGURE IV - B - 3 FOR LOCATION
FIGURE IV-B-1
(V-7)
8
RESISTIVITY
9
RESISTIVITY
(V-6)
4
S.P RESISTIVITY
10
RESISTIVITY
II
RESISTIVITY
SPARTA ( ? )
CANE / ///
CAP ROCK
i—
Ui
u.
V 7
z
o
%
UJ
—I
V 7
UJ
V ^
0.5
MILE
V<
VACHERIE SALT DOME
CROSS SECTION B - B '
APPROX. VERTICAL EXAGGERATION = 2.5
SEE FIGURE I V -B -3 FOR LOCATION
FIGURE IV- B- 2
1 0 3
Table IV-B-1. Li s t of e l e c t r i c well logs used in Vacherie s a l t dome
cross s ec t i ons .
CROSS SECTION A-A'
(Fi g. IV-B-1 and IV-B-3)
Well Tot al dept h Ground e l evat i on
No. Name ( f e e t ) ( f e e t )
1 Pan American Pe t r . Corp.
#1 B. F. Rowland 8962 205 ( e s t . )
2 Loui si ana St at e Uni ver si t y
Vacheri e Sa l t Dome - Well #4 754 280 ( e s t . )
3 Crow & Ford
#1 Jordan 946 240 ( e s t . )
4 Loui si ana St a t e Uni ver si t y
Vacherie Sa l t Dome - Well #6 594 230 ( e s t . )
5 Loui si ana St at e Uni ver si t y
Vacheri e Sa l t Dome - Well #5 815 250 ( e s t . )
6 Amerada Pe t r . Corp.
(Formerly by Barnwel1Drl g. Co. ) 2318 260 ( e s t . )
7 Tesoro Petrol eum Corp.
#1 Lawhon 7188 227 ( e s t . )
CROSS SECTION B-B'
( Fi g. IV-B-2 and IV-B-3)
8 Shul er Drl g. Company I n c . , e t al
#1 M. D. Moore 5184 275 ( e s t . )
9 Loui si ana St a t e Uni ver s i t y
Vacheri e Sa l t Dome - Well #7 848 222 ( e s t . )
4 Loui si ana St at e Uni ver si t y
Vacherie Sa l t Dome #6 594 230 ( e s t . )
10 Lion Oil Company
#1 Woodard 1822 200 ( e s t . )
11 Gar f i el d & Past er nak
#1 Woodard Walker 5415 175. 5 ( e s t . )
Table IV-B-2. Dr i l l i ng and compl et ion record of Vacherie s a l t dome obser vat i on we l l s .
1. Well Number
2. USGS
desi gnat i on
3. Depth d r i l l e d
( f e e t )
4. Locati on
5. Screened
i nt e r va l
( f e e t )
6 . St r a t i gr aphi c
sequence
encount ered ( f e e t )
V-4
Wb-373
754
NW%, Sec 15
II 7N, R8W
475-485
V-5
Bi-181
815
Cent er of Hh
of SW % of Sec 22
TUN, R8W
377-387
V-6
Bi-180
635
NW%Of NW%
Sec 22, TUN,
R8W
608-618
V-7
Wb-372
848
Cent er of N l i ne
of SW% of Sec 17
TUN, R8W
796-806
Quat ernary Alluvium
Spar t a Formation
Cane Ri ver Formation
Wilcox Group
Mi dway Group
Upper Cretaceous
Caprock
Sa l t
0-70
70-482
482-754
0-385
385-605
605-815
0-50
50-225
255-430
430-616
616-635*
0-30
30-385
385-570
570-797
797-848
*Lost Ci r cul at i on a t 616 f e e t
105
NORTH
A
I
Sea Level
-1000
-2000
-3 000
(V-4)
2
(V- 6)
4
(V- 5)
5
SOUTH
A '
.^'^VVUVs'V.
bf.TiV-''-a;a
1000
SCALE
WEST EAST
..... .
SPARTA
m
CANE RIVER
s
WILCOX
E23 MIDWAY

CRETACEOUS
m
CAP ROCK
- r ' l -
SALT
( V - 6 ) ( V - 7 )
B '
Sea Level
s e
1000
2000'
POSSIBLE TOP OF SAL T: '
SEE KUPFER IN MARTINE
ET AL , 1976 S
3 000'
4 000'
1000'
SCALE
5000'
LOCATION MAP
22 23 20
I
J
MILES
27 26 30 29 28
VACHERIE SALT DOME
GEOLOGIC CROSS SECTIONS
NO VERTICAL EXAGGERATION
n o t e : INTERPRETATION OF SPARTA.
CANE RIVER AND WILCOX ABOVE
DOME IS TENTATIVE. ALL FAULTING IS
INFERRED.
(FOR WELL NAMES SEE TABLE I V -B -I )
TI7N =R8W
FIG. I V - B - 3
t -
j!l^
ir-^wWr*
4 ■.“
-./•
^V^’SMVvl-.
J»?.e.>4s-^4iC-' •'
; - ^ i ' i . kJ - S ySi ' . ^ i S f f lg p B -i * -
is y
, * . a -iiu
7 • .7 J»sJ
b ( e n t r a l S<;}i
.
i
}\
% J
^sp'P
- 5 0 0 0
mv-7
f$/SS) ■ i;
P l e a s a n t Hi
VACHERIE SALT DOME,
BIENVILLE PARISH, LOUISIANA
STRUCTURAL CONTOUR MAP; BASE OF WILCOX GROUP
CONTOUR INTERVAL = 100 feet
-A . \ --"za
POSSIBLE FAULT COINCIDENT WITH SURFACE LINEATION *
• I f WILCOX GROUP ABSENT ABOVE CAP ROCK IN THIS WELL "
-Soo'T'^CONTOURS ON TOP OF CAP ROCK
«~I40 WELL CONTROL (ELEVATION BELOW SEA LEVEL)
^ LSU OBSERVATION WELLS
FIG. I V - B - 4
108
Wells V-4 and V-5 were d r i 11ed on t he t opogr aphi cal l y high ar eas
on t he nor t h and south f l anks of t he dome, r e s pe c t i ve l y. Well V-4 pene­
t r a t e d a r e l a t i v e l y normal s e c t i o n , I . e . , t he format i ons d r i l l e d were In
t h e i r normal sequence, but each was upl 1f t e d by t he dome. The Wilcox
group appear s t o be about 50 f t t hi nne r here t han In wel l s f u r t h e r from
t he dome. Good c o r r e l a t i o n e x i s t s between t he e l e c t r i c l ogs of t h i s well
and nearby wel 1s . Dr i l l i n g st opped In t he Midway c l ay. The wel l was
completed In a sand a t t he base of t he WI1cox a t a dept h of 475 t o 485
f t and t he well was pumped a t a r a t e of about 10 gal l ons per mi nut e.
Well V-5 d r i l l e d a sequence of sediment s s i mi l a r t o V-4 wi t h t he
f ol l owi ng d i f f e r e nc e s . F i r s t , t he Cane Ri ver format i on a t t he sur f ace
In V-4 was not pr es ent In V-5. Second, a f t e r d r i l l i n g 210 f t I nt o t he
Midway c l a y , Cret aceous sedi ment s ( cal car eous) were reached a t about 604
f t below t he s ur f a ce . From t he e l e c t r i c l og c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , t h i s appears
t o be t he Sar at oga, normal ly occur r i ng 300 f t below t he t op of t he Cre­
t aceous In surr oundi ng wel 1s . Mi cr of os s i l s have been prepared from d r i l l
c ut t i ngs c ol l e c t e d In t h i s I nt e r va l and a more d e f i n i t e age I s expect ed
t o be determi ned f or t h i s uni t . The occur rence of Cret aceous rocks a t
604 f t deep In t h i s well suggest s t h a t e i t h e r : (1) t he Midway cl ay Is
c ut by a f a u l t a t 604 f t and dropped down t o cont act Cret aceous rocks
acr oss t he f a u l t ; or (2) t he upper Cret aceous s t r a t a were eroded and a
t hi nned Midway group was deposi t ed on t he anci ent Cret aceous hi gh. No
f u r t h e r s pecul at i on has been made concerni ng t hese or ot her p o s s i b i l i t i e s
as more subsur f ace Informat i on I s needed t o advance e i t h e r argument.
Well V-5 was completed In t he basal sand of t he WI1cox group a t a
dept h of 377 t o 387 f t below t he s ur f ace. The well was pumped a t a r a t e
of approxi mat el y 20 gal l ons per mi nute and wat er samples were c ol l e c t e d .
109
Wells V-6 and V-7 were expect ed t o be more unique and I n t e r e s t i n g
t han t he f l ank wel l s because t hey were desi gned t o d r i 11 t o or through
caprock and i nve s t i gat e ground-wat er condi t i ons near t he t op of t he s a l t .
The geol ogi c sect i on penet r at ed by t hese two wel l s has not y e t been un­
equi vocal l y i d e n t i f i e d . Ul t i mat e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of t he age of t he s e di ­
ments above t he caprock wi l l come onl y a f t e r mi c r of os s i l s from t he d r i 11
cut t i ngs ar e i d e n t i f i e d . I f mi c r of os s i l s ar e not d e f i n i t i v e , t he i n t e r ­
pr e t a t i on of t he s t r a t i gr a phy wi l l r equi r e t he combinati on of r e s u l t s
from sei smi c dat a, e xi s t i ng and f ut ur e d r i l l i n g da t a , and core dat a from
shal l ow Quat ernary bor i ngs. In t he l i g h t of t h i s unc e r t a i nt y, t he f o l ­
lowing di scussi on pr esent s t he c ur r e nt i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t he geol ogi c
s ect i ons encount ered i n wel l s V-6 and V-7.
Well V-6 i s l ocat ed on t he e as t e r n end of t he c e nt r al axi s of t he
dome (Fi gur es IV-B-1, -2 and -3) al most midway between wel l s V-4 and
V-5 t o t he nort h and s out h, r e s pe c t i v e l y. Quat ernary sedi ment s were en­
count er ed from t he s ur f ace t o a depth of approxi mat el y 20 f t . Nearby
shal l ower bor i ngs, descr i bed i n Sect i on VI of t h i s r e p o r t , provi de a much
more pr eci s e depth of t he base of t he Quat er nar y. Between dept hs of 100
and 270 f t , sands, s i l t s and cl ays occur which ar e t e n t a t i v e l y i d e n t i f i e d
as Spar t a. The det er mi nat i on of Spar t a age f o r t hese sands i s based
mainly on t he f a c t t h a t t he cl ayey u n i t below t hese sands i s assi gned
Cane River age. Det ermi nat i on of Cane Ri ver age f or t he s ect i on between
270 and 430 f t below t he s ur f ace i s based on; (1) t he e l e c t r i c log
appearance of t h i s u n i t , and i t s s i mi l a r i t y t o Cane Ri ver i n l ogs l ocat ed
o f f t he dome; and ( 2) t he gl a uc oni t i c and cal car eous nat ur e of t he cl ay.
Below t he Cane Ri ver, 170 f t of sands and cl ays were d r i l l e d bef or e c i r ­
c ul at i on of d r i l l i n g f l u i d was l o s t i n an appar ent f r a c t u r e or c avi t y a t
no
613 f t below t he s ur f a c e . The i nt e r va l between t he Cane Ri ver and t h i s
c avi t y i s i n t e r pr e t e d as Wilcox sands. The sands show high r e s i s t i v i t y
i n t he e l e c t r i c l og, and d r i l l c ut t i ngs ar e descr i bed as cal car eous
(Appendix A). Pos s i bl y, t he Wilcox sands ar e cemented by CaC03 pr ec i p­
i t a t e d from wat er fl owi ng v e r t i c a l l y from t he under l yi ng capr ock. Based
on an exami nati on of e l e c t r i c l ogs , a s i mi l a r s i t u a t i o n appears t o occur i n
Wi1cox sands i n cont a c t wi t h t he caprock of Minden dome, 12 mi 1es nor t h of
Vacherie dome. Dr i 11i ng was ha l t e d below t he zone of l o s t c i r c u l a t i o n when
numerous at t empt s t o seal t he zone and r egai n c i r c u l a t i o n f a i l e d . Tot al
depth of t he well was 635 f t , t er mi nat i ng i n what , based on l i mi t e d c u t t i n g s ,
appeared t o be 1i mestone capr ock. No c ut t i ngs were r et ur ned from t he cap­
rock below t he l o s t c i r c u l a t i o n zone.
Well V-7 i s l ocat ed appr oxi mat el y 1. 4 mi 1es west - nor t hwest of V-6
on t he west ern end of Vacheri e dome. The f i r s t hundred f e e t of
d r i l l i n g encount ered Quat er nary sedi ments and some l i g n i t e l a ye r s . The
l i g n i t e s a r e c ur r e nt l y i n t e r p r e t e d as bei ng p a r t of t he Spar t a for mat i on
occur r i ng a t a lower e l e va t i on t han undi st ur bed Spar t a sands surr oundi ng
t he dome. The t h i c k , f i n e sands r et ur ned dur i ng d r i 11i ng and i ndi cat ed
on t he e l e c t r i c l og of t h i s wel l conform wi t h t he de s c r i pt i on of t he
Spar t a provi ded by Mar t i n, e t a l . , (1954). Below t hese sands a t a dept h
of approxi mat el y 380 f t below t he s ur f a c e , a zone of d i s t i n c t i v e low
r e s i s t i v i t y occur s. The d r i 11 c ut t i ngs from t h i s 170 f e e t t hi c k zone ar e
descr i bed as red and gray cl ays a t t he t op, becoming gr ee n, gl a uc oni t i c
and cal car eous t oward t he base. Both t he physi cal de s c r i pt i on of c ut ­
t i ngs and t he appearance of t h i s u ni t on t he e l e c t r i c l og suggest t h i s
for mat i on i s t he Cane Ri ver . The Cane Ri ver on well l ogs surroundi ng
Vacheri e dome i s d i s t i n c t i v e and al most cons t ant i n appearance f o r mi l es .
The Cane Ri ver i n wel l s V-6 and V-7 i s not p r e c i s e l y i de nt i c a l t o e xi s t i ng
m
well logs but t he resemblance i s st r ong and unl i ke any ot he r por t i on of
t he l ogs. Immediately below t he Cane Ri ver occurs 230 f t of dense* whi t e
t o grey anhydr i t e of t he caprock. No Wi1cox was d r i l l e d i n t h i s well
above t he caprock (Fi gure IV-B-4). Well V-7 d r i 11ed t hrough t he caprock
i nt o a zone of r api d d r i l l i n g f or approxi mat el y 3 t o 5 f t begi nni ng a t
797 f t and then i nt o 50 f t of s a l t . The well i s completed a t 796 t o 806
f t a t t he i n t e r f a c e between t he s a l t and t he caprock.
3. Geologic I nt e r pr e t a t i on of Dr i l l i n g Resul t s
The f our t e s t wel l s gi ve t he f i r s t new d e t a i l s of t he Te r t i a r y sec­
t i on a t Vacherie dome. The f l ank wel l s (V-4 and V-5) penet r at ed s ect i ons
t h a t were u p l i f t e d and t hi nned but ot her wi se normal wi t h t he except i on
of t he extreme t hi nni ng ( pos si bl y f a u l t i n g ) of t he Midway and t he shal l ow
occurr ence of t he Cret aceous ( Fi gure IV-B-3). The caprock wel l s (V-6
and V-7) ar e unique i n t h a t t hey appear t o cont ai n a r e l a t i v e l y undi s­
t ur bed but down-dropped s ect i on wi t h Spar t a sands near t he s ur f a c e , under­
l a i n by Cane Ri ver. Both of t hes e uni t s were pr evi ousl y t hought t o have
been removed by er osi on from t he c r e s t of t he dome.
I f t he pr es ent i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ( t h a t Spart a and Cane Ri ver s ect i ons
a r e pr es ent over t he c r e s t of Vacheri e dome) i s c o r r e c t , t hen sever al
pos s i bl e concl usi ons can be drawn.
1) The Spar t a, Cane Ri ver and Wilcox groups have been di s pl aced
v e r t i c a l l y downward above t he dome ( not e t he cent r al lows i n Fi gur e
IV-B-4).
2) Downward di spl acement may be t he r e s u l t of s a l t di s s ol ut i on and
removal from t he t op of t he dome and subsequent caprock f or mat i on.
112
3) I f (1) and (2) above ar e c o r r e c t , subsi dence t ook pl ace i n pos t -
Cane Ri ver or post - l ower Spart a t i me, begi nni ng not more t han 48 mi 11i on
year s ago.
4) Assuming concl usi ons (1) and (2) ar e c o r r e c t , t he amount of v e r t i c a l
di spl acement can be est i mat ed.
In Fi gure IV-B-3, a nort h t o sout h cr oss s ec t i on acr oss Vacheri e dome
i s shown. The Cane Ri ver for mat i on i s a d i s t i n c t i v e u n i t i n e l e c t r i c
l ogs occur r i ng bot h above t he dome and o f f t he f l a n k s . A gent l y ar chi ng
pr oj ect i on can be made of t he base of t he Cane Ri ver t o a pos i t i on where
i t would occur i f u p l i f t e d and cont i nuous over t he dome. Such a pr oj ec­
t i o n would pl ace t he base of t he Cane Ri ver 800 f t above i t s act ual e l e ­
vat i on in well V-4. A l e s s conser vat i ve pr oj e c t i on of t he base of t he
Cane Ri ver might produce an e l eva t i on di f f e r e nc e of 1000 f t or more. The
assumption t h a t t he Cane Ri ver has been 1owered by 800 f t by di s s ol ut i on
of s a l t s i nce Cane Ri ver t ime i s i mpor t ant because t he amount of assumed
subsi dence di vi ded by t he dur at i on gi ves an aver age r a t e of s a l t d i s s o­
l u t i o n , assuming di s s ol ut i on was cont i nuous t o t he pr es ent . The removal
of 800 f t of s a l t i n 48 mi 11ion year s i s an average r a t e of 1. 7 x 10"^
f t / y r (. 005 mm/yr). Fur t hermore, i f t he s a l t of Vacherie dome i s 5 per
cent a nhydr i t e, and t he caprock i s formed by accumul at i on of anhydr i t e
as s a l t i s di s s ol ved, t hen 800 f t of s a l t would produce 40 f t of capr ock.
Thus, cont i nui ng t he argument above, 40 f t of caprock may have formed
si nce Cane Ri ver t i me. A 10 per cent r a t i o of anhydr i t e t o s a l t would
produce 80 f t of caprock i n t he same t i me. Because 235 f t of dense
anhydr i t e was d r i l l e d in well V-7, i t fol l ows e i t h e r t h a t : (1) t he
maj or i t y of t he caprock a t t h i s l oc at i on was formed bef or e t he Cane
Ri ver t i me; (2) t he r a t i o of anhydri t e t o s a l t i s gr e a t e r t han 30 per
113
cent ; or (3) t he assumed r e l a t i o n s h i p between s a l t d i s s o l u t i o n , Cane
River subsi dence, and caprock for mat i on i s not c o r r e c t . The l a t t e r pos s i ­
b i l i t y i s sur el y p a r t i a l l y t r u e . Cl ear l y, a compl et e underst andi ng of
t hese processes cannot be devel oped from a p a r t i a l a nal ys i s of two d r i l l
hol es above t he dome. Although t h i s exer ci s e permi t s est i mat es of s a l t
di s s ol ut i on r a t es t o be made, quest i ons ar e r a i s e d . For exampl e, i f a
volume of s a l t f i l l i n g a space havi ng a hei ght of 800 f t and an ar ea of
5 X 10® square f t ( t he approximate ar ea of t he t op of t he dome) was d i s ­
sol ved duri ng t he l a s t 48 mi l l i on y e a r s , and t he dome had i t s pr es ent
conf i gur at i on, where di d t he s a l t go? What was t he source of ground wat er
t o di s s ol ve t he s a l t ? I f s a l t di s s o l u t i o n produced subsi dence in t he
over l yi ng beds, where ar e t he Cret aceous sedi ment s above t he dome? Were
they not deposi t ed over t he dome, or were t hey eroded? Is s a l t d i s s o l u ­
t i on cont i nui ng or has i t ceased?
Hopeful l y, cont i nui ng obser vat i ons a t t he f our wel l s now i n s t a l l e d
a t Vacheri e, i n conj unct i on wi t h ot her geol ogi c s t u d i e s i n t he ar ea and
new obser vat i on wel l s t o be d r i l l e d i n 1978, wi l l d e f i n i t e l y e s t a b l i s h
t he age of t he sedi ment s above t he dome and answer some of t he quest i ons
posed above.
4. Geohydrologic Resul t s of Tes t Wells
The f our t e s t wel l s completed on Vacheri e dome have yi el ded t he
f i r s t new geohydrol ogi c dat a near t he dome. The wel l s were desi gned t o
accomplish t he fol l owi ng:
1) Dr i l l through t he major f r es h wat er aqui f e r s adj ac ent t o t he
dome and t er mi nat e i n ei t he r t he dome or t he Mi dway s hal e .
114
2) Provi de wat er samples from s e l e c t e d aqui f e r s ( t hus f a r t he basal
Wilcox Sands, t he caprock and t he s a l t i n t e r f a c e ) t o confi rm t he presence
of a s a l i n e plume as i ndi cat ed by e l e c t r i c l ogs.
3) Provi de s i t e s t o moni t or wat er q u a l i t y and wat er l evel changes
i n t he f u t u r e , pos si bl y duri ng aqui f e r performance t e s t s .
The hydrol ogi c dat a from t hese wel l s pr es ent l y i s l i mi t ed t o wat er samples
and a few wat er l evel measurements on each wel l .
A thorough st udy of t he chemi st r y of t he wat er samples has not y e t
begun. Laborat or y anal yses of t he f i r s t samples from t he wel l s (Table
IV-B-3) appeared t o cont ai n excessi ve amounts o f d r i 11i ng f l ui ds i ndi c a­
t i n g t he wel l s had not been adequat el y devel oped. Consequent l y, addi ­
t i ona l development and pumping was done on wel l s V-4, V-5 and V-6 . The
USGS i s c ur r e nt l y c o l l e c t i n g new samples from t hese we l l s . The chemical
anal yses wi l l be publ i shed a t a l a t e r dat e.
Well V-7 i s a s peci al case because i t was not completed i n a normal
a qui f e r . Thi s well i s scr eened i n t he narrow i nt e r va l (3 t o 5 f t t hi ck)
between t he base of t he caprock and t he underl yi ng s a l t s t ock. The ex­
a c t nat ur e of t he i nt e r va l i s not known. I ndi cat i ons a r e t h a t t h i s
zone cont ai ns l oose sedi ment s, probabl y anhydr i t e gr ai ns di ssol ved from
t he s a l t but not y e t s o l i d i f i e d i nt o capr ock. The c a l i p e r l og shows a
maximum readi ng her e, i ndi c a t i ng t he d r i l l hol e di s sol ved or "washed-
out " t he i n t e r v a l .
A s ect i on of s t a i n l e s s s t e e l scr een 10 f t long was s e t between 797
and 807 f t and t he well was pumped usi ng a submer si bl e pump s e t a t 500
f t below t he s ur f a ce . Af t er t hr e e days of i n t e r mi t t e n t pumping, t he
well had produced about 300 gal l ons of br i ne . Samples from t he f i r s t
day cont ai ned a maximum of 180, 000 ppm Cl" . The poor performance of
t he well may be due t o one or a combinati on of t he f ol l owi ng f a c t o r s :
Tabl e IV-B-3. Water q u a l i t y anal yses of Vacheri e t e s t wel l s .
|[lSU r e s u l t s ar e expr essed i n ppm; USGS r e s u l t s ar e expressed i n mg/ l j
LSU USGS LSU USGS LSU USGS
Well Numberl V-42 Wb-373^ V-5^ Bi-181^
V-6^ Bi-180^
Calcium as Ca 15 16. 0 45. 4 44. 0 1041.0 1000
Magnesium as Mg 6 5. 6 14. 3 13. 0 83. 9 84. 0
Iron as Fe 0. 97 0. 77 0. 043 0.1 0. 110
Manganese as Mn 0. 006 0.11 0. 06 0. 05 0.1 0. 240
Sodium as Na 370 390 1520 1600 4297.0 4100
Carbonate as CO3

0. 0

0. 0 0. 0 0. 0
Bi carbonat e as HCO3 214 220 185 286 356 369
Sul phat e as SO4 2 12 2 8. 8 2668. 2700
Chlori de as Cl 504 540 2993 2330 6539. 0 6300
as Had 831
— — ---- ---
Fl uori de as F

0.2

0. 3 0. 8 0. 7
Ni t r a t e as NO3 1. 06 0. 3

0. 08 0. 0 00.0
Phenol pht al ei n a l k a l i n i t y as CaCOs
— — — —
0. 0

Tot al a l k a l i n i t y as CaCOs
— —
292. 0

Total hardness as CaCOs 62.

1172 2945. 0
___
Di ssol ved r e s i d u e , c al c ul a t e d 1067 1110 4706 4140 14986.3 14400
Spe ci f i c conduct ance, micromhos/cm 1620 2070 6520 7460 21000 21800
pH 7.25 6. 8 8. 42 7. 7 7. 0 7. 3
Total i ron — — — —
0.6

Pot assi um as K 8. 4 8.1 15. 4 15.0 55. 0
S i l i c a as Si 02
Date of sample
Date of anal ys i s
1.0 20.0
3-22-77
4-12-77
5. 4 12.0
4-12-77
5-3-77
24. 0
7-22-77
pEach LSU well has been assi gned a number by t he USGS. For exampl e, V-4 i s USGS well Wb-373.
^Anal ysi s by Barrow-Agee Labor at or i es .
^Anal ysi s by USGS.
^Analysi s by Pope Test i ng Labor at or i es .
116
1) The compl et i on zone I s onl y s l i g h t l y permeable.
2) The wel l was not pr oper l y devel oped and t he compl eti on zone i s
plugged by d r i l l i n g mud behind t he gravel pack.
3) The per meabi l i t y of t he scr eened zone may be reduced by a nat ur al
accumul at ion of crude oi l which was produced duri ng wat er sampl i ng.
In a f i na l at t empt t o devel op t he well and obt ai n a wat er sampl e, an
oi l f i e l d "swab" t r uck was brought i n t o swab t he we l l . This oper at i on
i nvol ves pl aci ng a 2 i nch di amet er pi pe i n t he casi ng t o t he bottom of
t he well and l i f t i n g wat er out of t he well begi nni ng a t t he bottom of t he
pi pe. A h o i s t t r uc k l owers and l i f t s a wei ght f i t t e d wi t h f l e x i b l e "cups"
which provi de a t i g h t seal a ga i ns t t he 2 inch t ubi ng as t he cabl e i s
r a i s e d, l i f t i n g t he wat er out of t he we l l . Several t r i p s of t he "swab"
emptied t he we l l . The well was swabbed agai n sever al hours l a t e r and on
t he f ol l owi ng day. At ne i t h e r t ime had t he well f u l l y recover ed, i . e . ,
t he wat er l evel was below s t a t i c l e v e l . Swabbing di d not improve t he
y i e l d of t he we l l .
A small amount of crude oi l was produced when t he well was pumped
and when i t was swabbed. Although t he o i l appears t o be economi cal l y
i n s i g n i f i c a n t , an underst andi ng of how i t became t r apped beneat h t he
caprock may c l a r i f y c e r t a i n aspect s of t he geohydrol ogy of t he dome. For
example, i t i s l i k e l y t he oi l or i gi na t e d and mi gr at ed from some unknown
depth down t he f l ank of t he dome t o i t s pr es ent po s i t i on. This i mpl i es
a hydr aul i c connect i on, pr es ent or p a s t , between t he c a pr oc k/ s a l t i n t e r ­
face and t he surr oundi ng hydrocarbon sour ce. I f o i l could f i nd i t s way
updip al ong t he dome t o t he c r e s t of t he s a l t pl ug, ground wat er capabl e
of di s s ol vi ng s a l t coul d al so have mi gr at ed from deeper sedi ment s t o a
1 1 7
shal l ower pos i t i on a t t he t op of t he dome In t he di r e c t i on of decr easi ng
hydr aul i c head. The f a c t t h a t a minor amount of oi l was t r apped near
well V-7 suggest s t he over l yi ng caprock may be near l y Impermeable. Fur­
t he r i nve s t i gat i on may show t h a t t he caprock a t V-7 prevent s escape of
wat er from t he sur f ace of t he s a l t a t t h a t poi nt . I f t he permeable
capr ock/ s a l t i nt e r f a c e encount ered a t V-7 i s a r e s u l t of s a l t bei ng d i s ­
sol ved by ground wat ers t he flow pat h of t he wat er i s not known.
In t he near f ut ur e cont i nuous wat er l evel r ecor der s wi l l be i n s t a l l e d
on t he wel l s by t he USGS. Changes i n wat er l evel s wi l l be anal yzed i n an
at t empt t o determi ne i f ground-wat er flow p a t t e r n s , r echar ge or di schar ge
a r e a s , and a qui f e r cont i nui t y between wel l s ar e suggest ed. Pr es ent l y,
r e s u l t s obt ai ned from t he wel l s can be separ at ed i nt o two c a t e gor i e s ;
( 1) ground-wat er s a l i n i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n s , and ( 2 ) hydr aul i c head measure­
ments .
a. Sa l i n i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n . During t he f i r s t year of t he cur r e nt
st udy of Gulf Coast s a l t domes, t he s a l i n i t y in t he Wi1cox sands was
mapped a t Vacherie dome usi ng a t echni que Invol vi ng t he "SP" curve r e ­
corded on e l e c t r i c l ogs of oi l and gas we l l s . A s a l i n e anomaly was
found i n t he basal sands of t he Wilcox group e a s t of t he dome. Subse­
quent l y, t he same logs were r eeval uat ed usi ng a pr ef er r e d a l t e r n a t i v e
method based on e l e c t r i c l og r e s i s t i v i t y . As a r e s u l t , t he or i gi nal
est i mat e of s a l i n i t y was det ermi ned t o be t oo hi gh. I nst ead of a maxi­
mum of 12, 500 ppm of NaCl, t he new method i ndi c at ed t he s a l i n e "plume"
cont ai ned wat er having a maximum c oncent r at i on of 4000 ppm t o t a l d i s ­
sol ved s ol i ds (IDS) as shown i n Fi gure IV-B-5. The plume ext ends e a s t ­
ward from t he dome and appears t o decr ease i n s a l i n i t y gr adual l y.
B i k e r Cem
^ . ' V . „ ' X x
3500Q3.v^
\ > 1500
VACHERIE SALT DOME.
BIENVILLE PARISH, LOUISIANA
, (« y|
■«-^
MAXIMUM DISSOLVED SOLIDS CONTENT, WILCOX GROUP
CONTOUR INTERVAL = 1000 PPM
A WATER ANALYSES FROM WILCOX AQUIFER
a WATER ANALYSES FROM CAP ROCK
* DISSOLVED SOLIDS ESTIMATES FROM ELECTRIC LOGS
: ',fc AREA OF DOME AT - 1000 FT.
ALL VALUES IN PPM.
FIG. i V - B - 5
119
Leases f or t e s t wel l s were not a va i l a bl e e a s t of t he dome dur i ng t he
year so no wel l s were d r i l l e d t o obt ai n wat er samples or wat er l e vel s In
t he v i c i n i t y of t he plume. However, t he west ern ar ea of t he plume was
t e s t e d wi t h wel l s V-4, V-5 and V-6. These wel l s were pl anned t o i n t e r ­
cept t he plume near i t s appar ent or i gi n as det ermi ned i n t he e a r l y s t udi e s .
The t o t a l di ssol ved s ol i ds cont ent of wat er s pumped from t he basal sands
o f t he Wilcox in wel l s V-4 and V-5 i s shown i n Fi gure IV-B-5 al ong wit h
est i mat es of di ssol ved s ol i ds cont ent from a va i l a bl e e l e c t r i c l ogs . The
basal Wilcox sands were t e s t e d because t he denser s a l i n e wat er t ends t o
occupy t he l owest pa r t s of t h i s a qui f e r . The decr ease i n r e s i s t i v i t y wi t h
i ncr eas i ng depth recorded i n well l ogs near t he base o f t he sand confi rms
t h i s r e l a t i ons hi p.
The f i r s t est i mat es of ground-wat er s a l i n i t y in t he nort h Loui si ana
Sa l t Dome Basin r epor t ed f o r t h i s st udy ( Mart i nez, e t a l . , 1975) used t he
t echni que pr esent ed i n Turcan (1966). This method uses a " f i e l d forma­
t i on r e s i s t i v i t y f act or " (Ff) t o es t i mat e t he di s sol ved s o l i d s cont ent
of ground wat er from t he long-normal r e s i s t i v i t y curve recor ded on e l e c ­
t r i c a l l ogs. Turcan deri ved f i e l d for mat i on f a c t o r s f o r vari ous aqui f er s
empi r i cal l y usi ng t he fol l owi ng equat i on:
c _ Ro
where: F^ = t he f i e l d for mat i on r e s i s t i v i t y f a c t o r
Ro = r e s i s t i v i t y of t he long-normal curve of t he e l e c t r i c log
Rw = r e s i s t i v i t y of t he wat er i n t he format i on
The e l e c t r i c l ogs and r e s u l t s of wat er anal yses from t he two Wilcox
sand wel l s a t Vacherie (V-4 and V-5) were eval uat ed t o det ermi ne ¥f f or
120
t he Wilcox sands a t Vacheri e and t o compare t h i s val ue wi t h t he
suppl i ed by Turcan. The c al c ul a t e d f i e l d for mat i on f a c t or s were 3. 0
f o r V-4 and 4. 6 f or V-5 f o r an aver age val ue of 3. 8. The det ermined
by Turcan f or t he Wilcox i n an ar ea west of Vacherie dome was 2. 4.
An Ff val ue of 3. 8 and t he r e l a t i o n s h i p between di s sol ved s ol i ds
and r e s i s t i v i t y developed by Payne (1975) were used t o det ermi ne t he d i s ­
sol ved s ol i ds cont ent as shown i n Fi gure IV-B-5. The di s sol ved s ol i ds
cont ent s shown in t he map are maximum est i mat es because a F^ val ue of 3. 8
was used i ns t ead of Tur can' s val ue of 2. 4. The hi ghes t TDS val ue, and
t hus t he hi ghest s a l i n i t y , i s found in well V-6 , completed a t t he base
of t he Wilcox in t he supposed t op of t he caprock. The s a l i n i t y decr eases
r a pi dl y wi t h di s t ance from t h i s wel l and no ot her l ogs or wat er samples
in t he Wilcox have TDS val ues above 5000 ppm. Hence, t he s a l i n e piume
has a maximum sal i n i t y a t t he c r e s t of t he e as t e r n end of Vacheri e. The
plume i s el ongat ed t o t he e a s t , suggest i ng t h i s i s t he d i r e c t i o n of
ground-wat er flow.
The r evi sed es t i mat e of maximum ground-wat er s a l i n i t y e a s t of t he
dome produces a lower net s a l t removal t han est i mat ed i n Mar t i nez, e t a l . ,
(1975). The est i mat ed s a l i n i t y of t he plume has been reduced t o appr oxi ­
mat el y 1/ 3 of t he or i gi na l e s t i mat e . Hence, t he amount of s a l t cal cu­
l a t e d t o be removed dur i ng a 100,000 year per i od i s reduced from 150 f t
t o 50 f t . I f t h i s r a t e i s c o r r e c t , t hen onl y about 125 f t of s a l t would
be removed from t he t op of t he dome i n 250, 000 year s i f t he cur r ent
assumed condi t i ons ar e mai nt ai ned. Although t he c a l c ul a t e d r a t e of s a l t
di s s o l u t i o n i s smal1 , i t must be emphasized t h a t t he c al c ul a t i ons used
i n der i vi ng t h i s number i ncl ude numerous assumpti ons which must be v e r i -
f i e d wi t h dat a from e i t h e r pr es ent or f ut ur e we l l s . However, i t appears
121
t he s a l i ne plume In t he Wilcox sand does not r e pr e s e nt a s a l t dl s s ol u-
t i o n r a t e l ar ge enough t o el i mi nat e Vacheri e dome from f u r t h e r consi der a­
t i on f or nucl ear wast e s t or age. Addi t i onal geohydrol ogi c t e s t i n g i s
needed. Cont inui ng geohydrol ogi c s t u d i e s , coupl ed wi t h an improved
underst andi ng of t he s t r u c t u r e above t he dome r e l a t e d t o s a l t d i s s o l u ­
t i on and caprock f or mat i on, shoul d provi de adequat e dat a f or as s es s i ng
t he pr esent hydrol ogi c s t a b i l i t y of t he dome.
b. Hydraul i c head measurement s. Two we l l s , V-4 and V-5, are
scr eened i n basal Wilcox sands on t he nor t h and sout h f l anks of t he dome,
r e s pec t i ve l y. Well V-6 i s t hought t o be scr eened a t t he i nt e r f a c e be­
tween caprock and s a l t . Water l evel measurements made i n t hese wel l s by
t he USGS ar e shown i n Fi gure IV-B-5. Because each wel l cont ai ns wat er
of a d i f f e r e n t s a l i n i t y , t he t r ue hydr aul i c head a t each .well must be
det ermi ned by mul t i pl yi ng observed wat er l evel by t he dens i t y of t he
wat er in t he we l l . For i ns t a nce, V-7 had a measured wat er l evel of ap­
proxi mat el y 95 f t above sea l evel i n Jul y 1977. Although t he well di d
not produce enough wat er t o provi de a pure wat er sample s u i t a b l e f o r a
complete a n a l ys i s , anal yses of wat er from V-7 were made duri ng well de­
velopment. The hi ghes t f i e l d measurement of Cl ” was 180, 000 ppm. Thus,
t he wat er from t he t op of t he s a l t i s a t or near s a t u r a t i o n wi t h r es pect
t o NaCl, and t he r e f or e has a r e l a t i v e dens i t y of 1. 1972 a t 20° C. I f
t he column of wat er in t he well were f r e s h, t he wat er l evel (L) would be:
L = h X 1. 1972
where h i s t he hei ght of wat er i n t he well above t he t op of t he s cr een.
In t he case of V-7, t he cor r ect ed head i s 124 f t above sea l e v e l . The
cor r ect ed hydr aul i c heads f or each well ar e shown i n Fi gur e IV-B-6 .
122
260
H
Id
Id
Id
Id
>
I d
<
Id
CO
id
>
O
CD
<
■z.
o
<
>
UJ
_J
UJ
March April May June July August
1977
WELL TOTAL DISSOLVED
SOLIDS (PPM)
CALCULATED
DENSITY
V-4 1,067 I.OOl
V-5 4, 706 1.0047
V-6 14,986
277, 000(est . )
1.015
V-7
I.l9l(est. )
. V- 6
V-7"
V-5-
V-4
Hydraulic Head
(Last water level
corrected for density)
OBSERVED WATER LEVELS AND
CALCULATED HYDRAULIC HEAD
OF TEST WELLS AT VACHERIE DOME
FIG. I V - B - 6
1 2 3
The s i gni f i c ance of t he hydr aul i c heads depi ct ed in Fi gure IV-B-6
Is t h a t ground wat er wi l l flow from t he area of hi ghes t head i n t he
caprock wel l s (V- 6 and V-7) t o ar eas of lower head5 perhaps t o t he Wilcox
sands (wel l s V-4 and V-5) i f a permeable connect i on e x i s t s between t he
two ar eas . Hence, i t i s pos s i bl e t he s a l i ne plume mapped i n t he Wilcox
e a s t of t he dome i s suppl i ed by s a l i n e wat er from t he capr ock.
Darcy' s law coul d be used t o e s t a b l i s h t he volume of wat er t h a t
coul d move under t he observed hydr aul i c gr adi ent from t he caprock t o t he
sur roundi ng aqui f er s i f t he permeabi1i t y and ar ea of any i nt er connect i ons
were known. At pr e s ent , t he val ues of t hese two components of t he equa­
t i ons may onl y be guessed a t . New wel l s and a q ui f e r t e s t s wi l l be
necessary t o sol ve t h i s problem.
I t i s t oo ear l y t o e s t a b l i s h t he source of t he r e l a t i v e l y high
hydr aul i c head in wel l s V-6 and V-7. However, t he pr es sur es i n t he ob­
s er vat i on wel l s may al r eady be of f er i ng cl ues t o t he answer. In wel l s
V-6 and V-7 t he heads ar e near h ydr os t a t i c . That i s , t he r a t i o of t he
wei ght of wat er st andi ng in t he wel l above t he scr eened zone di vi ded by
t he wei ght of overburden above t he scr een (1 l b / f t ) i s c al c ul a t e d t o be
approxi mat el y 0. 43. The heads i n wel I s V-4 and V-5 ar e below h ydr o s t a t i c ,
being approxi mat el y 0. 37. Three pos s i bl e reasons f or t he anomalously low
pr es sur es i n t he Wilcox wel l s near t he dome ar e as f o l 1ows.
1) Ground wat er i s bei ng pumped from t he a qui f e r near by, t hus
l owering t he head.
2) The Wilcox a qui f e r coul d be di schar gi ng wat er i nt o a shal l ow
a qui f e r , perhaps t he Quat ernary sands and gr avel s or s pa r t a sands i n t he
st ream val l ey cr ossi ng t he dome.
3) The r e l a t i v e l y f r es h wat er of t he Wilcox sands i s bei ng drawn
out of t he aqui f e r by an osmot ic p ot e nt i a l cr eat ed by t he s epa r a t i on of
124
f r es h wat er i n t he a qui f e r from s a l t wat er ( ne a r t he s a l t core ) by a
semipermeable membrane of cl ay.
The f i r s t p o s s i b i l i t y i s unl i ke l y. Local Wilcox wel l s are few and
used onl y f or domest i c use. The Wilcox sands may be di schar gi ng wat er
i nt o t he al l uvi um In t he val l e y cr os si ng Vacheri e dome. The heads mea­
sured In t he Wilcox wel l s ar e about 195 f t above sea l e v e l . Bashaway
Creek has an el eva t i on of 180 t o 200 f t in t he val l e y a t Vacherie dome.
The correspondence of a qui f e r head and val l ey e l eva t i on may reveal a
hydr aul i c connect i on between t he aqui f e r and st r eam. Shallow wel l s com­
pl et ed in t he va l l e y sands above t he dome a r e needed t o make t h i s det erm­
i na t i on.
Osmosis i s a t h i r d mechanism which could produce t he head d i s t r i b u ­
t i o n observed a t Vacheri e dome. An osmot ic pr es sur e gr adi e nt occurs
where a semi permeable membrane s epar at es wat er s of two d i f f e r e n t concen­
t r a t i o n s . As a r e s u l t , wat er flows t hrough t he membrane from t he more
d i l u t e s ol ut i on i nt o t he more concent r at ed s o l u t i o n . At Vacheri e dome
a semipermeable membrane may be cr eat ed by t he Midway group cl ays sepa­
r a t i n g r e l a t i v e l y f r es h wat er in t he Wi1cox sands from br i nes in t he
caprock. In response t o t he osmotic gr a di e nt , f r es h wat er would flow
from t he Wi1cox i nt o t he capr ock. Hydraul i c head would i ncr eas e i n t he
caprock and decr ease i n t he Wilcox.
The hydr os t a t i c condi t i ons i n t he caprock wel l s i ndi c a t e t h a t i f
osnasl s i s a c t i v e , t he caprock i s not hydr a ul i c a l l y i s o l a t e d from s h a l ­
lower aqui f er s because t he pr essur e i s not abnormal l y hi gh. Perhaps t he
i nfl ow of f r es h wat er i s o f f s e t by an out - f l ow o f br i ne from t he caprock
t o a dj acent aqui f er s of lower head—perhaps t he Wi1cox group.
125
IV-C. GEOHYDROLOGIC STUDIES OF RAYBURN'S DOME
C. G. Smi t h, l i r . , R. A. BarleWs and B. Hoda
1. I nt r oduct i on
Four pai r s of wel l s have been pl anned f or Rayburn' s dome. The l oca ­
t i on of each well i s shown i n Pi gure IV-C-1. In each c a s e , one well was
expect ed t o penet r at e sediments o f f t he f l ank of t he dome and one wel 1 was
expect ed t o d r i 11 t hrough t he shal l ow sedi ment s and caprock over t he t op of
t he dome. To dat e (September 1977), t hr ee of t he e i ght wel l s pl anned have
been completed at t h i s dome. All of t hese wel l s are l ocat ed o f f t he dome.
One purpose of t he wel Is planned a t Rayburn' s dome i s t o i n ve s t i ga t e
t he nat ur e of t he s t r a t a near t he f l ank of t he dome; i . e . , t he cont act be­
tween t he s a l t st ock and t he surr oundi ng aqui f er s and cl a ys . In addi t i on,
wat er samples and measurements of t he pot ent i omet r i c s ur f ace wi l l be made
t o det ermi ne t he di r e c t i on of ground-wat er movement a t t he dome. Fi n a l l y ,
some i nf or mat i on shoul d be gai ned r egar di ng t he geohydrology of t he s e d i -
ments above t he dome, possi bl y i n t he capr ock, and near t he s a l t .
The geohydrol ogi c s e t t i n g a t Raybur n' s dome pr es ent l y appears r a t h e r
si mpl e. The s a l t plug has penet r at ed through t he Wilcox group t o wi t hi n
100 f t of t he s ur f ace. In a t l e a s t one l ocal e on t he eas t er n por t i on of
t he top of t he dome, Cretaceous l imes and chal ks have been r a i s e d t o t he
s ur f ace. The cent er of t he dome i s a low marshy ar ea long known f o r i t s
s a l i ne spr i ngs and shal l ow s a l i ne wa t e r s . Rol lo (1960) used wel 1 l ogs of
oi l and gas t e s t s i n t he area of t he dome t o show t h a t t he Wilcox group
sands are not cont ami nat ed wi t h s a l t wat er even though t hey have been
pi er ced by t he dome. I ns t ead, t hey cont ai n an anomalously deep occur rence
of f r esh ground wat er (-1100 f t ) . The f a c t t h a t no s a l t wat er has been
126
0 \ , #x
R - # ^
3ECTED
L W n ^
/ SALT
■^f l i ) ^' ^' 5s f^- '
III/ MILE
RAYBURN'S SALT DOME
WELL LOCATION MAP
O OBSERVATION WELLS COMPLETED
• OBSERVATION WELLS PLANNED
A EXISTING WELLS — INTO SALT
A EXISTING WELLS — OFF DOME
F I G . - I V - C - I
127
det ect ed i n t he Wilcox sands a t Rayburn' s dome suggest s t h i s aqui f e r i s
separ at ed from t he dome, pos si bl y by cl ays of t he Mi dway group. Hopeful l y,
t he presence and hydr ol ogi c s i gni f i c a nc e of a shal e (cl ay) sheat h envel op­
ing t he s a l t st ock a t Rayburn' s can be v e r i f i e d and s t udi ed by t he t e s t
wel l s planned.
The well 1ocat i ons shown i n Fi gure IV-C-1 were s e l e c t e d usi ng a com­
bi nat i on of gr avi t y dat a and topography t o i ndi c a t e t he edge of t he t op of
t he s a l t st ock. Only two of t he oi l and gas t e s t wel l s i n t he ar ea have
been d r i l l e d t o s a l t on t op of t he dome. Hence, t he 1i mi t s of s a l t are not
well e s t a bl i s he d. Shallow sei smi c surveys bei ng performed i n t he f i e l d
should hel p t o e s t a b l i s h t he boundari es of shal l ow s a l t and t he i r r e g u l a r i -
t i e s a t t he t op of t he s a l t . Before wel 1 d r i l l i n g resumes in f i s c a l ye ar
1978, well s i t e s wi l l be r eeval uat ed in l i g h t of t he new sei smi c dat a t o
allow f or more pr eci s e placement.
2. Resul t s of Dr i l l i ng
The t hr ee wel l s t h a t have been completed a t Rayburn' s dome are d r i l l e d
t o depths gr e a t e r t han 1100 f t al ong t he fl anks of t he dome and none of t he
t hr ee reached caprock or s a l t . Pr el i mi nar y i ndi c a t i ons are t h a t i n each
well t he s t r a t i graphi c s ect i on appears t o be nor mal , alt hough each of t he
rock uni t s was encount ered shal l ower t han i n e x i s t i n g wel l s f u r t h e r from
t he dome.
Wells R-2B and R-3B (Fi gure IV-C-1) were i nt ended t o be l ocat ed on
t he f l ank of t he dome and were not expect ed t o h i t s a l t . Well R-IA was ex­
pect ed t o bottom i n s a l t wi t hi n 300 f t of t he s ur f a c e . However, d r i l l i n g
was hal t ed when R-IA reached 1130 f t i n Midway shal es and di d not encount er
s a l t . The s out heast er n edge of t he s a l t , t h e r e f o r e , must be l ocat ed f u r t h e r
nor t h than expect ed. R-IB wi l l be r e l oc at e d nor t h of R-IA, hopef ul l y wi t hi n
128
t he boundari es of t he t op of t he upper s a l t s ur f a ce . Although t he d e t a i l s
of t he geol ogi c s t r u c t u r e of t he sedi ment s abut t i ng t he dome a t well R-IA
have not been f u l l y s t udi e d, t he e l e c t r i c l ogs of t he well are only s l i g h t l y
d i f f e r e n t from t he log o f an e a r l i e r USGS t e s t well l ocat ed 0. 25 mi l es t o
t he sout h. A di pmet er survey of R-IA i ndi c a t e s t he Wi1cox group sands di p
t o t he sout h and s out heas t a t angl es between approxi mat el y 30 and 45 degrees.
A more complete anal ys i s of t he geophysi cal l ogs of a l l wel l s d r i 11ed at
Rayburn' s wi l l be pr esent ed i n a f ut ur e r e por t .
Pr es ent l y, no wat er samples have been anal yzed from t he we l l s . El e c t r i c
l ogs i ndi c a t e f r es h wat er i s pr e s ent near l y t o t he base of t he Wilcox group.
There are no i ndi ca t i ons t h a t s a l t wat er i s moving from t he s a l t st ock i nt o
t he l ocal ground wat er syst em.
3. Acknowledgements
The U.S. Geol ogi cal Survey has pl ayed a major r ol e i n t he success
of t he wat er wel l d r i l l i n g programs a t Vacherie and Rayburn' s domes. With
t he cooper at i on of G. T. Cardwell of t he USGS Water Resources Branch in
Baton Rouge, R. L. Hosman and G. Ryals of t he Baton Rouge and Al exandri a
o f f i c e s , r e s p e c t i v e l y , c ol l e c t e d wat er samples f or complete anal ys es , made
o n - s i t e chemical anal yses and have i n i t i a t e d a program of cont i nui ng
wat er l evel measurements f o r a l l obser vat i on we l l s . Thei r suggest i ons l ed
t o i mpor t ant changes in wel l development procedures t o improve t he qua l i t y
of na t i ve ground-wat er sampl es. Addi t i ona l l y, t h e i r hel p has saved many
mi l es of t r avel and many hours of t r a ve l t i me.
129
IV-D. GEOHYDROLOGIC STUDIES OF
MISSISSIPPI SALT DOMES
B. Hoda and R. A. Barlow
1. I nt r oduct i on
Anderson and ot her s (1973) named 14 s a l t domes i n t he Mi ss i s si ppi
Sa l t Dome Basin as pot e n t i a l l y s u i t a b l e f o r wast e emplacement. Numerous
c r i t e r i a were used t o j udge t he s i t e s u i t a b i l i t y , i ncl udi ng depth t o t he
dome and t he geohydrol ogi c condi t i ons surr oundi ng t he dome. The purpose
of t he r esear ch r epor t ed here i s t o i n v e s t i g a t e more f u l l y t he hydr ol ogi c
s t a b i l i t y of t hese domes based on i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of ground- wat er s a l i n i t y
di s t r i b u t i o n s near t he domes. The same approach has al r eady been appl i ed
t o t he Texas and Loui si ana Sa l t Dome Basins ( Mart i nez, e t a l . , 1975, 1976).
Three of t he Mi ssi ssi ppi domes were s t udi ed and r epor t ed i n Mar t i nez,
e t a l . , (1976). Of t he remaining 11 domes, 8 ar e i ncl uded i n t h i s r e por t .
The t hr ee domes omi t t ed from t he st udy; Hazl ehur st , Cypress Creek and
Arm, di d not have s u f f i c i e n t dat a t o mer i t st udy. The e i g h t domes r epor t ed
i n t h i s st udy ar e Byrd, Brui nsburg. County Li ne, Cr owvi l l e, Gi l b e r t , Leedo,
Richmond and Sardi s Church (Fi gure IV-D-1) . Crowvi11e and Gi l be r t domes
ar e l ocat ed i n Fr ankl i n Pa r i s h, Loui si ana and t he ot her s ar e l ocat ed i n
Mi s s i s s i p p i .
The eval uat i on of t he geology and hydrol ogy of t he s a l t domes i s
l i mi t ed by t he pauci t y of subsur f ace i nf or mat i on. With t he pos s i bl e ex­
cept i on of Crowvi l l e, t hese domes have not been i nt e ns el y expl or ed; con­
sequent l y t her e ar e few d r i l l hol es around them. Of t he 8 domes s t udi e d,
onl y Gi l b e r t , Crowvi l l e and Leedo had enough well cont r ol f o r a complete
cross s ec t i on acr oss t he dome. None of t he domes had enough d r i 11 hole
dat a t o al l ow mapping of t he ar eal d i s t r i b u t i o n of any pos s i bl e s a l i n e
r
^ -
FRANKLIN ( O
TENSAS
CLAIBORNE
COPIAH SIMPSON
rv
COVINGTON
JEFFERSON
4
WAYNE
O JONES
L
GREENE I *
I
^ MISSISSIPPI
" LOUISIANA
I--------------------------------- 1
2 0 MILES
CROWVILLE
2 GILBERT
3 BRUINBURG
4 LEEDO
5 SARDIS CHURCH
6 RICHMOND
7 BYRD
8 COUNTY LINE
O SALT DOMES NOT STUDIED
• SALT DOMES STUDIED
FIG. IV-D-1 MAP SHOWING LOCATION OF SALT DOMES
IN THE MISSISSIPPI SALT DOME BASIN
13 1
plumes i n f r esh wat er a qui f e r s . However, t he st udy was cont i nued where
possi bl e t o check f or any evi dence of s a l i n i t y anomal i es which might i n d i ­
cat e di s s ol ut i on of s a l t by f r es h ground wat er .
Most of t he shal l ow domes of t he Mi ss i s si ppi S a l t Dome Basin ar e
roughl y c yl i ndr i c a l i n shape and about one mi l e i n di amet er and have very
st eep s i de s . The beds overl yi ng t he domes appear t o be complexly f a u l t e d
i n t hose domes where s u f f i c i e n t well cont r ol i s a va i l a bl e (Karges, 1975).
The s t r u c t u r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i ncl uded i n t he accompanying cr oss s ec t i ons
(Fi gures IV-D-2 through IV-D-10) ar e a r e s u l t of t he most rudimentary
i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of l i mi t ed dat a. However, as t he focus of t he t t udy i s t he
hydrol ogi c s t a b i l i t y of t he s a l t domes as det ermi ned from s a l i n i t y v a r i a t i on
of t he ground wat er , t h i s pr el i mi nar y s t r u c t u r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n shoul d not
have s ubs t a nt i a l e f f e c t on t he concl usi ons di scussed below.
The s a l i n i t i e s i n t he deeper s a l i n e aqui f e r s —Cockfi el d format i on,
Spart a format i on and Wilcox group—were al s o s t udi e d. However, al t hough
r i s e s i n t he s a l i n i t i e s i n t hese a qui f e r s near t he dome were not ed, t hese
were not consi dered det ermi ni ng f a c t o r s i n e s t a b l i s h i n g t he hydrol ogi c
s t a b i l i t y of t he dome.
2. Procedure
The main source of dat a f or t he geohydrol ogi c s ec t i ons ar e e l e c t r i c
logs of oi l and gas we l l s . El e c t r i c l ogs of t he d r i l l hol es l ocat ed wi t h­
i n a r adi us of 5 mi l es of t he presumed c ent e r of t he s a l t domes were used.
The aqui f e r s were c o r r e l a t e d , s a l i n i t y o f t he ground wat er determi ned, and
cross s ect i ons drawn ( see Table IV-D-1 a t end of Sect i on f o r well l i s t s ) .
The s a l i n i t y of t he format i on wat er where t he s a l i n i t y was low was
determi ned from t he r e s i s t i v i t y of t he for mat i ons as i ndi cat ed by l ong-
normal curves on t he e l e c t r i c l ogs . Thi s method has been descr i bed i n
1 3 2
d e t a i l by Jones and Buford (1951), Guyod (1954) , Turcan(1966)^ and Al ger
(1966). The empi ri cal r e l a t i o n s h i p between t he r e s i s t i v i t y of formation
and ground-water s a l i n i t y of t he Mi ssi ssi ppi a q ui f e r s as determined by
Newcome (1975) was used. Where t he s a l i n i t y was high ( g r e a t e r than 20,000
ppm TDS), NaCl cont ent of t he ground water was c a l c u l a t e d from t he spon­
taneous p ot e nt i a l r eadi ng. These methods, though commonly used 1n ground
water and petroleum I n v e s t i g a t i o n s , give only an e st i mat e of t he water
s a l i n i t y . Because t he assumptions di scussed below must be made, t he r e
ar e some l i mi t a t i o n s t o t he use of t hese methods.
1) In t he r e s i s t i v i t y method, an average val ue of t he formation
f a c t o r of t he a qui f e r i s used. However, t he for mat i on f a c t o r of an aqui f e r
i s r e l a t e d t o i t s wat er s a l i n i t y , por os i t y, cement at i on and hydr aul i c
c onduct i vi t y. These pr ope r t i e s may change over s hor t di s t ances c r eat i ng
e r r o r s i n s a l i n i t y e s t i mat es .
2) The r e l a t i o n s h i p between t he r e s i s t i v i t y and s a l i n i t y of t he
wat er as expressed i n t o t a l di s sol ved s ol i ds cont ent depends on t he speci es
of i ons in s ol ut i on. Thi s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s empi r i cal l y der i ved and i s
based on t he average i oni c composi t i on of t he ground wat er of t he ar ea.
In f r es h wat er a qui f er s NaCl i s us ual l y not t he dominant ion i n s ol ut i on ,
and so t he addi t i on of NaCl by s a l t di s s o l u t i o n wi l l a l t e r t he r e l a t i v e
composi t i on and t hus t he empi r i cal s a l i n i t y - r e s i s t i v i t y r e l a t i o n s h i p .
The cal cul a t e d s a l i n i t y of wat er i n which NaCl i s t he predominant ion
wi l l be lower t han t he t r u e s a l i n i t y .
3) These methods of s a l i n i t y det er mi nat i on ar e usef ul onl y i n sand
a q u i f e r s . In Mi ss i s si ppi many of t he a qui f e r s ar e cal car eous and t he
pr esence of l i me, which coul d not be det ect ed on e l e c t r i c l o g s , may al s o
have cont r i but ed t o some e r r o r .
1 3 3
As a r e s u l t of t hese c ons i de r a t i ons , any concl usi ons based on t he
r e s u l t s pr esent ed below shoul d be consi der ed t e n t a t i v e . Actual sampling
of t he aqui f er s i s r equi r ed in or der t o f i r ml y e s t a b l i s h t he s a l i ni t y of
t he ground wat er around s a l t domes.
Di ssol ut i on of t he s a l t domes, i f i t oc cur s , i s presumed t o occur
mainly i n t he f r es h wat er a qui f e r s . Anderson, e t a l . (1973) r e p o r t t h a t
t he s a l i n e wat er i s gener al l y conceded t o be s t a t i o n a r y and, t h e r e f o r e ,
cannot be p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n i mpor t ant s a l t d i s s o l u t i o n a f t e r i t becomes
a s at ur at e d br i ne i n cont act wi t h s a l t mass. For t h i s r eason, work was
concent r at ed on t he s a l i n i t y va r i a t i o n i n t he f r es h wat er a quf f e r s . In
Mi s s i s s i ppi , s t r a t a of Miocene age ser ve as t he main f r es h wat er a q u i f e r s .
The base of t he f r es h wat er ( l e s s t han 1, 000 ppm TDS), except around
Sardi s Church dome, coi nci des wi t h t he base of t he Cat ahoul a format i on
(Miocene). Any abnormal r i s e i n t he dept h t o t he base of t he f r es h wat er
around a dome i s assumed t o i ndi cat e di s s o l u t i o n and appar ent hydrol ogi c
i n s t a b i l i t y of t he dome.
3. Di scussi on
a. Brui nsburq Dome. Bruinsburg s a l t dome i s l ocat ed i n t he s out h­
west ern cor ner of Cl ai borne County, Mi s s i s s i p p i . The well d r i l l e d on top
of t he dome encount ered l i mest one caprock a t a depth of 1802 f t , and s a l t
a t 2020 f t , a t s hal l owes t .
The s t r u c t u r e of t he beds over l yi ng t he dome i s complex, and beds ar e
cut by numerous f a u l t s (Karges, 1975). These f a u l t s have produced a small
s t r u c t u r a l t r a p where gas accumulat ed. Over 500 mi l l i on cubi c f e e t (MCF)
of gas was produced from t h i s f i e l d bef or e abandonment (Karges, 1975).
The number of well l ogs a va i l a bl e f o r t he cr oss s ec t i on i s s par s e , and
1 3 4
t h e r e f o r e , t he s t r u c t u r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n pr esent ed i n Fi gur e IV-D-2 i s ,
of n e c e s s i t y, very si mpl e.
Cat ahoula for mat i on (Miocene) i s t he most wi despread of a l l f r es h
wat er a qui f er s i n Cl ai borne County, and ser ves as i t s most i mport ant
source of ground wa t e r . I t i s al s o t he deepest f r es h wat er a qui f e r .
The wat er i n deeper a qui f e r s i s ge ner al l y s a l i ne ( Bi cker , e t a l . , 1966).
S a l i n i t y of t he wat er i n Cat ahoul a format i on around t he dome could not be
det ermi ned from t he a va i l a bl e da t a . The a va i l a bl e l ogs e i t h e r s t a r t from
t he base of t he Cat ahoula or below i t (Fi gure IV-D-2). In t he cross
s e c t i on, deeper a qui f er s appear t o be s a l i n e wi t h s a l i n i t y gener al l y i n ­
cr eas i ng wi t h dept h. The ground wat er in t he Cockf i el d for mat i on and
Wilcox group al s o shows an i ncr eas e i n s a l i n i t y near t he s a l t dome. The
hi ghes t s a l i n i t y i n t he Cockf i el d format i on i n well No. 2 i s about 22, 000
ppm; whi l e i n well No. 3, i t i s about 14, 000 ppm. The s a l i n i t y of t he
wat er i n well No. 1 coul d not be det ermi ned because of t he absence of any
t hi c k sand. The s a l i n i t y of t he wat er i n t he Wi1cox group i s about 81, 000
ppm a t a depth of approxi mat el y 4100 f t i n well No. 2, whi l e i t i s about
47, 000 ppm a t an equi val ent dept h i n well No. 3.
The Spar t a f or mat i on, however, shows an i ncr eas e i n s a l i n i t y away
from t he s a l t dome. The hi ghe s t s a l i n i t i e s i n t h i s a qui f e r ar e 23, 000
ppm, 42, 000 ppm and 50, 000 ppm i n wel l s Nos. 1, 2 and 3, r e s pe c t i ve l y.
On t he bas i s of t hese c o n f l i c t i n g dat a and because onl y two wel l s
y i e l d s a l i n i t y est i mat es f o r t he Cockfi el d and Wilcox sands, no concl u­
si on about t he hydrol ogi c s t a b i l i t y of t he dome has been r eached.
b. Sar di s Church Dome. Sar di s Church dome i s l ocat ed approxi mat el y
5. 5 mi 1es s out heas t of t he town of Hazl ehur st i n Copiah County, Mi s s i s s i p p i .
S.P RESISTIVITY
mv ohms m /m
135
2
S.P RESISTIVITY
40 0 K)
H k + I------------------- i
ohms r t^in
40 0
h+H-
IVITY
10
ohms m?'m
Sea Level
CATAHOULA FORMATION
L __________ VICKSBURG GROUP
1 3 1 f o r e s t hill FORMATIOm
- 5 0 0
YAZOO FORMATION
COCKFIELD FORMATION
-1500
COOK MOUNTAIN
FORMATION
-2000
Z
o
SPARTA FORMATION h-
UJ
_ J
UJ
ZILPHA - WINONA-T"
formations
(UNOIFFEBENTI4TEOI
t a l a h a t t a
- 3 5 0 0
WILCOX GROUP
RIE
LOCATION MAP
- 4 5 0 0
VERTICAL EXAGGERATION: K 11.2
1 INCH = 1.6 MILES
GROUNDWATER QUALITY.
DISSOLVED SOLIDS IN PPM
< 1000
1000- 20,000
2 0 . 0 0 0 - 4 0 , 0 0 0
4 0 . 0 0 0 - 6 0 , 0 0 0
6 0 . 0 0 0 - 8 0 , 0 0 0
BRUINSBUR6 SALT DOME
CLAIBORNE COUNTY, MISSISSIPPI
FIG. I V- D- 2
136
I t has been incompletel y s t udi ed and l i t t l e geophysical work has been done.
Consequentlys t he s i z e and t he t hape of t he dome a r e not well known.
A few wel l s have penet r at ed t he s a l t dome I n d i c a t i n g t h a t t he s h a l ”
lowest depth t o t he caprock 1s 1440 f t from t he s u r f a c e . None of t he
wel l s have reached t he s a l t , so t he t hi ckness of t he caprock i s not known.
However, i t has been r epor t ed t o be a t l e a s t 400 f t t h i c k (Anderson, e t a l . ,
1973).
Cat ahoul a and Hat t i esbur g format i ons ar e t he p r i nc i pa l f r es h wat er
aqui f er s i n Copiah County. Although Spart a and Cockf i el d format i ons al s o
cont ai n f r es h wa t e r , t hey ar e not used f or wat er suppl y because of t h e i r
lower t r a ns mi s s i vi t y ( Bi cker , e t a l . , 1969| . However, t he cr oss s ect i on
of t he ar ea shows an anomalous s i t u a t i o n of a l t e r n a t i n g zones of f r es h
and br acki sh wat er t o t he base of t he Spar t a f or mat i on i n t he 2 wel l s
about 2. 5 mi 1es sout hwest of t he dome (Fi gure IV-D-3). The s a l i n i t y of
t he ground wat er i n t he two wel l s on t he dome coul d not be determi ned
because of t he poor q u a l i t y of t he l ogs . Two pos s i bl e reasons can account
f o r t h i s appar ent anomal y«
1) The lower r e s i s i t i v i t y of some sand uni t s may have been due t o
t h e i r hi gher cl ay c ont ent , r a t h e r t han hi gher s a l i n i t y of t he ground wat er .
2) This v e r t i c a l s a l i n i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n may be due t o di f f er e nc e i n
per meabi l i t y val ues of t he sand uni t s . Si nce t he s a l i n i t y of t he ground
wat er i s a f unct i on of i t s r es i dence time i n t he a qu i f e r ( Bi cker , e t a l , ,
1969), any change i n t he permeabi 1i t y of t he sand shoul d a f f e c t t he v e l o ­
c i t y and thus t he s a l i n i t y of t he ground wat er . Lower per meabi l i t y uni t s
wi l l cont ai n wat er wi t h hi gher s a l i n i t y t han more permeable uni t s s ubj e c t
t o a c t i ve c i r c u l a t i o n .
1 3 7
UJ
UJ
>
UJ
UJ
S.P RESISTiViTY SP
4 0 0
K+ I -
iO 3 0 0 10
-11^
ohms tn^/m
20 fi’ v ohms m^/m
H
S.P
4 0 ^
-H K+h
mv ohms rr^m
S.P RES
4 0 0
H h + l ------
mv 100
I -
ohms m^/m
RESISTIVITY
ohms m /m
V i C K S B U R G '
^ —
T 0 » I 4 S ' \
„ FORW^T'ON
C0CKF'E^°
TD=2I86'
TO=2 8 8 8 '
LOCATK^I MAP
VERTICAL EXAGGERATION: x 6.6
I INCH = 0 . 8 8 MILE
GROUNDWATER QUALITY.
DISSOLVED SOLIDS IN PPM
CZ3 < 1000
^ 1000- 20,000
H 2 0 , 0 0 0 - 4 0 , 0 0 0 .
4 0 . 0 0 0 - 6 0 , 0 0 0
6 0 . 0 0 0 - 8 0 , 0 0 0
SARDIS CHURCH SALT DOME
COPIAH COUNTY, MISSISSIPPI
FIG. I V - D “ 3
138
Although t he e f f e c t of s hal e may have cont r i but ed t o some e r r o r , t hi s
v e r t i c a l s a l i n i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n i s most probabl y due t o di f f er enc es i n per ­
meabi 1i t y val ues of sand u n i t s . Giving credence t o t h i s t heory i s t he
obser vat i on by Bi cker , e t a l . , (1969) t h a t t he wat er from wel l s screened
i n more permeable sand have lower s a l i n i t y thah t hose scr eened i n l es s
permeable sand, provi ded t hey were a t t he same dept h.
Though t he cross s ect i on i ndi cat es f r es h wat er below t he t op of t he
dome, t he s t a b i l i t y of t he dome cannot be es t abl i s he d from t he a vai l abl e
dat a. The cont r ol wel l s ar e a l l l ocat ed on one s i de of t he dome, and t he
absence of a s a l i ne plume could not be e s t abl i s he d by such s par se well
cover age.
c. Gi l be r t Dome. This dome i s named a f t e r t he town of Gi l b e r t ,
Loui si ana and i s l ocat ed approxi mat el y 3 mi l es t o t he sout hwest of t he town.
The depth t o t he anhydr i t e caprock has been r epor t ed by Anderson, e t a l . ,
(1973) as 1425 f t , wi t h dept h t o t he s a l t a t 1770 f t below s ur f ace. The
dome probably penet r at es t he Midway group and i s i n cont act wi t h t he Wi1cox
group (Fi gure IV-D-4).
Sur f i c i a l geology and hydrology of t he f r esh wat er aqui f er s of t he
area i n t he v i c i n i t y of t he dome ar e not well known. The dept h t o t he
base of t he f r es h wat er could not be det ermi ned from t he a va i l a bl e logs
as t hey a l l s t a r t below i t . The deeper , s a l i n e aqui f e r s show no i ncr eas e
i n s a l i n i t y around t he dome (Fi gure IV-D-4). The hi ghes t s a l i n i t y i n t he
Spart a format i on i n wel l s Nos, 2, 4 and 5 var i es approxi mat el y between
30, 000 ppm and 36, 000 ppm. In t he Wilcox for mat i on, except f or well No.
4 l ocat ed 2. 5 mi les south of t he dome, t he hi ghest s a l i n i t y i s approxi mat el y
t he same (50, 000 ppm) i n a l l t he wel l s . The hi ghest s a l i n i t y i n well No.
4 i s s l i g h t l y lower (43, 000 ppm). S a l i n i t i e s i n well No, 3 on t he f l ank
of t he dome could not be determi ned due t o t he poor qua l i t y of t he l og.
139
SP RESSTIVITY
eO 0 10
- A K+ I------ 1
0 100
£P RESISTIVITY S.P RESISTIVITY
^50^ 0 M
mv ^ tfims m^'m
SP RESISTIVITY
“'U'+Orf/m
S.P RESISTIVITY
f “ -1500
U1
LU
I
UJ
UJ
COOK MOUNTAIN FORMATION
SPARTA f o r m a t i o n
r i v e r f o r m a t i o n
WILCOX GROUP
midway g r o u p
TP.RTIABT
a CISTACtWS
SELMA GRw P "
EuwwroWAT''™
VERTICAL EXAGGERATION: sc 13.2
I INCH = 2 .4 MILES
GROUNDWATER QUALITY.
DISSOLVED SOLIDS IN PPM
< 1000
mA1000 “ 20, 000
M 2 0 , 0 0 0 - 4 0 , 0 0 0
^ 4 0 , 0 0 0 - 6 0 , 0 0 0
tm 6 0 , 0 0 0 - 8 0 , 0 0 0
GILBERT SALT DOME
FRANKLIN PARISH, LOUISIANA
FIG. I V- D- 4
1 4 0
Although no s a l i n i t y anomaly was found i n t he cross sect i ons the hydro­
l ogi c s t a b i l i t y of the dome cannot be e s t abl i s he d wi t h any degree of c e r ­
t a i n t y . More cont r ol wel l s ar e needed, e s pe c i al l y t o t he e a s t and west of
t he dome, t o e s t a bl i s h wat er qua l i t y va r i a t i ons i n t hese ar eas .
d. Crowvil le Dome. Crowvi l l e dome, l ocat ed i n Fr ankl i n Par i s h, Loui­
s i ana , i s t he shal l owest of t he domes s t udi ed. Two wel l s have been d r i l l e d
over t he dome and one of t hese encount ered l i mest one caprock a t a depth of
511 f t from t he s ur f ace. The ot her well encount ered anhydri t e caprock a t
a depth of 2977 f t . The dept h t o t he s a l t i s not known as ne i t her of t he
two wel l s penet r at ed t he s a l t . However, Anderson, e t a l . , (1973) contend
t h a t t he s a l t mass may be consi der abl y deeper t han 2000 f t and l es s t han 1
mi le i n di amet er .
The base of f r es h wat er could not be determined from t he a va i l abl e logs
as t hey a l l s t a r t below i t . I t probably l i e s i n t he unconsol i dat ed a l l uvi a l
deposi t s wi t hi n 175 f t from t he s ur f ace (Anderson, e t a l . , 1973).
The s a l i ne aqui f er s show an i ncr ease In s a l i n i t y near t he dome (Fi gure
IV-D-5). The hi ghest s a l i n i t y i n t he Spar t a for mat i on occurs i n wel l s 5
and 3 cl ose t o t he dome and i s approxi mat el y 64, 000 ppm. In ot her wel l s
t he s a l i n i t y var i es between 38, 000 ppm and 17,000 ppm, being gener al l y hi gher
towards t he nor t heas t . The s a l i n i t y of t he ground wat er i n t he Wilcox
group al so i ncr eases t o 69, 000 ppm and 76, 000 ppm i n wel l s 5 and 3, r espec­
t i v e l y , from t he hi ghs of 44, 000 ppm and 50, 000 ppm i n t he adj acent wel l s
6 and 2. This r i s e i n s a l i n i t y i ndi cat es a pos s i bl e di s s ol ut i on of t he s a l t
dome. Boat ner (1975) al so mapped a s al i ne plume around Crowvil le s a l t dome.
Well No. 9 al s o shows an anomalous i ncr eas e i n s a l i n i t y t o a high of above
70, 000 ppm i n t he Wilcox group. Thi s i ncr eas e may be due t o some reason
ot her t han di s s ol ut i on of t he s a l t dome because of t he di s t ance of t hi s
well from t he dome.
1—
1x1
LU
IxJ
_l
lU
SP reSISTMTY
0 oo
GROUNDWATER QUALITY.
DISSOLVED SOLIDS IN PPM
E 3 < 1000
^ 1000- 20,000
mm 20,000-40,000
^ 4 0 , 0 0 0 - 6 0 , 0 0 0
6 0 , 0 0 0 - 8 0 , 0 0 0
8 6 5
SP ISStSTIVITY SP fSStSTMTY SP RE^nVITY
60 0 K > 4 S 0 I 0 e o o o
-H K+ I 1 —I K+ I i - U * * t 1
0__^ 0 IM 0 j «
*m8 i T ^ ohm« ohm* tAm
4 3
SP REssnv nessnvrry SP RESISTIVITY
««18IT^
COCKFIELD FORMATKW
COOK MOUNTAIN FORMATION
SPARTA FORMATION
CANE RIVER FORMATION
^^CpXGROUP
g roup
VERTICAL EXAGGERATION: x 6.6
I INCH = 1.25 MILES
CROWVILLE SALT DOME
FRANKLIN PARISH, LOUISIANA
FIG. l V - D - 5
1 4 2
The r a t e of flow of ground wat er i n t he deeper aqui f er s of t he
Mi ssi ssi ppi Sa l t Dome Basin i s not known, so t he r a t e of di s s ol ut i on of
any dome cannot be est i mat ed. Although t he dat a i ndi c a t e pos s i bl e d i s ­
s ol ut i on of s a l t a t Crowvi ll e dome, t he degree of hydr ol ogi c i n s t a b i l i t y
cannot be c a l c ul at ed.
e. County Line Dome. Depth t o t he caprock of County Line Dome i n
Greene County, Mi ssi ssi ppi has been r epor t ed by Anderson, e t a l . , (1973)
t o be 1230 f t below t he s ur f ace and by Halbouty (1967) t o be 1288 f t .
However, t he two wel l s d r i l l e d over t he dome encount ered caprock a t a
depth of 1300 f t and s a l t a t 2169 f t , a t t he s hal l owes t . Only two well
logs were a vai l abl e f or anal ys i s and t he r e f or e no concl usi ons regar di ng
hydrol ogi c s t a b i l i t y were made. However, t he cross s ect i on i ndi ca t es
(Fi gure IV-D-6):
1) The base of f r es h wat er i s l ocat ed a t t he base of t he Cat ahoula
format i on.
2) Few t hi c k sands are pr es ent below t he Cat ahoula f or mi t i on and
t hese ar e gener al l y shal ey.
3) The s a l i n i t y of t he deep s a l i n e aqui f er s around County Line dome
i s lower t han around ot her domes. In well No. 2, t he hi ghest s a l i n i t y
i n t he Cockfi el d f or mat i on, Spar t a for mat i on and Wilcox group i s 6, 000
ppm, 8, 000 ppm and 11, 000 ppm, r e s pe c t i ve l y. The s a l i n i t y i n well No. 1
could not be det ermi ned because of t he absence of t hi ck sands below t he
ipatahoula.
The hydrol ogi c s t a b i l i t y of t he dome coul d not be as cer t ai ned from
t he a va i l abl e d a t a , a par t from t he obser vat i on t h a t t he s hal e of t he deep
aqui f er s may c ont r i but e t o t he hydrol ogi c s t a b i l i t y of t he dome.
143
2
RESISTIVITY
K+H
mv 0
h
200
VERTICAL EXAGGERATION: x 12.4
I INCH = 1.76 MILES
ohms m^/m
Sea Level
CATAHOULA FORMATION
-Z-£0REST hill r - '
~-_^FleLO
-1000
SALT \ \
-1500
I—
LU
UJ
Ll.
-20 00
2
O
t-
§
UJ
- J
- 2 5 0 0
Ui
- 3 0 0 0
- 3 5 0 0
- 4 0 0 0
- 4 5 0 0
LOCATION MAP
GROUNDWATER QUALITY.
DISSOLVED SOLIDS IN PPM
< 1000
^ 1000- - 20, 000
H i 2 0 , 0 0 0 - 4 0 , 0 0 0
4 0 . 0 0 0 - 6 0 , 0 0 0
6 0 . 0 0 0 - 8 0 , 0 0 0
COUNTY LINE SALT DOME
GREENE COUNTY, MISSISSIPPI
FIG. I V - D - 6
1 4 4
Byrd Dome. Only t hr ee logs i n t he area around Byrd dome i n Greene
County, Mi ssi ssi ppi could be obt ai ned, and none of t hese penet r at es t he dome.
They are l ocat ed south and s out heas t of t he dome (Figure IV-D-7). However,
Hawkins and J t r l k (1966) have r epor t ed t he depth t o t he anhydri t e caprock
as 1483 f t , with depth to t he s a l t as not g r e a t e r than 2,058 f t below the
s ur f a ce. The dome probably t ermi nat es i n t he Claiborne group. Some domal
and fl ank f a u l t s ar e ass oci at ed with t he dome (Karges, 1975).
The depth t o the base of t he f r es h water i s uniform and i s l ocat ed
a t t he base of Catahoula formation (Figure IV-D-7). The deeper aqui f er s
are predominately shaley sands so no r e l i a b l e s a l i n i t y det ermi nat i ons of
t hese aqui f er s could be obt ai ned. However, i n t he few t hi c k sands pr e s e n t ,
no t rend i s d i s c e r n i b l e in t he s a l i n i t y v a r i a t i o n in Cockfield and Sparta
format i ons. The s a l i n i t y i s hi ghest i n well No. 2. In t he Wilcox group,
the s a l i n i t y decreases towards t he dome from a high of about 72,000 ppm in
well No. 1 t o 20,000 In well No. 3.
The hydrologi c s t a b i l i t y of t he dome cannot be e s t a bl i s he d on the
basi s of such spar se dat a and t he absence of any t rend i n t he s a l i n i t y
v a r i a t i o ns around t he dome. However, t he absence of sand i n deeper aqui ­
f e r s may r e s t r i c t a ct i ve c i r c u l a t i o n of ground water around t he dome and
prevent d i s s o l u t i o n of s a l t . The s hal e of t hese a qui f er s could cont r i but e
t o t he hydrol ogi c s t a b i l i t y of t he dome.
9* beedo Dome. Leedo dome i s l ocat ed i n t he s out heas t corner of
J e f f e r s on County, Mi s s i s s i ppi . The shal l owest recorded depth t o caprock
and s a l t 1s 1405 (?) f t and 2065 f t (subsurface) r e s p e c t i v e l y . Estimates
based on l i mi t ed d r i l l hole dat a pl ace t he s i z e of the dome a t one mile
in diameter a t 2600 f t subsurface (2100 f t below sea l e v e l i Anderson, e t
a l . , 1973).
1 4 5
RESISTIVITY
0 10 20
iOO 200
Ohms m^m ohms mVm
CATAHOULA FORMATION
VICKSBURG GROUP
FOREST HILL FORMATION
[UMmFFEREMTIATEO)
APPROXIMATE
LOCATION OF SALT DOME
YAZOO FORMATION
COCKFIELD FORMATION
COOK MOUNTAIN FORMATION
SPARTA FORMATION
2000
Til DMA-WINONA - TALAHATT
ZILPHA Y^^mATIONS
WILCOX
500 0
VERTICAL EXAGGERATION: x 3.77
I INCH = 0.74 MILE
BAVERA
T
4
N
Q
T
. 3
/ -----------------
----------
^ H
0 MLES 5
NEELY
2
Rdw R7W R6W ^
GROUNDWATER QUALITY.
DISSOLVED SOLIDS IN PPM
n n < 1000
1000- 20,000
tom 2 0 , 0 0 0 - 4 0 , 0 0 0
4 0 . 0 0 0 - 6 0 , 0 0 0
6 0 . 0 0 0 - 8 0 , 0 0 0
BYRD SALT DOME
GREENE COUNTY, MISSISSIPPI
FIG. I V- D- 7
1 4 6
The surface s t r a t a over Leedo dome c o n s i s t of cl ays and sands of t he
Pascagoula and Hat t i esburg formations (Miocene) l o c a l l y over l ai n by Pli ocene
sands and gravel s (Andersons e t a l . j 1973). In t he subsurface the dome 1s
In cont act with i nt erbedded sands and clays of t he Sparta formation and
Wilcox group ( ? ) .
Problems e x i s t in t he i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the subsurface geology of
Leedo dome. As previ ousl y noted* s a l t was encountered a t a depth of 2065
f t subsurf ace i n well No. 1 (Fi gures IV-D-8 and - 9 ) . The d r i l l i n g record
and e l e c t r i c log f or t h i s we l l , however, f a i l t o i ndi c a t e t he presence of
normal caprock. However, l es s than 0. 5 mi l e sout h of well No. 1, well No.
2 encountered caprock a t e i t h e r 1847 f t subsur f ace ( scout card i n t e r p r e t a t i o n )
or 1405 f t subsurf ace (D. H. Eargl e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of e l e c t r i c log dat a;
see Anderson e t a l . , 1973). Thus e i t h e r caprock t hi cknesses vary gr e a t l y
over t he dome or e l s e t he caprock char act er var i es over t he dome. I f well
No. 1 a c t ua l l y cont ai ns an appr eci abl e t hi ckness of caprock, then i t s
e l e c t r i c log c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s qui t e d i f f e r e n t from t he e l e c t r i c log char ­
a c t e r i s t i c of caprock i n well No. 2.
The cross s ect i ons i n Fi gur es IV-D-8 and -9 i l l u s t r a t e a simple
s t r uc t ur a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t he subsurf ace geol ogy, usi ng well No. 1 as
t he cent er of t he dome. A more pr eci s e l ocat i on and conf i gur at i on f or
Leedo dome could ne c e s s i t a t e a r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t he subsurf ace s t r u c t u r e .
The base of f r es h wat er over Leedo dome i s about 550 f t below s ur f ace
and ext ends down t o between 960 f t and 1160 f t subsur f ace i n wel l s nor t h,
e a s t , and west of t he dome. Cal cul at i ons i ndi c a t e t he depth t o t he base
of f r es h wat er south of t he dome (well No. 8) i s 1530 f t below t he s ur f ace.
The base of f r es h wat er i n a l l t he wel l s e xi s t s near t he lower s ect i on of
12
GROUNDWATER QUALITY.
DISSOLVED SOLIDS IN PPM
< 1000
1000- 20,000
2 0 . 0 0 0 - 4 0 , 0 0 0
4 0 . 0 0 0 - 6 0 , 0 0 0
6 0 . 0 0 0 - 8 0 , 0 0 0
- u ~ .
sc M E ( Mi . )
VERTICAL EXAGGERATION: x 6.6
LEEDO SALT DOME
JEFFERSON COUNTY, MISSISSIPPI
CROSS SECTION A - A '
FIG. I V-D~8
8
SP RESISTIVITY SP RESIS. SP RES® SP RESISTIVITY
4 . 7 Mi .
YAZOO f o r m a t i w
cocKneuoJom*^
Z
g
5
u
SCALE ( Mi . )
GROUNDWATER QUALITY.
DISSOLVED SOLIDS IN PPM
I < 1000
1000- 20,000
■ ■ 2 0 , 0 0 0 - 4 0 , 0 0 0
4 0 . 0 0 0 - 6 0 , 0 0 0
6 0 . 0 0 0 - 8 0 , 0 0 0
VERTICAL EXAGGERATION: x 6.6
LOCATION MAP
LEEDO SALT DOME
JEFFERSON COUNTY, MISSISSIPPI
CROSS SECTION B - B '
FIG. I V - D - 9
149
t he undi f f e r e nt i a t e d Miocene depos i t s . S a l i n i t i e s a t t he base of t he
Miocene deposi t s gener al l y reach gr e a t e r t han 3000 ppm.
S a l i n i t i e s of aqui f er s wi t hi n t he Cockfi el d and uppermost Spart a
for mat i ons are s i g n i f i c a n t l y hi gher i n wel l s west and sout hwest of Leedo
dome. The pr eci s e cause of t hese i ncreased s a l i n i t i e s cannot be determi ned
by t he pr es ent st udy. However, si nce t he regi onal ground-wat er flow d i ­
r e c t i on i s sout hwest er l y, t he i ncr eas e i n ground-wat er s a l i n i t y southwest
of t he dome suggest s t h a t s a l t di s s ol ut i on from Leedo dome may be a cause.
For t h i s reason Leedo dome may be hydr ol ogi cal l y uns t abl e.
h. Richmond dome. Richmond dome i s l ocat ed i n t he s out heas t corner
of Covington count y, Mi s s i s s i p p i . The di scovery we l l , d r i l l e d i n 1944,
encount ered caprock a t a depth of 1609 f t and was t ermi nat ed i n anhydri t e
a t a t o t a l depth of 1740 f t subsur f ace. A second we l l , l ocat ed appr oxi ­
mat el y 0. 3 mi l es nort h of t he di scovery we l l , ent er ed s a l t a t 1954 f t .
Anderson, e t a l . , (1973) s pecul at e t h a t depth t o s a l t i n t he v i c i n i t y of
t he di scover y well may be on t he or der of 200 f t l es s t han t ha t encount ered
t o dat e.
The sur f ace s t r a t a over t he dome are mainly cl ayey members of t he
Pascagoula and Hat t i esbur g format i ons of Miocene age (Anderson, e t a l . ,
1973). Fresh wat er sands and l i mest ones of lower Miocene and Oligocene
age comprise a l ar ge por t i on of t he sediments below t he s ur f ace c l ays ,
ext endi ng t o a depth of about 1200 f t . Beyond 1200 f t , cl ays of t he Yazoo
format i on, sands and cl ays of t he Cockfi el d for mat i on, and cl ays of t he
upper Cook Mountain for mat i ons ( a l l of Eocene age) ser ve t o separ at e t he
s a l t from t he pr i nci pal f r es h wat er a qui f er s .
The l i mi t ed amount of well cont r ol f or t he ar eas i mnedi at el y surround­
ing t he dome sever el y l i mi t s s t r uc t ur a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . Three wel l s l ocat ed
1 5 0
on t op of t he dome (Fi gure IV-B-10) suggest a normal domal upl 1f t f or
t he overl yi ng sedi ment s. The degree of sediment di st ur bance beyond
simple domal u p l i f t cannot be est i mat ed wi t h t he e xi s t i ng dat a.
Water qua l i t y det ermi ned from e l e c t r i c l ogs i ndi cat es t he base of
f r es h wat er over Richmond dome a t about 660 f t below s ur f ace (wi t hi n
an a qui f er of undi f f e r e nt i a t e d Miocene r ocks ) . Both well No. 3, l oca­
t ed on t he nort h end of t he dome, and well No. 4, l ocat ed about 6 mi l es
nort h of t he dome, i ndi c a t e t he presence of f r es h wat er a t a dept h of
approxi mat el y 800 f t subsur f ace (Fi gure IV-D-10). Gener al l y t he geom­
e t r y f or t he base of f r es h wat er conforms wi t h t he geometry f o r t he
base of Miocene deposi t s over t he dome.
The l ack of s u f f i c i e n t ground-wat er s a l i n i t y dat a precl udes
assessment of t he hydr ol ogi c s t a b i l i t y of t h i s dome. However, t he
separ at i on of f r es h wat er aqui f er s from t he s a l t by more t h a t 400 f t
of predomi nat el y cl ayey sedi ment , provi des an unknown degree of i s o l a ­
t i on of t he s a l t from di s s ol ut i on by f r es h wat er .
151
4
3 2
RESISTIVITY
S.P RESISTIVITY
0____ 20
^80^ 0 100
0___ ^ 0
0 y ^
ohms m^'m
ohms rm/m
Level
•500
•1000
SRMffmir
COCKFIELD f o r m a t i o n
COOK MOUNTAIN FORMATION
•1500
SPARTA FORM ATION
•2000
ZILPHA FORMATION
•2500
S CALE ( M i . )
•3000
VERTICAL EXAGGERATION: x 8.8
LOCATION
GROUNDWATER QUALITY.
DISSOLVED SOLIDS IN PPM
CD < 1000
^ 1000- 20,000
mm 2 0 , 0 0 0 - 4 0 , 0 0 0
^ 4 0 , 0 0 0 - 6 0 , 0 0 0
■ ■ 6 0 , 0 0 0 - 8 0 , 0 0 0
RICHMOND SALT DOME
COVINGTON COUNTY, MISSISSIPPI
FIG. I V-D-I O
152
Table IV-D-1. Li s t of e l e c t r i c well logs used in t he Mi ssi ssi ppi S a l t
Dome Basin s a l t dome cross s e c t i o n s .
BRUINSBURG SALT DOME
(Fig. IV-D-2)
Well Total depth El evation
No. Name ( f e e t ) ( f e e t )
1 Freeport Sulphur Co. 1830 85
#4 W. R. Hanmett
2 Bar net t Ser i o- Just i ss- Mear s 6504 203
#1 Alex Wilson
3 Lyle Cashion 6515 160
McAmi s #1
SARDIS CHURCH SALT DOME
(Fi g. IV~D"3)
Geo. Koch-Vasser Drlg. Co. 6709 410
W. W. Broome #
Ze-Nae Oil Corp. 2888 335
#1 W. W. Broome
Freeport Sulphur Co. 2186 414
#1 So. Package Co.
Freeport Sulphur Co. 1452 387
#1 Allen - E. Hazlehurst
GILBERT SALT DOME
(Fi g. IV-D-4)
1 Monsanto Chem. Co. 6525 85
Lei l a #1
2 J e t t Drl g. Co. , Inc. e t a l . 7115 84
#1 J . B. Eley
153
Tabl e IV-D-l j cont i nued.
Well
No.
3
4
5
Name
Cont i nent al Oil Co.
L. T. Car r ol l #1
Crown Cent ral Pet .
Womble #1
Johnsons Smith & Cameron
Archi e Eezel l #1
Total depth
( f e e t )
3957
4502
7505
El evat i on
( f ee t )
80
74
79
1 J . C. Maxwell
Al i ce Donnel #1
2 Tr i ce Prod. Co.
N. L. Hower #1
3 Gul f Refi ni ng Co.
George Washington #2-A
4 Gulf Refi ni ng Co.
George Washington #1-A
5 Murphy-Sun Oil Co.
J . E. Hol t # E-4
6 Murphy-Sun Oil Co.
J . E. Hol t # D-29
7 Murphy-Sun Oil Co.
J . E. Hol t # D-30
8 Robert F. Roberts
McFarland #1
9 Murphy-Sun Oil Co.
J . E. Hol t # D-16
CROWVILLE SALT DOME
(Fi g. IV-D-5)
5394
5266
3129
911
5012
4814
4603
4113
3902
Humble Oil and Refi ni ng Co.
Green Co. Bd. of Sup. #2
BYRD SALT DOME
(Fi g. IV-D-6)
7128
95
94
82
85. 5
85
86
85
87
88
200
154
Tabl e IV-D-1j cont i nued.
Well Tot al dept h El evat i on
No. Name ( f e e t ) ( f e e t )
2 Humble Oil and Refi ni ng Co. 8767 256
B. St over #3
3 A. R. Temple-Crawford Drlg. Co. 8500 159. 5
COUNTY LINE SALT DOME
( Fi g. IV-D-7)
1 Sun Oil Company 1342 140
David Gaines #2
2 Pan American Pet . Corp. 14737 235
M. S. Gat l i n #1
LEEDO SALT DOME
(Fi gs. IV-D-8 & IV-D-9)
1 Gulf Refi ni ng Co. 2070 478
#1 S. V. Cupit
2 Explore Corp. 2108 521
John T. Cupid #1
3 Gulf Ref i ni ng Co. 7908 486
#2 El l a M. Cato
5 Shor t r i dge, Webster & Williams 6511 323
#1 Shel t on
6 Shor t r i dge, Webster & Williams 6575 428
#1 Crosby Lumber Company
7 Ti de Water Assn. Oil Co. 10754 436
#1 B. F. Buie
8 Al l i ed Producing Co. , Durham 6422 434
& Lazard & Vi ct or P. Smith
#1 U.S. Lumber Cent ral
11 Ray-Mac Petrol eum Co. 6418 479
#1 U.S. Lumber e t a l .
12 Ray-Mac Petrol eum Co. 6421 465
#1 Sidney Smith
Table IV-D-1, cont i nued.
155
Well
No. Name
Tot al depth
( f ee t )
El evat i on
( f e e t )
1 Fr eepor t Sulphur
Beasley #1
2 Fr eepor t Sulphur Co.
J . W. Watts #1
3 Fr eepor t Sul phur Co.
Mrs. P. Scarborough #1
4 Ci t i e s Servi ces Oil Co.
#1 R. Aultman
RICHMOND SALT DOME
(Fi g. IV-D-10)
1624
1719
1910
9708
240
222
272
293
157
IV-E. CAPROCK STUDIES
J . D, Mart i nez and J . E. Rovik
A major t h r u s t 1n our caprock st udy has been an e f f o r t t o develop
an underst andi ng of t he genesi s of caprock through a pet r ogr aphi c I n v e s t i ­
gat i on of both t he caprock and s a l t near t he I nt e r f a c e . I t Is hoped
t h a t some bas i s can be e s t a bl i s he d f o r det ermi ni ng from an exami nat ion
of a cor e and/ or ot her subsur f ace dat a whet her a ct i ve di s s ol u t i on i s in
process a t a p a r t i c u l a r l ocat i on on t he upper s ur f ace of t he s a l t in a
dome. For example, a zone of l oose anhydr i t e sand or poor l y consol i dat ed
anhydr i t e caprock would suggest r e c ent or a ct i ve d i s s o l u t i o n . A " pi l e of
br i ck" f a b r i c of t he anhydr i t e caprock, wi t h l i t t l e cement at i on, would
al s o be suggest i ve of t h i s c ondi t i on.
Conversel y, a sharp l i ne of demarkat i on between compl et el y r e c r y s t a l ­
l i zed anhydr i t e and s a l t would suggest l ack of a ct i ve d i s s ol ut i o n a t t he
poi nt from which t he core was obt ai ned.
Our pet r ogr aphi c s t udi es ar e desi gned t o hel p us underst and t he pr o­
cess which occurs i n t h i s i n i t i a l s t age of caprock for mat i on. I t would
be usef ul t o devel op d e f i n i t i v e evi dence i ndi c a t i ng whet her or not caprock
i s indeed developed by a r es i dual accumul at i on of anhydr i t e. Although
t h i s process has been quest i oned by Walker (1972), i t i s t he most gener al l y
accept ed expl anat i on. We ar e proceedi ng on t he basi s t h a t caprock does
indeed form from t he r es i dual accumul at i on of anhydr i t e r e s u l t i n g from
s a l t di s s ol ut i on.
Thi s st udy has been hampered by t he l ack of a v a i l a b i l i t y of s u i t a b l e
cor es adj acent t o t he i nt e r f a c e between caprock and s a l t . A few appr opr i at e
cores have been found. The r e s u l t s obt ai ned from c e r t a i n of t hese were
descr i bed in t he 1976 r e por t (Mart i nez, e t a l . , 1976).
158
During t he 1977 f i s c a l year , cores were obt ai ned from t he Gibsl and
s a l t dome In nor t h Loui si ana and t he Moss Bl uf f dome In Texas.
Inf ormat i on f ur ni shed us on t he Moss Bl uf f cores i ndi c a t es t h a t t hey
were t aken near t he capr oc k/ s a l t i n t e r f a c e . Seven t hi n s ect i ons were
prepared from 5 core sampl es. A weak c l u s t e r i n g of anhydr i t e c r y s t a l s
was not ed i n t he s a l t sampl es. These c l u s t e r s ar e c har act er i z ed by br i c k-
shaped anhydr i t e c r y s t a l s which ar e p r e f e r e n t i a l l y or i ent ed a t angl es t o
t he hor i zont al which are l es s t han 45°. In t he anhydr i t e above t he s a l t
t he r e i s very l i t t l e i ndi cat i on of p r e f e r e n t i a l c r y s t a l o r i e n t a t i o n . The
samples f ur ni shed t o us di d not permi t an assessment of any pos s i bl e change
in o r i e n t a t i o n of anhydr i t e a t gr e a t e r di s t a nce from t he i n t e r f a c e .
Core samples from t he c apr oc k/ s a l t i n t e r f a c e of t he Gibsland dome in
nor t h Loui si ana which were f ur ni shed t o us by H. B. Gi bsl and of t he Hercul es
Pet roleum Company, have provi ded us wi t h new evi dence of a n h y d r i t e - s a l t
r e l a t i o n s i n t he s a l t near t he cont act which may ul t i ma t e l y pr ovi de a
b e t t e r underst andi ng of pr ocesses in t h i s r egi on and may be of val ue t o
our i n v e s t i g a t i o n s .
Three t hi n s ect i ons were pr epared from t he anhydr i t e caprock appr oxi ­
mat el y 9 cm above t he s a l t / ca pr oc k i n t e r f a c e . These s ec t i ons showed t h i s
por t i on of t he caprock t o c ons i s t of more t han 99 per cent anhydr i t e wi t h
t r a c e s of dol omi t e. No gr adat i onal changes were not ed. Larger c r y s t a l s
of anhydr i t e ar e more numerous i n t he caprock t han in t he s a l t , which
suggest s some r e c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n near t he c ont act .
Three t hi n s ect i ons were pr epar ed from t he s a l t from 3 cm t o 9 cm
below t he c apr oc k/ s a l t i n t e r f a c e . These s ect i ons provi ded us wi t h new
i ns i ght s i nt o t he pet r ol ogy of t h i s p a r t of t he s a l t . In t he i nt e r va l
from 4 t o 9 cm below t he c ont ac t , t he r e i s a concent r at i on of anhydr i t e
gr ai ns in t r a i l s of c r y s t a l s al ong s a l t c r y s t a l boundari es (Fi gure IV- E- 1) .
159
0,5 mm
Figure IV-E-1. Concent rat i on and o r i e n t a t i o n of anhydr i t e c r y s t a l s
along s a l t cr ys t al boundar i es.
In t hese t r a i l s , el ongat e axes of anhydr i t e c r y s t a l s ar e p r e f e r e n t i a l l y
al i gned along t he s a l t / c r y s t a l boundar i es. The anhydr i t e ranges from
br i ck- t o bl ock-shaped c r y s t a l s and va r i es between 0.1 mm and 0. 3 mm
in s i z e . Although a few anhydr i t e c r y s t a l s i n t h i s regi on ar e i ncl uded
i n s a l t c r y s t a l s , t h e i r densi t y i ncr eas es a t t he s a l t c r ys t a l boundari es.
I t i s reasonabl e t o conclude t h a t t hese c r y s t a l s mi gr at ed t o t he bound­
ary pos i t i ons i n t h e i r pr es ent form. Thi s movement may have occur red by
s a l t di s s ol ut i on and r e c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n causi ng t he or i gi nal c r y s t a l s t o
r e j e c t t he anhydr i t e; or , i t may have devel oped by movement of t he anhy­
d r i t e out of t he s a l t in some form of s ol i d s t a t e pr ocess, i t i s
160
premature a t t h i s t ime t o s pecul at e f u r t h e r on t h i s pr ocess , but i t i s
pos s i bl e t h a t some e n t i r e l y new concept s may devel op from t h i s obser ­
vat i on. The movement of l i qui d bubbles through s a l t al ong heat gr adi ent s
may pos si bl y provi de a model t o expl ai n t h i s observed movement of
anhydr i t e c r y s t a l s .
These anhydr i t e t r a i l s ar e wi der and cont ai n more c r y s t a l s near
t he c a pr oc k/ s a l t i n t e r f a c e . Three cent i met er s below t he c ont a c t , as much
as 80 per cent anhydr i t e i s concent r at ed i n el ongat e zones roughl y par ­
a l l e l t o t he s a l t cont act . These zones or 1ayer s ar e s epar at ed by s a l t
cont ai ni ng very 1i t t l e anhydr i t e.
Our work t hus f a r confi rms t he i dea of s a l t dome caprock forming
by r es i dual accumulat ion of a nhydr i t e, and support s t he t h e s i s t h a t con­
di t i o n s a t t he c a pr oc k/ s a l t i nt e r f a c e may be used t o i ndi c a t e whet her
a c t i ve di s s ol ut i on i s i n pr ogr es s. Much more dat a ar e needed from cores
t o proceed wi t h t h i s work, al t hough such cores ar e d i f f i c u l t t o f i nd.
We bel i eve t h a t we can devel op much more i nfor mat i on from a r e l a t i v e l y
i nexpensi ve, cont i nui ng, st udy of s a l t dome caprock of t h i s ki nd.
161
IV-F. HYDROLOGIC ISOLATION OF MINED
OPENINGS IN SALT DOMES
J . D. Mart i nez and R. L. Thoms
1. I nt r oduct i on
Thi s i nve s t i ga t i on, which was i n i t i a t e d i n January 1976, i s s t i l l in
pr ogr es s . Reported and observed condi t i ons i n some mines underscore t he
need t o cont i nue t h i s st udy. Thus f a r we have det ermined t h a t t he Grand
Sal i ne and Hockley mines ar e dry and t h a t t he mine i n t he Cote Blanche
dome i s e s s e n t i a l l y so, wi t h onl y a few t r a c e s of wat er which ar e probably
connat e. We cont i nue t o be s ever el y hampered by l ack of access t o mines
in t he J ef f er s on I sl and and Avery I sl and domes. We have not y e t v i s i t e d
t he Bel l e I s l e mine which has been r epor t ed t o be a wet mine; but accordi ng
t o a pr el i mi nar y unof f i ci al di s cus s i on wi t h a r e pr e s e nt a t i ve of mine manage­
ment, onl y connat e wat er has been encount ered. The Weeks I s l and mine has
been i nspect ed and provi des a c ont r a s t i ng s e t of condi t i ons t o t hose which
have been found t o be dry. Although Weeks I sl and mine i s not consi dered
by t he management t o have wat er l eaks of s er i ous consequence t o mining, i t
i s not now consi dered t o be a dry mine from t he s t andpoi nt of long range
i s o l a t i o n of r adi oact i ve wast es. Ther ef or e, we do have dat a of s u f f i c i e n t
c o n t r a s t t o begi n t o devel op a s t r a t e g y f o r pr e di ct i on of pot e nt i a l i n t e r ­
nal hydr ol ogi c problems i n domes p r i o r t o development of underground space.
The approach t o t h i s problem must go much deeper t han obser vat i on and
case hi s t or y a na l ys i s . I t r equi r e s t he accumul at i on of much more dat a and
i nf or mat i on and thorough assessment of t he i nt er nal s t r u c t u r e of Gulf
Coast s a l t domes and t he or i e s of t h e i r development p a r t i c u l a r l y bear i ng on
pot e nt i a l avenues f or i nt er na l f l u i d movement. Fi gure IV-F-1 r epr es ent s
our updated pl an f or t h i s mine hydrology i n v e s t i g a t i o n . We have onl y begun
COMPARE AND
EVALUATE
ALTERNATIVE
EXPLANATIONS
EXAMINE
SAWED SLABS
OF SALT
TEST
HYPOTHESES
WITH DATA
EXAMINE
INSOLUBLE
RESIDUES
FROM SALT
INVESTIGATE
PETROLOGY OF
DOMAL MATERIAL
STUDY
PHYSICAL
PROPERTIES
OF SALT
CHARACTERIZE
SALT FROM
WET AND
DRY MINES
CORRELATE
PHYSICAL DATA
WITH INTERNAL
HYDROLOGY
INVESTIGATE
GEOCHEMISTRY
OF MINE
WATERS
REVIEW THEORIES
DEVELOPED TO EXPLAIN
MINE LEAKS
ESTABLISH ANY
SIMILARITIES OR
DIFFERENCES
BETWEEN THESE
WATERS
ESTABLISH ALTERNATIVE
HYPOTHESES TO ACCOUNT
FOR MINE LEAKS
THUS DETERMINE
WHICH LEAKS ARE
CONNATE AND
WHICH ARE
METEORIC
EXAMINE MINES
AND ESTABLISH
MINE HYDROLOGY
HISTORY
ACCUMULATE PHYSICAL
DATA OF
DOMAL MATERIALS
SEARCH FOR PATTERNS
TO ESTABLISH A BASIS
FOR PREDICTING THE
DEGREE OF ISOLATION
PROVIDED BY THE
SALT STOCK
crs
ro
FIG. IV -F - I PLAN FOR MINE HYDROLOGY INVESTIGATION
163
t o fol l ow t he sequence of s t eps i nvol vi ng pet r ol ogi c a l and geochemical
s t udi e s . These appear t o be a very i mpor t ant approach In our dr i ve t o
develop meaningful concl usi ons. The eval uat i on of expl anat i ons of wat er
Inflow i nt o mined openings in domal s a l t i s very i mpor t ant and i nvol ves
an appr ai sal of publ i shed hypot heses which have been proposed t o descr i be
and expl ai n mechanisms of growth and adj ust ment t o growth of s a l t domes.
For example, t he "spi nes of movement" hypot hes i s , which has been devel oped
by i mpl i cat i on from Bal k' s work (1949) by Muehlberger (1960) , and l a t e r
el abor at ed on by Kupfer (1974, 1976 ) , has been used both by Muehlberger
and Kupfer t o account f or t he pr esence of i ncl uded sedi ments i n domal s a l t .
Kupfer ( 1976b) has proposed shear zones between ol de r spi nes of movement
which may provi de avenues f o r wat er movement al ong i ncl us i ons of sedi ment s.
Thi s expl anat i on may well be c o r r e c t and, i f i t i s , would suggest t he
p o s s i b i l i t y of encount eri ng l eaks i n openings made deep i n t he s a l t s t ock.
However, t he mine in t he Grand Sal i ne dome, which presumably gave b i r t h t o
t he spi nes of movement suggest i on by Balk and " p e d i a t r i c car e" by
Muehlberger, i s dry.
On t he ot her hand, t he p o s s i b i l i t y shoul d be eval uat ed t h a t i n c l u ­
si ons have been i ncor por at ed i nt o t he s a l t by ot her mechanisms and t h a t
major shear zones in s a l t , i f i ndeed pr e s ent , may be emphemeral f e a t ur e s
t h a t do not p e r s i s t deep i nt o t he st ock but r e pr e s e nt onl y l ocal a d j u s t ­
ments t o growth near t he advanci ng f r o n t of t he s a l t mass. Such an a l t e r ­
nat i ve might make i t appear more f e a s i b l e t o l oc at e l e a k- f r e e ar eas i n
s a l t domes f or waste i s o l a t i o n .
The J ef f er son I sl and dome has been c i t e d as an example of a dome
with a "spi ne" (Kupfer, 1974; Muehlberger, 1960). I f a cr oss s ec t i on of
164
J ef f er s on Is l and s a l t st ocks i s depi ct ed wi t hout v e r t i c a l exagger at i on
as in Fi gur e IV-F-2, t he dome could be more a pt l y descr i bed as possessi ng
a s ur f ace "knob. " Fur t hermore, t he presence of caprock onl y on t he
lower bench could be i n t e r p r e t e d as evi dence t h a t t he e n t i r e st ock moved
as one e n t i t y wi t h di s s ol ut i on occur r i ng onl y over t h a t p a r t of t he s ur ­
face now covered by caprock. In any event , much more cons i der at i on
must be given t o t he mechanism by which sedi ment s ar e i nf ol ded i nt o t he
s a l t .
2. Comparison of Gulf Coast S a l t Mines
As our st udy has progr essed we have become i nc r e as i ngl y aware of t he
d i v e r s i t y between Gulf Coast domes as well as i nt e r nal di f f er enc es i n i n­
di vi dual domes. For t h i s p a r t of our over al l s t udy, comparisons of mine
condi t i ons ar e compl i cat ed by t he f a c t t h a t some of t he mines ar e i n t he
i n t e r i o r basi ns and some ar e i n t he coas t al domes. At t ent i on has been
di r e c t e d i n our e a r l i e r r epor t s as well as i n t he c ur r e nt one t o t he d i f ­
f er ences between t hese two groups of domes.
Beari ng t he above comments i n mind, i t has appeared usef ul t o examine
c e r t a i n c r i t i c a l domal-mine conf i gur at i ons f or pos s i bl e expl anat i ons of
di f f e r e nc e s i n mine hydrol ogy and/ or suggest ed avenues of f u r t h e r st udy.
The dat a accumulated f or t h i s purpose ar e di spl ayed i n Fi gure IV-F-3. Al­
though i t i s consi dered accur at e enough f or t h i s use, we ar e s t i l l i n t he
process of updat i ng and confi r mi ng dat a from some mi nes. Therefore t he
exact f i gur es shoul d be consi der ed somewhat t e n t a t i v e .
The genesal d i v e r s i t y of domal condi t i ons i s confirmed by t hese dat a.
In a ddi t i on, mine dept hs vary consi der abl y. These two general paramet ers
pr ovi de some bas i s f or s pec ul a t i on. For example, t he Cote Blanche mine,
which i s dr y, i s one of t he deepest and al s o has t he g r e a t e s t s epar at i on
0.0'r
250'
1000'
AFTER 0‘DONNEL 1935
oi
FIG. I V - F - 2 KNOB ON JEFFERSON ISLAND DOME
GRAND
SALINE
z
o
<
>
Ui
4 0 0
3 0 0
200
100
MSL
-100
-200
- 3 0 0
- 4 0 0
- 5 0 0
- 6 0 0
- 7 0 0
- 8 0 0
- 9 0 0
-1000
- I t O O
-1200
- 1 3 0 0
- 1 4 0 0
- 1 5 0 0
-1600
BELLE
ISLE
M.S.E. 7 8
JEFFERSON
ISLAND
M.S.E. 7 8
AVERY
ISLAND
M.S.E. 157
WEEKS
ISLAND
M.S.E. 171
COTE
BLANCHE
M.S.E. 9 7
WINNFIELD
M . S . E . - 2 6 0
TOP OF SHAFT 3 9 5
HOCKLEY
^CAPROCK
SURFACE
, 2 0 0 t o - 5 0
T C . - 2 2 0
t o - 9 7 0
M . F E . - 7 2 6
' A. T .S. - 2 70
to 1 0 2 0
"M.FE- 9 0 7
M . F E . - 1221
M . f ? E . - r 2 8 6
M,FE.-J48g
M . F E . - 4 6 6
M.F.E%7r6
'M.F.£t8 46
A . T S . - 4 3 / ? ;
t o - 2 5 0 ,
M.'FE.'-536
MrFE.T735
A.TS.-4 2
t o - 8 5 0
M . F E . - I 3 7 0 ‘
DRY
MINE
A . T . S . - 2 8 0
M.HE'—61f
, T . C . 100
100
tT . S . - 8 2 3 =
MTE.-I350‘
DRY
MINE
to 183
M.F.E.-305
THICKNESS OF
CAPROCK 4 to 71
DRY
MINE
C3%
L E G E N D
M. S . E . MA X I MU M S U R F A C E E L E V A T I O N
M . F E . M I N E F L O O R E L E V A T I O N
M . S . L . M E A N S E A L E V E L
A . T . S . A P P R O X I M A T E T O P O F S A L T
( O V E R M I N E )
T. C. T O P O F C A P R O C K
T. S. T O P O F S A L T ( O V E R M I N E )
FIG. I V - F - 3 CONFIGURATIONS OF VARIOUS GULF COAST SALT DOME MINES
167
from t he upper s ur f ace of t he s a l t wi t hout any i nt er veni ng mined l e v e l s .
These two condi t i ons al s o appl y t o t he Hockley mine which I s al so dry. The
Grand Sal i ne mine, a dry mine, does not f i t t h i s p a t t e r n . I t i s ne i t h e r a
deep mine nor i s t he t hi ckness of s a l t over t he mine as gr e a t as i t i s f o r
Cote Blanche or Hockley. However, i t does appear t o provi de somewhat more
i s o l a t i o n t han i s t he case f or mines which exper i ence wat er problems.
Hockley i s seen t o have a caprock t hi ckness of about 1000 f t . This
cont r a s t s s t a r k l y wi t h t he Five I sl and domes and i s evi dence of di s s ol ut i on
of perhaps two or more mi 1es from t he r i s i n g s a l t column. Thi s suggest s
t he p o s s i b i l i t y of d i f f e r e n t physi cal pr ope r t i e s of s a l t from t hose en­
count ered in domes showing no evi dence of d i s s o l u t i o n . Perhaps dry condi ­
t i ons i n t he Hockley mine may be i n some way r e l a t e d t o t h i s obser vabl e
condi t i on. On t he ot her hand, t he onl y ot her dome under cons i der at i on wi t h
a t hi ck caprock i s Wi nnf i el d. The mine i n t h a t dome has been fl ooded.
Ref l ect i on on t hese and ot he r di f f er ences gi ve r i s e t o anot her con­
j e c t u r e . The Five I sl and domes e x h i b i t i mpr essi ve pos i t i ve r e l i e f in
coast al a r e a s , wi t h depth t o s a l t bei ng l e a s t f o r Avery I sl and and Weeks
I s l and—t he two wi t h g r e a t e s t s ur f ace e l e va t i on. Fur t hermore, only t he
Bel l e I s l e dome has any caprock over i t s hi ghes t poi nt , and t h a t i s r e l a ­
t i v e l y t hi n . Caprock i s not pr es ent over t he "knob" of J ef f er s on I sl and
dome, but does occur on a lower bench. One may, t h e r e f o r e , surmi se t h a t
t hese domes ar e r i s i n g r e l a t i v e l y r a pi dl y; t oo f a s t f o r caprock t o form.
This might suggest a d i f f e r e n t s t a t e of s t r e s s i n t he domal mat er i al t h a t
could i nf l uence movement of wat er t hrough t he st ock and i nt o mined openings.
I t i s emphasized t h a t t hese suggest i ons ar e ext remel y t e n t a t i v e and
designed t o open new avenues f or t hought and st udy t h a t may l ead t o f i r mer
concl usi ons. The fol l owi ng subsect i ons of t h i s r e por t provi de d i r e c t
168
obser vat i onal evi dence of hydr ol ogi c condi t i ons wi t hi n c e r t a i n Gulf Coast
domes.
3. Mine Hydrology ~ Weeks I sl and
In or der t o cont i nue our eval uat i on of t he problem of l eaks in s a l t
mi nes, we sought and r ecei ved permi ssi on t o v i s i t t he Weeks I sl and s a l t
mine. Operat i ng personnel of t he Morton S a l t Company were very hel pf ul and
cooper at i ve in ar r angi ng two thorough v i s i t s of t he mi ne . J . D. Mart i nez,
C. G. Smi t h, and R. A. Barlow of t he I n s t i t u t e f o r Environmental St udi es
and W. V. Jones of t he LSU Physi cs Department were l ed on t he f i r s t i nspec­
t i on of t he mine on February 10 by Bob Fi e dl e r , Mine Super i nt endent , and
Mahmood B. Mi rza, As s i s t a n t Manager.
Pr i or t o t he t r i p underground we were br i e f e d by John E. Goodbrake,
Mine Manager, who was e s p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t e d in di s cus s i ng mine condi t i ons
wi t h us. He consi der s t he mine t o be e s s e n t i a l l y dry and from an oper at i ng
poi nt of view t o be unaf f ect ed by any wat er l eaks or s eeps. He c a l l e d our
a t t e n t i o n t o one small l eak t h a t he bel i eves t o be now i n a c t i v e .
The v i s i t t o t he mine was i nf or mat i ve and i n s t r u c t i v e . Pe r t i nent
evi dence was noted and r e pr e s e nt a t i ve samples were c ol l e c t e d . I t was ob­
vious t h a t a second v i s i t would be r equi r ed f or a more car ef ul sampl ing
and de t a i l e d phot ography of poi nt s of i n t e r e s t . Our second v i s i t f or t h i s
purpose was made on March 14, 1977. Once agai n we were gr aci ousl y recei ved
by t he mine oper at or s and given a l l t he a s s i s t a n c e we r equi r ed t o complete
our obser vat i ons and r e c or ds .
LSU s c i e n t i s t s on t h i s second t r i p i ncl uded Mar t i nez, Barlow and grad­
uat e a s s i s t a n t , R. Brown. Messrs. Mirza and Deri se t ook us through t he
mine on t h i s occasi on. Our combined obser vat i ons f or bot h of t hese mine
169
v i s i t s ar e consol i dat ed and di scussed below. Items of i n t e r e s t ar e l oca ­
t ed on a mine map (Fi gure IV-F-4) on which Kupfer (1976 ) has i ndi cat ed
gener al i zed l ayer i ng and pos t ul at ed shear zones. Feat ures not ed, which
wi l l be descr i bed, i ncl ude presence of wat er , and evi dence of former pr e­
sence of wat er such as s a l t s t a l a c t i t e s , hydrocarbon s eeps, "chimneys" or
l ar ge blowouts of s a l t a t a bl a s t ed f a c e, i ncl uded sedi ment s, impure s a l t ,
and l enses of r e c r y s t a l 1i zed s a l t . The l ocat i ons of t hese f e a t ur e s ar e
i d e n t i f i e d by l ocat i on number on t he Weeks Mine pl an (Fi gur e IV-F-4) and
1i s t e d in Table IV-F-1. The word "room" as used i n t he t e x t denot es e i t h e r
i n t e r s e c t i ons of cor r i dor s or s hor t s ec t i ons of c or r i dor s .
A wat er l eak (Fi gure IV-F-5) has been d e f i n i t e l y i d e n t i f i e d a t l oca­
t i on 6 on Fi gure IV-F-4. This l eak was i n i t i a t e d by an undercut f o r mining
a new face about two year s ago. A pool of wat er which formed a t t h a t t ime
i s s ai d t o be di mi ni shi ng i n volume and t h i s has been consi dered evi dence
f or ces s at i on of flow. However, as can be seen i n t he photograph of Fi gure
IV-F-5, perhaps 100 square f e e t of t he f l o o r i s s t i l l covered wi t h wat er .
Al so, an i n t e r mi t t e n t gur gl i ng sound can be heard from t he under cut . I t
would seem t h a t t h i s i s more l i k e l y t o be caused by some kind of gas r a t h e r
t han wat er flow. I t i s al s o r epor t ed t h a t t her e was some seepage of wat er
from a shot hol e 5 f t above t he under cut bef or e under cut t i ng.
In Room 14-V t he r e i s a small oi l and gas seep, pos si bl y i ncl udi ng
wat er , which was encount ered about 6 months ago. Gas was observed t o be
bubbl i ng t hrough an accumulat ion of oi l on t he f l o o r of t he mine and through
oi l in t he bottom of an i ncl i ned d r i 11 hol e ext endi ng about 2 f t i nt o t he
s a l t . Di r ect l y over t he pool an ar ea sever al f e e t squar e was not ed t o be
covered wi t h a l i g h t col ored de pos i t from which a s a l t s t a l a c t i t e was s us ­
pended. This s t a l a c t i t e which was c ol l e c t e d f or a nal ys i s i s hol low wi t h
t hi n wal l s and oi l y.
170

WEEKS MINE
Generalized Layering
n H. Kupfer 1975
Legend
i t i D
«p5»’ O utli ne o f workings
^ “—Bedding ( g e n e r o f a s d j
40 OS
I
□ □ □□
Dg□□□ □
° ° [ i ] □ □ □ □
[ - , □ □ □ d n
□ □□ □□
□ □
□ D
non

o [ ! ^ n n □
□ □
□□JZiStilnJi]
H CORRI
pT3lz]’'n'gp\15
111 It'll i t n l l u l I f ■""l f \ I * r ' '' 1
□ O ' O o
□ □□□
FIG. I V - F - 4 MINE PLAN, GENERALIZED LAYERING, AND
LOCATION OF SPECIAL FEATURES, WEEKS MINE
(AFTER FEA, 1976a; KUPFER, 1962)
171
Table IV-F-1. Li s t of l oc a t i ons of speci al f e a t u r e s , Weeks Isl and
s a l t mine.
[ pi gur e IV-F-4 ]
Locati on No. Feat ure
1 Hor i zont al Chimney
2 Ver t i cal Chimney
3 Large c r y s t a l s of s a l t
4 S t a l a c t i t e s
5 Ver t i cal vei n of l ar ge s a l t c r y s t a l s
6 Water seep from under cut
7 Pod of i ncl uded sedi ment ary rock
8 White e f f l or es c e nc e on wal l s and c e i l i n g
9 White e f f l or es ce nc e on wal l s ( oi l sample c ol l ect ed)
10 Pool of wat er r epor t edl y a r e s u l t of condensat i on,
c o l l e c t e d wat er and gr ease samples
11 Mass of l a r ge c r y s t a l s of s a l t c ut t i ng banding
12 Highly f ol ded 1ayer s of bl ack (impure) s a l t
13 S t a l a c t i t e s and s t al agmi t es
( s t a l agmi t e samples c ol l e c t e d)
14 S t a l a c t i t e s
15 Cl us t er s of s t a l a c t i t e s
gnyiii
•1g. IV-F-5. Mater seep from under cut . Weeks Mine.
( Locat i on 6, Fi g. IV- F- 4. )
173
Large pools of wat er e x i s t on c or r i dor f l oor s on t he e a s t edge of t he
mi ne. These accumulat ions of wat er ar e consi der ed by oper at i ng personnel
of t he mine t o r e s u l t from condensat i on. Evidence ci t ed f or t h i s expl ana­
t i on i s t he obser vat i on t h a t more wat er c o l l e c t s duri ng sunmer months when
warmer a i r i s brought i nt o t he mine by t he v e n t i l a t i o n syst em. The pools
occur along t he main a i r passageway. Unf or t unat el y, t he coi nci dence of
t h i s passageway wi t h t he pos t ul at ed shear zone i nt r oduces some el ement of
uncer t ai nt y. At l ocat i on 10, coal esci ng pools of wat er up t o about 20
f t in di amet er (Fi gure I V- F- 6) , ar e t ypi cal of t h i s condi t i on. Small
bubbles r i s e t o t he wat er s ur f ace i n one ar ea her e. A pool of wat er
was al s o seen a t l ocat i on 11 and a t l ocat i on 8. A whi t e ef f l or es cence
(Fi gure IV-F-7) covers much of t he wall and c e i l i n g s near rock b o l t s ,
suggest i ng former general wat er seepage or condensat i on. There i s no e v i ­
dence of wat er on t he wal l s or c e i l i n g s a t t h i s t i me, which i n d i c a t e s : (1)
t h a t i f t he e f f l or es cence r e s ul t e d from seepage, t hen t h a t flow has ceased;
or ( 2) t h a t t he wat er which caused t h i s phenomenon was i ndeed condensat i on.
Thi s same whi t e mat er i al i s ext remel y common on t he wal l s a t l ocat i on 9
(Fi gure I V-F-8); and on t he c e i l i n g , rock b o l t s , and wal l s a t l ocat i on 10
and t o a l e s s e r e xt ent a t l ocat i on 11.
Another type of evi dence of former wat er dr i ps ar e s t a l a c t i t e s and
s t al agmi t es . This dr i ppi ng wat er , which has now di sappear ed, may have
been due t o temporary seeps of connat e wat er or pos si bl y condensat i on.
They are t o some e xt e nt , but not e n t i r e l y , a s s oc i at ed wi t h rock b o l t s .
S t a l a c t i t e s (Fi gure IV-F-9) were not ed a t l ocat i on 4, l ocat i on 14, and
most abundant l y a t l oc at i on 15 (Fi gur e IV-F-10). S t a l a c t i t e s and s t a l a g -
mi t es (Fi gure IV-F-11) were observed and t he l a t t e r c ol l e ct e d a t l oca t i on
174
■='Si' >i'V . f e - l M
i-^'l-v*' .->; '
11^— -
M K '
* 1
0
%
*
Fi g. IV-F-6. Coal esci ng pool s of wat er r e por t edl y due t o condensat i on.
Weeks Mi ne . (Locat i on 10, Fi g. I V- F- 4. )
175
Fig. IV-F-7. Ef f l or e s c e nc e on w a l l s , Weeks Mine.
(Locat ion 8, Fig. IV-F-4. )
176
m
m
Fi g. IV-F-8. Ef f l or e s c e nc e on wa l l s . Weeks Mine,
(Locat ion 9, Fi g. I V- F- 4. )
177
Fi g, IV-F-9. S t a l a c t i t e s , Weeks Mine.
(Locat ion 4, Fig. I V- F- 4. )
178
Fig. IV-F-10, Cl ust er s of s t a l a c t i t e s , Weeks Mi ne ,
(Locat i on 15, Fig. I V- F- 4. )
179
Fig. IV-F-11. S t a l a g mi t e s , Weeks Mine.
(Locati on 13, Fig. I V- F- 4. )
180
13, This room was mined about s i x year s ago. Ir on s t a i n s ar e not ed on
c e i l i ngs where s t a l a c t i t e s e x i s t and el sewhere as wel l . There seems t o be
some as s oc i a t i on wi t h rock bol t s al t hough t h i s i s not compl et el y concl usi ve.
An obser vat i on in Room X between 14 & 15 suggest s t h a t t hese f ea t ur e s may
i ndeed have r e s u l t e d from seeps of connat e wat er which have s i nce dr i ed
up. Rock bol t s had been emplaced in t h i s room about two days bef or e our
v i s i t . Ci r cl es of moi st ur e about one f oot i n di amet er had al r eady appeared
around t hese rock bol t s and wat er was sl owl y dr i ppi ng t o t he f l o o r from
t he b o l t s . Presumably t h i s wi l l event ual l y cease. I t seems l i k e l y t h a t
t he rock bol t s had i nt e r c ept ed i n t e r s t i t i a l wat er in cr acks formed by t he
bol t i ng. Openings about them ar e ser vi ng as condui t s f o r r el eas e of
connat e wat er .
Both oi l and gr ease were f a l l i n g from t he c e i l i n g near t he "Boundary
Shear Zone. " Heavy gr ease seeps were not ed a t l oc at i on 8 and oi l seeps
were not ed a t l ocat i on 9.
An i n t e r e s t i n g f e a t u r e which has been not ed i n t h i s ml ne, but s ai d t o
be l e s s conmon i n ot he r mi nes, i s l a r ge blowouts of s a l t i n t he c e i l i n g
and wal l s of a bl a s t ed face a t t he t ime of b l a s t i n g . These ar e c al l ed
chimneys because t hey commonly, al t hough not al ways, pr o j e c t upward i nt o
t he c e i l i n g . Fi gure IV-F-12 shows a near l y v e r t i c a l chimney a t a bl a s t ed
f ace a t l ocat i on 2. At l oca t i on 1, a l ar ge and unusual hor i zont al chimney
i n t he bl a s t ed face i t s e l f i s shown i n Fi gure IV-F-13. These f eat ur es
have gener al l y been consi der ed a r e s u l t of gas pocket s . However, t he f a c t
t h a t t hey normall y ext end upward and r a r e l y , i f e ver , downward on t he f l oor
suggest s an a l t e r n a t i v e e xpl anat i on. They may r e pr e s e nt an expl osi ve r e ­
l eas e of s t r e s s caused by t he b l a s t . I f due t o gas pocket s they might be
expect ed t o occas i onal l y form i n t he f l o o r . Both f a c t o r s may be i nvol ved.
Thi s i s di scussed i n t he f o l 1owi ng s ect i on on t he Cote Blanche Mi ne.
181
Fig. IV-F-12. Ver t i cal chitnmey, Weeks Mine,
(Locat ion 2, Fi g. IV- F- 4. )
182
I

Fig. IV-F-13, Horozontal chimney in bl a s t e d f a c e , Weeks Mine.
(Locat ion 1, Fig. I V- F- 4. )
183
Large salt cryst al s (Figure IV-F-14) were observed at l ocat i on 3. A
vert i cal "vein" of l arge cryst al s (Figure IV-F-15) was noted at l ocat i on
5. The photograph shows t hat the s a l t i s whi t er than normal and t hat t here
is a dark bank on t he one border of t hi s mat er i al . Notice the vaguely
banded s a l t on one side of the "vein" and t he dark unbanded s a l t on the
ot her si de. The dark band represent s an accumulation of anhydri t e (Figure
IV-F-16) perhaps derived from the coarsely cr ys t al l i ne "cl ear" s a l t vein.
Further study i s planned of t hi s feat ure.
There are enclosed sediments of somewhat unusual appearance found a-
long the east ern boundary of t he mine, cal l ed a "Boundary Shear Zone" by
Kupfer (1976b). These have been sampled for det ai l ed petrographic anal ysi s.
Figure IV-F-17 shows a pod of sediment suggest ive of a brecci a, but with
rounded rat her than angular fragments. This sediment mass occurs at l oca­
t i on 7. Figure IV-F-18 i s a photomicrograph of a sample of t hi s i ncl usi on.
A shale sample was col l ect ed a t l ocat i on 10. A highly fract ured sand­
stone l ayer (Figure IV-F-19) i n f i 11ed with s a l t was al so col l ect ed from
the mi ne. The t ext ure of t hi s i ncl usi on i s shown on the photomicrograph
of Figure IV-F-20.
R. Brown, a geochemistry graduate as s i s t ant working with R. E. Fe r r e l l ,
col l ect ed wat er, o i l , and st alagmi t e samples for t race element and ot her
anal ysi s. This data wi l l be eval uat ed for relevance to t hi s problem af t er
an anal ysi s and report by Dr. Ferrel l i s completed. Excell ent exposures of
highly folded l ayers of black (impure) s a l t (Figures IV-F-21 & IV-F-22)
may be seen a t l ocat i on 12. Our observat ions coincide in part with those
described by Kupfer (1976 ) in a recent Guidebook which was used for a
v i s i t to the Weeks Island Mi ne.
184
Fi g. IV-F-14. Large s a l t c r y s t a l s , Weeks Mine.
(Locat ion 3, Fi g. IV-F-4. )
185
Fi g. IV-F-15,
Vein of l arge c r y s t a l s , Weeks Mine.
(Locat i on 5, Fi g. IV-F-4. )
186
a. with out crossed nichol s
W
b. with crossed ni chol s
Fig. IV-F-15. Photomicrograph of anhydrite band.
(Locat i on 5, Fig. I V- F- 23. )
187
■ ■
\
Fi g. IV-F-17. Pod of sediment i ncl usi on of brown ( buf f ) s ands t one,
Weeks Mine, (Locat ion 7, Fig. I V- F- 4. )
188

i w
* 1 1
X
m
■ : *
M
M|
y
0 5 rn tn
S M
a. without crossed nichols
I
mn-i
b, wi t h cr ossed ni chol s
Fig IV-F-18. Photomicrograph of sediment i ncl us i on^ Weeks Mine.
(Locat ion 7, Fig. IV-F-23. )
189
Fig. IV-F-19. Sample of highly f r a c t ur e d sandstone i ncl us i on i nf i l l ed
wi th s a l t . Weeks Mine.
190
Fig. IV-F-2Q. Photomicrograph showing t e xt ur e of sandstone i ncl usi on
Weeks Mine.
191
Fi g. IV-F-21. Highly fol ded l ayer s of bl ack (impure) s a l t , Weeks Mine.
(Locat ion 12, Fig. IV-F-4. )
192
F i g , I V - F - 2 2 . A d d i t i o n a l v i e w o f h i g h l y f o l d e d l a y e r s o f b l a c k ( i m p u r e )
s a l t . Week s M i n e . ( L o c a t i o n 1 2 . F i g . I V - F - 4 . )
193
4. Mine Hydrology - Cote Blanche
The Cote Blanche s a l t m i n e which i s owned and operated by Domtar
Chemicals, Inc. was vi si t ed on June 8, 1977 in connection with mine h y ­
d r o l o g y st udi es. Members of the proj ect team i nspect i ng t he mine included
J. D. Martinez, R. L. Thoms, E. J. Newchurch and graduate as s i s t ant , C. P.
Smith. The plan of the Cote Blanche mine i s shown on the map ifi Figure
IV-F-23 which was published by t he Federal Energy Administration i n 1976
(FEA, 1976). The l ocat i ons of speci al feat ures are i ndi cated on the map
and l i s t ed in Table IV-F-2. The mine has been hi s t or i c al l y, and i s
present l y, essent i al l y dry. In f act , i t i s qui t e hot and dusty. Jack
Tuft s, the mine manager, t ol d us t hat only t hree minor occurrences of
water i nt rusi on i nt o the mine had been experienced. In al l i nst ances the
water was considered to be connate because t he f l o w had stopped.
In one i nst ance, water was encountered in d r i l l holes in the fl oor in
one room (l ocat i on 1, Figure IV-F-23). The face of t he room was wet at
the time, Apri1 1973, but no wat er col l ect ed on the f l oor. Water i s s t i l l
standing at depth in a 50 foot d r i l l hole a t t hat l ocat i on. Water was
also noted in another fl oor hole a t l ocat i on 4 in l at e 1974. After r e­
moval of the s a l t , t here was no longer any i ndi cat i on of water. At l oca­
ti on 3, water dripped from the roof in January 1974. The dri p l ast ed for
about 6 weeks and stopped. I t i s reasonable t o conclude t hat the water
encountered in al l t hree of t hese i nst ances was connate (trapped wat er ) .
With the t hree minor exceptions noted above, t he mine was found to
be dry. There was some standing water found in a sump pi t near the vent ­
i l at i on shaft . This water i s believed to have col l ect ed in the shaft
from condensation. The shaft i s approximately 8 f t in diameter and ac­
commodates an a i r i ntake of 130,000 CFM. Below t he cemented sect i on which
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FIG. I V - F - 2 3 MINE PLAN AND LOCATION OF SPECIAL FEATURES-
COTE BLANCHE MINE. (AFTER FEA, 1976b )
195
Table IV-F-2. Li st of l ocat i ons of speci al f eat ur es , Cote Blanche
s a l t mine.
[fi gure IV-F-23]
Location No. Feature
1 Water in d r i l l holes in fl oor; vert i cal blowout
2 Rock bol t s i nst al l ed without di scol orat i on of s a l t
3 Water dri ps from roof
4 Water in fl oor hole
5 Intensely fract ured, fi ne grained s a l t
6 Chimney in cei l i ng; st r i ng of chimneys; nose of
fol d in cei l i ng; wel l-al i gned blowouts
196
e x t e n d s i n t o t h e s a l t , d i s s o l u t i o n has e n l a r g e d t h e s h a f t o p e n i n g . N e a r
t h e b a s e o f t h e s h a f t , t h e o p p o s i t e c o n d i t i o n has o c c u r r e d . P r e c i p i t a t i o n
of s a l t narrows t he opening and s a l t must peri odi cal l y be removed to per­
mit easy passage of t he hoi st . No water was noted anywhere el se in the
mine. Where rockbol t s were i ns t al l ed, as at l ocat i on 2, t here was no di s­
coloring of the s a l t by iron oxide (Figure IV-F-24).
Several "chimneys" or blowouts were observed. All but one, which was
in a mine face, were in the cei l i ng. The vert i cal blowout at l ocat i on 1
i s shown in Figure IV-F-25. A t ypical chimney i n the cei l i ng a t l ocat i on 6
i s shown in Figure IV-F-26. I t appears t o be cont rol l ed by the banding in
the s a l t . The ef f ect becomes more pronounced in Figure IV-F-27 from the
same l ocat i on which shows two of several blowouts which are very well
al igned. All of t hese feat ures seem t o be in t he core of the fol d, the
nose of which i s shown in Figure IV-F-28. Whether the blowouts were due
to pressure of enclosed gas or whether they were due t o r e l i e f of st r ess
with consequent rel ease of gas, i t i s qui t e cl ear t hat the presence of gas
in t he s a l t i s strong evidence of i mpermeability. This i s rei nforced by
the obvious r el at i on of t he blowouts t o t he banding in the s a l t . Inasmuch
as t he banding very l i kel y represent s r e l i c t bedding, t here i s some possi ­
b i l i t y t hat t he gas was trapped during di agenesi s. However, t hi s would
not f o l 1ow i f t he blowouts are purely a st r ess rel ease feat ure.
Included sediments were only seen at one l ocat i on, but t he mine manager
i ndi cat ed t hat they were more ext ensi ve. A vari et y of s a l t types occurs
i n t he mine, incl udi ng s a l t which crackled when placed in water due t o r e­
l ease of gas. One very i nt er est i ng rock type i s shown in Figure IV-F-29,
l ocat i on 5. This s a l t i s fi ne grained and i nt ensel y fract ured. An open
cavi t y i s report ed a t t hi s l ocat i on but we did not observe i t .
197
' >-
Fig. IV-F-24. Sa l t showing no di scol orat i on from oxi dat i on of rock b o l t s ,
Cote Blanche Mine.
(Location 2, Fig. IV-F-23.)
198
Fi g. IV-F-25. Verti cal bl owout , Cote Blanche Mine.
(Locat i on 1, Fi g. I V- F- 23. )
199
Fi g. IV-F-26. Typi cal chimney i n c e i l i n g , Cote Blanche Mine.
(Locat ion 6, Fi g. I V- F- 23. )
200

I
Fi g. IV-F-27, St ri ng of chimneys i n 1i ne along c e i l i n g , Cote Blanche Mine.
(Locat ion 6, Fi g. I V- F- 23. )
201
Fi g. IV-F-28. Nose of f ol d in banding of s a l t , Cote Blanche Mine
(Locat ion 6, Fi g. I V- F- 23. )
202
V: W .
\
\ S & k
' i
t
i n
■M-.
Fi g. IV-F-29. Fine grai ned, i nt ensel y f r a c t u r e d s a l t , Cote B1anche Mine.
(Location 5, Fig. IV-F-23.)
203
The cont rast i ng nat ur e of hydr ol ogi cal condit ions in t hi s mine wi t h
those in the other domes of the Five Isl and group i s si gni f i cant t o t hi s
study.
5. Gas Int rusion i n Sol ut i on-Mi ned Cavi ti es
The occurrence of hydrocarbons, both oi l and gas, has been observed
in a number of s a l t domes according t o Francis Falcon (personal communi­
cat i on, 1977) in a Shell Oil Company Report, Those included: Avery
Isl and, Choctaw, Cote Blanche, Darrow, East Hackberry, Eugene Isl and
Block 188, Garden Island Bay, Jefferson Isl and, Lake Hermitage, Lake
Washington, Sulphur, Venice, Weeks Isl and, White Cast l e, and Winnfield.
The development of solution-mined st orage cavi t i es in the Sorrento s a l t
dome in Ascension Parish, Louisiana has provided valuable background
information on the nature of the occurrence of gaseous hydrocarbons in
t hat dome. Mr, Falcon of Shell has made hi s report avai l abl e for our
use and Wi111 am F. Sporleder of Shell has al so provided valuable data
and i nsi ght s. The following information i s summarized from t hese sources.
Sal t cores from the f i r s t LPG st orage well at Sorrento contained
small bubbles f i l l e d with oi l and gas. The rel ease of these f l ui ds with
a popping noise upon s pl i t t i ng or di ssol ut i on i ndi cat ed t hat they were
under pressure.
The second well dr i l l ed by Shell i nt o t he s a l t at Sorrento was aban­
doned due to "overpressure". I t was found t hat t he weight of t he mud could
not be i ncreased suf f i ci ent l y to prevent i t being "cut" by the gas. Their
f i f t h well had t o be abandoned for t he use of st orage of ethyl ene because
of contamination by methane. I t i s now f i l l e d with sat urat ed bri ne and
being monitored for flow of methane. The dai l y flow at t hi s time i s about
100 MCF of gas, pri maril y methane, a t surface condit ions (60OF and 60 p s i ) .
204
Inasmuch as t he cavi t y i s f 111ed with sat urat ed bri ne, i t i s not reason­
able to conclude t hat the gas i s rel eased from di ssol ut i on of the s a l t .
There are t hree possible expl anat i ons: (1) the gas may be ent er i ng the
cavi t y from some kind of casing l eak; (2) the gas i s f o l 1owing permea­
b i l i t y channels through the s a l t stock from the surrounding sediments;
and/or (3) t he gas i s moving i nt o the cavi t y through permeabi lit y channels
in the s a l t stock from concent rati ons in the s a l t i t s e l f . In view of the
f act t hat gas was noted in ot her wel l s, the f i r s t explanation i s uni ikel y.
Int erconnecti on with surrounding sediments i s a di s t i nct pos s i bi l i t y. I t
i s also conceivable t hat overpressuring in t est i ng or bri ni ng a ct i vi t i e s
could have induced fract uri ng s uf f i ci ent to allow inflow of gas.
Therefore, we are presented with two di f f er ent kinds of evidence from
t hi s dome. The presence of trapped gas under pressure in t he s a l t cores
st rongl y suggests impermeabil ity. On the ot her hand, the movement of gas
i nt o a cavi t y f i l l e d with sat urat ed bri ne i s a very good i ndi cat i on of the
presence of permeabi lit y channels in t he st ock. Furt her study must be
devoted t o t hi s paradoxical problem.
Mr. Falcon concluded t hat t he gas in the s a l t was derived from i n­
clusi ons of hydrocarbon sediments trapped in the s a l t as i t i ntruded up­
ward. He supports t hi s explanat ion by the 01igocene age, probably younger
than Vicksburg, which was assessed to a clay band in t he Sorrento s a l t .
The age was determined through a pal eontol ogi cal study by Charles L.
Tr ot t er (1961).
6. Conclusion
I t i s s t i l l premature to eval uat e concl usi vel y t he si gni fi cance of
observed mine leaks in s a l t dome mines to the ut i l i zat i on of s a l t domes
for radi oact i ve waste i sol at i on. However, i t becomes i ncreasi ngl y cl ear
205
t hat t hi s i s a problem t hat wi ll have to be reckoned with in the fut ure.
Current information i ndi cat es t hat water leaks occur in some Gulf Coast
s a l t dome mines and not in ot hers. This rai ses two quest i ons. Fi r s t , to
what extent would leaks of di f f er ent magnitude condemn a par t i cul ar s i t e ?
Second, what i s the source of such leaks and why do they occur in some
mi nes and not in ot hers? Leaks of water and/or hydrocarbons have been
found to be associ at ed wi t h anomalous occurrences of included sediments,
impure s a l t and par t i cul ar types of st r uct ur e shown by banding of the s al t
(Kupfer, 1976b). He and ot hers have advanced the hypothesis t hat these
are shear zones (Kupfer, 1976b). On the ot her hand t hese may represent
sediments i nfolded by ot her mechanisms. I f t hese are shear zones they
might be expected to extend deeply i nt o the s a l t . I f not , then they may
occur only near the t op. In t hi s event ual i t y, and perhaps for shear
zones as wel l , long time di ssol ut i on of s a l t (evidenced by t hi ck caprock)
may have eroded the s a l t down below these included i mpur i t i es. Martinez
(1974) reviews ot her t ect oni c i mpl icat ions of caprock. Countering t hi s
possi bi l i t y i s another proposal by Escher and Kuenen (1929) t hat s a l t becomes
more impure with depth. We simply do not know which, i f any, of t hese ideas
i s corr ect , and we must continue t o search for a bet t er understanding
of s a l t dome genesis which may t ake a long time t o develop, i f ever.
The one thing t hat does seem t o be a r ea l i t y i s t he var i abi l i t y of
s a l t domes on a basinal as well as an indivi dual basi s. Therefore, ex­
pl orat i on by dr i l l and/or shaft and mine i s the only posi t i ve t e s t of a
s a l t dome, in the fi nal anal yses, for i nt ernal hydrologic i sol at i on.
In the furt her conduct of t hi s st udy, we propose t o complete our
i n s p e c t i o n and development of mine hydrology hi st ory of Gulf Coast s a l t
mi nes. We furt her intend t o conduct pet rol ogi cal and geochemical studi es
206
o f t h e t y p e a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e s o u r c e s o f m i n e w a t e r s
a nd c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h p e r m i t t h e i r m ov em e nt i n t o t h e m i n e s . We s t r o n g l y
recommend close cooperation with current Department of Energy (formerly
Federal Energy Admi nistrat ion) st udi es bearing on crude oi l st orage in
s a l t mi nes. The vast amount of data developed by s c i ent i f i c groups
involved in t hat e f f or t should be t r ansfer abl e t o our problem and may
prove especi al l y hel pf ul . In t hi s connection we would st rongly rec­
ommend permeabi lit y measurements of t he included sediments as well as the
s a l t i t s e l f .
m
207
I V- G. FI NDI NGS AND RECOHMEHDATIONS
C. G. S mi t h s J r .
1. Findings
1 ) E l e c t r i c l o g s f r o m t h e n e w o b s e r v a t i o n w e l l s d r i l l e d a t V a c h e r i e
dome i n d i c a t e a s u b s i d e n c e s t r u c t u r e e x i s t s o v e r t h e c e n t e r o f t h e d o me .
Th e Ca n e R i v e r f o r m a t i o n p r e v i o u s l y t h o u g h t t o h a v e b e e n e r o d e d f r o m t h e
t o p o f t h e dome wa s f o u n d mo r e t h a n 3 0 0 f t b e l o w t h e s u r f a c e . A l i k e l y
c a u s e o f t h e s u b s i d e n c e 1s e x t e n s i v e s a l t d i s s o l u t i o n a t t h e t o p o f t h e
dome o c c u r r i n g s u b s e q u e n t t o Ca n e R i v e r d e p o s i t i o n . T h i s f i n d i n g may b e
a k e y t o t h e r a t e o f s a l t d i s s o l u t i o n d u r i n g t h e l a s t 4 8 m i l l i o n y e a r s a n d
t h e c o n s e q u e n t r a t e o f c a p r o c k f o r m a t i o n d u r i n g t h e s a me t i m e p e r i o d .
2 ) Wa t e r s a m p l e s t a k e n f r o m t h e f o u r t e s t w e l l s a t V a c h e r i e dome
i n d i c a t e t h a t , a s e x p e c t e d , w a t e r i n t h e c a p r o c k a n d n e a r t h e s a l t 1 s s a ­
l i n e a n d w a t e r 1n t h e W i l c o x s a n d s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e dome i s f r e s h t o s a l i n e .
T h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n e l e c t r i c l o g r e s i s t i v i t y a n d w a t e r q u a l i t y t h a t
wa s u s e d t o map t h e s a l i n e g r o u n d w a t e r e a s t o f t h e dome ( M a r t i n e z , e t a l . ,
1 9 7 6 ) wa s c o n f i r m e d b y t h e l o g s o f t h e W i l c o x o b s e r v a t i o n w e l l s a n d a n a ­
l y s e s o f w a t e r o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e s e w e l l s . T h e h i g h e r p o t e n t i a l ( h y d r a u l i c
h e a d ) o f t h e c a p r o c k w e l l s , a s c o m p a r e d t o t h e W i l c o x s a n d s , r e v e a l s a
p o s s i b l e s o u r c e f o r t h e s a l i n e w a t e r f o u n d i n t h e " p l u m e " e a s t o f t h e d o me .
I f p e r m e a b l e c o n n e c t i o n s e x i s t b e t w e e n t h e c a p r o c k a n d t h e W i l c o x a q u i f e r
( a n d t h e y p r o b a b l y d o ) w a t e r w i l l f l o w f r o m t h e c a p r o c k I n t o t h e s h a l l o w e r
sands. Additional data i s needed on local ground-water flow rat es and
aqui fer c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to s a t i s f a c t or i l y est imat e the degree of h y d r o l o g i c
i ns t abi l i t y represented by t hi s feat ure.
208
3 ) The d r i l l i n g p r o g r a m a t Rayburn' s dome was concluded a t t he end
o f f i s c a l year 1977 and no firm conclusions have yet b e e n reached regard­
ing the hydrologic data from these wel l s. However, t h e s e wells have helped
to define the l i mi t s of s a l t , and have not revealed sal i ne water condit ions
i n t h e W i l c o x a q u i f e r t h a t a r e a t v a r i a n c e w i t h t h e o r i g i n a l c o n c l u s i o n s
regarding the di st r i but i on of water q u a l i t y around t hi s dome (as reported
in Martinez, et a l . , 1975). No new evidence of s a l t di ssol ut i on i s suggested.
4) Effort s t o map sal i ne anomalies in t he ground water around Mi ssi s­
si ppi s a l t domes met with l i mi t ed success due t o the r el at i ve lack of ex­
pl orat i on of the Mi ssissi ppi domes. El ect r i c log avai l abi l i t y around most
of the domes (report ed as "unrejected" by Anderson, et a l . , 1973) was i n­
adequate to s a t i s f a c t or i a l l y determine the di st r i but i on of water s a l i ni t y
around the domes. No evidence of sal i ne ground-water anomalies was found
ei t her in fresh-water or sal i ne-wat er aqui fers of Tert i ary age, with the
exception of Crowville and Leedo domes. The i ncrease in s al i ni t y in the
Sparta and Wilcox sands at t hese domes i ndi cat es the pot ent i al hydrologic
i ns t abi l i t y.
5) Vi si t s were made t o several s a l t mines in Gulf Coast domes.
Grand Sali ne and Hockley domes in nort heast Texas and Cote Blanche dome
in south Louisiana were essent i al l y dry. Weeks Isl and dome, although
essent i al l y dry for current mining operat i ons, was determined t o r e­
present a mine with s uf f i ci ent i nf 1ow of water t o possibly j eopardi ze
long term i sol at i on of waste. Of the remaining mines, Jefferson Isl and,
Belle I s l e , and Avery Isl and have not been vi si t ed. A vari et y of anom­
alous feat ures noted in both wet and dry mines deserve f ur t her study in
order t o assess t he i nt ernal hydrologic condit ions of s a l t domes. These
feat ures include o i l , gas and water seeps, areas of l arge cryst al s which
209
may s u g g e s t past s a l t di ssol ut i on, and r e c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n and blow-outs
which o c c u r during s a l t mining.
6 ) P e t r o g r a p h i c e x a m i n a t i o n o f s a l t a n d c a p r o c k f r o m G i b s l a n d
( L o u i s i a n a ) a n d Mos s B l u f f ( T e x a s ) d o me s r e v e a l n o c o n s i s t a n t t r e n d s i n
a n h y d r i t e c o n c e n t r a t i o n n e a r t h e s a l t / c a p r o c k i n t e r f a c e . Ho we v e r * i n
G i b s l a n d dome s a m p l e s s h o w a n u n u s u a l f e a t u r e n o t y e t r e p o r t e d . E u h e d r a l
(well developed faces) cryst al s of a n h y d r i t e concent rate along and o r i e n t
with s a l t cryst al boundaries. In ot her areas and in ot her samples the
anhydri te i s di st r i but ed throughout the s a l t cr ys t al s. In cont rast here,
the anhydrite appears t o have moved through t he s a l t mass. I t i s reason­
able t o conclude t hat these cryst al s migrated to the boundary posi t i ons
in t hei r present form. This movement may have occurred by s a l t di ssol u­
t i on and r ecr yst al l i zat i on causing the ori gi nal cr yst al s to r ej ect the
anhydri t e; or, i t may have developed by movement of the anhydri te out of
the s a l t in some form of sol i d s t a t e process.
2. Recommendations
1) Additional dr i l l i ng i s requi red at Vacherie s a l t dome t o determine
ground-water flow rat es and di r ect i ons, and t o determine aqui fer charac­
t e r i s t i c s for the W i l c o x group sands. Of par t i cul ar i n t e r e s t i s the
eastern end of the dome in the vi ci ni t y of the sal i ne p l u m e . The eval ua­
t i on of the geohydrology of the dome wi ll depend also on new data from
shallower borings designed to study Quaternary and Tert i ary sediment
st ruct ure over the dome. A minimum of two observat ion wel ls i s requi red
at the west end of the dome where data on wat er q u a l i t y i s l acking,
2) A study of the geochemical si gni fi cance of vari at i ons in water
q u a l i t y observed i n the water samples col l ect ed from t he wells a t Vacherie
and R a y b u r n ' s domes i s recommended. Of par t i cul ar i nt er es t i s: 1) the
210
r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t we e n c a p r o c k ( a n d f a l s e c a p r o c k ) f o r m a t i o n a nd t h e
c h e m i s t r y o f t h e n a t i v e w a t e r j a nd 2 ) p o s s i b l e c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t we e n
brackish t o sal i ne water in t he W i l c o x sands a nd sal i ne water in the
c a p r o c k .
3) A thermal i nfrared survey i s reconmended over s a l t dome s i t es
of i nt er es t in north Louisiana and Texas. Such surveys have been use­
ful in det ect i ng soi l moisture di fferences along l i neat i ons. In the
case of s a l t domes, t hi s survey may l ocat e 1i neati ons and f aul t s which
are areas of ground-water discharge. Lineations and report ed "mineral
spri ngs" on Vacherie dome are primary t a r g e t s .
4) Petrographic st udi es of s a l t and caprock formation and mecha­
nisms of s a l t di ssol ut i on near the caprock/ sal t i nt er f ace should continue.
Furt her st udi es are planned to sample areas of i nt er es t in Weeks Isl and
dome, and caprock and s a l t cores from the proposed t e s t h o l e s at Vacherie
and Rayburn' s domes.
5) The i nspect ion of hydrologic condit ions in Gulf Coast s a l t dome
mines should continue. Pet rol ogi cal and geochemical st udi es which may
aid in determining sources of mine waters and condit ions which permit
water movement i nt o the mines wi l l conti nue. Close cooperation between
current Department of Energy st udi es of s a l t domes for crude oi l st orage
and our i nvest i gat i ons should prove benefi ci al t o both e f f o r t s .
211
V. REGIONAL GEOLOGY
A. General
B. Comput eri zed Mapping
C. Growth Rat es of S a l t Domes o f t he North
Loui si ana S a l t Basin
D. Sei smi c St udi e s of Vachei r e S a l t Dome
E. Gr avi t y I n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f Nort h Loui si ana
S a l t Domes
F. Geochemi st ry
G. Mi neral Resource Maps o f Vacheri e and
Raybur n' s S a l t Dome Areas
H. Fi ndi ngs and Recommendations
I
213
V-A. GENERAL
R. E. Wilcox
Several geological, geophysical, and geochemical investigations were
undertaken during the 1977 fiscal year in order to more fully understand
the structural and strati graphic characteristics of the North Louisiana
Salt Dome Basin and to expand continuing detailed studies of Vacherie and
Rayburn's salt domes. Geological studies included: (1) completion of a
series of computer-generated trend and residual maps of various s t ra t i -
graphic horizons and intervals begun in fiscal year 1975; ( 2) calculation
of growth rates for selected salt domes in northern Louisiana and the pre­
paration of diagrammatic models of dome growth; (3) compilation of mineral
resources maps for the Vacherie and Rayburn's areas; and (4) prelimi nary
work on mapping the pre-Quaternary formations around Vacherie and Rayburn' s
salt domes. Geophysical studies comprised: (1) completion of processing
and interpretation of seismic 1ines in the Vacherie area acquired from a
petroleum company, and reinterpretation of one such 1ine plus the two
LSU 1ines shot in 1975; (2) acquisition, compilation and interpretation of
gravity data for Vacherie, Rayburn's, and Prothro salt domes; and (3)
i n i t i a l inquiries into obtaining magnetic data for the North Louisiana
Salt Dome Basin. Geochemical studies were initiated with analyses of
salt-dome salt from two mines. The studies will be expanded in the next
two fiscal years to include salt cores from Vacherie and Rayburn's domes,
additional salt-mine samples, selected sedimentary rocks, ground waters,
and surface waters, and soils from the dome areas.
214
For this salt dome project, the methods applied to the studies of
regional geology, geophysics, and geochemistry have been, and will continue
to be, those established by successful applications to similar problems.
Relatively new computer techniques were utilized in constructing trend
and residual maps and in processing geophysical data. Standard analy­
tical techniques and instrumentation were used in the geochemical work.
Additional information on methods and techniques of study are included in
the following sections.
Over 500 structural and strati graphic maps have been generated by the
use of several computer programs utilizing elevation and thickness data
from about 950 wells in Webster, Bienville, and Winn Parishes (Counties),
Louisiana. The maps are produced by f i t t i n g polynomial trend surfaces to
the subsurface data using least-squares crite ria . First order polynomial
surfaces are planes that give mathematically precise "regional dip" (for
structural data) or "regional rate and direction of thickening" (for
thickness data; i . e . , isopachs). Second order polynomial surfaces are
undulating and thus, for structural data, depict anticlines and synclines.
Third and higher order surfaces are more irregularly undulating and show
more complex patterns. First to third order trend surfaces (maps) were
prepared. Accompanying residual maps were generated from most of these
by subtracting from the trend-surface values the original data-point values
(elevations or thicknesses).
Estimated growth rates of salt domes in north Louisiana have been
calculated from the 1imited structural and strati graphic data around the
domes coupled with data from the regional trend maps. In most cases, two
methods have been used, separately or in combination, namely: (1) stra­
t i graphic thinning assumed to be related to dome growth during deposition;
215
and (2) structural r e l i e f caused by arching of strata as the salt domes
rose. A series of hypothetical cases of salt-dome growth are presented
diagrammatically, some simple and others more complex. Well control is
sparse near most north Louisiana salt domes. Therefore, many assumptions
and consequent uncertainties are involved in calculating the growth rates,
so they should be viewed with some caution.
Seismic studies consisted of reprocessing four seismic lines over
Vacherie salt dome that were donated earlier by Atlantic Richfield Co.,
and preliminary interpretation of these and three other 1ines that were
processed in fiscal year 1976. The seismic data provide constraints on
the general size and shape of Vacherie salt dome, but the data are not
adequate for determining the detailed configuration of the salt stock.
For that reason additional seismic surveys of Vacherie salt dome and an
i n i t i a l set of seismic 1ines over Rayburn's salt dome have been proposed
for fiscal year 1978.
Gravi ty investigations of the North Louisiana Salt Dome Basin,
benefitted from donations of data by Cities Service Co., Atlantic Rich­
field Co., Texaco, In c. , and Continental Oil Co. These data were used
to make composite complete Bouguer anomaly maps over Vacherie, Rayburn's,
and Prothro domes. Additional detailed gravity data were obtained by an
LSU survey over Vacherie dome.
Geochemical investigations of salt-dome salt and associated sedi-
mentary rocks and fluids were initiated in fiscal year 1977. Most of the
efforts were directed toward standardization and calibration of techniques
for the analysis of salt, especially mineralogical analyses by scanning
electron microscopy and chemical-element determinations by atomic absorp­
tion spectroscopy and colorimetry. Groups of salt samples were collected
216
from mines in Weeks Island and Cote Blanche domes in south Louisiana,
and analyses of these samples are underway.
Maps were prepared for the Vacherie and Rayburn' s salt dome areas to
show the following mineral resources: oil and gas, ground water, gravel,
and (potentially) lignite. Portions of seven oil and gas fields are
shown; three near Vacherie and four near Rayburn' s. Various water wells
and sand and gravel pits are indicated.
217
V-B. COMPUTERIZED MAPPING
M. B. Kumar
1. Background
For a regional synthesis of subsurface data, the computerized trend
and residual mapping of the North Louisiana Salt Dome Basin was started in
1975. The computer mapping is useful as an adjunct to the previous geo­
logical reconnaissance studies of the deep structure of the basin. The
sources of data and the general character of the resulting map types are
described in the last annual report on the LSU salt dome study (Martinez,
et a l . , 1976).
The computerized maps comprise trend maps and residual maps of the
structures and isopach intervals. The trend maps are intended to empha­
size the regional trends of the structure or the thickness variations of
mapped stratigraphic units, as the case may be. On the other hand, the
residual maps, which are based on the departures of the observed values
from the computed trend values, bring out the local anomalies in the
structure and thickness variations of strati graphic units of the basin.
I t is, however, noteworthy that the distinction between "local" and "re­
gional " trends is subjective and is influenced considerably by factors
such as the size of the geologic feature expected or mapped, the scale of
mapping, and the distribution of control points.
2. Stages of Mapping
At the outset of the computer mapping program, the North Louisiana
Salt Dome Basin was divided into three sub-areas. Data and maps for these
218
sub-areas were compiled by different Individuals under the direction of
D. H. Kupfer of the LSU Geology Department. (See Martinez^ et a l . j 1975s
1976. ) The three sub-areas of the basin encompass approximately Webster,
Bienville, and Winn Parishes (Counties), respectively. For each of the
sub-areas, trend and residua! maps of up to third order were generated on
the computer on-line printer. Each stratigraphic unit or horizon mapped
is identified with a computer-formatted nomenclature; for example, WMDWX
for the "the top of the Midway to the top of the Wilcox." The resulting
maps are listed in Tables V-B-1 through V-B-3 for the three sub-areas.
Each map t i t l e in the lists actually represents a set of five maps that
comprise three trend maps and two residual maps ( f i r s t and third order).
A total of over four hundred maps have been computer-generated. These
maps are available in the office of the Institute for Environmental Studies
at LSU. They are supplementary to those constructed by Crowe (1975),
Hessenbruch (1975), and Reese (1977).
During the later phase of the computer mapping, isopach data were
employed for mapping the thickness variations of stratigraphic units of
the total area representing the North Louisiana Salt Dome Basin. Trend
and residual maps were generated for the f i fteen strati graphic units
1isted in Table V-B-4. For each stratigraphic unit, trend maps of f i r s t
order and third order were prepared and are described in the last annual
report (Martinez, et a l . , 1976).
I t is only toward the end of fiscal year 1977 that the residual
mapping of the total area was completed. The resulting residual maps for
each stratigraphic unit (Table V-B-4) are of f i r s t and third order. Each
such type is represented by a set of three maps, which separately depict
positive residuals, negative residuals, and both residuals (composite).
Thus a total of ninety residual maps have been computer-generated.
219
Table V-B-1. List of computer trend maps of the North Louisiana Salt
Dome Basin: Webster Parish and vicinity.
Map Nos. 1-15
Map Nos. 16-28
refer to isopach trends and residual maps,
refer to structure trends and residual maps.
Map
Series
No.
Computer
Nomenclature
Geologic
T i tl e
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
* 21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
WBSSL
WSLBT
WBTAK
WBSHO
WTUOZ
WBSCU
WCUHO
WHOSL
WSLPJ
WPIJA
WJARD
WRDFL
WFLMP
WMPBT
WBTTU
WTUBN
WBNOZ
WOZAN
WANAK
WAKMD
WMDWX
WHOKB
WSLKB
WFLKB
WTUKB
WOZKB
WMDKB
WWXKB
Black Shale to Top Sligo
Top Sligo to Base Tuscaloosa
Base Tuscaloosa to Top Arkadelphia
Black Shale to Top Hosston
Top Tuscaloosa to Top Ozan
Black Shale to Top Cotton Valley
Top Cotton Valley to Top Hosston
Top Hosston to Top Sligo
Top SIigo to Top Pine Island
Top Pine Island to Top James Limestone
Top James Limestone to Top Rodessa
Top Rodessa to Top Ferry Lake
Top Ferry Lake to Top Mooringsport
Top Mooringsport to Base Tuscaloosa
Base Tuscaloosa to Top Tuscaloosa
Top Tuscaloosa to Top Brownstown
Top Brownstown to Top Ozan
Top Ozan to Top Annona
Top Annona to Top Arkadelphia
Top Arkadelphia to Top Midway
Top Mi dway to Top Wilcox
Structure on top of the Hosston
Structure on top of the Sligo
Structure on top of the Ferry Lake
Structure on top of the Tuscaloosa
Structure on top of the Ozan
Structure on top of the Midway
Structure on top of the Wi1cox
* Data too limited for mapping.
220
Table V-B-2. List of computer trend maps of the North Louisiana Salt
Dome Basin: Bienville Parish and vicinity.
Maps Nos. 1-24 refer to isopach trends and residual maps*
Maps Nos. 25-30 refer to structure trends and residual maps*
Map
Series
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
* 24
25
26
27
28
29
30
Computer
Nomenclature
BBSSL
BSLBT
BBTAK
BBSHO
BCUHO
BTVOZ
BBSCU
BCULL
BLLUL
BULHO
BHOSL
BSLPI
BPIJ A
BOARD
BRDFL
BFLMP
BMPBT
BBTTV
BTVBN
BBNPZ
BOZAN
BANAK
BAKMD
BMDWX
BHODF
BSLDF
BFLDF
BTVDF
BOZDF
BMDDF
Geologic
T i tle
Black Shale to Top Sligo
Black Shale to Base Tuscaloosa
Base Tuscaloosa to Top Arkadelphia
Black Shale to Top Hosston
Top Cotton Valley to Top Hosston
Top Tuscaloosa to Top Ozan
Black Shale to Top Cotton Valley
Top Cotton Valley to Lower Lime
(Hosston)
Lower Lime to Upper Lime (Hosston)
Upper Lime (Hosston) to top Hosston
Top Hosston to Top Sligo
Top Sligo to Top Pine Island
Top Pine Island to Top James
Limestone
Top James Limestone to Top Rodessa
Top Rodessa to Top Ferry Lake
Top Ferry Lake to Top Moori ngsport
Top Mooringsport to Base Tuscaloosa
Base Tuscaloosa to Top Tuscaloosa
Top Tuscaloosa to Top Brownstown
Top Brownstown to Top Ozan
Top Ozan to Top Annona
Top Annona to Top Arkadelphia
Top Arkadelphia to Top Mi dway
Top Mi dway to Top Wilcox
Structure on top of the Hosston
Structure on top of the Sligo
Structure on top of the Ferry Lake
Structure on top of the Tuscaloosa
Structure on top of the Ozan
Structure on top of the Mi dway
* Data too limited for mapping.
221
Table V-B-3. List of computer trend maps of the North Louisiana Salt
Dome Basin: Winn Parish and vicinity.
Maps Nos. 1-18
Maps Nos. 19-26
refer to isopach trends and residuals
refer to structure trends and residuals
Map
Series
No,___
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
Computer
Nomenclature
JSLBT
JBTUK
JFLBT
JTUOZ
JHOSL
J SLPI
J PIJ A
JJARD
JRDFL
JFLMP
JMPBT
JBTTU
JTUBN
JBNOZ
JOZAN
JANUK
JUKMD
JMDWX
JHOKB
JSLKB
JRDKB
JFLKB
JTUKB
JOZKB
JMDKB
JWXKB
Geologic
T i t l e
Top Sligo to Base Tuscaloosa
Base Tuscaloosa to Top Arkadelphia
Top Ferry Lake to Base Tuscaloosa
Top Tuscaloosa to Top Ozan
Top Hosston to Top Sligo
Top Sligo to Top Pine Island
Top Pine Island to Top James
Limestone
Top James Limestone to Top Rodessa
Top Rodessa to Top Ferry Lake
Top Ferry Lake to Top Mooringsport
Top Mooringsport to Base Tuscaloosa
Base Tuscaloosa to Top Tuscaloosa
Top Tuscaloosa to Top Brownstown
Top Brownstown to Top Ozan
Top Ozan to Top Annona
Top Annona to Top Arkadelphia
Top Arkadelphia to Top Mi dway
Top Mi dway to Top Wi1cox
Structure on top of the Hosston
Structure on top of the Sligo
Structure on top of the Rodessa
Structure on top of the Ferry Lake
Structure on top of the Tuscaloosa
Structure on top of the Ozan
Structure on top of the Mi dway
Structure on top of the Wilcox
222
Table V-B-4. List of Computer maps of the North Louisiana Salt
Dome Basin: isopach trend and residuals maps.
Map
Series Geologi c
No. Ti tle
1 Midway
2 Top of Arkadelphia to Top Annona
3 Annona
4 Ozan
5 Top Brownstown to Top Tuscaloosa
6 Tuscaloosa
7 Base Tuscaloosa to Top Mooringsport
8 Mooringsport
9 Ferry Lake
10 Top Rodessa to Top James Limestone
11 James Limestone
12 Pine Island Shale
13 Sligo
14 Gulfian Series
15 Comanchean Series
223
3. Interpretation of Computer Maps
Since the computer-generated maps have a different appearance from
conventional (geologic) contour maps, and are based on certain mathema­
tical models, they have to be interpreted in terms of geologic features.
Such geologic interpretations of computer maps entail a careful considera­
tion of various factors related to the mechanics of the computeri zed
mapping process and the known and unknown geologic possibilities. Thus,
this phase of computer mapping is a time consuming task. An analysis of
the computer-generated residual maps has been started. At this time
(September 1977) the appraisal of maps is incomplete and inconclusive.
225
V-C. GROWTH RATES OF SALT DOMES OF THE
NORTH LOUISIANA SALT BASIN
M. B. Kumar
1. Introduction
The growth of a salt dome implies a vertical elongation of the body
of salt, although this really involves three-dimensional changes in the
original approximately horizontal, tabular shape of the salt mass. During
the growth of a salt dome, the salt movement is i n i t i a l l y mostly horizontal
and subsequently mostly vertical (Figure V-C-1). In the context of the
nuclear waste storage problem, i t is the vertical movement that is c r i t i c a l .
Therefore, the growth rate of a salt dome is considered in this report to
imply the rate of up l i ft of the top of the salt. In order to determine the
growth rate, i t is necessary to measure or estimate the magnitude and the
duration of the u p l i ft . The units commonly used for expressing the growth
rates are feet/million years (ft/my) and millimeters/year (mm/yr).
2. Approach
The various growth phases of a salt dome are reflected in the structure
and stratigraphy of sedimentary 1ayers over the dome and in the geometry of
the rim synclines adjacent to the salt dome—both of which have changed
through geologic time. In addition, the character of the caprock of the
dome can provide useful evidence as to its growth history. (See Section
I V - E in this report.) The choice of approach to the quantification of salt-
dome growth depends on the nature of the available basic data. Several
possible approaches are briefly reviewed below.
226
SURFACE
The horizontal top of
on original salt bed or i gi nal sal t oea
A*• V .«• * *• I»* ^4t y ^ * i
1. HORIZONTAL PHASE
\ \ wwxxxxss s x x x s s
2. ACTIVE PHASE
3. VERTICAL PHASE .
NORTH LA.
SOUTH L A . #
(AFTER KUPFER, (1976)
FIG. ¥ - C - l . THREE STAGES IN
OF A SIMPLE SALT STOCK
THE EVOLUTION
OF LOUISIANA
Ill
a. Volume or rim syncline. As Kupfer (1977a) correctly observed,
volume calculations give the best control on rate of salt movement with
time, because they include both vertical and horizontal movements. The
data required for this approach can be obtained mainly from isopach maps
of various stratigraphic units on which the geometry of rim synclines and
salt withdrawal basins can be quantitatively worked out. Computations
can be performed along the line originally suggested by Nettleton (1934).
This procedure involves measurements on radii of rim snyclines, the salt
stock, and the thickness of the original salt bed. Kupfer (1977a) attempted
a similar appraoch (a variation of the method employed by Sannemann, 1968,
and Trusheim, 1960) using the sparse data available for the Vacherie salt
dome; but because of the lack of sufficient data, the final results are
inconclusive. This approach was not applied to other domes for which the
available data are even less adequate than for the Vacherie dome.
b. Caprock thickness. Martinez (1974) suggested the possibility
that thickness of caprock is related to rate of growth. In this regard,
Muehlberger (1976) indicated that the relationship between the thickness
of caprock and the amount (thickness) of salt dissolved from a salt stock
could be useful for the estimation of the growth rate of a salt dome. This
is based on the premise that i f the anhydrite-to-salt ratio in the salt
dome is the same as that of sea water, then each foot of caprock (anhydrite)
represents approximately 30 f t of dissolved salt. Muehlberger found that
this hypothesis holds for the northeast Texas domes. The quantification
of growth rates by this approach requires data on thickness of caprock and
its chemistry. Since no sufficiently precise data on these aspects of the
domes are available, this approach was not attempted.
228
c. Domal thinning. As Murray (1961) observed, stratigraphic thinning
is commonly associated with arching of strata close to and over a salt
structure. In some cases, thinning may amount to more than half the
thickness of an individual sequence some distance away from the dome.
For an appraisal of the thickness variations in the sediments deposited
over an active salt dome, the idealized situation of Figure V-C-2 is
considered. Here, through the cycle of sedimentation, the horizontal
surface of deposition is maintained while the salt is rising from the
original horizontal bed. The thickness of sediments accumulated is
minimal at the crest of the dome and gradually increases down the flanks
to a maximum (normal) thickness away from the dome. Considering the
geometry of the sedimentary 1ayers and the salt pillow, the salt uplift
(H) can be calculated using:
H = In - Tc
where In is the normal (maximum) thickness, and Tc is the sediment thick­
ness (minimum) at the crest. Thus, the stratigraphic thinning over the
dome is basically a measure of the salt up lift during the deposition
of the stratigraphic unit considered. I t is this approach that has been
adopted here in conjunction with the structural r e l i e f approach discussed
below.
d. Structural r e l i e f . Another approach is to assume that as a
salt dome grows i t arches up or uplifts the overlying strata without
thinning. In the idealized case represented in Figure V-C-3, the s t r a t i ­
graphic unit overlying the salt mass is uniform in thickness, signififying
that there was no growth of the dome during its deposition. The stratigraphic
229
HORIZONTAL SURFACE
OF DEPOSITION
n
y jf f T f f y Y f T T jY r i T t T T y f T T T l^ T r r ^
SALT UPLIFT, H=Tn--Tc
STRATIGRAPHIC THINNING = SALT UPLIFT
FIG. Y - C - 2 . ILLUSTRATION OF THE DOMAL THINNING APPROACH
FOR ESTIMATING THE DOME GROWTH
CREST
OF DOME
> *“7 ' * T ^ ^ V * * ^ 4 '' •*,«■ ^ '»j T / % 7 T ^ -r« ft ^ 4 V * ft ft
- : ^ » ■ ' : v ; .> \ ^ -
^ r n h f t ir r f m f r T j^ ^
SALT UPLIFT, H=R
STRUCTURAL RELIEF = SALT UPLIFT
FIG. ¥ - 0 - 3 . ILLUSTRATION OF THE STRUCTURAL RELIEF
APPROACH FOR ESTIMATING THE DOME GROWTH
230
(lithologic) unit was arched up as a result of the post-depositional sa;t
u p l i f t . From the configuration of the salt pillow and the deformed over-
lying lithologic unit, the structural r e l i e f (R) on the top of le beds
can be equated to the total vertical rise (H) of the salt. Thus, the
structural r e l i e f is a measure of post-depositional salt u p l i f t .
During dome growth, each deformation is added to a ll earlier deforma­
tions. As in the case of Vacherie dome (Crowe, 1975), structural dips at
the margins of the salt stock increase with increasing depth or age. This
may not always be true, however, particularly i f the salt stock diminishes
in cross section during the later phases of diapirism as illustrated in
Figure V-C-4 (after Nettleton, 1934). The structure of the sedimentary
1ayers adjacent to a salt stock is also considerably modified during the
course of development of rim synclines.
In view of the preceding considerations, the structural r e l i e f of the
sedimentary layers associated with a salt dome may not be a reliable indicator
of salt dome growth. However, the structural r e l i e f of the shallowest s t r a t i ­
graphic marker bed can be employed for estimating the amount of dome growth
since the deposition of the marker bed.
3. Problems in Estimation of Growth Rates
After defining the approach in the previous section, i t is appropriate
to bring into focus the various assumptions and consequent uncertainties that
are built into the computation of growth rates of salt domes. In order to
do this, several simple and complex cases are presented below.
Case 1. Figure V-C-5 illustrates a stratigraphic unit arched up over
a salt dome, the stratum being thinner over the top of the dome.
231
^ f T m h r ^ if r f ir T r r r n f ^
SALT
salt'.
'•^rfrhfrfff^'nTT^
SALT
h i , h i ; r „ i i s h
SALT
. » »' » A'^iTC^ SALT' « —r
/ / ' ; r / ; ? ; v ; X / / f I f r ^ n^)>> ^
Not e: The diagrams Indi cate
a p o s s i b i l i t y of thi nni ng of
a s a l t st ock during the f i n a l
phase of di api ri sm. Beyond
st age 3, when the supply of
s a I t i s cut o f f by the per­
i pheral si nk, the cross-
s e c t i o n of the s a l t decreases
inducing a c ol l aps e of the
sediments around the dome.
( AFTER NETTLETON, 1934)
FIG. 3T-C-4. EVOLUTIONARY STAGES OF A DOME
AS PER THE FLUID MECHANICAL HYPOTHESIS
232
SALT UPLIFT DURING THE DEPOSITION OF
THE STRATIGRAPHIC UNIT = A t g
THINNING OF STRATA =
A t g DUE TO DOME GROWTH DURING SEDIMENTATION
A t e due to d i f f e r e n t i a l COMPACTION
A t s DUE TO TENSIONAL STRETCHING
HORIZONTAL
STRUCTURAL
RELIEF
AH
SALT
THE s t r a t i g r a p h i c THINNING, A T
- Tn - Tc
“ Atg + A t e + A t s
s Atg , ASSUMING Ate =0 AND A t s =0
(BY NEGLECTING Ate AND A t s THE ESTIMATE
OF Atg IS MAXIMIZED.)
THE TOTAL UPLIFT AS MANIFESTED IN THE
ARCHED-UP STRATIGRAPHIC UNIT
= STRATIGRAPHIC THINNING + STRUCTURAL
RELIEF ON THE TOP OF THE STRATUM
^ A T + A H
FIG.3C-C-5. SALT GROWTH EXPRESSED IN STRATIGRAPHIC
THINNING AND STRUCTURAL RELIEF
233
The observed stratigraphic thinning is due to salt u p l i f t during sedi­
mentation, subsequent differential compaction of the sediments, and the
stretching of the bed over the rising sal t . Since possible thinning
due to the last two factors is considered negligible, the amount of
observed thinning is a maximal estimate of the u p l i ft during the
deposition of the stratigraphic unit. The total u p l i ft as manifested
in the arched-up thinned stratigraphic unit can be represented by the
sum of its stratigraphic thinning and the structural r e l i e f on the top
of the sedimentary unit.
Case 2. Figure V-C-6 presents a simple case of a stratigraphic
unit pierced by a salt stock. By neglecting the effects of differential
compaction and tensional stretching of the up-turned beds, the s t r a t i ­
graphic thinning on the dome flank next to the dome represents a maximal
estimate of the salt up l i ft during the deposition of the beds. The total
up lift (S) of the salt dome can be estimated by:
S = At + Tf + AH + AR
where: At = the stratigraphic thinning on the dome flank
Tf = the thickness of the stratum penetrated at the flank
AH = the structural r e l i e f on the top of the stratum
AR = the r e l i e f on the top of the salt plug beyond the highest
level of rupture of the stratum
Case 3. From Figure V-C-7 i t is evident that a piercement salt dome
could be the result of: (1) slow salt u p l i ft during the sedimentation
of several stratigraphic units and salt intrusion at the end of their
deposition; or (2 ) salt intrusion at the end of deposition of the several
stratigraphic units; or (3) a combination of the two situations. Without
adequate data on the age of a salt up lift and the mode of salt intrusion,
the amount of dome growth for a particular time interval cannot be determined.
234
SALT UPLIFT DURING THE DEPOSITION OF
THE STRATIGRAPHIC UNIT =Atg
THE STRATIGRAPHIC THINNING, At
- T n ^ T f
= Atg+ Ats + Ate (FROM FIG. ¥ - C - 5 )
= Atg , ASSUMING Ats =0 AND Ate =0
(BY NEGLECTING THESE TWO TERMS,
THE ESTIMATE OF Atg IS MAXIMIZED)
>< ■*
'AV
•» A
' A
SALT
y ,.1
A y T <
THE TOTAL UPLIFT (GROWTH) OF THE
SALT DOME
= STRATIGRAPHIC THINNING + THICKNESS
OF BEDS PENETRATED +• STRUCTURAL
RELIEF ON TOP OF THE STRAT UNIT
+ RELIEF OF SALT TOP BEYOND THE
LEVEL OF RUPTURE OF THE SEDIMEN­
TARY UNIT
= At + Tf + A H + AR
FIG. 3Z-C-6. SALT GROWTH EXPRESSED IN TERMS OF STRATIGRAPHIC
THINNING, MAGNITUDE OF PIERCEMENT AND STRUCTURAL RELIEF
235
©
- ^ y y * V
4 » ^ r
SALT:
< 4
FIG. 3Z:-C-7. SOME ALTERNATIVE INTERPRETATIONS OF
GEOLOGIC HISTORY OF A PIERCEMENT DOME
THE
236
SURFACE
4 0 m.y.
65 m.y.
SALT
DIAPIR
ICO m.y
130 m.y.
^ - I 1 C 4. * - T *‘J'. V . A
FIG. 3 E- C- 8 . AN EXAMPLE OF PIERCEMENT DOME WITH
PERTINENT DATA FOR THE COMPUTATION OF GROWTH RATES
237
Case 4. With the aid of Figure V-C-8, i t is demonstrated numerically
that the mode and age of salt intrusion influence the computation of growth
rates.
For simplicity of computation, the following assumptions are made:
1) At the end of deposition of each stratigraphic unit, there is
no r e l i e f of the salt plug above the surface of deposition,
( i . e . , AR = 0).
2) The r e l i e f of the top surface of each stratigraphic unit due
to salt intrusion is 100 f t , ( i . e . , aH = 100).
3) The growth of the salt dome during the deposition of unit D is
negligible, ( i . e . , Sp = o ) .
Two examples with different modes and ages of salt intrusions are
considered below, although numerous variations or combinations of the
cases are possible. In both situations the total growth of the salt dome
is the same, since the end result of the different geologic events is the
same as that shown in Figure V-C-8. (The notations used in Example 1 and
Example 2 are the same as those used for Case 2 above).
Example 1. Salt is judged to have intruded each stratigraphic unit
just between the end of its deposition and the start of deposition of
the next overlying unit. Also, the salt dome grew during the deposition
of each of units A, 6, and C.
For Unit A: salt dome growth, = At^ + T^ + aH^+ aR^
= (400 - 200) + 200 + 1 0 0 + 0
= 500 f t ;
duration of deposition, aT^ = 130 - 100 = 30 my
Therefore, growth rate, ^ , 16.65 ft/my
" 0»005 rm/yr
238
Unit B; Sg = (600 - 300) + 300 + 100 -f 0 = 700 f t
ATg = 100 - 65 = 35 my
— ~ “ 20.00 ft/my = 0.006 mm/yr
B
Fon Unit C: = (500 - 300) + 300 + 100 + 0 = 600 f t
ATg = 65 - 40 = 25 my
S
= 24.00 ft/my = 0.007 mm/yr
C
For Unit D: From the assumption, Sp = 0
Total growth ( u p l i f t ) of the salt dome;
IS = + Sg + Sg + Sp
= 500 + 700 + 6 0 0 + 0
= 1800 f t
Overall growth rate:
= _____^ __________ 1800 f t
aT^+ Alg + aTq (30 + 35 + 25)my
= 20.00 ft/my = 0.006 mm/yr
Example 2. Salt is judged to have intruded the sedimentary 1ayers
only once just between the end of deposition of units A, B and C,
and the start of deposition of unit D. The salt dome also grew during
the deposition of units A, B and C.
S^ = At^ = 400 - 200 = 200 f t
^ ^ = 6.67 ft/my = 0.002 mm/yr
A
239
Sg = Atg = 600 - 300 = 300 f t
s
- f - = ^ = 8.57 ft/my = 0.003 mm/yr
B
Sc = A t e + + a r
= (500 - 300) + (200 + 300 + 300) + (TOO + 100 + 100) + 0
= 1300 f t
13nn
- y - = —^ = 52 ft/my = 01016 nrn/.yr
Sp - 0 (from the assumption)
Total growth of the salt dome:
ES = Sa + Sg + Sg + Sp
= 200 + 300 + 1300 + 0
= 1800 f t
Overall growth rate:
1800 f t ... ,
"('30 + 35 + 25)my 20.00 ft/my = 0.006 mm/yr
A comparison of the growth rates for the stratigraphic intervals of
the above two examples reveals that for units A and B the growth rates of
Example 1 are much greater than those of Example 2, whereas for unit C
the growth rate of Example 1 is much less than that of Example 2. Similarly,
more cases representing variations of these two situations can be examined
which lead to the conclusion that the age and mode of salt intrusion may
make a significant difference in the estimate of growth rate for individual
stratigraphic intervals.
240
Case 5. In Figure V-C-9, two different examples of identical
stratigraphic units have been presented. Referring to Example 1 in the
figure, the horizontal and uniformly thick units, D, E and F overlying
the deformed beds. A, B and C indicate that the salt dome growth has
terminated prior to the deposition of unit D. Example 2 reflects two stages
of salt growth, the later stage having affected a l l the units. In both
the examples, assuming the same stratigraphic thinning of 800 f t for units
A, B and C combined, the overall growth rate is 800/(58-50) = 100 ft/my =
0.031 mm/yr. In Example 1 the growth rate during the time intervals of D, E,
F, and post-F is zero. In example 2 the top surface of the youngest unit
F has a r e l i e f , say, of 400 feet, while there is not variation in the thick­
ness of units, D, E, and F. The growth rate during the time intervals of
D, E, and F is zero as in Example 1, but the growth rate for the post-F
interval is indeterminate without the information on the age of the up l i ft
causing the 400-foot r e l i e f on unit F. At this stage of computation, d i f f e r ­
ent figures are obtained using various assumptions. For example, i f the u p l i ft
has been continuing at a uniform rate since the end of deposition of unit F,
the growth rate = 400/20 = 20 ft/my (= 0.006 nm/yr). The growth rate
estimate changes to 40 ft/my (= 0.012 mm/yr) i f duration of the up l i ft
is assumed to be 10 my. Similarly, for a shorter duration of u p l i f t , such
as 1 my, the growth rate works out to be 400 ft/my (= 0.12 mm/yr). This
is illustrative of the problem in estimating growth rates for the Tertiary
in particular.
Case 6. Figure V-C-10 emphasizes the point that the age of post-
Tertiary u p l i f t cannot be determined, unequivocally, solely on the basis of
thickness data since the thinning over the dome may or may not be the result
of salt u p l i ft . Even without any salt dome u p l i f t during the post-Tertiary
241
20 m.y.
SURFACE
F
50 m.y.
STRAT.
THINNING
= 800
58 m.y.
SALT
EXAMPLE I
PRESENT SURFACE
• y-
20 m.y.
?^^»S
50 m.y.
:tSALT:rj
58 m.y.
» <4
EXAMPLE H
FIG. Y - C - 9 . TWO DIFFERENT SITUATIONS OF
IDENTICAL STRATIGRAPHIC UNITS
242
SURFACE
QUATERNARY
• •
UPPER TERTIARY

V > <
SALT
-1 V
FIG. Y - C - I O . A DIAGRAM ILLUSTRATIVE OF THE PROBLEM
OF DATING AND ESTIMATING THE POST- TERITIARY UPLIFT
ON THE BASIS OF THICKNESS DATA ONLY
243
time, a thinner strata of sediment is likely to have formed over the
dome in the process of i n - f i l l i n g of a sedimentary basin.
Case 7. In Figure V-C-11 i t is indicated that the estimate of
growth rate based on inadequate well control data may not be reali stic .
From the illustration i t is evident that without the data from Well 6
the estimated growth rate will be significantly lower than the actual.
This is because the configuration of the top surface of a salt stock may be
highly irregular, and this might have appreciably affected the thickness
of the overlying sediments during their deposition.
Case 8. The effects of dissolution of salt from the upper part of
a salt stock in a circulating fresh water zone could be considerable. The
resulting subsidence of strata over the dome diminishes original structural
r e l i e f caused by salt u p l i f t . Because of lack of pertinent data, the es ti ­
mated values of the growth rates will probably be lower than the actual.
The salt domes of the North Louisiana Salt Basin represent various
combinations of the situations just discussed. Therefore, the results of
the computations of growth rates of these domes should be used with caution.
The validity of the resulting estimated figures on growth should be judged
in light of the purpose for which they are intended to be used.
4. Bases of Computations
The computations of growth rates of the salt domes of the North
Louisiana Salt Basin are based on the domal thinning of strata and
structural r e l i e f on the youngest know stratigraphic marker (e.g. a
Tertiary formation top).
244
Critical well control
A
I U\
SURFACE
SALT
FIG. S:~G"II. A DIAGRAM ILLUSTRATIVE OF AN UNREALISTIC
ESTIMATE OF GROWTH RATE WITHOUT A CRITICAL WELL CONTROL
245
The important assumptions inherent in the calculations are as follows:
1) The surface of deposition of each stratigraphic unit considered
has been horizontal throughout the period of its deposition.
2) The effects of differential compaction of sediments and tensional
stretching of the up-turned sedimentary layers associated with a salt stock
are not significant.
3) The thinning of a stratigraphic unit due to an unconformity
and thickening of beds due to growth faulting (indeterminable for lack
of data) are negligible.
4) The structural r e l i e f on the shallowest known stratigraphic
marker bed is due to salt uplift continued at a uniform rate ever since
the marker bed was deposited.
5) The effects of dissolution collapse of the strata close to the
top of the salt stock are considered to be negligible.
The basic data employed for the present study were taken from the
M. S. theses of C. T. Crowe (1975), J . M. Hessenbruch (1975), and R. J .
Reese (1977). The isopach maps, structure contour maps, geologic cross
sections, and tables from these papers were used. For regional or normal
trends of stratigraphic thickness and structures, the computer (trend)
maps of M. B. Kumar were consulted. Some electric-log well sections of
C. G. Smith (Martinez, et a l . , 1975), were used. In addition, the follow­
ing documents were referred to: Martin, et a l . , 1954 for Minden dome;
G. T. WorleyIs thesis 0962) for Arcadia dome; W. T. Cook's thesis
(1969) for Minden dome. The numerical ages of the stratigraphic units
used in the calculations are based on Kupfer's work (Figure IV-C-13,
Martinez, et a l . , 1976). The basic data and computations for growth
246
rates of the north Louisiana salt domes are summarized in Table V-C-4,
which is included at the end of this Section.
5. Results and Conclusions
The stratigraphic information available for the present study is,
by and large, fragmentary. The control wells are sporadically distributed
and not deep enough to provide adequate vertical and lateral controls. The
deep-well data pertaining to the Cretaceous (mostly the Upper Cretaceous)
which are available, are for Vacherie, Winnfield, Drake's, Milams, Chester,
Packton, Sikes, King's and Rayburn's domes. As regards the Tertiary, the
shallowest horizons on which stratigraphic information exists are indicated
below.
Shallowest Tertiary Unit Salt Domes
Cook Mountain Formation Packton, Caster Creek,
Winnfield, Coochie Brake
Sparta Formation Cedar Creek, Minden
Cane River Formation Arcadia, Vacherie, Price's
Wilcox Group Drake's, Mi 1ams, Chester,
Sikes, Chestnut
Midway Group Prothro, Bistineau, Rayburn's
Of the nineteen salt domes of the North Louisiana Salt Basin, eighteen
were considered for the present study. The dome excluded is Gibsland for
which no quantitative stratigraphic data are available. The growth rates
of the eighteen domes are presented in Table V-C-1. The ranges of growth
rates are summarized in Table V-C-2.
Table V-C-1. Growth rates of sal t domes of the North Louisiana Basin (in mm/yr)
2 4 7
Geologic
Peri od
S t r a t i graphic
(m . y .) U nit
Name o f Dome:
Ul BftS_______ ------ UlEEi. Bisviricau
0.
. * * *
306 o.c 02
. . . . . .
0.0 Q2 0.0 32 0.0 31
+
0.001
1
0.0 04
I
0.004
t 0.0 01
+
0.003
i 0.001
1
0. 301
. . .
0.0 06
. . .
Cockfield
. . . . . . . . . . . .
Cook Mt. —
. . . 0.008? T - Neg.
Neg.
. . .
Sparta —
. . . 0.019
t
0.006
1
0.011 0.006 Neg.
Neg. —
Cane River Neg.** — 0.023 Neg. 0.011 0.015 0.008
Neg. Neg.
. . .
Wilcox — —
0.020
. . . 0.016 0.008 0.003 0.015 0.023
t
0.027
1
— —
. . . . . .
. . .
Mi dway 0.027 0.030? 0.002 . . . 0.016 0.015 0.003 0.004 0.003 0.015 0.026
U . U 1“t
- - - . . .
. . . . . . 0.004
(Overall rate
f o r Cenozoic)
(0.007) (0.009?) (0.002) (0.006) (0.009) ( — ) (0.003) (0.002)
(0.002)
(0.007) (0.009) (0.004) (0.009) ( . . . ) ( . . . )
(— )
( - . - )
(— )
Arkadelphia Neg.
Neg .

. . .
0.0 36 O.C 33 0.0 )2
. . .
0.0 02 0.0 31
Nacatoch Neg. . . . t
0.006
. . .
Saratoga Neg. — . . .
Marlbrook Neg. ____
. . .
Annona Neg.
Neg. —
. . . . . .
Ozan Neg.
Neg. —
. . .
0.0 19 o r 11 n n a
— . . .
Brownstown 0.006
t
Neg.
i

. . . . . . . . .
Tokio +
Eagle Ford
0.004 . . .
. . .
1 1 1
. . . . . .
Tuscaloosa 0.002 0.006 . . .

0.009 0.006 0.001 0.013?
. . .
0.006
(Ove rall rate
f o r U. C r e t . )
(0.002)
( - - ) ( . - ) ( . - )
(0.013) (0.007) (0.008) ( . . . )
( . . . )
( . . . )
(Erosion)
Washita-Frdbg. —
. . .
. . .
. . . . . . . . .
Neg. 0.019
. . .

Paluxy —
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . — . . . . . .
____
Rusk 0.350? . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . .
0.030 0.061
. . .
____
Ferry Lake 0.043
. . .
. . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . .
____
Rodessa +
James
0.067
. . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . — . . . . . . . . .
Pine Islan d 0.050
. . .
. . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . .
SI i go 0.011
. . .
. . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hosston —
. . .
. . . — . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . .
(Erosion)
( Ove rall ra te
f o r L. C r e t . )
(0.042) ( — )
(0.009) (0.013) ( . . - )
( — )
{ - . ) ( . . - )
( . . . ) ( . . . )
- 2
-4 2
- 4 4 . 5
-4 8
-50
-58
-65
u -65
p
p -66
E
R -7 0
C -7 1
R
E
(/)
0)
Z.
-7 3
T Q)
A
t o
-7 6
C
C
E -7 9
0
U
3
03 -81
S
-92
-99
-99
-100
-104
-105
-106
-107
-111
-113
-120
-132
-135
*No data
**Negli g i b l e ***Arrow i n d i c a t e s average value f o r time span shown
r
I
#
•••••'>•• •
' ' - ■ >,.
, ,' ■-,:• w''
■■
• •!-T •■’ •
f : - r
f r j .
.V
f
I ■ -1
r : '
V -
■ '
? i
— =,v
■ # : - I
.:>■
. . .
: # , r ■,
•S'r V - - .
' i
V.r
r .
-■
. i z
' ! " >■
- - -.Y-
'.. I ‘ ■ ■> .
' f
, . . f .V ■
. • ^ 4 ,
-’■n.
M : M : :
■«L,.
'•’ T
I I
■‘ t '-*vg-
1
f »••'-■,
„ i r . 4 ,
• » i S ^
. t
z . : V \
■ ' f " '
, i ^ . .
. -
s r - ' f .
.......
* X t ! ^ f -
&
^1.
- v^l''f.; f e -
■; ,
y -
-
■ ■";
; -'t
. :v
■/i 5uv: ;i-.'
t
p
z *
y
-.-j -
,«?
249
Table V-C-2. Range of growth rates (mm/yr) of salt domes of the
North Louisiana Basin
Stratigraphic
Interval
Range of Average Growth Rates
mm/yr
(Minimum) (Maximum)
Cenozoic 0.001
(Chester)
0.027
(Vacherie)
Upper Cretaceous 0.001
(Sikes)
0.019
(Winnfield)
Lower Cretaceous 0.009
(Prothro)
0.042
(Vacherie)
With reference to the Cenozoic growth rates, i t is emphasized that
the estimated figures represent minimal growth rates, because the structural
r e l i e f on the shallowest Tertiary horizon used for estimating the growth
rates is assumed to be due to the salt u p l i f t occurring at a uniform
rate throughout the time since the formation of that horizon.
From the results of this study, i t is apparent that: (1) the growth
rates of these salt domes are variable throughout geologic time; and (2)
for the same stratigraphic interval there is a wide range of variation
from dome to dome. Similar conclusions can be drawn from the results of
study on the growth rates of salt domes on the northeast Texas salt dome
basin by Netherland, Sewel1 and Associates, Inc. (1976) who adopted a
similar approach for estimating the growth rates. Their results are
summarized in Table V-C-3 for a comparison with the north Louisiana salt
domes.
250
Table V-C-3. Range of growth rates (mm/yr) of northeast Texas domes.
Stratigraphic
Interval Range of Average Growth Rate
mm/yr
Tertiary 0.003 - 0.043
Upper Cretaceous 0.014 - 0.029
Lower Cretaceous 0.026 - 0.054
The wide variation in the estimates of growth rates of the Louisiana
domes is attributed to some or all of the following important factors:
1) Non-uniformity of the thickness of the mother salt bed.
2) Variation in the density differential between the salt and the
surrounding sediments.
3) Variation in the critical thickness of overburden due to its
vari able strength and thickness with time and locale.
4) Vari able validity of the assumptions underlying the computation
of the growth rate.
From the estimated figures on the growth rates of the domes, no
consistent pattern of vari ati on in space and time could be derived. This
may be partly due to the fact that the study is based on sporadic well
control and fragmentary stratigraphic information. The present study
is indeed considered to be preliminary at this time and should be
continued in the light of new data as they become available, particularly
in the near future from the Quaternary boreholes. Tertiary core­
holes and deep seismic work in the areas of interest, as proposed for the
251
next fiscal year, constitute additional important sources of new data. A
reasonab1y complete investigation of the Cenozoic growth rates, which
are of immediate concern to the storage problem, will have to await the
conclusion of the Quaternary studies and the Tertiary drilling and
seismic survey in the area.
252
Table V-C-4. Growth rates of salt domes of the North Louisiana Basin:
basic data and computations.
The well numbers referred to in the following sections correspond to
the identification numbers of the control wells which appear on the
maps of C. T. Crowe (1975), J . M. Hessenbruch (1975), and R. J . Reese
(1977). The computer maps of M. B. Kumar are discussed and listed in
Section V-B of this report.
VACHERIE DOME
Sources of Data
Basic data are from electric logs of L.S.U. wells. Tables 7 and 8 of
Crowe (1975) and Kumar' s computer maps. Among the control welIs used,
eight are located over the dome; 14 wells are near or on the flank.
For some of the welIs there are only drillers logs with no stratigraphic
information.
Growth Rates
Cenozoic
Cane River (2 my):
No significant thinning observed. Hence, growth rate is negligible.
WiIcox (8 my):
No reliable information is available.
Mi dway (7 my):
Minimum thickness (Wel1 1) = 70 f t
Normal thickness = 700 f t
Stratigraphic thickness = 630 f t
Growth rate = 90.0 ft/my = 0.027 mm/yr
Post-Midway (58 my):
Structural r e l i e f on top of the Mi dway = 820 f t (Wells 2 and 3)
Growth rate = 14.2 ft/my = 0.004 mm/yr
Overal1 Cenozoic Growth rate = (620 + 820)/65
= 22.3 ft/my = 0.007 mm/yr
Upper Cretaceous
Arkadelphia (1 my) No significant stratigraphic
Nacatoch (4 my) thinning observerd. Hence,
Saratoga (1 my) growth rate is negligible.
Marl brook (2 my)
Annona (3 my)
Ozan (3 my)
253
Table V-C-4, continued.
Brownstown (2 my):
Minimum thickness (Well 7) = 216 f t
Normal thickness = 256 f t
Stratigraphic thinning = 40 f t
Growth rate = 20.0 ft/my = 0.006 mm/yr
Tokio & Eagle Ford (11 my):
Minimum thickness (Well 21) = 630 f t
Normal thickness = 760 f t
Stratigraphic thinning = 130 f t
Growth rate (locally close to the flank) =11.8 ft/my = 0.004 mm/yr
Tuscaloosa (7 my):
Minimum thickness (Well 17) = 160 f t
Normal thickness = 200 f t
Stratigraphic thinning = 40 f t
Growth rate = 5.7 ft/my = 0.002 mm/yr
Overall growth rate for the Upper Cretaceous = 6.3 ft/my = 0.002 mm/yr
Lower Cretaceous
Rusk (Mooringsport, ?0.5 my):
Minimum thickness (Well 7) = 209 f t x 0.97 (15° dip) = 203 f t
Normal thickness = 778 f t
Stratigraphic thinning = 575 f t
Growth rate = 1150 ft/my (?) = 0.350 mm/yr (?)
Ferry Lake (1 my):
Minimum thickness (Well 17) = 152 x 0.94 (20° dip) = 143 f t
Normal thickness = 285 f t
Stratigraphic thinning = 142 f t
Growth rate = 142 ft/my = 0.043 mm/yr
Rodessa and James (4 my):
Minimum thickness (Well 17) = 317 x 0.91 (25° dip) = 288 f t
Normal thickness = 1162 f t
Stratigraphic thinning = 874 f t
Growth rate = 218.5 ft/my = 218.5 ft/my = 0.067 mm/yr
Pine Island (2 my):
Minimum thickness (Well 27)= 69 f t x 0.87 (30° dip) = 60 f t
Normal thickness = 224 f t
Stratigraphic thinning = 164 f t
Growth rate =82.0 ft/my = 0.050 mm/yr
Sligo (7 my):
Minimum thickness (Well 27) = 235 x 0.82 (35° dip) = 193 f t
Normal thickness = 448 f t
Stratigraphic thinning = 255 f t
Growth rate = 36.4 ft/my = 0.011 mm/yr
Table V-C-4, continued.
254
Overal1 growth rate for the Lower Cretaceous = 2010/14.5 = 138.6 ft/my
= 0.042 mm/yr
RAYBURN'S DOME
Sources of data
Basic data are from Reese (1977), Kumar's computer maps and Smith's
Figure IV-B-3 (Martinez, et a l . , 1975). Among the well controls used,
six are located over and around the dome. Two wells (157 and 228 on
Reese's maps) have penetrated salt. There is no stratigraphic data
on Wells 156, 157 and 228. None of the other wells have penetrated
below the Rusk formation (Lower Cretaceous Comanchean Series). Wells
153, 154, 155, and 156 used for computations are located on or close
to the flank of the dome.
Growth Rates
Cenozoic
Post-Midway (58 my):
Structural r e l i e f on top of the Mi dway = 1200 f t ( Smi t h ' s Figure)
Growth rate = 20.7 ft/my = 0.006 mm/yr
Midway (7 my):
Stratigraphic thinning (Smith's Figure) = ?700 f t
Growth rate = 7100 ft/my = 70.030 mm/yr
Overall Cenozoic growth rate = 70.009 mm/yr
Upper Cretaceous
Arkadelphia
+Nacatoch
(8 my)
No significant
+Saratoga
stratigraphic
+Marlbrook
(3 my)
thinning observed.
Hence, growth
Annona rate for these
stratigraphic
Ozan
Brownstown
(3 my)
intervals is
negligible.
+Tokio
+Eagle Ford
Tuscaloosa (7 my):
(13 my)
Minimum thickness (Wells 153 & 154) =
Normal thickness =
Stratigraphic thinning
Growth rate = 18.6 ft/my
170 f t
300 f t
130 f t
0.006 mm/yr
255
Table V-C-4, continued.
Lower Cretaceous
No reliable information is available.
PROTHRO DOME
Sources of Data
Basic data are from Reese (1977) and Kumar's computer maps. Among the
control wells available, one has penetrated salt but no stratigraphic
information exists; only one other well (159 on Reese's map) is located
on the southern flank of the dome. This wel1 has penetrated into the
upper Trinity (Lower Cretaceous).
Growth Rates
Cenozoic
Post-Midway (58 my):
Structural r e l i e f on top of the Mi dway = 1120 - 680 (Well 159) = 440 f t
Growth rate = 7.6 ft/my = 0.002 mm/yr
Midway (7 my):
Minimum thickness (Well 159) = 670 f t
Normal thickness = 720 f t
Stratigraphic thinning = 50 f t
Growth rate = 7.1 ft/my = 0.002 mm/yr
Overall Cenozoic growth rate = 7.5 ft/my = 0.002 mm/yr
Upper Cretaceous
The hand-drawn maps (Reese,1977) and computer trend maps (Kumar) suggest
no thinning in the Well 159 area, although a pronounced thickening around
the dome is indicated.
Lower Cretaceous
No well control is available. However, on Figure 19 of Reese's thesis,
a thinning of the order of 1000 f t is indicated on the southern f-lank of
the dome. Thus, for the Lower Cretaceous (35 my) the overall (speculative)
growth rate = 28.6 ft/my = 0.009 mm/yr .
KING'S DOME
Sources of Data
Basic data are from Reese (1977). Among the control wells, four (136,
138, 139 and 140 on Reese's maps) are drilled into salt with no strati-
256
Table V-C-4, continued.
graphic information available. Another three welIs (59, 141 and 200)
located within three miles of the dome are used here as additional
controls for computations.
Growth Rates
Cenozoic
Structural r e l i e f on top of the Arkadelphia (Figure 30 of Reese, 1977)
1300 f t (approximately). Overall growth rate since the end of the
Arkadelphia time = 20.0 ft/my = 0.006 mm/yr .
Upper Cretaceous
Nacatoch & Saratoga (5 my)
Minimum thickness (Well 139) = 100 f t
Normal thickness = 200 f t
Stratigraphic thinning = 100 f t
Growth rate = 200 ft/my = 0.006 mm/yr
For the rest of the Upper Cretaceous no pertinent well controls exist.
Lower Cretaceous
No well control is available. However, Reese's Figure 19 suggests a
thinning of about 1500f t over the flank of the dome. Hence, the over­
all (speculative) growth rate = 42.9 ft/my
= 0.013 mm/yr
WINNFIELD DOME
Sources of Data
Basic data are from Hessenbruch (1975), Kumar's computer maps and Smith's
Figure IV-B-7 (Martinez, et a l . , 1975). Thirty-seven control wells are
drilled on or adjacent to the dome. Most of these are extremely shallow
and bottomed in either caprock or salt. Six flank wells (102, 104, 105,
106, 107 and 108 on Hessenbruch's maps) have penetrated most of the Lower
Tertiary and all of the Upper Cretaceous section; one of these (Well 102)
has encountered the entire Lower Cretaceous Comanchean section.
Growth Rates
Cenozoic
Cook Mountain (2 my):
Stratigraphic thinning (Smith's Figure) = 125 - 775 = ?50 f t
Growth rate = ?25 ft/my = 70.008 mm/yr
257
Table V-C-4, continued.
Sparta (3.5 my):
Stratigraphic thinning (Smith's Figure) = 500 - 275 = 225 f t
Growth rate = ?64.3 ft/my = 0.019 mm/yr
Cane River (2 my):
Stratigraphic thinning (Smith's Figure) = 275 - 125 = 150 f t
Growth rate = 75 ft/my = 0.023 mm/yr
Post-WiIcox (50 my):
Structural r e l i e f on top of the Wilcox (Hessenbruch's Table 3,
Figures 11 & 17 and Kumar's computer maps) = 1000 f t
Growth rate = 20.0 ft/my = 0.006 mm/yr
WiIcox & Midway (15 my):
Minimum thickness (Well 107) = 1638 f t
Normal thickness = 2550 f t
Stratigraphic thinning = 912 f t
Growth rate =60. 8 ft/my = 0.018 mm/yr
Midway (7 my):
Minimum thickness (Well 107) = 350 f t
Normal thickness = 725 f t
Stratigraphic thinning = 375 f t
Growth rate = 53.6 ft/my = 0.016 mm/yr
Wilcox (8 my):
Stratigraphic thinning (from the above) = 912 - 375 = 537 f t
Growth rate = 67.1 ft/my = 0.020 mm/yr
Overall Cenozoic growth rate = 29.4 ft/my = 0.009 mm/yr
Upper Cretaceous
Arkadelphia - Annona (11 my):
Minimum thickness (Well 108) = 215 f t
Normal thickness = 425 f t
Stratigraphic thinning = 210 f t
Growth rate = 19.1 ft/my = 0.006 mm/yr
Ozan - Eagle Ford (16 my):
Minimum thickness (Well 107) = 200 f t
Normal thickness = 1200 f t
Stratigraphic thinning = 1000 f t
Growth rate =62. 5 ft/my = 0.019 mm/yr
Tuscaloosa (7 my):
Minimum thickness (Well 108) = 200 f t
Normal thickness = 400 f t
Stratigraphic thinning = 200 f t
Growth rate =28. 6 ft/my = 0.009 mm/yr
258
Table V-C-4, continued.
Overal1 Upper Cretaceous growth rate =41. 5 ft/my = 0.013 mm/yr
Lower Cretaceous
No adequate well control is available for an estimation of growth rate.
DRAKE'S DOME
Sources of Data
Basic data are from Hessenbruch (1975) and Kumar's computer maps. Out
of nine wells drilled in the area of the dome, stratigraphic information
is available only on five. Two of the wells (402 and 403 on Hessenbruch's
maps) are located on or near the flank; the other welIs (147, 148 and
149) are over the dome.
Growth Rates
Cenozoic
Post-Wilcox (50 my):
Structural r e l i e f on top of the WiIcox (Hessenbruch's Table 3) = 400 f t
Growth rate = 8 ft/my = 0.002 mm/yr
Midway (7 my):
Minimum thickness (Well 147) 370 f t
Normal thickness
=
725 f t
Stratigraphic thinning 355 f t
Growth rate =50. 7 ft/my
s:
0.015 mm/yr
Upper Cretaceous
Arkadelphia - Annona (11 my):
Minimum thickness (Wel1 147) 325 f t
Normal thickness 440 f t
Stratigraphic thinning
=
115 f t
Growth rate = 10.4 ft/my
s
0.003 mm/yr
Ozan - Eagle Ford (16 my):
Minimum thickness (Well 147) 690 f t
Normal thickness 1260 f t
Stratigraphic thinning = 570 f t
Growth rate = 35.6 ft/my 0.011 mm/yr
Tuscaloosa (7 my):
Minimum thickness (Wel1 147) 215 f t
Normal thickness 350 f t
Stratigraphic thinning 135 f t
Growth rate = 19.3 ft/my 0.006 mm/yr
Overall Upper Cretaceous growth rate =24. 1 ft/my = 0.007 mm/yr
259
Table V-C-4, continued.
Lower Cretaceous
No adequate wel1 control is available for an estimation of growth rate.
MILAMS DOME
Sources of Data
Basic data are from Hessenoruch (1975) and Kumar's computer maps.
Among available control welIs, two welIs (199 and 401 on Hessenbruch's
maps) are located on the southern flank; one well (200) is in the northern
rim syncline.
Growth Rates
Cenozoic
Post-Wilcox (50 my):
Highest structural elevation of the top WiIcox (Well 199) = -509 f t
Regional normal elevation on top of the Wilcox = -810 f t
Structural r e l i e f = 300 f t
Growth rate = 6 f t /my = 0.002 mm/yr
Wilcox & Midway (15 my):
Minimum thickness (Well 199) = 1685 f t
Normal thickness = 2050 f t
Stratigraphic thinning = 365 f t
Growth rate = 24.3 ft/my = 0.007 mm/yr
Midway (7 my):
Minimum thickness (Well 199) = 800 f t
Normal thickness = 730 f t
Stratigraphic thinning = 70 f t
Growth rate = 10.0 ft/my = 0.003 mm/yr
Wilcox (8 my):
Minimum thickness (Well 199) = 1685 - 800 = 885 f t (from the above)
Normal thickness = 2050 - 730 = 1320 f t
Stratigraphic thinning = 435 f t
Growth rate = 54.4 ft/my = 0.016 mm/yr
Overall Cenozoic growth rate = 10.2 ft/my = 0.003 mm/yr
Upper Cretaceous
Arkadelphia - Annona (11 my):
Minimum thickness (Wel1 199) = 366 f t
Normal thickness = 430 f t
Stratigraphic thinning = 64 f t
Growth rate = 5.8 ft/my = Q.Q02 mm/yr
260
Table V-C-4, continued.
Ozan & Eagle Ford (16 my):
Minimum thickness (Well 199) = 400 f t
Normal thickness = 1150 f t
Stratigraphic thinning = 750 f t
Growth rate =46. 9 ft/my = 0.014 mm/yr
Tuscaloosa (7 my):
Minimum thickness (Well 199) = 328 t t
Normal thickness = 360 f t
Stratigraphic thinning = 32 f t
Growth rate = 4.6 ft/my = 0.00! mm/yr
Overall growth rate for the Upper Cretaceous =24. 9 tt/n?y = 0.008 mm/yr
Lower Cretaceous
Washita - Fredericksburg (4 my):
Minimum thickness (Well 401) = 348 f t
Normal thickness = 350 f t
No significant statigraphic thinning.
Growth rate is negligible.
Rusk (1 my):
Minimum thickness (Well 199) = 1800 f t
Normal thickness = 1900 f t
Stratigraphic thinning = 100 f t
Growth rate = 100 ft/my = 0.030 mm/yr
CHESTER DOME
Sources of Data
Basic data are from Hessenbruch (1975) and Kumar's maps. Out of only
three Control wells, two wells (221 and 222 on Hessenbruch's maps) are
bottomed in caprock and salt, respectively; one well (220) provides control
through the Upper Cretaceous and Lower Tertiary intervals.
Growth Rates
Cenozoic
Post-Wilcox (50 my):
Structual r e l i e f on top of the WiIcox = 80 f t
Growth rate = 1.6 ft/my = 0.001 mm/yr
Wilcox & Mi dway (15 my):
Minimum thickness (Well 222) = 1850 f t
Normal thickness = 2150 f t
Stratigraphic thinning = 300 f t
Growth rate = 20 ft/my = 0.006 mm/yr
261
Table V-C-4, continued.
Wilcox (8 my):
Minimum thickness (Wel1222) = 1250 f t
Normal thickness = 1450 f t
Stratigraphic thinning = 200 f t
Growth rate = 25 ft/my = 0.008 mm/yr
Midway (7 my);
Minimum thickness (Well 222) = 600 f t
Normal thickness = 700 f t
Stratigraphic thinning = 100 f t
Growth rate = 14.3 ft/my = 0.004 mm/yr
Overall rate of up lift for the Cenozoic = 5.8 ft/my = 0.002 mm/yr
Upper Cretaceous
Arkadelphia - Annona (11 my):
Minimum thickness (reconstructed for Well 221) = 427 f t
Normal thickness = 370 f t
No stratigraphic thinning; growth rate indeterminate.
Ozan - Eagle Ford (16 my):
Minimum thickness (Well 221) = 900 f t
Normal thickness = 1000 f t
Stratigraphic thinning = 100 f t
Growth rate = 6.6 ft/my = 0.002 mm/yr
Tuscaloosa (7 my):
Minimum thickness (Well 222 ) = ?150 f t
Normal thickness = 450 f t
Stratigraphic thinning = 300 f t
Growth rate = ?42.9 ft/my = 70.013 mm/yr
Lower Cretaceous
Washita-Predericksburg (4 my):
Minimum thickness (Well 221) = 295 f t
Normal thickness = 550 f t
Stratigraphic thinning = 255 f t
Growth rate = 63.7 ft/my = 0.019 mm/yr
Rusk (1 my):
Minimum thickness (reconstructed for Well 221) = 1700 f t
Normal thickness = 1900 f t
Stratigraphic thinning = 200 f t
Growth rate = 200 ft/my =0.061 mm/yr
262
Table V-C-4, continued.
PACKTON DOME
Sources of Data
Basic data are from Hessenbruch (1975) and Kumar's computer maps.
Out of the available control wells, six wells (60, 61, 62, 66, 256
and 267 on Hessenbruch's maps) encountered the Lower Tertiary Wilcox;
only two wells (61 and 66) have penetrated the Upper Cretaceous section.
Growth Rates
Cenozoic
Post-Cook Mountain (42.5 my):
Structual r e l i e f on top of the Cook Moutain = 357 (Well 62) - 232 (Well 60)
= 125 f t
Growth rate =2. 94 ft/my = 0.001 mm/yr
Sparta & Cane River (5.5 my);
Minimum thickness (Well 62) = 593 f t
Normal thickness = 700 f t
Stratigraphic thinning = 107 f t
Growth rate = 19.45 ft/my = 0.006 mm/yr
Wilcox & Mi dway (15 my):
Minimum thickness (reconstructed for Well 66) = 2798 f t
Normal thickness = 2950 f t
Stratigraphic thinning = 152 f t
Growth rate = 10.13 ft/my = 0.003 mm/yr
Wilcox (8 my):
Stratigraphic thinning = 152 (Wilcox & Midway) - 74 (Midway) = 78 f t
Growth rate = 9.7 ft/my = 0.003 mm/yr
Post-Wilcox (50 my):
Growth = Cook Mountain r e l i e f + Cook Mountain thinning + thinning
of Sparta and Cane River = 125 + 8 + 107 = 240 f t
Growth rate = 4.8 ft/my = 0.001 mm/yr
Midway (7 my):
Minimum thickness (Well 66) = 666 f t
Normal thickness = 740 f t
Stratigraphic thinning = 74 f t
Growth rate = 10.57 ft/my = 0.003 mm/yr
Overall Cenozoic growth rate = 6.0 ft/my = 0.002 mm/yr
Upper Cretaceous
Arkadelphia - Annona (11 my):
Minimum thickness (Well 66) = 390 f t
Normal thickness = 450 f t
Stratigraphic thinning = 60 f t
Growth rate = 5.45 ft/my = 0.002 mm/yr
263
Table V-C-4, continued.
Ozan - Eagle Ford (16 my):
?Minimum thickness (reconstructed for Well 61) = 1395 f t
Normal thickness = 1240 f t
No strati graphic thinning.
Growth rate indeterminate.
Tuscaloosa (7 my):
TMinimum thickness (Wei 1 61) = 471 f t
Normal thickness = 450 f t
No strati graphic thinning.
Growth rate indeterminate.
SIKES DOMES
Sources of Data
Basic data are from Hessenbruch (1975) and Kumar's computer maps. Among
the control wells,seven welIs (171, 174, 174A, 174B, 174C, 174D, and 174E
on Hessenbruch's maps) provide information on the Lower Tertiary; only
two welIs (171 and 174) have penetrated the Gulfian section of the Upper
Cretaceous.
Growth Rates
Cenozoic
Post-WiIcox (50 my):
Structural r e l i e f on top of Wilcox = 900 - 232 (Wel1 174A) = 668 f t
Growth rate = 13.4 ft/my = 0.004 mm/yr
Wilcox & Midway (15 my):
Minimum thickness (Wel1174D) = 1502 f t
Normal thickness = 2350 f t
Strati graphic thinning = 848 f t
Growth rate = 56.5 ft/my = 0.017 mm/yr
Wilcox (8 my):
Strati graphic thinning = 848 - 340 (Midway) = 408 f t
Growth rate = 51.0 ft/my = 0.015 mm/yr
Midway (7 my):
Minimum thickness (Wel11740) = 380 f t
Normal thickness = 720 f t
Stratigraphic thinning = 340 f t
Growth rate = 48.6 ft/my = 0.015 mm/yr
Overall Cenozoic growth rate = 23.3 ft/my = 0.007 mm/yr
264
Table V-C-4, continued.
Upper Cretaceous
Arkadelphia - Annona (11 my):
Minimum thickness (Well 174C) = 440 f t
Normal thickness = 480 f t
Stratigraphic thinning = 40 f t
Growth rate = 3.6 ft/my = 0.001 mm/yr
Ozan - Eagle Ford (16 my):
?Minimum thickness (Well 174C) = 1420 f t
Normal thickness = 1150 f t
No stratigraphic thinning; growth rate indeterminate.
Tuscaloosa (7 my):
Minimum thickness (Well 174C) = 250 f t
Normal thickness = 400 f t
Stratigraphic thinning = 150 f t
Growth rate = 21.4 ft/my = 0.006 mm/yr
Lower Cretaceous
No data are available for an estimation of growth rate.
MINDEN DOME
Sources of Data
Basic data are from the work of J . L. Martin, et a l . , (1954) and W. T.
Cook (1969). Computations of growth rates are based on geologic sections
in Figure 8 of Martin, et al . , and Figures 3, 11, and 15 of Cook.
Growth Rates
Cenozoic
Post-Sparta (44.5 my):
Structural r e l i e f on top of the Sparta = 540 f t
Growth rate = 12.1 ft/my = 0.004 mm/yr
Sparta (3.5 my):
Stratigraphic thinning = 130 f t
Growth rate = 37.1 ft/my = 0.011 mm/yr
Cane River (2 my):
No significant stratigraphic thinning observed.
Growth rate is negligible.
Wilcox (8 my):
Stratigraphic thinning = 600 f t
Growth rate = 75 ft/my = 0.023 mm/yr
265
Table V-C-4, continued.
Midway (7 my):
Total growth since the start of the Midway time
= structural r e l i e f on the base of the Midway = 1860 f t
= growth during the Midway and growth during the Wilcox and
growth during the Cane River and growth during the Sparta and
Post-Sparta growth.
= growth during the Midway + 600 + 0 + 130 + 540
Hence, Midway grwoth = 1860 - 1270 = 590 f t
Growth rate for the Midway =84. 3 ft/my = 0.026 mm/yr
Post-Wilcox (50 my):
Growth rate = (540 + 130 + 0)/50
= 13,4 ft/my = 0.004 mm/yr
Wilcox and Midway (15 my):
Growth rate = (600 + 590) / 15
= 79.3 ft/my = 0.009 mm/yr
Overall Cenozoic growth rate = 28.6 ft/my = 0.009 mm/yr
Cretaceous
No adequate information is available for an estimation of growth rate.
CHESTNUT DOME
Sources of Data
Basic data are from Hessenbruch (1975) and Kumar's computer maps. Out
of four control welIs, data on only three welIs (336, 404, and 405 on
Hessenbruch's maps) are available. Well 404 is bottomed in salt. Only
Well 336 has penetrated the entire Upper Cretaceous section; others have
encountered the Lower Tertiary section.
Growth Rates
Cenozoic
Post-WiIcox (50 my):
Structural r e l i e f on top of the WiIcox (Wells 404 & 405) = 250 f t
Growth rate = 5 ft/my = 0.001 mm/yr
Wilocx & Midway (15 my):
Minimum thickness (Well 404) = 1312 f t
Normal thickness = 2000 f t
Stratigraphic thinning = 688 f t
Growth rate =45. 9 ft/my = 0.014 mm/yr
Overall Cenozoic growth rate = 14.4 ft/my = 0.004 mm/yr
Cretaceous
No data are available for an estimation of growth rate.
266
Table V»C"4. continued.
COOCHIE BRAKE DOME
Sources of Data
Basic data are from Smith’ s Figure IV-B-5,(Martinez, et al . , 1975),
Hessenbruch (1975) and Kumar's computer maps. Ten wel l s are located
along the f l ank of the dome, provi di ng controls mostly for the lowar
Tert i ar y Claiborne. Only Well 44 (Hessenbruch's maps) penetrated the
top of the Upper Cretaceous.
Growth Rates
Cenozoic
Cook Moutain (2 my):
No s i gn i f i c a n t st r at i gr aphi c thi nni ng (Smith' s Figure)
Growth rat e i s negligible.
Sparta (3.5 my):
St rat i graphi c thi nni ng (Smith' s Figure) - 450 - 375 = 75 f t
Growth rate = 21.4 f t /my = 0.008 mm/yr
Cane River (2 my);
St rat i graphi c thinning (Smith's Figure) = 200 - 125 = 75 f t
Growth rate = 37.5 ft/my - 0.011 mm/yr
Wilcox & Midway (15 my):
Minimum thickness (Well 44) = 1660 f t
Normal thickness = 3000 f t
Stratigraphic thinning = 1340 f t
Growth rate = 89.3 ft/my = 0.027 mm/yr
Post-WiIcox (50 my):
Structural r e l i e f on top of the Wilcox = 600 f t
Growth rate = 12 ft/my = 0.004 mm/yr
Post-Cook Mountain (41.5 my):
Total growth = Post-Wilcox u p l i ft - u p l i ft during the Cane River,
Sparta and Cook Mountain time
= 600 - (75 + 7 5 + 0 )
= 450 f t
Growth rate ~ 10.8 ft/my - 0.003 mm/yr
Overall Cenozoic growth rate = 29.8 ft/my = 0.009 mm/yr
Cretaceous
No data are available for an estimation of growth rate.
267
Table V-C-4, continued.
CEDAR CREEK DOME
Sources of Data
Basic data are from Smith's Figure IV-B-13,(Martinez, et al . , 1975),
Hessenbruch (1975) and Kumar's computer maps. Eight wells are drilled
along the flank of the dome. However, only two wells (112 and 113 on
Hessenbruch's maps) provide controls for the lower Tertiary Wilcox; only
one wel1 (113-D) penetrated the top of the Upper Cretaceous.
Growth Rates
Cenozoic
Sparta (3.5 my):
No stratigraphic thinning observed (Smith's Figure)
Growth rate is negligible.
Cane River (2 my):
Stratigraphic thinning (Smith's Figure) = 275 - 175 = 100 f t
Growth rate = 50 ft/my = 0.015 mm/yr
Post-WiIcox (50 my):
Structural r e l i e f on top of the Wilcox = 300 f t (WelIs 112 & 113)
Growth rate = 6 ft/my = 0.002 mm/yr
Post-Sparta (44.5 my):
Total growth = Post-Wilcox up lift - u p l i ft during the Cane River
and Sparta time
= 300 - (100 + 0) = 200 f t
Growth rate = 4.5 ft/my = 0.001 mm/yr
Cretaceous
No data are available for an estimation of growth rate.
PRICE'S DOME
Sources of Data
Basic data are from Smith's Figure IV-B-12 (Martinez, et a l . , 1975),
Hessenbruch (1975) and Kumar's computer maps. Three wells (191, 192, and
251 on Hessenbruch's maps) are drilled on the dome. Stratigraphic in­
formation only on the lower Tertiary are available.
Growth Rates
Cenozoic
Cane River (2 my):
Stratigraphic thinning (Smith's Figure) = 50 f t
Growth rate = 25 ft/my - 0.008 mm/yr
268
Table V-C-4. continued.
Post-Wilcox (50 my):
Structural r e l i e f on top of the Wi Icox (Well 191) = 200 f t
Growth rate = 4 ft/my = 0.001 mm/yr
Post-Cane River (48 my):
Growth rate = (200 - 50)/48
= 3.1 ft/my = 0.001 mm/yr
Midway:
No data are available for an estimation of growth rate.
Cretaceous
No data are available for an estimation of growth rate.
CASTER CREEK DOME
Sources of Data
Basic data are from Hessenbruch (1975) and Kumar's computer maps. A
number of wells are located in the area, providing controls for the
lower Tertiary.
Growth Rates
Cenozoic
Cook Mountain (2 my) No significant stratigraphic
Sparta (3. 5 my) thinning. Hence, u p l i ft rate
Cane River (2 my) negligible.
Post-Wilcox (50 my):
Stuctural r e l i e f on top of the Wilcox (Well 86) = 30 f t
Growth rate = 0.6 ft/my = 0.0002 mm/yr (negligible).
Cretaceous
No well control is available for an estimation of growth rate.
ARCADIA DOME
Sources of Data
Basic data are from the thesis of Worely (1962).
Growth Rates
Cenozoic
Post-Cane River (48 my):
Structural r e l i e f - 900 f t
Growth rate = 18.7 ft/my = 0.006 mm/yr
269
Table V-C-4, continued.
Cane River (2 my):
No significant thinning.
Hence, growth rate is negligible.
BISTINEAU DOME
Sources of Data
Basic data are from Smith's Figure IV-B-5 (Martinez, et a l . , 1975),
Growth Rates
Cenozoic
Midway (7 my):
Stratigraphic thinning = 100 f t
Hence, the Midway growth rate = 14.3 ft/my = 0.004 mm/yr
No data are available for other stratigraphic intervals.
271
V-D. SEISMIC STUDIES OF VACHERIE SALT DOME
R. H. Pilger, J r.
1. Background
Seismic profiling provides two related kinds of information pertinent
to the goals of this project. First, i t constrains the configuration and
size of the dome; second, i t provides an image of the structure of flank­
ing sedimentary rocks which is helpful in reconstructing the tectonic
history of the salt.
In last year's report (Martinez, et a l . , 1976), the results of a seis­
mic survey over Vacherie by Petty-Ray, under contract to LSD, were presented
by Newchurch and Romberg. In addition, one line (1ine 40) of a reprocessed
older survey obtained from Atlantic Richfield Company was presented. These
data confirmed the generally el l i p t i c a l shape of Vacherie, as previously
inferred from geologic mapping, second-hand gravity surveys, topographic
expression, and limited well control. In addition, flanking rim synclines
and several faults were identified on the profiles. The rim synclines appear
to overlie horizontal reflections at depth, suggesting thinning of an inter­
vening salt layer, from which the salt of Vacherie dome was derived. As a
corollary, the profiles can provide an estimate of the depth to the "mother"
(Louann) salt, i f accurate velocity information is available.
I t was noted in the 1976 report that the depth to mother salt near
Vacherie must be greater than the depth of the deepest well in the vicinit y--
approximately 14,500 f t below sea level (BSL). I t was suggested that the
depth of salt lies between 16,000 and 18,500 f t BSL.
The 1976 report recommended that other seismic data obtained from
Atlantic Richfield be processed in a manner similar to that of Line 40.
272
The following sections present interpretations of each of the ARCO pro-
f i 1es together with the Petty-Ray profiles described in last year's report.
Since the reprocessed data were received late in fiscal year 1977 from
the processing company (Geophysical Data Processing, I n c . , of Houston,
Texas), only preliminary conclusions can be presented at this time. Never­
theless, based on the data, some significant results have been obtained.
2. Processing of the Data
The location of the ARCO seismic lines is shown in Figure V-D-1. The
processing techniques applied to the ARCO paper records from 1ines A-2,
A-6, 9, and 39 were virtually the same as those previously applied to ARCO
1ine 40, as described in last year's report (Martinez, et a l . , 1976). Digi­
tal deconvolution was not applied, however. Lines A-2, A-6, 9, and 39
were plotted, and line 40 replotted, so as to preserve a nearly constant
horizontal scale. As the digitized records are recorded on magnetic tape,
further manipulation of the records in the future will be possible.
3. Results
The reprocessed ARCO seismic lines A-2, A-6, 9, 39, and 40 are pre­
sented in Figures V-D-2a, -3a, -4a, -5a, and -6a. Preliminary interpreta­
tions of the lines are shown in Figures V-D-2b, -3b, -4b, -5b, and -6b.
As mentioned above, the potential contribution of seismic profiling to the
project involves delineation of the location and configuration of the
salt dome and definition of the structure of the sedimentary rocks flanking
the dome.
a. Configuration of the dome. With respect to the f i r s t goal, the
1976 report (Martinez, et a l . , 1976) noted that the Petty-Ray and ARCO seis­
mic 1ines provide constraints on the location of the flanks of Vacherie dome.
273
T 18N R 8 W
39
Vacherie ^
Salt Dome
- l OOOf t . MSL
Contouri^—
40
m
R 8 W
R 8 W Ti6 N
A2
----- LSU Survey, 1975
.... — ARCO Survey,
circa 1946
MILES
F I G . I - D H . LOCATI ON OF SEI SMI C LI NES OVER
VACHERIE DOME
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but do not provide precise, direct estimates of its shape. The reason for
this seems to be that deformation of the sedimentary rocks adjacent to the
dome disrupts the stratification to such a degree that coherent reflections
are not readily observed in the data as presently available. However, an
indirect observation from the seismic profiles seems to be of significant
value for constraining the location of the flanks of the dome—namely,
recognition of a probable sub-salt reflector. In addition, appropriate
interpretation of this reflector provides an estimate of the depth of the
base of the mother salt.
At about 2.3 seconds [two-way travel time) on ARCO profiles 39 and 40
(Figures V-D-5a, and -6a) and on Petty-Ray profiles A and B ( c . f . , Pigures
IV-E-2 and IV-E-3 in Martinez, et a l . , 1976, p. 199 and 201), the top of a
convex upward set of reflections [reflector D in Figures V-D-5b and -6b) is
observed beneath the core of the salt stock. The reflections appear to
correlate with reflections at about 2.6 seconds in the sedimentary rocks
flanking the dome. These are the only distinctive reflections occurring in
or beneath the otherwise effectively transparent salt; thus, i t seems rea­
sonable to suggest that reflector D and those below represent sedimentary
beds below the salt, as suggested by Kupfer [Martinez, et a l . , 1976).
The apparent deformation of the reflectors could either represent
tectonic deformation of the sub-salt rocks, or i t could be a velocity effect.
Since the velocity of salt is generally higher than most sedimentary rocks,
the apparent deformation could represent a velocity "pull-up" such that
the shape of reflector D beneath the salt is actually an image of the top
of the salt dome. The higher velocity of the salt would result in faster
travel times than those of raypaths entirely within the flanking sedimentary
rocks.
296
In order to test the velocity pull-up hypothesis, depth calculations
of reflector D beneath the dome and beneath the flanking sedimentary strata
were made using published estimates of average salt velocity and velocity
information derived from the Petty-Ray seismic survey.
Estimates of average salt velocity range from 13,000 - 15,500 ft/sec
(Gardner, et al . , 1974), although 15,000 ft/sec is the value usually used in
seismic refraction prospecting ( e . g . , Musgrave, et a l . , 1960). Allowing
for 600 f t of sedimentary rocks above the crest of Vacherie dome, with an
average velocity between 5500 and 7500 ft/sec (as taken from the Petty-Ray
velocity measurements in Martinez, et al . , 1976), the depth of reflector D
(2.3 seconds, two-way travel time) is 1ikely to be in the range 14,100 -
18,400 f t BSL. The preferred value is 16,650 f t (salt velocity = 15,000
ft/sec; sediment velocity (above dome) = 7500 f t / s e c ) .
The average velocity in flanking sedimentary rocks as calculated by
Petty-Ray appears to be in the range 12,000 - 14,000 ft/sec (Figure V-D-7).
While higher velocities are reported, they are obtained from either within
the dome i t s e l f or along its immediate flanks. For reflector 0 at 2.6
seconds, this gives a depth range of 15,600 - 18,200 f t BSL. For an
average velocity of 13,000 ft/sec the estimated depth is 16,900 f t BSL.
Last year's report noted that the sediment velocities calculated from the
seismic section might be too high, in which case the estimated depth ranges
are too great.
This 1imi ted analysis suggests that reflector 0 occurs at the base of
the salt dome and may originate from a nearly horizontal horizon. (The
further significance of reflector 0 is discussed below in the section on
structure of the sedimentary rocks flanking Vacherie salt dome.) The
interpretation of reflector D as a horizontal, sub-salt horizon is similar
297
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20
3.0 1.5 2.0 1.0 2.5 0.5 0
TWO- WAY TRAVEL (Sec. )
FIG. V - D - 7
VELOCI TY- DEPTH RELATI ONS
298
to that of a horizon on a seismic prof i l e across Hal nesvi l l e s al t dome 1n
northeast Texass as reported by Dobrin (1976). Dobrin suggests that a deep
reflecting horizon beneath the dome is deformed on the seismic time section
as a result of velocity effects. As the qual i ty of the Hainesville Profi1e,
particularly at depth, is better than that of any of the LSU profiles,
correlation of the sub-salt reflectors with sub-sediment reflectors is well
defined on the Hainesville profile.
I f the distortion of reflector D is due to velocity effects, then its
shape is an image of the top of Vacherie dome. Even without sophisticated
ray-tracing techniques, i t is possible to use the shape as an estimate of
the configuration of the top of the dome, assuming a minimum depth of salt
(or caprock) of 400 f t BSL and constant salt velocity of 15,000 ft/sec.
This estimate of the shape of the top of the dome is included in Figures
V-D-5b and -6b and in the reinterpreted Petty-Ray profiles (Figures V-D-8
and - 9 ). An important additional consequence of this analysis is that the
upper portion of Vacherie dome is attached to and continuous with deeper
salt, just above reflector D. I t seems unlikely that the coherence of
reflector D would be maintained i f the upper portion of the dome were detached
from deeper salt. Further, the success of the hypothesis that reflector D
is continuous and horizontal also suggests that the salt is continuous from
approximately 17,000 f t to 400 f t below sea lev el. The inferred configura­
tion of the top of Vacherie dome (Figure V-D-10) also incorporates this
interpretation of reflector D.
b. Deformation of flanking sedimentary rocks. In last year's report
(Martinez, et a l . , 1976), i t was noted that rim syncl i nes were apparent at
depth on Petty-Ray profile B and on ARCO line 40. Major ri m-syncl ine forma­
tion on Petty-Ray line B and Arco line 40 appears to be confined to horizons
well below reflector B, which was inferred to correspond with the top of
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I
o2.0 h
2.5
3.0
LINE 39 LINE A
I +
Down to South Fault
Based on Shot Hole Logs
N
1SEA LEVEL
REI NTERPRETED SEI SMI C SECTI ON
P E T T Y - R A Y LI NE B
VACHERI E SALT DOME AREA
1000
2000
H 3000
4000
5000
6000
SALT 7000
8000
9000
10000
12500
H 15000
H 17500
20000
Q.
LJ
Q
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00
N-
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o
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Q CO
U J \
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X
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Q- O
UJ -
Q
UJ IJJ
I - OC
CO ( S >
LlI Z
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FIG. V - D - 9
-V 4
W :
p:
"s“-■
;te
.7
>■ p- -• ..'
_, , ■
r M
■s '^’
t f r -
■ ^
.'S*
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'-i::
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' V l
d )
WEBSTER
BI ENVI LLE PAFIS
VACHERIE SALT DOME
STRUCTURE CONTOUR MAP
BASED ON SEISMIC PROFI LES.
TOP OF CAPROCK OR SALT
( FEET BELOW SEA LEVEL)
FIG. ' S L - D - 10
CO
o
CO
K i m
^ssvussa^
'**^.-■,-3 u.AV<i( -
i«MSaKv=to*'?i*^sac-
305
the Sligo formation (Martinez, et a l . , 1976). Reflector B is also recognized
on ARCO lines A-2 and 9 (Figures V-D-2b and -4b, respectively), However
major synclinal deformation to the north of Vacherie (line 9) occurs at a
much shallower depth than to the south (line A-2). Further to the north,
on 1ine 9, the Minden syncline (Kupfer in Martinez, et al . , 1976) clearly
involves strata above reflector B. These combined observations indicate
that major synclinal formation, presumably synchronous with salt withdrawal,
occurred in a time-transgressive manner, terminating well before Sligo time
on the south, just before Sligo time to the north of Vacherie, and much
later farther north--south of Minden dome.
The 1976 report did indicate minor synclinal deformation of horizons B
and also A (correlated with the top of the Annona formation) on the north,
south, and west flanks of Vacherie dome. This pattern is also apparent on
ARCO profi1es A-6 and 40 (Figures V-D-3a, -3b, -6a, and -6b). As reflections
shallower than reflector A are poorly resolved, further determination of the
deformation history of the sedimentary rocks, on the basis of the seismic
profiles is limited.
As noted in the previous section, reflector D may well represent a near
horizontal reflector beneath Vacherie salt dome. However, velocity pull-ups
are not restricted to sub-salt positions. Pull-ups appear to occur under the
flanking sediments as well (see Figures V-D-1a, - l b , -4a, and -6b). Beneath
the flanking sediments, reflector D appears to occur at 2.4 - 2.5 seconds
(two-way travel time). The region above this segment of reflector D is
characterized by incoherent reflections and numerous diffractions while more
coherent reflections occur farther from the dome. As the velocity analyses
from the Petty-Ray survey seem to be somewhat higher along these dome
flanks, the stepped configuration of reflector D might be caused by higher
velocities in deformed sediments adjacent to the dome. Thus the velocity
306
pull-ups of reflector D appear to occur in two stages: beneath denser,
higher velocity sediments; and beneath even higher velocity salt. Al­
ternatively, the zone of incoherent reflections could represent a deep
shoulder of salt on the south flank of the dome. That the flanking sedi­
mentary rocks might be more dense and have a higher seismic velocity is
supported by studies by Crosby (1964), who showed that gravity anomalies
over some salt domes seem to require higher density sediments immediately
adjacent to the domes than off the flanks.
Further to the south, on ARGO profiles A-2 and 40, reflector D appears
to be continuous with a reflector which is anticlinally deformed. An obvious
interpretation is that the anti cl inal structure is a salt pillow. Such an
interpretation would require, however, that reflector D is underlain by more
salt, at least to the south of Vacherie dome. There is no indication of a
similar situation to the north of Vacherie. Either the inferred continuation
of reflector D is invalid, or a second salt horizon exists below reflector D.
The lat ter interpretation would have significant bearing on the sedimentary
history of the J urassic salt beds.
4. Future Work
I t is planned that future work on these existing seismic profiles will
involve additional processing of the Petty-Ray profiles involving migration
and further velocity analysis. In addition, characteristic reflections on ■
the ARGO profiles will be digitized and migrated as well. In order to fur­
ther test the velocity pull-up model of reflector D, ray tracing mathe­
matical models are planned in an effort to reproduce the time sections by
varying the shape of the dome and the velocity structure of the overlying
sedimentary rocks.
Attempts to obtain additional seismic data such as that obtained from
307
ARCO win be made. I f such attempts are successful, reprocessing of the
new data will be undertaken in a similar manner.
I t is f e l t that the main goals of this aspect of the project will re­
quire the acquisition of new seismic data. In order to more precisely out­
line the configuration of the dome, a refraction survey with geophones in
a corehole in the salt is planned. In addition, i t is highly desirable to
obtain short, high resolution seismic profi1es over the flanks of the target
domes in order to delineate the shallow structure of the flanking sedimentary
rocks and the shape of the top boundaries of the dome.
A regional seismic survey linking two or more target domes is also
desirable. Such a survey would be aimed at definition of the deeper structure
of the sedimentary basin separating, for example, Vacherie and Rayburn's domes.
The regional survey would provide valuable control on the estimate of the
movement history of the salt, volumes of salt, and deformation of the over-
lying sedimentary rocks. I t could also provide additional tests of the
velocity pull-up hypothesis versus suggestions of sub-mother salt structural
involvement.
Together with the gravity data, the existing and proposed seismic data
should provide accurate and precise estimates of the shape and size of the
target domes. In addition, coordination with well log studies will give an
excellent historical perspective on the development of the domes prior to
middle Cenozoic time.
5. Acknowledgements
M. Romberg, consultant to the LSU project, lent his expertise to super­
vision of the processing of the ARCO 1ines, and assisted in interpretation of
the seismic profiles at an earlier stage.
309
V-E. GRAVITY INVESTIGATIONS OF NORTH LOUISIANA SALT DOMES
R. H. Pilger, J r.
1. Background
The goals of the LSU salt dome project require accurate and precise
knowledge of not only the geographic location, but also the sizes, depths,
and shapes of the target salt domes. In addition, a knowledge of the
nature of the flanking sedimentary rocks is desirable. From various sources,
a rough idea of the locations and depths to the tops of Vacherie and
Rayburn's domes has been developed, based on oil well and second-hand gravity
data (summarized in Martinez, et a l . , 1975, 1976).
Traditionally, gravity surveys have been viewed as reconnaissance tools
for the location of density anomalies (such as salt domes) in the sub­
surface. By analysis of the shapes of reduced anomalies, using simple math­
ematical models such as spheres, cylinders, and cones, rough estimates of
the depth of anomalous masses can be obtained ( e . g . , Nettleton, 1976).
Several iterative techniques have also been applied to simple problems
involving assumptions of constant density contrast between an anomalous
mass and the surrounding material ( e . g . , Cordell and Henderson, 1968).
Such techniques suffer from simple assumptions, such as constant density,
and from the absence of suitable geologic constraints. Through the ap­
plication of basic geologic assumptions ( e . g . , Dorman, 1975) and constraints
derived from other sources ( e . g . , well logs; Burkhard and J ackson, 1976) i t
appears possible to derive more sophisticated estimates of the variations
in density contrast with depth and of the shape of the anamolous mass as
well. Alternatively, i t might be desirable to derive the density contrast
310
of each element of a three-dimensional grid whereby the boundaries of
an anomalous mass could be defined on the basis of changes in density
contrast.
2. Data Acquisition
Detailed gravity data over Vacherie dome were collected in May 1977,
and the mathematical techniques described above will be applied to these
data in an effort to define the configuration of the dome. Using a LaCoste-
Romberg gravi ty meter, approximately 200 stations were occupied at close
spacing over the inferred northeast, southeast, and western flanks of the
dome. Relative elevations and locations of the stations were determined
by alidade and piane table and were tied to new precise-1eveling survey
bench marks erected by the National Geodetic Survey (see Section I I I - B ) .
Complete reduction of the data has been delayed, awaiting receipt of ele­
vations of the bench marks from the NGS.
In addition to gravi ty data collected directly by LSU personnel, all
major oil companies were contacted and requests for additional gravi ty data
in the areas of interest were made. The response to these requests was
most gratifying. Cities Service, Atlantic Richfield, Texaco, and Conoco
provided copies of complete Bouguer anomaly maps which include individual
station locations and readings. Examinations of the maps indicates that
the data sets, while independently derived, are compatible although base
values d i ffer . Composite complete Bouguer anomaly maps over Vacherie,
Rayburn's, and Prothro domes have been constructed from the Cities Service
and Atlantic Richfield data (Figures V-E-1 and -2 ). More detailed
evaluation of the data will involve computer techniques.
311
R 7 W T18N :9W R8W
T17N
Webster Parish'
Bienville Parish
T16N
BOUGUER GRAVITY
VACHERIE SALT DOME
Kilometers
- N -
Miles
Contour Interval OMilligal
FIG. V - E - l
312
R7W R5W
T15N
T14N
T13N
N-
Kilometers
BOUGUER GRAVITY
PROTHRO AND RAYBURNS SALT DOMES
Miles
Contour Interval = 1Milligal (.5 dashed)
F!G.V“" E - 2
313
3. Results
From the Bouguer gravity maps (Figures V-E-1 and -2) several obser­
vations are apparent. The anomaly shape over Vacherie is highly ell i p ti c a l
as is also reflected in the topography, seismic profiles, and limited well
data available (Martinez, et a l . , 1975, 1976). In contrast, the Rayburn's
and Prothro anomalies are much more circular. Further, the magnitude of
the anomaly associated with Vacherie is much greater than those associated
with Rayburn' s and Prothro domes (15 milligals over Vacherie, versus
approximately 4 milligals for Rayburn's and Prothro). These observations
provide additional support for inferences that Vacherie is a much larger
dome than either Rayburn' s or Prothro. Further, both Rayburn's and Prothro
domes show distinct asymmetries in their gravity anomalies.
The east flank of the Rayburn's anomaly shows a slight concavity
to the east, indicating a relative mass excess on the east flank. Such a
mass excess could be an indication of a shallow overhang of salt over
sedimentary rocks on the east flank; sedimentary rocks might be partially
surrounded by salt on the northeast, east, and southeast flanks of the dome.
A similar, though less pronounced, asymmetry in the Prothro anomaly
is also suggestive of a mass excess. The concavi ty indicated in the 24.5
milligal contour suggests ei ther a shallow overhang at depth, or a morpho­
logic depression in the salt, such that the top of Prothro dome might be
somewhat horseshoe-shaped.
4. Future Work
In order to u t i 1ize the data from the LSU surveys and those received
from the oil and contracting companies more completely, mathematical models
have been developed which will produce "best-fit" configurations of the
314
domes to the gravity data. As is well known, such modeling techniques
are of 1i t t l e value in the absence of suitable constraints. The seismic
profi1es and well data from Vacherie, and the engineering seismic data from
Rayburn's will provide the necessary constraints when combined with geo­
logically reasonable estimates of the density variations of the sedimentary
rocks of northern Louisiana. As the models being derived also compute
regional effects, estimates of the sizes and shapes of neighboring domes
must also be taken into account. Fortunately, the neighboring domes are
far enough away from the domes of interest that only rough estimates of
geometry and location are needed.
The amount of data available combined with more detailed surveys
should provide valuable control on the size, shape, and density contrast
of the domes. This facet of the project seems well able to achieve its
goals.
I t is proposed that additional, highly detailed gravi ty surveys be
undertaken over the flanks of Vacherie and Rayburn's domes. The spacing
of the stations should be on the order of 100 feet or less. As detailed
gravi ty surveys require accurate and precise elevation i nformati on, i t is
further proposed that detailed leveling surveys be undertaken prior to
the gravi ty surveys. The leveling surveys could be easily coordinated with
surveys of boreholes, water wells, and engineering seismic refraction
studies.
5. Acknowledgements
L. Lakin and J . Lucas, students in the LSU Geology Department, assisted
in the acquisition of the fie ld gravity data over Vacherie Dome. In addi­
tion Mr. Lakin assisted in reduction of the gravity data obtained from oil
companies.
315
V-F. GEOCHEMISTRY
R. E. Ferrel l , Jr.
1. Background
A geochemical Investigation of salt-dome salt was initiated in J anuary
1977. The purpose of the study was to collect and analyze chemical data on
salt in pursuit of the general goals of the investigation of the u t i l i t y of
Gulf Coast salt domes for the storage or disposal of radioactive wastes.
This program is designed to provide results which can be used to assess the
tectonic and hydrologic stability of salt domes. The results of the current
year's activities in geochemistry are presented in this report. Most of
the work effort was devoted to the standardization and calibration of tech­
niques for the analysis of salt, including mineralogical analysis by
scanning electron microscopy and chemical-element determinations by atomic
absorption spectroscopy and colorimetry.
The geochemical studies are expected to be most useful in assessing the
hydrologic stability of salt domes. The findings will directly assist
other investigators in this project who are studying mine hydrology, ground­
water movement, caprock formati on, salt petrology and the mechanics of salt
deformation. The geochemical program should also establish a baseline data
set which can be used to assess which geochemical parameters or techniques
should be included in any detailed, site specific studies which may follow.
However, at the present time, only preliminary results of the laboratory-
techniques studies are available.
2. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) Techniques
The scanning electron microscope is an extremely useful analytical
instrument for the study of the size and shape of mineral grains. When
316
these microscopes are equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analysis
system, their u t i 1i t y is expanded further. The morphology and chemical
composition of individual grains as small as a micrometer in diameter can
be examined with such a system.
The mineral grains examined in this study were the water insoluble
minerals in salt samples from the domes at Weeks Island and Cote Blanche.
They were collected by dissolving the bulk salt in distilled water at room
temperature and then fi l ter i n g the solution through a 0.45 ym membrane.
The residues were mounted on 1-inch aluminum or brass sample stubs as
bulk grain mounts or individual hand-picked grains. In most cases, these
specimens were coated with a thin carbon film in a vacuum evaporator in
order to provide the surface electrical conductivity required to form
secondary electron images in the SEM. The carbon film is also f a i r l y
transparent to X-rays which are generated in the sample by the microscope's
electron beam. A few samples were coated with a gold film in order to ob­
tain better quality, high magnification photomicrographs.
In the microscope, all bulk samples were scanned at variable magni­
fications and representative areas were photographed on Polaroid P/N 55
type film at relatively low magnification settings (60 - 300 times enlarge­
ment). Individual grains were also photographed at low magnifications,
and their chemical compositions were determined by the X-ray analyzer.
Typical results of these procedures are presented below. The instrument
used was the JEOL J SM-2 microscope with an ORTEC Model 6100 X-ray system
in the LSU Department of Geology.
3. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS)
Atomic absorption spectroscopy is a very versatile analytical chem­
istry technique. With standard equipment, one can measure trace concen-
317
trations of elements in aqueous solutions or major elements in solid samples
after dissolution and dilution of the samples with distilled water. In
this study, the AAS system has been used to obtain quantitative determina­
tions of the water soluble potassium, calcium, magnesium, strontium, and
sodium in salt samples from Cote Blanche and Weeks Island salt domes.
A representative 2 gram sample of the dry, crushed salt was dissolved
in about 80 ml of distilled water and fil tered through a 0.45 pm membrane
to remove the insoluble mineral grains. The f i 1trate was collected in a
volumetric flask and adjusted to a volume of exactly 100 ml. Additional
lOx, lOOx, or lOOOx dilutions of this stock solution were also made in order
to reduce the concentrations of the dissolved species to the working ranges
commonly used in AAS analyses. The samples were analyzed with the instru­
mental parameters recommended in the Perkin-Elmer Handbook.
The analytical results were calibrated with known solutions of potas­
sium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, and sodium by the method of standard
additions. The measured values were then multiplied by the appropriate
factors in order to calculate the elemental concentrations in the original
sample. The final results are expressed on a weight basis as parts-per-
million. The instrument used for these determinations was a Perkin-Elmer
Model 370A Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer in the LSU Institute for
Environmental Studies.
4. Colorimetric Procedures
Several colorimetric, t i t rimet ric , or turbidimetric procedures have
been investigated for the determination of the water soluble chloride,
iodide, bromide, and sulfate concentrations in salt. Only the chloride
and sulfate techniques have produced satisfactory results at the present
time.
318
Chloride in salt was determined fay the Mohr method using silver nitrate
to t i t r a t e the diluted samples to the desired end point. The silver nitrate
solution utilized was approximately 0.013 N and the reagents required in
the analysis were the prepackaged powders supplied fay the Hach Chemical Co.
Sulfate was determined fay a turfaidimetric procedure. The Sulfate IV
reagent powders prepared fay Hach Chemical Co. were used in this analysis
because they yielded more reproducible results than the reagents prepared
in the LSU laboratory.
5. Salt Samples
Samples of salt used in this i n i t i a l phase of the geochemical study
were collected from the Morton Salt Company mine at Weeks Island and the
Domtar Company mine at Cote Blanche. Blocks of salt with a volume of ap-
O
proximately 2000 cm were broken from the walls with a geological hammer,
placed in cloth sample faays, and returned to the laboratory for analysis.
Ten locations were sampled from the 800 foot level in the Weeks
Island mine. Most of the sample locations were on the east side of the
mine near the shear zone as identified fay Kupfer , personal communication,
1977 B. The mine level coordinates of the pillars from which the samples
were taken are listed in Table V-F-1. The salt samples were generally
pure salt with occasional dark bands of anhydrite. In sample 18-19-V (OB),
a very pronounced 1 cm thick band was evident which contained approximately
50 per cent fay weight anhydrite.
Several samples were collected from 8 locations at the 1320 f t level
in the Cote Blanche mine. The coordinates of the pillars which were
sampled are also listed in Table V-F-1. Blending of light colored salt
with darker colored streaks of anhydrite and salt was very evident in all
these samples. An effort was made in the laboratory to restrict the
319
sampling to single light or dark bands. These samples are identified by
additional numbers following the mine location designation. For example,
the sample 21-L-N-3-1A refers to the f i r s t run (A) of the f i r s t bank (1)
in the third sample (3) collected at 21 and L corridors in the northern
(N) part of the Cote Blanche mine.
Table V-F-1. Mine level coordinates of salt samples collected at Weeks
Island salt mine and Cote Blanche mine.
Weeks Island Cote Blanche
14 between X and W 20-K-North
14-V 21-L-North
between 17 & 18 25-G-North
between 18 & 19 25-L-South
19 between S & T 29-K-South
20-0-East 21-M-South
21-J -East 21-N-South
23-H 18-I-South
23-G
21-D
6. Results of SEM Studies
The photomicrographs of the water insoluble minerals in the salt
samples from Weeks Island dome have produced some interesting preliminary
results as illustrated in Figures V-F-1, -2, and -3. The water insoluble
mineral grains are predominantly anhydrite in the very fine sand to coarse
s i l t size range. Most of the particles are blocky with smooth surfaces.
In some samples the surfaces are marked with striations and features which
may be related to dissolution or precipitation. The sizes and shapes of the
grains as well as the surface irregularities appear to vary with sample
location. The anhydrite grains may also be associated with other minerals
such as pyrite, dolomite, magnesite, quartz and others which contain the
common trace elements in salt--zinc and nickel. The relationships between
320
the occurrences of the minerals and the variability of their morphology
with respect to diagenetic processes is one of the future studies which
we hope will have a direct bearing on the assessment of the reaction be­
tween domal salt and the surrounding sediments.
The scanning electron photomicrographs in Figure V-F-1 exhibit the
typical features of the mineral grains in the water insoluble residue
from the dark band in sample 18-19-V (DB). In the general views of the
sample (A and B in Figure V-F-1) the blocky to siightly tabular, 0.1 to
0.2 mmgrains of anhydrite are dominant. In photo B, the anhydri te grain
in the center of the field of view partially encloses two quartz grains
with distinct pyramidal crystal terminations. At higher magnifications
(photos C and D), two types of parallel features may be observed on certain
anhydrite grains. The striations in photo C are the result of crystal
growth. In photo D, the more irregular parallel ridges and grooves are
more d i f f i c u l t to interpret. They may have originated as dissolution fea­
tures produced by etching in brines which were undersaturated with respect
to anhydrite,or alternatively, they may have resulted from crystal growth.
In Figure V-F-2, additional photomicrographs illustrate the morpho­
logical variability of mineral grains in 4 other samples of salt from Weeks
Island. Photomicrographs A and B in this Figure are from the 17-18-W and
21-J -East locations, respectively. Larger particles are apparent in both,
and the grain-size distribution frequency appears bimodal. Many particles
are about 0.4 - 0.5 mmin size, while others are closer to 0.1 mmin aver­
age length. The irregular surface features appear to be more conmon in
photo B of this figure. In a sample (18-19-V (WC)j that contained large
halite crystals (in Figure V-F-2), the anhydri te grains are more irregular
321
m
m
I
m
I
I
Figure V-F-1 Scanning electron photomicrographs
the morphological variability in a
the water i nsol ubl e residue from a
sample.
(SEM) illustrating
simple sample of
Weeks Island salt
322
iiiiiliiiiPiriVi MiiiiiP'
.1
M
mS^kk*^£
d
m
i
I
H
Ih I
mmm
M
Figure V-F-2. SEM photomicrographs illustrating the morphological
variability of four water insoluble residues from
Weeks Island salt.
323
in shape than the ones discussed above. The most irregularly shaped anhy­
drite grains were present in sample 20-K-North (photo D in Figure V-F-2).
Sample 20-G-East (photo A in Figure V-F-3) contained anhydrite grains
with the most corroded appearance of the samples observed. In the other
scanning electron photomicrographs of Figure V-F-3, clay mineral rich
residues from 21-J -East may be observed in B, fractured anhydrite is domi­
nant in C from sample 18-K-North, and very platy anhydrite from sample 20-
0-East is present in 0. The central mineral grain in the last photo is a
crystal of hematite (iron oxide) or 1imonite ( iron hydroxide). Additional
scanning electron microscope studies are underway which should make i t
possible to determine whether the morphological changes illustrated in this
figure and the previous ones are the result of original depositional condi­
tions , or produced by shearing forces during domal growth or interactions
of the salt with the surrounding sediments.
Examples of individual mineral grains (other than anhydrite) are
illustrated in Figure V-F-4. A rhombohedral dolomite crystal is the largest
crystal present in photo A of this figure. Two smaller rhombohedra of the
same material form interpenetrating twins near the center of the photomicro­
graph. The large dolomite crystal appears to engulf 2 smaller quartz crys­
tals (photo A, upper right and lower l e f t ) and a pyrite crystal (photo A,
lower righ t). A mixed aluminum and magnesium phase, which may be a gibb-
site and brucite intergrowth, is present in photo B in Figure V-F-4. Pyrite
(photo C) and magnesite (photo D) are common in many samples. Identification
of these crystals is helping to interpret the chemical history of the salt,
especially the distribution of trace elements.
324
m
0.1
1
Figure V-F-3. SEM photomicrographs of anhydri te grains and other
minerals in the water insoluble residue from salt
samples
I B I
Figure V-F-4. SEM photomicrographs of hand picked grains from the
water insoluble residue of salt: A) dolomite;
B) gibbsite and brucite; C) pyri t e ; and D) magnesite.
Table V-F-2. Results of chemical analyses of salt from Weeks Island and Cote Blanche salt mines.
[values are tabulated as parts per million]
Sample Sequence
Location Number Sodium Potassium Magnesium Calcium Strontium Chloride Sulfate
Weeks Island salt mine
18-19-V (WC) A 384,000 500 26 370 0 1,262
B 330,000 499 18 465 0
- . - -
18-19-V (DB) A
_ _ *
418 13 12,700 3.3
» -
33,100
B 443 17 17,000 2.7
- -
46,800
20-0-E A 380,000 81 6 8,220 1.7
-
27,450
B 372,000 75 10 8,600 1.7
- ™
26,950
H-23 A
- .
111 3 23 0
. -
B 341,000 103 2 15 0
- .
17-18-W A
- »
401 43 4,060 1.7
- -
8,970
B 390,000 396 51 3,720 1.3
- -
8,150
21-J -E A
- -
12 3 2,520 0.4
-
6,200
B
_ -
8 4 26 0.4 - - 4,950
Cote Blanche salt mine
21-M-S A
■»
183 4 3,240 0.4
_ _
7,400
B 180 4 3,460 0.5 7,950
20-K-N A 760 285 3,930 0.9
- - 9,900
B
- -
818 389 4,150 0.5
- - 9,300
18-I-S A
- -
8,060 422 519 1.2 15,300
B 9,390 445 4,790 1.0
- - 11,250
21-L-N 1-lA 321,000 60 8 619 10.0 650,000 8,518
1-lB 60 9 697 7.0 667,000 8,930
1-2A 299,000 80 15.0 649,000 7,290
1-2B 307,000 65 5,480 0 639,000 7,380
1-3A 374,000 50 7 6,280 10.0 621,000 10,160
1-3B 379,000 45 7 13.0 649,000 11,204
1-4A 345,000 60 6 6,990 10.0 669,000 8,260
1-4B 344,000 50 6 7,080 8.0 640,000 9,990
1-5A 343,000 55 7 21,600 24.0 621,000 24,820
1-5B 347,000 56 7 20,400 23.0 602,000 25,230
CJ
ro
(Ti
lysis not completed.
t Table \TT-2, continued.
Sample
Location
Sequence
Number Sodium Potassium Maqnesium Calcium Strontium Choloride Sulfate
1-6A 368,000 55 6 160 3.6 604,000 2,540
1-6B 353,000 52 6 204 6.5 622,000 2,120
1-7A 335,000 61 15 139 5.6 664,000 2,030
1-7B 342,000 60 15 139 3.7 667,000 2,360
1-8A 62 15 3,460 5.5 636,000 12,430
1-8B 61 13 4,000 6.5 623,000 11,890
1-9A
« —
56 5 339 2.0 668,000
_ _
1-9B
- .
8 398 2.0 649,000 2,120
1-lOA 487,000 40 7 3,990 5.0 621,000 10,680
1-lOB 476,000 40 7 3,980 4.0 619,000 10,920
1-llA 409,000 37 7 3,060 5.6 667,000
_ _
1-llB 407,000 37 6 3,120 1.8 642,000
_ _
1-12A 399,000 60 6 1,300 2.0 659,000
_ _
1-12B 392,000 40 6 1,400 2.0 640,000
_ _
1-13A 20 8 3,590 9.0 640,000
_ _
1-13B 19 7 2,170 3.8 631,000
_ _
1-14A 40 9 2,400 4.5 641,000
_ _
1-14B 20 8 2,200 3.0 640,000
_ _
3-lA 30 5 2,200 0 622,000 3,150
3-lB
-
30 5 2,100 0 630,000 3,060
3-2A 35 5 1,900 0 650,000 3,140
3-2B
. -
40 8 3,190 0
_ _
5,400
3-3A 50 6 2,390 0 621,000 6,180
3-3B 45 5 2,290 0 640,000 6.690
3-4A 30 4 2,400 0 621,000 4,270
3-4B 30 6 2,700 0 650,000 4,700
I4-1A
. <»
2,200 660,000 4,320
I4-1B
«. -
2,310
- -
619,000 3,950
I4-2A
«. -
2,120
_ _
5,620
I4-2B
- ~ - «
195
„ - _ _
5,520
Cote Blanche salt mine
21-L-N
LO
t\5
* Analysis not completed.
Table V-F-2, continued.
Sample Sequence
Location Number Sodium Potassium Magnesium Calcium Strontium Choloride Sulfate
Cote Blanche salt mine
21-L-N I4-3A - - * - - - - 2,120 - - - - 3,860
I4-3B - - - - - - 2,200 - - - - 3,780
I4-4A - - - - - - 1,990 - - - - 2,970
I4-4B - - - - ~ - 1,790 - - - - 2,710
II4-1A - - - - - - 2,700 - - - - 4,010
II4-1B - - - - - - 2,790 - - - - 4,010
II4-2A - - - - - - - - - - - - 2,970
II4-2B - - - - - - - - - - 3,140
II4-3A - - - - - - - - - - - - 4,750
II4-3B - - - - - - - - - - - - 4,800
II4-4A - - - - - - - - - - - - 9,200
II4-4B - - - - - - - - - - - - 9,450
5-lA
5-lB
5-2A
5-28
5-3A
5-3B - - - - - - - - - - - - 1,280
5-4A - - - - - - - - - - - - 8,400
5-48 - - - - - - - - - - - - 7,160
5-5A - - - - - - - - - - - - 6,960
5-58 - - - - - - - - - - - - 7,250
21-N-S 1-lA - - - - - - - - - - - - 5,880
1-18 - - - - - - - - - - - - 5,200
1-2A
1-28
1-3A
1 OD - - « -
1-4A - - I - I I - - - - - - 8,700
1-48 - - - - - - - - - - - - 9,040
U?
ro
00
* Analysis not completed.
Table ^ ^ 2 , continued.
Sample
Location
Sequence
Number Sodium Potassium Magnesium Calcium Strontium Choloride Sulfate
Cote Blanche salt mine
21-N-S 2-lA
2-lB
2-2A
2-2B
2-3A
2-3B
2-4A
2-4B
2-5A
2-5B
2-6A
2-6B
2-7A
2-7B
3-lA
3-lB
3-2A
3-2B
3-3A
3-3B
3-4A
3-4B
3-5A
3-5B
3-6A
3-6B
5,140
5,050
18,700
17,500
22,800
28,200
17.900
17.900
6,820
6,850
3,110
26,600
19,600
4,360
4,170
10,000
10,800
20,100
23,900
17,800
15,300
CO
ro
* Analysis not completed.
330
7. Results of Chemical Determinations
Partial chemical analyses of approximately 60 salt samples are shown
in Table V-F-2. Ranges of values for the chemical constituents analyzed
are shown in Table V-F-3. These determinations form the i n i t i a l baseline
data on the chemical variability of Gulf Coast salt and brines generated
from the salt. The method of standard additions was necessary in all the
atomic absorption analyses because of the reasons discussed below.
Table V-F-3. Range of values detected in quantitative chemical analyses
of salt sample from Weeks Island and Cote Blanche mines.
Chemical Constituent________________ Range Cppm)
Sodium 299,000 - 487,100
Strontium 0.0 - 24.0
Potassium 8.0 - 9390
Calcium 15.0 - 21,600
Magnesium 2.2 - 445
Chloride 602,000 - 668,000
Sulfate 46.0 - 15,300
The results of atomic absorption analyses must be calibrated with
solutions containing known concentrations of the elements to be determined.
In most cases this can be accomplished by dissolving a known weight of
the pure element in a fixed volume of distilled water and then relating the
measured absorbance to the prepared concentration. The relationship is
usually linear with a zero intercept and variable slope depending on a
number of operating conditions.
Occasionally, the samples being analyzed may exhibit a tendency to
produce incorrect results by this technique because of a variety of inter­
ferences which are generally referred to as "matrix" effects. This problem
331
can be overcome in many cases by adding multipie Increments of the element
being determined to separate aliquots of the sample being analyzed (standard
additions).
In the determination of the potassium, calcium, magnesium, and stron­
tium concentrations in the salt samples reported in Table V-F-2, a large
difference was detected in the slopes of the equations relating absorbance
to concentration. These equations are tabulated for comparison in Table
V-F-4.
Table V-F-4. Equations used to calibrate elemental determinations by atomic
absorption spectroscopy.
Element Distilled Water
Standards
Standard
Additions
Potassium ppm = 0.12 + 20.9 (abs.)* ppm = 0.12 + 10.1 (abs.'
Calcium ppm = 0.10 + 18.2 (abs.) ppm = 14.2 (abs.)
Magnesium ppm = 1.50 (abs.)
ppm = 1.75 (abs.)
Strontium ppm = 30.0 (abs.) ppm = 38.6 (abs.)
Sodium ppm = 5440 (abs.) ppm = 5400 (abs.)
* abs. = absorbance
For calcium and potassium, a small positive intercept was included in the
calculations involving distilled water standards. For standard additions,
only the line representing the potassium calibration curve failed to go
through zero. This effect is probably related to the ionization inter-
ference between sodium and potassium. Sodium was also determined by the
additions method even though the differences in the test results were
332
negligible. Observing these precautions will help guarantee the r e l i a b i l i t y
and reproducibility of the analytical results.
The results of the chemical determinations are shown in Table V-F-2.
A rigorous evaluation of the changes detected was not attempted at this
time because the results are not complete for all samples and the data are
only from a few locations at this time.
8. Summary and Recomnendations
The geochemical investigation has begun to produce interesting results
on the mineralogy and chemical composition of Gulf Coast salt. The labora­
tory techniques have been established after rigorous testing. Changes in
the characteristics of the water insoluble minerals in the salt have been
observed and many of the trace elements in the salt have been assigned to
specific mineral phases. However, all the results obtained to date must
be tested with more samples from various field locations and specific
analyses of salt and associated materials in the vacinity of Vacherie
and Rayburn' s domes. Plans to analyze these samples and additional chemi-
cal tests have been proposed for fiscal years 1978 and 1979.
The results obtained by these additional tests and new samples must
then be interpreted to assess their overall applicability to the solution
of the project goals. When this is completed, we should have f i r s t hand
geochemical information on the origin of brines associated with aquifers
near salt domes. Such information will be an important input in our
assessment of whether the salt in the domal masses is stable hydrologically.
9. Acknowledgements
The work was carried out with the assistance of several undergraduate
and graduate assistants including: Richard Brown, Paul Carpenter, Lori
333
Governale, Clark Hanna, Patti Harper, Robert Hixon, Patti Phillips, Becky
Robertson and Gleason Smith.
335
V-G. MINERAL RESOURCE MAPS OF
VACHERIE AND RAYBURN'S SALT DOME AREAS
R. A. Barlow and J . K. Whisman
Two maps were prepared showing the location of important mineral
resource developments at Vacherie and Rayburn's salt dome areas (Figures
V-G-1, and V-G-2, respectively). These resources include oil and gas,
ground water, gravel, and (potentially) lignite. Ground water and oil
and gas are by far the most abundant and most thoroughly developed re­
sources. One large active gravel pit is located north of Vacherie dome
and, as yet, lignite resources are in a preliminary stage of evaluation.
Well locations and depths are 1isted in Table V-G-1 (Vacherie area) and
Table V-6-2 (Rayburn's area).
1. Oil and Gas
Vacherie area. Portions of three oil and gas fields are shown on
the Vacherie map (Sibley, Ada, and Sailes) as well as wildcat wells. The
closest production is approximately two miles northeast of the dome (Ada
f i e l d ) . The depths of these wells range from 5400 to 7400 f t .
Rayburn's area. Portions of four oil and gas fields are shown on
the Rayburn's map (Lucky, Liberty H i l l , Danville, Saline) as well as wild­
cat wells. The closest production is just over two mi 1es southeast of the
dome (Danville f i e l d ) . Depths for these wells range from 8800 to 9800 f t .
2. Ground Water
Ground water is a valuable resource in north Louisiana. The two
major producing aquifers in the area are the Sparta (Eocene) and
336
Wilcox (Eocene - Paleocene). The nearest commercial or public wells to the
domes (ignoring small domestic wells) are as follows:
Vacherie: Central School w e l l - - l .5 miles northwest
Gravel Pit wells--2.0 mi 1es north
Rayburn's: Wells jjO“- 0 . 2 miles southeast
Friendship w e l l s - - l .75 miles east
3. Gravel
Because permits are not required for gravel pit operations in Louisiana,
there are no official records of active gravel pi t locations. However, in­
vestigations of aerial photographs of the dome areas indicate that the only
active commercial interest of any significance is the "silica mine" in
Sparta sands approximately two mi 1es north of Vacherie dome. This pi t is
operated by Dresser Industries.
4. Lignite
Nearly the entire area shown on the maps is leased either to Phillips
Petroleum or Shel1 Oil Companies for exploration purposes. At this time
no specific data as to present or planned test holes are available. Various
LSU drilling operations have encountered some lignite deposits. However,
the findings are insufficient to anticipate possible economic potentials.
5. Data Sources
a. Oil and gas wells. Data sources for oil and gas wells are as
follows:
1) Commercial oil and gas map of north Louisiana, marketed by
Globe Co., Shreveport, Louisiana.
337
2) Oil and gas map supplied by a major oil company as base
information for C. Crowe's Masters Thesis on Vacherie dome (Crowe,
1975).
3) Continually updated oil and gas map maintained by the
Louisiana Department of Natural Resources.
Where the various maps did not agree on well status and/or location, the
information contained on the Louisiana Department of Natural Resources
maps was used.
b. Water Wells. Information regarding all water wells was ob­
tained from the records of the U. S. Geological Survey Water Resources
Branch, Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
c. Gravel Pits. Because these operations are not recorded by
state agencies, color aerial photographs were used to locate operating
gravel pi t s .
6. Acknowledgement
This work was done under the direction of C. G. Smith, who provided
guidance and background information.
343
Table V-G-1. Existing wells, Vacherie dome area.
VACHERIE DOME AREA - OIL AND GAS WELLS
Township
18N
Range
9W
Section Well # Name Total Depth
(ft.r
Township Range Section Well # Name Tot^l^D^pth
22 1 At la n ti c
Dant #1
4,019
18N 9W 35 1 N. A. 8,995
23 1 Arlda
Wereberrin #1
8,612
2 Wilson
Crichton C-1
6,735
2 S. W. Nat. Prod.
Frazier-Wilscout #1
7,155
3 Wilson
A-1
N. A.
24 1 (V. A. 9,045
4
N. A. 5,800
2 Delta
Burson #1
6,795
5 Wilson
Bodcaw B-1
6,810
3 Delta
Glass B-1
8,940
6 Sklar e t a l l
Kennon
6,810
25 1 Steward B-1 N. A.
7 Crichton F i t t & P e r r i t t N. A.
2 Frank et a l .
Crichton #1
7,251
8 J. P. Evans
Aichton #1
N. A.
3 At la nti c
R. Connell #2
6,931
9 Wilson
Roberts #1
5,736
4 N. A. N. A.
10 Ray Burson #1 5,818
5 Halsey 5,700
36 1 A t l a n ti c
Balton A-1
8,521
Circleton #1
6 A t l a n ti c
Glass #1
5,872
2 Franks et a l ,
Circhton
N. A.
7 At la nti c
Vice #1
5,866
3 Ambrose
Connell #1
5,875
8 A t la n ti c
Vice #2
6,705
4 J. P. Evans
Crichton #1
N. A.
26 1
2
Dods Pet.
R. V. Smith #1
At la nti c
6,975
10,863
5
5
N. A.
Sklar
Balton #1
N. A.
6,812
Hailey #1
18N 8W 19 1 Delta 6,615
3 N. A. 7,612
Gibbs #1
27 1
2
Evans
Burson #1
S. W. Nat.
Burson #1
3,515
N. A.
20
2
1
2
N, A.
Regan #1
Ducole Woodward #1
8,700
N. A.
2418
3 A t l a n ti c
Cooke #1
5,040
3
4
Harry W. Boss #1
At la n ti c
7,125
7,229
4 N. A. 9,462
Harvey #1
5 Grigsby
Cooke #1
4,916
21 1 Doran
Perryman #1
10,625
7,300
2 N. A. N. A.
28 1 N. A.
33 1
2
Brooks
Burson #3
Franks
Reed #5
4,875
5,812
22
23
1
2
1
N. A.
Carter
Johnson #1
Marion Eates #1
2,755
6,690
6,571
3 Delta
Caribbeau Reed #1
7,112
2 A. W. Woodward 8,980
34 1 Brooks 5,104
3 J. S. Rushing
Mason #1
7,436
Burson #1
2 At l a n t i c
Burson #1
4,950
24 1
2
Barnwell Mason # 1
Monsauto
7,677
8,775
3 At l a n t i c
Roberts #2
N. A.
25 1
Bert #1
Carter Walker #2 8,005
4 At l a n t i c
Roberts #1
4,383
2 Rushing Mattie #1 7,687
5 Dode Pet.
Roberts #1
7,150
3 Humble
(Carter 0. Co)
Woodward #1
8,175
6 Evans
Olrich #1
6,935
26 1 Carter
Bates #1
5.722
7 A t l a n ti c 14,252
2 Carter 4,448
Burton
Gleason #1
8 Olrich #7 N. A.
3 Carter 8,968
9 Crichton #1 N. A.
Woodward #1
10 Wilson N. A.
4 N. A. 4,475
5 N. A. N. A.
n Crichton B-1 N. A,
12 Duncan
Beatly #1
5.760
27 1 Carter 6,646
4,433
4,465
2
3
Davis #1
Mon. #2
Carter
Davis #3
Table V-G-1, continued.
344
Township
18N
(cont.)
Range
8W
Section
27
31
33
19
20
28
29
30
31
Well # Name To|;al ^epth
4 Kean #1 2.445
5 Carter Davis #2 5,702
6 Crow Davis #1 4,435
7 N. A. 5,534
8 N. A. 3,008
1 Rushing Carter #1 7,755
2 Harvey 5,707
3 N. A. 7,062
4 N. A. 5,955
5 Archie Davis #1 6,841
1 N. A. 6,078
2 Tillman #1 7,850
3 Crow #1 5,534
4 Carter #1 5,855
5 N. A. 7,470
1 N. A. 8,450
2 A t l a n t i c
Nicholson#!
7,100
3 Union P. Walker B-1 10,383
1 N. A. N. A.
1 Carter
Johnson
7,840
2 Carter
Davis #1
7,259
3
N. A. 7,317
1 Carter
Feldman #1
5,323
2 N. A. 4,463
3 N. A. 4,465
4 N. A. 4,460
5 N. A.
14,146
6 N. A.
6,460
7
N. A.
5,855
8
N. A.
4,448
9 Rushing et a l .
Butler #1
5,753
10
N. A.
9,450
1
N. A.
4,450
2 Hope Woodward
Walker #2
5,776
3 Humble (Carter) 10,192
1
N. A. N. A.
2 Carter Francis #1 8,070
3 Carter Woodware #1 6,673
4 Carter W. Morris #1
N. A.
5 Carter A. Walker 7,588
1 Franks Ogysum #1 8,700
1 Brown Evans J . J . Miles 2,915
#1
1 Arkla Exp.
Jackson #1
9,020
1 S.W. Nat Prod
Broodwill #1
8,411
2 N. A.
9,020
1 Carter Oil
M e i r i t t #1
8,046
1 Humble
Walker A-1
7,500
2 Carter
Smith #1
7,323
3 N. A.
9,016
VACHERIE DOME AREA - OIL AND GAS WaiS
Township Range
IBN 7W
( cont . )
Section
32
^ell #
1
Name
N. A.
8,200
2 N. A.
10,009
3 F. Whitader
A. F. White #1
8,955
4 S. W. Nat. Prod.
White #1
7,643
5 At la n ti c
W. L. Horme #2
N. A.
5 A t la n ti c
Me Caudlish
5,950
1 N. A. N. A.
2 S. W. N. P.
Smith #1
8,515
3 S. W. Nat.
White A-1
8,452
4 Hunt Neba Fee #1
8,260
5 N. A.
4,125
6 A t l a n t i c #1 5,917
7 N. A.
5,940
8 N. A.
7,627
9 N. A.
7,918
10 N. A.
5,915
1 S. 0. Co.
Franks
8,936
2 Methodist 4,781
3 N. A.
7,202
4
1
2
3
M o f f i t t - P e r r e t t
Fuducker
Unit # 1
A t la nti c
Recg. #1
Franks
Sims #1
5,729
6,360
5',777
9,400
4 Wilson
Goodwill
5,750
5 Placid
Starts
8,660
6 N. A. 6,685
7 N. A. 5,760
8 Placid
Starra #1
5,759
9 N. A. 6,639
1 Franks e t al
Read #1
6,729
2
N. A, 8,615
3
N. A. 4,154
4 A t l a n ti c
R. A. Reed #1
5,902
5 N. A. 6,710
6 At l a n t i c
Drei t #2
N. A.
7 A t l a n ti c
Drei t #1
5,925
8 N, A. 5,905
9 Lehman 2,287
1
N. A.
N. A.
2 Brooks
L. L. Morgan #1
5,694
3 Brooks
J. D. Halt #1
5,861
1
N, A. 9,035
2
N. A. 5,772
3 Skelly
T, 0. Ramsey #1
5,738
Table V-G-1, continued.
345
VACHERIE DOME AREA - OIL AND GAS HEUS
Township Range
17N 9W
( c o n t . )
Section
10
16
24
34
36
10
11
14
15
16
Well #
4
1
2
Z. Brooks
Felts #1
To^^l ^eptb
5,945
9
10
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
1
2
3
4
W. C. Feazel
Tillman #1
J. K, Wadley
J. M. Pearch e t a l l #1
N. A.
6,075
N. A,
Midway 0. & G.
W. M. Coleman #1
S. A. Lane
Mo Miles #1
No A.
Petra
Jones #1
Tridant
Ward #1
Carter 0. Co.
Walker #1
Carter 0. Co.
B. Woodward #1
Carter 0. Co.
Bates et al
Carter 0. Co.
H. Walker
Carter 0. Co.
E. Stark #1
No A.
Carter
Edwards
Sam Skiar e t al
P. Mott
J. Rushing
Woodward #1
Carter 0. Co.
Woodward #1
Hope Prod. Co.
M. A. Davis
Carter 0. Co.
R. Calbert-Davis #1
Ho H. Temple #1
Woodward & Walker
Stewart #1
Pan Amer. Pet.
B. F. Rowland #1
Carter Oil
A. Walker #1
Carter Oil
A. Walker #2
Carter Oil
J. Johnson #1
Coulsin
Walker #1
D. Do Montgomery
Woodward & Walker
Shuler et al
Scott #1
Stewart Oil
# 1 Test Hole
S. 0. Co.
0. C. Woodward #1
Crow & Ford #1
C. S. Clarke
T. J. Jordan #1
3,350
9,914
1,420
1.469
N. A.
5,935
6.705
5,702
6,870
5.706
5,407
5,425
5,404
5,785
N. A.
5,698
5,453
7,103
5,680
6,850
5,667
5.469
1.872
3,626
8,955
7,400
7,300
5,841
7,580
5,828
4,289
5,367
1,107
1.872
960
603
Township Range
17N aw
(Cont.)
Section Well # Name
16 5 S. 0. Co.
R. Jordan #1
897
18 1 Shuler e t al
Moore #1
5,320
20 1 Pan Am.
E. J. Smith #1
5,417
21 1 Standard
Scott #1
2,558
2 S. 0. Co.
L. Stephens #1
798
22 1 Hon 0. Co.
Woodward #1
1,843
23 1 Garfield e t al
Woodward et al #1
5,414
28 1 Amerada (Barnwell)
Connell #1
10,006
31 1 Norton Oil Co.
Reeve #1
7,103
32 N. A. N. A.
34 1 Tesora
Lawhon #1
7,201
4 1 N. A. 5,920
2 N. A. 9.224
3
a^fci #1
5,925
4 N. A. 7,663
5
^oungE^ood #1
9,513
5 1 7,536
2 N. A. N. A.
3
Gas #1
5,804
4
\SSS&y #1
7,324
6 1
Baker #1
6,939
2 No A. 5,255
3 N. A. 5,750
4 Butler
Johnson (Carter Oil)
8,520
9 1 P h i l l i p s
Petrofunds #1
10,016
16 1 P h i l l i p s
Baker #1
10,025
17 1 P h i l l i p s
Baker
9,710
2 Wegman
Stewart e t al
3,705
19 1 Union Prod.
Woodward-Walker #1
6,313
2 Carter-Jones
Woodward-Walker #1
7,318
28 1 Franks
Woodward-Walker #1
10,220
29 1 Wheless Drig.
Cole #1
8,244
2 N. A.
7,492
30 1 Franks et al
Brown e t al #1
10,488
31 1 W. F. Hyde
J. S. Cole e t al #1
5,929
2 N. A.
3 Arlda e t al
Page #1
9,217
4 Ohio 0. Co.
Woodward-Walker #1
7,010
32 1
7,698
2 Franks- e t a l .
Sa lli es #1
10,237
3 Ark. Fuel 0. Co.
Woodward-W ker #1
6,875
Table V-G-1, continued.
346
VACHERIE DOME AREA - OIL AND GAS WELLS
Tovmship Range Section
7W 32
VACHERIE m E AREA - WATER MFH ^
17N
(cont.)
9W
16N
16N
33
12
1
9
12
13
14
15
17
4
5
9
16
17
18
Well #
4
Name
Kinsey e t al
Woodward
To^^l ^epth
7,700
1 N. A. 9,467
2 Franks 10,043
1 Franks e t al
Ryan #1
5,910
2 Franks e t al
Ryan #2
5,915
1 Crow D r i l . e t al
Scott
N. A.
2 Bond
Davis #1
6,807
1 Hadson et al
#1
6,072
1 Franks e t al
Smith #1
9,849
1 Madden
Lowery #1
3,005
2 Madden
Colli ns #1
2,017
1 R. F. Roberts e t al
M. S. Ra dcli ff #1
7,201
1 Garland Fry #1 3,007
2 D. Montgcmery
C. L. Davis #1
7,959
1 N. A. 3,497
2 N. A. 6,975
3 Wadley T. J. Lawhon
e t a l . #1
3,496
1 D. R. Noman
e t al #1
3,610
1 FrartCs Pu lli g
e t al #1
10,012
1 Franks e t al
Cathcart #1
9,644.
1 Tex. Eastern Trans.
Corp. W. H, Col
7,703
1 Venture 0. Co. #1 2,854
2 Coyle Bros. #1
3 Towery RAT
Lawhan #1
3,307
1 H. H. Hunt
Lawhan # 1
6,800
1 Franks &-Petrofunds
D i n l c i a i t #1
9,581
1
2
3
Franks e t al
Cont. Can #1
Franks e t al
Cont. Can #1
10,031
11,600
8,400
4 Union Prod. Co
Lester #1
11,129
1 Franks e t al
James #1
9,925
2 Ohio & Ark.
Brinkly #1
6,871
3 Dickenson Ful ler #1 2,140
1 Franks et al
Cox. #1
9,903
1 Franks
Woodward #1
9,505
1 H. A. 9,518
1 Bodlaw Co.
Fee #4
9,509
1 Franks
Walker #1
9,525
1 Franks e t al
Pierce #1
4,727
Township
18N
Range
9W
IBN
17N
17N
16N
16N
16N
7W
9W
7W
9W
8W
7W
Section Well #(US6S) Well Depth(ft.
21 Wb-342 no well made
Wb-216 200
Wb-217 144
Wb-218 170
Wb-247 107
Wb-347 113
22 Wb- 63 95
Wb-263 185
Wb-219 136
Wb-343 no well made
24 Wb-258 t est hole
Wb-252 174
Wb- 58 210
Wb-221 132
28 Wb-345 92
Wb-344 84
Wb-134 94
33 Wb- 50 14
19 Wfa-253 90
Wb-259 233
Wb-271 220
20 Wb-254 72
30 Wb-329 A,B 140,490
34 Wb-213 110
Wb-214 110
No water wells i n t his portion o f T & R
14 Wb-249 438
Wb-250 458
Wb-167 175
Wb- 65 100
Wb- 39 102
22 Wb-290 178
Wb-334 277
26 Wb-332 no well made
27 Wb-296 342
35 Wb-333 no well made
5 Wb-314 230
Wb-315 190
7 Wb-281 462
15 LSU-4 754
17 LSU-7 849
22 LSU-6 643
LSU-5 815
34 Bi-70 255
29 B i - 68 180
3 B1-143 A,B 210,351
no water wells
no water wells
Aquifer
Sparta
Sparta
Sparta
Sparta
Sparta
Sparta
Sparta
Sparta
Sparta
Sparta
Sparta
Pleistocene
Pleistocene
Sparta
Sparta
Sparta
Sparta
Sparta
Sparta, Wilcox
Sparta
Sparta
(Wilcox)
Wilcox
Sparta
Wi1cox
Wi1cox
Wi1cox
Sparta
Sparta
Wilcox
Wi1cox
Wi1cox
347
Table V-G-2. Existing wells, Rayburn's dome area.
Township Range Section
T14N R5W 1
2
4
8
9
10
11
12
13
17
18
19
21
22
25
26
27
28
Hell Name
Sohio Caston
Franks &Petrofunds
Robertson
E. K. Oil Company
Tardo 1
Petrofunds
Franks 6-1
G. E. Buddecke
Barron 1
Franks & Petrofunds
Prey 1
Franks & Petrofunds
Willlamette B-1
Franks & Petrofunds
Cont'l Can 1
Petrofunds & SunnySouth
Pardee 1
Petrofunds
Hass 1
N. A.
N. A.
N. A,
Petrofunds
Crowley 1
N. A.
Petrofunds
Blankenship 1
N. A.
Franks &Petrofunds
Davis 1
Franks & Petrofunds
C. C. Company
N. A.
RAYBURN'S DOME AREA - OIL AND GAS WELLS
Township Range
TUH RSW
Total Depth
( f t . )
10,000
Texaco
K. D. Johnson 1
Franks & Petrofunds
C. C. Coinpany Inc.
Petrofunds
Hoss 1
Bodcaw Ccmipany
Fee 2
Bodcaw Company
Fee 3
Franks & Petrofunds
Hoss B-1
Franks & Petrofunds
C. C. Company T-1
Texaco Inc.
Talmadgelad 1
N. A.
N. A,
Petrofunds
Cont'l Can Co. L-1
N. A.
N. A.
N. A.
N. A.
Franks & Petrofunds
C. C. C. V-1
Bodcaw 6
N. A.
8,683
8,719
8,729
9,066
9,320
9,014
9.050
8.708
9,000
8,818
8,538
N. A.
8.709
N. A.
9,012
8,818
8.900
9,009
8.900
7,531
8.894
9.814
8,818
11,700
8.916
8.914
8,830
8.915
2,030
8,774
8.815
8,782
10,160
8,810
8,800
8.900
9,014
8.915
8.816
T15N
Section Number Well Name Total Depth
( f t . )
30 1 Bodcaw Co.
Fee 5
9,716
2 Bodcaw Co.
Fee 1
8,686
3 Union Hunt
Bodcaw 1
7,784
1 1 N. A.
2,572
8 1 Frank Vuci 0. Co.
Evans 1
Frank Vuci 0. Co.
Woodard Walker 1
1,058
4,000
11 1 N. A.
8,390
13 1 N. A. 9,805
14 1 Discovery
Union Producing Co.
Frazier 1
6,840
2 Frank L. Vuci
Evans
11,330
15 1 N. A.
N, A.
18 1 LaGrange
Fair 1
5,016
23 1 Union & Pure
Barbers 1
N. A.
5,800
10,700
24 1 N. A.
Bodcaw Franks
Texaco
Harper
9,805
12,631
25 1 N. A.
8,830
26 1 N. A.
9,807
27 1 Saline Dr. Co.
Pardee
3,819
28 1 Planters Oil Co.
Enlow
2,945
3 1 N. A. 9,010
4 1 Smith & Cameron
Smitherman
8,618
5 1 Franks Glist er
Al li son 1
Union P. Co.
Al li son 1
8,900
8,300
6 1 Placid
Sou. Adv. 3
8,600
7 1 Placid
S. Adv. B-1
N. A.
8,503
N. A.
8 1 Placid
S. Adv. B. & P. 1
Hodge Hunt
8,875
3,000
9 1 Placid o n Co.
So. Adv. B. & P. B-1
6,800
18 1 R. J. Carraway
Cont’ l Can 1
8,882
19 1 Hodge Hunt
C. C. C. Co A-1
4,310
22 1 Harvey Broyles
Cont'l Can Co. A-1
9,056
25 1 Ark. La. G.
C. C. Co. 1
9,317
29 1 Hodge Hunt
Cont'l Can 1
Hodge Hunt
Fee
4,120
3,003
31 1 Hodge Hunt
Fee
272
36 1 Evans & Copeland
Flowers 1
8,816
2 Ark. La. G.
Cont. Co. 2
10,220
Table V-G-2, continued.
348
RAYBURN'S DC»iE AREA - OIL AND GAS WELLS RAYBURN'S K)ME AREA - OIL AND GAS WELLS
Township Range
T15N R6W
T16N
Section Number Well Name Total Depth
( f t . )
7,900
1 1 J. C. Trahan
C. C. C. 1
2 Robt. F. Roberts
Cont'l Can Co. 1
8,530
2 1 Placid
I . V. Watson
8,345
3 1 Placid
Nebo
N. A.
2 Placid
S. A. B. &P. Co.
8,008
4 1 Placid 0. Co.
1
8,031
5 1 8,303
6 1 Placid
Wood 2
13,576
2 Placid
Nebo 1
N. A.
3 Placid 0. Co.
E. N. Wood 1-A
3,735
7 1 Placid
Nebo A-9
3,715
2 Placid
V. M i l l e r 1
N. A.
8 1 Penrod Drlg. Co.
W. J. Sprawls
N. A.
9 1 Placid
Wise 1
8,222
10 1 Placid
Whitney 1
8,102
11 1 Placid
Watson 1
8,325
12 1 Placid
Harrison 1
8,529
13 1 Bright & Schiff
Kemp 1
8,770
14 1 David Crow
Lymbens 1
8,500
15 1 Placid 0. Co.
Sou. Adv. 2
8,377
16 1 Placid 0. Co.
Sou. Adv. A-4
8,113
17 1 Placid
Nebo
N. A.
2 Beneduim & Trees
Sprawles
5,005
18 1 Placid 0. Co, ^
Nebo 0. Co. A-3
11,250
21 1 N. A. N. A.
22 Monsanto Ch. Co.
Hunt 1
8,806*
36 1 Hodge Hunt
Cont'l Can 2
4,045
2 Hodge Hunt
Cont'l Can 3
709
3 Hodge Hunt
Continental Can 7
4,237
31 Franks Gilst er
Cont'l Can
8,180
32 Wheless Drig.
Roden
8,245
31 Placid 0. Co.
Nebo 0. Co. 6A
8,206
32 Hunt
May 1
N. A.
33 L. Hunt
Cimmings 1
8,004
34 Placid
Wilson 1
8,162
35 Lyonsier
0, A. Butler 1
7,975
Township Range
T16N R6W
T14N
T15N
R6W
R6W
Section
35
Number
2
Wei 1 Name
Franks
Glister.
Harrison 1
Placid
S. Adv. Bag.
John Franks
Martin 1
RAYBURN’ S DOME AREA
Township Range
II4N R5W
WATER WELLS
Total Depth
( f t . )
8,108
8,610
7,911
>ection USGS Number Well Depth(ft.) Aqui fe
2 Bi-97 312 Sparta
Bi-99 261 Sparta
6 Bi-100 90 Sparta
Bi-165 836 Wilcox
12 Bi-102 A 181 Sparta
Bi-102 B 292 Sparta
14 Si-190 N. A. N. A.
21 Bi-189 N. A. N. A.
22 Bi-188 N. A. N. A.
23 Bi-64 214 N. A.
5 Bi-21 106 N. A.
27 Bi-95 A 258 Wilcox
8?-95 B 718 Wi1cox
Bi-16 83 Sparta
28 Bi-96 690 Wi1cox
1 Bi-172 no well made
Bi-173 430 Sparta
Bi-174 530 Sparta
Bi-175 no well made
Bi-176 500 Sparta
10 Bf-121 342 Sparta
11 Bi-117 416 Sparta
Bi-118 382 Sparta
Bi-119 314 Sparta
Bi-169 440 Sparta
Bi-171 430 Sparta
13 Bi-120 403 Sparta
14 Bi-109 410 Sparta
Bi-110 336 Sparta
Bi-115 416 Sparta
15 Bi-111 376 Sparta
Bi-113 325 Sparta
Bi-114 321 Sparta
Bi-168 410 Sparta
Bi-170 no well made
16 Bi-112 348 Sparta
22 Bi-116 392 Sparta
33 Bi-167 A 120 Sparta
Bi-167 B 234 Sparta
Bi-11 195 Sparta
Bi-171 430 Sparta
16 Bi-122 402 Sparta
26 Bi-77 126 N. A.
29 Bi-151 156 Sparta
m
349
V-H. FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
R. E. Wilcox
1. Findings
1) A set of over 500 structural and strati graphic maps of the north
Louisiana basin, which were prepared using computer compilation and plot­
ting methods, have been completed and are on f i l e at the Institute for
Environmental Studies at LSU.
2) Growth rates for salt domes in the North Louisiana Salt Dome Basin
have been calculated using strati graphic and structural data from sparse
well control and computer trend maps. The growth rates must be used with
considerable caution because of many uncertainties in the data and in the
assumptions used in the calculations. Growth rates for the north Louisiana
salt domes, thus derived, are less than 0.1 mm/yr, and average growth rates
over long periods of time are less than 0.05 mm/yr. For three such periods,
the maximum inferred rates for any dome in the basin are as follows:
Cenozoic, 0.03 mm/yri Upper Cretaceous, 0.02 mm/yr; and Lower Cretaceous,
0.04 mm/yr.
3) Four additional seismic 1ines in the Vacherie dome area (acquired
from the Atlantic Richfield Company) were processed, and preliminary in­
terpretations of these and three other 1ines were made. The base of the
salt layer to which Vacherie salt dome is connected probably lies at a
depth of between 16,000 and 17,000 f t below sea level. Some tentative
modifications of the contour map of the shape of Vacherie salt dome were
made.
350
4) Bouguer gravity maps for Vacherie and for Rayburn's and Prothro
salt domes were prepared using data acquired from industry. Preliminary
interpretations support the e ll iptic al shape of Vacherie and the more c ir ­
cular shapes of Rayburn's and Prothro inferred from previous work. Asym­
metries in the gravity anomalies of the lat ter two domes suggest irregular
shapes of the salt stocks near the surface.
5) Results of the geochemical work initiated in fiscal year 1977
have produced interesting preliminary data on the mineralogy and chemical
composition of Gulf Coast salt-dome salt. Rigorous testing has established
a set of analytical techniques. Salt samples from two south Louisiana domes
(Weeks Island and Cote Blanche) have been analyzed, and differences in
morphology of water-insoluble minerals (mostly anhydrite) have been noted.
Also, certain trace elements in the salt have been assigned to specific
mineral phases.
6) Mineral resources maps were prepared for Vacherie and Rayburn' s
salt dome areas.
2. Recommendations
1) Analysis of the computer generated structural and strati graphic
maps of the North Louisiana Salt Dome Basin is in progress and should be
completed during the f i r s t half of fiscal year 1978.
2) As additional well data and seismic data become available for
Vacherie and Rayburn' s domes, the growth histories of the domes and their
growth rates should be revised.
3) Further seismic surveys of Vacherie and Rayburn's salt domes have
been proposed for fiscal year 1978. They are designed to obtain: U) de­
tailed data on deformation over and around the domes down to 5,000 f t ;
351
(b) similar data to depths of 20,000 f t to aid in developing the growth
histories of the domes; (c) profiling of the domes down to 5,000 f t ut i ­
lizing coreholes in the domes for geophone emplacement; and (d) a re­
gional line through that portion of the basin lying between Vacherie and
Rayburn's domes. In addition, more reprocessing of existing data will be
attempted using migration techniques and other computer methods.
4) Additional gravity data from north Louisiana purchased from
industry sources in late fiscal year 1977 should be compiled and analyzed.
Detailed gravity surveys of Vacherie and Rayburn's salt domes have been
proposed for fiscal year 1978 in order to further elucidate the exact shape
and form of the uppermost portions of the salt stock and any caprock pre­
sent.
5) Geochemical analysis of salt and other minerals, brines, gases,
and hydrocarbons from Gulf Coast salt domes should continue so as to build
a set of baseline data. A major effort in geochemistry during fiscal year
1978 will be the detailed analyses of salt cores from Vacherie and Rayburn' s
domes. Comparison and interpretation of these data will depend heavily
upon the baseline studies of samples from salt mines in Gulf Coast domes.
6) Salt cores to be obtained in fiscal year 1978 from Vacherie and
Rayburn's domes will be examined by a variety of petrologic and structural
methods in addition to the geochemical analyses. As an adjunct to this
work, i t has been proposed that LSU should build a collection of salt
cores and salt samples from mines in Gulf Coast salt domes to be used for
comparative studies of the nature and physical properties of salt.
7) In order to prepare detailed geologic maps of the Vacherie and
Rayburn' s salt dome areas, extensive boring and selected coring programs
should be undertaken during the next two fiscal years. Those studies
352
would provide basic data on the detailed structural and strati graphic
relationships within the Cenozoic and Mesozoic rocks which enclose the
salt stocks. All other geological, geophysical, geochemical, hydrologi­
cal , and pedological studies of these two domes would be enhanced by
utilization of such information.
353
VI. QUATERNARY STUDIES
A. General
B. Quat er nary Depos i t s above Vacher i e and
Raybur n' s Domes
C. Li neat i ons on Vacher i e and Raybur n' s Domes
D. Pedol ogi c I n v e s t i g a t i o n s
E. Nat ure of Quat er nar y Warping above Domes
F. Ter r ace Level s
G. Topographi c Lows above Domes
H. Drai nage Basi n Anal ys i s
I . Er osi onal Ef f e c t s dur i ng next 250, 000 Years
J . Fi ndi ngs and Recommendations
355
VI-A. GENERAL
C. R. Kolb
Investigations conducted in fiscal year 1976 concluded that Quater­
nary deposits of sufficient thickness and lateral extent occurred over
Vacherie and Rayburn's domes to warrant an in-depth investigation of their
nature and their possible disturbance due to movement of the underlying
salt. The age of the Quaternary deposits above both domes is believed
to vary from 200,000 years to the present. Thus the history of the sta­
b i l i t y , or the possible instability, of these two domes may well be re­
corded in these deposits during this critic al span of time.
Consequently i t was decided that, where possible, continuously
sampled borings would be made at both sites so that the stratification
within the Quaternary could be carefully examined for discontinuities or
warping—warping which would suggest u p l i f t , or conversely, downward
collapse due to dissolution of the underlying salt. Because of the ex­
pense involved in studying the Quaternary deposits in sufficient detail
above and adjacent to these domes solely by using continuously sampled
borings, shallow seismic refraction and related seismic methods were
used to obtain a greater sampling of data points at less expense. At
the time this report was written (September, 1977) the boring program
for Vacherie had been completed in those areas where access rights had
been obtained from the property owners, and the boring program at Ray­
burn ' s was underway. A shallow seismic refraction survey is underway
at Rayburn's and is being planned for Vacherie.
The status of the boring program at both domes, the status of the
seismic exploratory program, preliminary results based on the available
356
boring and seismic data, and the thrust of the boring and seismic pro­
grams in the immediate future are outlined in the following section
entitled "Quaternary Deposits above Vacherie and Rayburn' s Domes".
Companion studies which consider the effects of tectonic and hydro-
logic instability of the domes on the areal distribution of landforms
and the soil sequences associated with them are subsequently covered
under appropriate headings. Some of these studies, e . g . , remote sensing
of lineations over and adjacent to the domes, and the pedologic studies
of residual and colluvial soils in the domal areas, are currently under­
way. Others are in the planning stages. Finally, a summary section is
devoted to preliminary findings and recommendations.
357
VI-B. QUATERNARY DEPOSITS ABOVE VACHERIE AND RAYBURN'S DOMES
C. R. Kolb
1. PIeistocene-Holocene Deposition
The general limits of the deposits laid down during Quaternary time
over Vacherie and Rayburn' s domes are shown in Figures VI-B-1 and VI-B-2.
As more field data are gathered these maps may be modified slightly, but
present indications are that the limits as shown in these figures are
essentially correct. Preliminary maps of the surface distribution of
Tertiary and Cretaceous deposits are shown in Figures IV-B-1 and IV-B-2
of the 1976 report on the study (Martinez, et a l . , 1976). As bori ng and
related data are being gathered, i t becomes evident that f a i r l y extensive
changes will be necessary in the mapped distribution of these pre-
Quaternary deposits. Such changes could affect the conclusions reached
in the Quaternary studies. Certainly they will be helpful in reconstruc­
ting the history of tectonism, faulting, and possible dissolution and
collapse, in the long hiatus between the deposition of the youngest
Tertiary deposits over each dome and the deposition of the Quaternary
sediments over these domes. In the case of Rayburn' s dome, this time
interval amounts to approximately 55 million years and at Vacherie, approx­
imately 50 million years.
Basically, the Quaternary deposits in north Louisiana are those
associated with the waxing and waning of the ice sheets during Pleistocene
and Hoiocene times. Quaternary deposits are significantly coarser than,
and otherwise lithologically dissimilar to, the early Tertiary and late
Cretaceous deposits which form the surface and shallow subsurface mater­
ials over Vacherie and Rayburn' s domes. Perhaps the most important
lithologic distinction between the two is the characteristic occurrence of
•,v «-•••%*•*• *
• * \ ' • • • • • • • •
^ • * •
T17 N
R S W
^ V

LIMITS
• *• • aa®* 9®a®*-®
^AVVAY
BORING LINES
SEISMIC REFRACTION
LINES
WAVE FRONT
ANALYSIS
2000 FT.
I
• • 9 »9,*,* a •
»»99 *» •« ♦#• • • • . • • , • • • • • * • • • • • • • 9 9a* • • • • « • • • «
®®• , • 9 ^ 9 9 . * ® • % • • « • * » * * • * • » V 9 ®V a V « 9
9 ♦,* • 9*9-®* ®, a®• *• • • • 9*®a®9^®9®®99*» •• « • • 9• 9 ®9
#
. VI-B-1. Index map of lines of borings and seismic refraction traverses made at Vacherie dome.
359
• APPROXIMATE
I limits o f
vS^I'QUATERNARY
.-6..........
# -%r.* V . . V . v
BORING LINES
SEISMIC REFRACTION
LINES
SCALE
; • •* • / • • " / • t v * V • •
* f****<
• • • • • , • • • •
> ♦• • • • , * • • • / •
Fig. VI-B-2. Index map of lines of borings and seismic refraction traverses
made at Rayburn' s dome.
360
chert gravels in the Quaternary, and the absence of such gravels in the
early Tertiary and late Cretaceous--a reflection of the increased local
r e l i e f and the erosive power of streams during the Quaternary and the
difference in source beds during these two periods of geologic time.
Quaternary and pre-Quaternary 1ithology is described more fu lly in
Section IV-B (Martinez, et a l . , 1976).
2. Status of Boring and Seismic Programs at Vacherie Dome
Eighty-one borings were made during the 1977 fiscal year at Vacherie
dome in order to sample, as continuously as possible, the Quaternary
deposits and the upper portions of the underlying Tertiary deposits. The
soil samples and cores are being logged on an inch-by-inch basis in the
Quaternary Studies laboratory at LSU at this time (September 1977). Some
of the samples are being subjected to chemical tests in the Pedologic
laboratory at LSU, and others are being analyzed for grain-size distribu­
tion in the Soil Mechanics laboratory. Color photographs are being taken
of the cores for classification and record purposes. Preliminary visual
classification of the soils sequence has been completed for approximately
75 per cent of these borings, and some of the results from the Soils
Mechanics laboratory have been correlated with the visual results.
The results obtained to date are incorporated in the two subsurface
sections. Figures VI-B-3 and VI-B-4. Downhole geophysical probes were
made in most of the boreholes. Electrical resistivity, spontaneous poten­
t i a l , and natural gamma logs are available for as many as 75 per cent of
the borings, and where correlations could be made, significant or diag­
nostic geophysical horizons are traced between adjacent borings. Much
of these data—geophysical, laboratory analyses, etc.—have been incor-
porated in the subsurface section shown on Figure VI-B-3. Laboratory
363
PJ
o
p j
UJ
B
270
260
250
240
230
220
210
200
190
180
170
160
150
140
130
120
(, 1<A\ 1 I I Y s o i l s
1 I > 4 / 'n "1
di ai i i rt t r
( , UAV I I S
, t > M) / \ " " '
d 1,11111. (I r
Fig. V I - B - 4 . Vacherie dome, section B-M (from cored borings)
M
270
260
250
240
230
220
210
200
190
180
170
160
150
140
130
120
FIG. VI- B- 4
365
testing of samples from the borings shown on Figure VI-B-4 is^ as yet,
incomplete and the results only partially analyzed. Revision of these
figures, particularly Figure VI-B-4, is probable as additional data are
processed. All data on the Vacherie borings, i . e . , detailed visual
classification, laboratory analyses, and downhole geophysical logs, will
be condensed and reproduced as a Topical Report when the boring program
and laboratory testing have been completed.
The boring plan at Vacherie was to complete two cross-creek lines of
borings (labeled as M-line and S-1ine on Figure VI-B-1), and one
northwest-southeast line of borings roughly paralleling Bashaway Creek
(labeled as B-line on Figure VI-B-1). Access to some of the areas in­
volved along the B-llne was prohibited by the landowners during fiscal
year 1977. As can be seen on the figure, there are significant gaps In
the central part and at the southeast end in the B-I1ne as indicated by
dotted rather than solid lines. I f and when access rights to the prop­
erties have been obtained, borings will be made along the dotted portions
of the B-llne and the line will be extended eastward beyond the limits of
the dome for some 4000 f t .
Traverses, made with Nimbus ESI200 seismic refraction equipment,
were run along portions of the two d i r t roads which cross Vacherie dome
(see dashed lines on Figure VI-B-1). In mid-September 1977, the equip*-
ment was used to explore the limits of three anomalous "lows" found along
the subsurface section shown in Figure VI-B-4. Three 200-ft deep borings
were made at these sites and a wave front analysis was to be made of the
seismic shocks from explosives set off at varying depths in these borings.
The general locations of these experiments are shown on Figure VI-B-1,
but the results of these experiments were not available for inclusion in
this report.
366
3. Results of Boring and Seismic Programs at Vacherie Dome
The subsurface section (Figure VI-B-3) shows the iithology of the
Quaternary borings made along the S-1ine. Determining the depth at which
each boring penetrated the Quaternary and entered the underlying Tertiary
was f a i r l y simple. The lithologic break between the two units is usually
well-defined and can be determined within inches. Where soil samples were
not available, the contact was determined from the downhole geophysical
logs. The thickness of the Quaternary along the S-1ine is nominal, the
deepest deposit occurring at boring C-1. Two wel1-defined levels of
Quaternary exist, the lower level probably of Holocene or Deweyville age
(0 to 30,000 years old); the upper level of Prairie Terrace age (80,000 to
110,000 years old). The Quaternary consists of a heterogeneously inter­
calated series of oxidized soils ranging from clay sizes through chert
gravels two or more inches in diameter. No individual stratum could be
traced laterally for any great distance within the two geologic units.
This is reasonable considering the r e l i e f in the area and the natural
heterogeneity of such alluvial deposits. I t can be seen, however, that
the coarse content of the deposits--sandy and gravelly soils--character-
is t i c a l l y form the basal units of the two deposits, while the true gravels
( i . e . , where 50 or more per cent of the material is above 3/8ths inches
in diameter) are common just above the contact with the Tertiary. More­
over, the entrenchment of the two units, as indicated by the Quaternary-
Tertiary contact, is remarkably even. In addition, the base of the en­
trenched Prairie Terrace material is siightly above, and thus compatible
with, the base of the Hoiocene-Deweyvi11e material. I t is evident from
this data that no disturbance of the Quaternary, either through u p l i ft or
subsidence, has occurred along this section since the material was laid
down as long as 100,000 or more years ago.
367
The stability of the Quaternary deposits since their deposition is
even more convincingly illustrated at the undistorted scale used in
Figure VI-B-5, In this figure the subsurface section shown on Figure
VI-B-3 is reproduced at the same horizontal and vertical scale. The
position of the underlying salt plug is based on the most recent seismic
and boring data available. Water Well 6 (designated Well V-6 in Section
IV, and Appendix B of this report) which reached the caprock, is shown on
the figure. Had the salt beneath the section moved upward or downward
to any extent during the Quaternary, the movement would most assuredly
have been reflected in the thin, conspicuously level alluvial sequence
at the surface.
The situation indicated by the borings made along the subsurface
section shown on Figure VI-B-4 is decidedly different. As mentioned
previously, much of the boring data was not completely analyzed when
this report was written. Also, seismic refraction surveys were in the
process of being obtained, and only a small part of the results was
available for analysis. However, i t is obvious from the interpretation
shown on Figure VI-B-4 that the depth to what is considered Wilcox or
other early Eocene formations varies greatly. At borings B-8 and B-9,
at boring M-8, and at boring M-3, the depth to this horizon is from 180
to more than 200 f t . These anomalous lows along the section may well
be the result of dissolution of the underlying salt and the collapse
of the surficial material.
A very fine s i 1ty sand or sandy s i l t that appears to be homogeneous to
great depths was encountered in these borings. The material begins at a
depth as shallow as 12 f t in bori ng B-9, and as deep as 60 f t in boring
M-3. The material is f a i r l y dense and entirely unlike the Wilcox deposits
600-
4 0 0 -
Q U A T E R N A R Y
W-
200-
400-
se
CAPROCK
6 0 0 -
8 0 0 -
S C A L E
2 0 0 4 0 0 6 i «
FEET
U)
<Tt
CO
Fig. VI-B-5. Undistorted subsurface section showing thin Quaternary sequence along the S-1ine (Figure VI-B-3)
above Vacherie dome.
369
that are characteristic of the Tertiary elsewhere along this section
and in other areas over and adjacent to Vacherie dome. The Wilcox nor­
mally consists of dark gray, thinly and irregularly stratified s i l t y clays
and s i l t y sands that are usually oxidized to depths of 3 or 4 f t and
rarely more than 15 f t below the contact. Moreover, the dip in the
Wilcox bedding as measured in the cores ranges between 15 and 60 degrees.
The material in question, on the other hand, is white or tan or red—
the tan or red colors indicating oxidation in samples taken from depths
as great as 180 f t . Stratification in the few samples obtained is
horizontal.
I t should be stressed that only a few samples were taken in this
material. Turning the sampling tube so disturbed the sample that i t
could not be retained in the tube with a core catcher. The samples from
depths greater than 50 f t were obtained by driving a small ID split-spoon.
Thirty minutes of pounding normally resulted in only six inches of the
material being penetrated, and this sample was often lost as the sampler
was withdrawn from the hole. However, the few samples that were obtained
plus evidence from the down-hole geophysical logs, suggest a very homo­
geneous s i l t y sand or sandy s i l t that is oxidized to great depths, contains
no gravels, is f a i r l y dense, and is horizontally st ratified. Four pos­
sible explanations for these anomalous deposits have been suggested and
are discussed below.
1) The material is of Wilcox age and is essentially in situ, the
abrupt change in lithology in the lows compared with borings only 150 f t
away being the result of highly variable deltaic deposition during Wilcox
time. This hypothesis is very doubtful. Lateral lithologic changes of
this magnitude in deltaic deposits is highly unlikely. Moreover, the
material is oxidized and is horizontally st ratified.
370
2) The material is of Sparta age and has been displaced downward
because of faulting and/or collapse. This is a possible explanation. As
yet we know relatively l i t t l e about Sparta lithology in the Vacherie area.
However, the fact that the deposits are oxidized to such a great depth and
are horizontally stratified argues against their being of Sparta age.
Careful sampling and comparison with known Sparta cores in the area would
confirm or rule out this explanation.
3) The material is of Quaternary age. This seems unlikely. The
samples obtained so far, the down-hole geophysical logs, the considerable
density of the material, and above a l l , the lack of chert gravels, suggest
that the material is not of Quaternary age. Careful sampling of the
material to rule out the occurrence of chert gravels should eliminate this
as a possibility.
4) The most probable explanation is that between post-early Eocene
and Quaternary times ( e . g . , during Miocene or Pliocene times) u p l i f t and
graben formation, or more probably dissolution and collapse of the under­
lying salt, resulted in surface depressions over the dome into which the
fine s i l t y sands of the surrounding Wi1cox, Cane River and Sparta forma­
tions were carried during rainstorms. This resulted in the generally
horizontal bedding found in the samples and accounts for the fact that
they were oxidized. Careful sampling might recover thin clay or s i l t
strata from which pollen can be taken for analysis. I f so, the assign­
ment of the material to a specific geologic age may be possible. Attempts
will be made to obtain continuous samples from the lows shown on Figure
VI-B-4, and uphole seismic wavefront analyses will be used to further
delineate the depth and lateral extent of these lows.
371
I f we accept the thesis that these lows were caused by dissolution
and collapse, what do they imply from the standpoint of hydrologic insta­
b i l i t y at Vacherie dome? I f the situation outlined in case (1) above is
correct, there would, of course, have been no displacement. I f case (2)
is true, we would be faced with a complex problem in determining when the
faulting or dissolution and collapse occurred. I f case (3) is correct,
i t would imply major dissolution and collapse in Quaternary time involv­
ing significant and perhaps serious hydrologic instability. I f case (4),
the most probable situation, is correct, i t would be useful to know when
the downward displacement occurred. Displacement and collapse during
the Miocene, for example, would have been too far back in time to be of
any consequence. Displacement during late Pliocene or early Pleistocene,
on the other hand, might be considered more serious.
What is the significance of these lows from the standpoint of tec­
tonic stability? I f the s i l t y sand and sandy s i l t in them prove to be of
pre-Quaternary age, upward movement of the salt during Quaternary time
would be essentially ruled out along the line of borings shown on Figure
VI-B-4. Evidence from cored borings and from the downhole geophysical
logs, as yet only partially analyzed, suggest that this is the case--that
the line on this subsurface section labeled Quaternary-pre-Quaternary
contact is, indeed, the base of the Quaternary. No chert gravels are
known to exist below this contact. The thickness and distribution of the
coarse versus fine alluvium within the unit considered Quaternary on
Figure VI-B-4 is compatible with the data shown on Figure VI-B-3 and is
good evidence that no up l i ft has occurred since this unit was deposited.
Figure VI-B-6 reproduces the major contacts shown on Figure VI-B-4
at an undistorted scale. Water Well 7 (designated Well V-7 in Section IV
400
QUAT E R N A R Y
REQUATERNARY ( ?)
W - 7
201
“CAPROCK
- 4 0 0 -
s c a l e
200 600 800
F EET
- 1 4 0 0 "
Fig. VI-B-6. Undistorted subsurface section showing thin Quaternary sequence and possible pre-Quaternary
lows along the B-M-line (Fig. VI-B-4) above Vacherie dome.
373
and Appendix B of this report) which penetrated the caprock and entered
salt is shown in this figure. As was the case in Figure VI-B-5, the
thin, horizontal disposition of the unit considered Quaternary, and its
essentially undisturbed nature, are convincing evidence that no uplift
has occurred since the Quaternary was deposited. However, even at this
true scale, the anomalous lows f i 11ed with s i l t y sand and sandy s i l t are
conspicuous along the section. I t is possible, i f these features are due
to dissolution and collapse of the underlying salt and caprock, that dis­
tinctive lows or collapse phenomena will be found in the dome directly
beneath. Seismic surveys to explore this possibility are planned.
4. Status of Boring and Seismic Programs at Rayburn' s Dome
Figure VI-B-2 i ntroduced earlier illustrates the bori ng and seismic
programs underway at Rayburn's dome at the time this report was prepared
(September 1977). I t is estimated that 60 borings will have been com­
pleted by the end of fiscal year 1977 and that an additional 20 borings
will be made at the southern end of the X-line (dotted) in fiscal year
1978. Cores will not be opened and analyzed until fiscal year 1978.
Traverses along which seismic refraction surveys are to be made are shown
as dashed 1ines. Most of these were scheduled for completion in fiscal
year 1977, but the resulting data were not available for this report.
5. Results of the Boring and Seismic Programs at Rayburn's Dome
Preliminary results at Rayburn's indicate that the caprock of the salt
plug lies at very shallow depths, i . e . , 35 f t or less near the central
portions of the dome. Quaternary deposits with moderate amounts of chert
gravel in this central area give way at depth to what appears to be a
stratum of boulders and cobbles of hard, dark 1imestone, tentatively
374
identified as caprock. The boulders and cobbles are in a matrix of clay
and obtaining samples from this type of deposit is nearly impossible with
the small d r i l l rigs used for the Quaternary studies. I t is possible
that the seismic refraction network of traverses will be able to detect
the base of this bouldery stratum. The boulders and cobbles are inter­
preted as water-worn fragments of caprock (obviously once at a higher
elevation) l e f t behind by surface erosion in either Quaternary or pre-
Quaternary time.
6. Sunmary
The cored bori ng program and the seismic investigations at Vacherie
and Rayburn' s domes were only partly completed when this report was
written (September 1977) and results are preliminary. However some
tentative conclusions are possible.
1) There is no evidence of irregularities in the Quaternary strata
that would suggest tectonic instability along the two cross-valley 1ines
of borings (Figures VI-B-3 and VI-B-4) that have been made and analyzed
at Vacherie dome.
2) There are three anomalous zones along one of these sections
(Figure VI-B-4) extending to depths of more than 200 f t that are incompat-
ible with the lithology encountered in adjoining borings. These lows are
tentatively interpreted as depressions caused by dissolution and collapse
of the underlying salt and f i 11ed possibly in Miocene or Pliocene times
with fine s i l t y sands.
3) Caprock at Rayburn' s dome was encountered at depths as shallow
as 35 f t , but much of i t appears to consist of large water-worn fragments
in a matrix of clay.
375
7. Acknowledgements
The writer is indebted to numerous individuals who worked as research
associates, graduate assistants, and student helpers on fi e l d mapping, the
field supervision of borings, the seismic surveys, the 1aboratory analyses,
data compilation, and the drafting of figures in this portion of the report.
Among these are Thomas Avgikos, Linda Curro, Robb Eidemiller, Rick Erickson,
Nazarin Goodarzi, Michael Harris, Randy Hilding, Monica H i l l , J oseph Holmes,
Rose Kress, Barbary Lowery, Matthew Mathes, James McNees, Don Nemeth and
Frank Sagona.
377
VI-C. LINEATIONS ON VACHERIE AND RAYBURN'S DOMES
A. J . Lewis
1. General
During fiscal year 1977 the acquisition of remotely sensed data has
greatly aided the mapping of lineations on a regional and local scale.
Multiple look direction radar imagery (1/400,000) was acquired and prelim­
inary evaluations of the imagery have been completed. Aerial photography,
both black and white and color, have also been obtained at 1/10,000 scale
for the color photographs and at 1/5,000 and 1/10,000 scale for the black
and white photography.
Due to the wri t e r ' s absence on sabbatical leave, other remote sensing
specialists were asked to help evaluate and interpret the data. W. K.
Dornbusch and J . R. May of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Vicksburg,
prepared a map of the regional lineation patterns using the radar imagery.
Their findings are surimarized in this report. F. Henderson, a visiting
professor specializing in remote sensing, prepared a map of photo-1inea-
tions of Vacherie and Rayburn' s domes from two sets of aerial photography,
1/120,000 color infrared photos and 1/10,000 color photos.
2. Methods
The radar lineaments were interpreted from four sets of images: near
and far range west-1ook direction, and near and far range south-look
direction. The advantage of orthogonal look directions is the enhancement
of lineations oriented at right angles to the look directions; whereas,
near and far range data increases detection by providing the interpreter
with different oblique perspectives. Lineations compi1ed from four data
378
sets were depicted on one overlay. Emphasis was placed on Vacherie and
Rayburn' s domes as they were of particular Importance to the overall study.
After examining the aerial photography (1/5,000 blafck and white, and
1/10,000 color and black and white) the 1/10,000 color was selected as the
primary data base for lineations mapping. The high altitude color 1nfrared
photography was also used In the lineament analysis following Its enlarge­
ment to 1/10,000.
The radar lineations and the photo lineations were compi1ed and trans­
ferred to a 1/10,000 topographic map Indicating the approximate extent of
the Quaternary on Vacherie and Rayburn' s domes. Prior to data transfer,
all of the lineations were evaluated as to their strength ( I . e . length and
the number of times a given 11neatlon had been Interpreted by d1fferent
1nterpreters) . All the lineation data from remotely sensed data were
studied and only the very strongest lineations were transferred. The
method of selection Involved looking at the original data base along with
the overlay of radar and photo lineations. Large numbers of 11near features
originally Interpreted by Dr. Henderson were eliminated because they were
very weak, i . e. , were short In length, had very subtle tonal change, and
had not been detected by other Interpreters. On rare occasions new line­
aments were added by the writer when the feature was prominent.
Field checking and Image enhancement techniques were also Incorporated
In the Interpretation. Several trips were made to Vacherie and Rayburn' s
domes to Investigate prominent lineations and to conf1rm that these 11nea­
t l ons were not historic or cultural features (old roads, railroad beds,
property lines, fences, and survey 11nes). Limited access, either because
of the terrain or lack of owner' s permission, prohibited fie ld checking
all of the 1nterpreted lineations. All of the lineations noted In the
379
field corresponded with topographic features, i . e . , valleys of intermit­
tent streams and scarps or breaks in slope.
Image enhancement techniques were employed to amplify and improve
the radar imagery. Positive radar transparencies (1/400,000) were taken
to the USGS User Data Facility (National Space Technology Lab) at Picayune,
Mississippi, and electronically enhanced on the VP-8 image analyzer.
Although the VP-8 color-coded image of tones provided some impressive
color images, i t was the isometric display that proved most valuable. This
electronic display of the image is a series of density traces that can be
rotated 360° and t i 1ted 90° enabling the interpreter to manually control
the viewing perspective of the scene. Anyone who has looked for linea­
tions realizes the importance of such versatility.
3. Evaluation of Data Sets
An evaluation of the radar imagery was provided by Dornbusch and May.
They emphasized the lack of control between imagery from adjacent passes.
This made the construction of a radar mosaic d i f f i c u l t and the superpo­
sitioning of radar lineaments from different mosaics impossible. Radar
distortions, although the system has a ground range presentation and there­
fore a semi-controlled image, appear to have resulted in objects occurring
in erroneous geographic perspective. For example, Prothro dome appears
north of Rayburn' s dome on a radar mosaic whereas the opposite is true.
Of the three image scales (1/400,000, 1/200,000 and 1/50,000) used in
this evaluation, the 1/200,000 was found to be the most convenient to work
with and contained nearly the same level of information as the 1/50,000
imagery. The 1/50,000 imagery was used to spot check interpretations
from the 1/200,000 scale data and to eliminate 1ineaments of cultural
origin.
380
Although Dornbusch and May noted that the detection of lineations is
look direction range position dependent, no single look direction range
position seemed to offer any apparent overall advantage to the detection
of lineaments or domal structures. General trends in radar lineations
are evident in like-look direction passes; however, the exact location of
individual lineaments could not always be accurately correlated.
The original radar image product (1/400,000) is too small scale for
detailed interpretation; however, the superb quality of even the 2nd gen­
eration radar imagery permits enlargement of greater than SOX on an optical
enlarger without the image breaking down. Areas are presently being
selected for photographic enlargement to 1/10,000 in order to allow super­
positioning of radar-derived data directly over the 1/10,000 aerial photos
and vice versa. This should provide more accurate data transfer and cor­
relation of radar and photo derived lineaments with each other as well as
with 1/10,000 topographic data.
4. Results
Most of the effort during fiscal year 1977 was focused on the Vacherie
and Rayburn's areas. Lineations around and transecting the domes were of
particular importance, especially the lineations that extended partially
through or across the Quaternary deposits that l i e above each dome. Lin­
eations within the Quaternary suggest upward or downward movement during
Quaternary time that might result from tectonic instability or hydrologic
instability of the underlying salt.
Figures VI-C-1 and VI-C-2 represent the combi ned radar and airphoto
interpretations by six interpreters over the past year for Vacherie and
Rayburn's domes, respectively. Lineations at Vacherie are found flanking
the dome, extendi ng from the Tertiary into the Quaternary which overlies
#
- N -
VACHERIE
^ DOME
'--I------- -
■V
X
oa
CO
24 23 20
27 30 26
QUATERNARY
LtMITS
VACHERIE DOME
COLOR PHOTO
LINEAMENTS
RAOAR LINEAMENTS
S C A L E
M I L E S L
Fig. VI-C-1. Lineations over and adjacent to Vacherie dome based on interpretation of radar, black and white,
and color imagery.
382
#
X
- N -
26 25 30 29
RAYBURN'S
DOME
35 36 / 32
QUATERNARY
LIMITS
RAYBURN DOME
COLOR PHOTO
LINEAMENTS
RAOAR LINEAMENTS
SCALE
M I L E
Fig. VI-C-2. Lineations over and adjacent to Rayburn's dome based on inter-
pretation of radar, black and white, and color imagery.
383
the dome, and crossing the Quaternary. One particularly interesting set
of lineations, labeled A and B on Figure VI-C-1, can be found in the upper
reaches of Bashaway Creek. These lineations correspond remarkably well
with the dissolution and collapse features interpreted on the subsurface
section shown on Figure VI-B-4 at borings M-3 and M-7, respectively. I t
is stressed here that the mapping of lineaments was done entirely indepen­
dently of the cored boring interpretations illustrated on Figure VI-B-4,
and vice versa. Neither group had prior knowledge of the other's results.
The coincidence of results is most encouraging.
Several other 1ineations which extend into or l i e wholly within the
Quaternary deposits need to be investigated in the field through the use
of borings or seismic surveys. Of special interest are the curvilinear
features on the eastern flank of Vacherie dome, labeled C on Figure VI-C-1.
These correspond with the general shape of the dome at depth and, although
they could be the result of dissolution and collapse phenomena as at A and
B on Figure IV-C-1, they could also suggest tectonic instability. When
access to the property has been obtained, these curvilinear features will
be thoroughly explored in the f i e l d .
Although several lineations cross the Tertiary-Quaternary boundary,
the pattern at Rayburn's dome is less organized or marked than i t is at
Vacherie. There is l i t t l e evidence of major lineations paralleling Fouse
Creek valley; however a pronounced northwest-southeast lineation, labeled
D on Figure VI-C-2, runs parallel with the Quaternary-Tertiary boundary
on the northwest side of Rayburn' s and should be investigated.
The primary importance of the lineaments on both domes is that they
suggest the possibility of movement and as such should be investigated.
I t should not be concluded at this stage of the investigation that they
are faults.
384
5. Acknowledgements
In addition to acknowledgements made In the text of this section
of the report, the writer is grateful for the help of research associate
J oseph Holmes.
385
VI-D. PEDOLOGIC INVESTIGATIONS
B. J . Miller
Pedologic investigations of a limited nature were initiated in
fiscal year 1977 to aid in evaluating tectonic and hydrologic stability
in the Rayburn's and Vacherie salt dome areas. Studies of the kinds
and distribution of soils and their characteristics in these areas can
be informative for a number of reasons. Soil development and the processes
of soil formation are unique to the zone at, and immediately beneath,
the earth's surface. The various soils that develop constitute a
continuum on the land surface that may include soils developed in a
number of rock and/or time stratigraphic units. Consequently, the soil
continuum (soil-stratigraphic unit) provides a useful reference for
evaluating the nature and sequence of events that is quite independent
of rock or time stratigraphic units in which the soils developed. The
kinds of soils that form, and the degree of expression of their different
characteristics, are dependent upon the combined effects of climate,
parent material, organic influences, topography, and time of exposure
at the land surface. Soils are thus products of their environment, and
knowledge of their characteristics and distribution can furnish informa-
tion concerning the nature of the pedogenic environment and the time of
soil development. The processes of soil formation result in many
irreversible changes, and, as a result, the characteristics of
distribution of ancient buried soils (paleosols) provide a particularly
useful key to earlier geomorphic and environmental conditions. For
example, the characteristics and distribution of paleosols have been
a major source of information for evaluating the events and environment
of the Pleistocene in many areas.
386
The pedologic studies around Vacherie and Rayburn's domes were
designed to provide information on the relationships between landscape
st abil ity and soil development on the different sediments, and to determine
i f there is chemical evidence that Na-bearing solutions have intruded
the soils and sediments above the domes. The studies were designed to
be conducted in three interdependent phases as follows:
1) Phase 1: fi e l d investigations to determine the kinds and
distribution of soils, their thickness and morphologic characteristics,
and their relationship to parent materials and geomorphology in the
study areas. The investigations include detailed studies of core
samples of Quaternary and Tertiary formations near the surface collected
by other investigators with similar objectives with regard to any
paleosols that can be identified.
2) Phase 2: the determination of cation exchange capacity and
the distribution of certain exchangeable cations on samples selected on
the basis of the fi e l d investigations and studies of the core samples.
Here, emphasis is placed on determining the distribution of exchangeable
Na with depth and identifying possible anomalies in distribution between
adjacent stratigraphic units. The information obtained can be used to
evaluate the approximate extent and time of intrusion of any Na-bearing
waters. These studies can be especially useful in leached zones having
low total soluble salt content as is typical of many of the sediments
in the study areas. This phase of the investigations can be expanded to
include other less mobile exchangeable cations, provided geochemical
investigations of the salt body indicate a potential for additional
information by such an approach.
3) Phase 3: thin section studies to determine the depths of
weathering and expression of selected processes of soil formation in the
387
modern soils and In any paleosols that can be Identified. Samples for
investigation are selected on the basis of results obtained in the fie ld
investigations and studies of the core samples. Emphasis will be placed
on evaluating the depth and extent of weathering and development of
horizons in which secondary accumulations of translocated clay can be
recognized. The studies also include samples from across, and on either
side of, the interface zone of apparent discontinuities in which there
is evidence of soil development. Studies of these samples will provide
information concerning the continuity of pedogenic processes across these
zones.
To date, most of the work has been fi e l d investigation aimed at
inventorying the soils in the area, determining their characteristics,
and evaluating their geomorphic and parent material relationships. This
work is essential to the selection of soil areas for more detailed fie ld
investigation or for chemical and thin section studies.
Detailed field investigations were conducted during the period May-
August, 1977, and a detailed soil survey has been completed for areas
around Vacherie dome where access is permitted. The aerial coverage is
approximately four square miles. Eighteen different soils were recognized
and described in the area. The soils, together with certain of their
characteristics are listed in Table VI-D-1. The soil names listed are
tentative fie ld names and, in some cases, may be changed after additional
fie ld investigations. The pre- and post-Pleistocene parent materials
indicated in the table coincide with the formations described by Martinez,
et a l . , (1976). The Pleistocene parent materials indications are based
on that work and on results of this study. Standard fi e l d soil survey
methods were used in conducting the survey. The soil parent material
relationships, thickness of soil profiles, and soil textures are based
388
Table VI-D-1 The soils and their parent materials, landscape position
and profile thickness in the Vacherie salt dome area.
Soil name Soil parent material
Landscape
position
Approximate
minimum profile
thickness in inches
A1aga Tertiary (Sparta) Upland 20
Beauregard Pleistocene alluvium Stream terrace 60
Bibb Holocene alluvium Floodplain 6
Bienville Holocene alluvium Floodplain 10
Cahaba* Pleistocene? Holocene?
alluvium
Stream
terrace 36
Eustis Tertiary (Sparta) Upland 60
Guyton Pleistocene? Holocene?
alluvium
Stream
terrace 50
luka Holocene alluvium Floodplain 6
Kelthville* * Pleistocene alluvium Upland 60
Kirvin Tertiary (Cane River) Upland 40
Lucy Tertiary (Sparta) Upland 60
Maibis Pleistocene alluvium Stream 60
Meth Tertiary (Cane River) Upland 60
Ocklockonee Holocene alluvium Floodplain 6
Ruston Tertiary (Sparta) Upland 60
Sacul Tertiary (Wilcox) Upland 40
Saucier* * Pleistocene alluvium Upland 60
Smithdale Tertiary (Sparta) Upland 60
* Soils mapped as Cahaba also occur on footslope positions In the uplands.
**So11s identified as Kelthvllle and Saucier developed In thin deposits of
Pleistocene alluvium overlying clayey Cane River or Wilcox sediments.
389
on numerous observations of each soil by soil scientists in the fi e l d .
The aerial distribution of the soils is shown on the soils map (Figure
VI-D-1).
Eight of the soils developed in Tertiary sediments. Five of these
(Alaga, Eustis, Lucy, Ruston, Smithdale) developed in the sandy sediments
of the Sparta formation and are characterized by soil profiles that are
approximately 60 inches or more in thickness. They are the least clayey
of the soils developed in the Tertiary sediments and contain less than
35 per cent clay throughout the profile. Except for the Alaga, these
soils all have distinct horizons of secondary accumulations of clay.
Two of the soils (Kirvin and Meth) developed in sediments of the
Cane River formation, and one (Sacul) developed in Wilcox formation
sediments. These are the most clayey soils in the area and are character­
ized by secondary horizons of clay accumulation containing 35-60 per cent
clay. The Kirvin and Sacul soils are more clayey than the Meth and have
profiles that are characteristically thicker than about 40 inches. The
Meth soils have a minimum profile thickness of approximately 60 inches.
Differences in the profile thicknesses of the different soils can be
attributed largely to lower clay content and greater permeability with
increased sand content in the parent materials. The sandy soils developed
in the Sparta formation sediments typically occupy the steepest slopes
and highest landscape positions in the interdrainage areas. The soils
developed in the more clayey and less erosive sediments of the Cane River
and Wilcox formations occupy lower landscape positions and more gently
sloping areas. The flattening of the slope (Figures VI-D-2 and VI-D-3)
in traversing from soils developed in the Sparta to those developed in
the Cane River or Wilcox formations is characteristic of the entire area.
WEBSTER PARISH
BIENVILLE PARISH, i
I
Bb
Sa - Sacal Ch- Cahaba
Mb-Malbi s
Sc - Saucier
Bg - Beauregard
Mt - Meth
Kr - Kirvin
A l - A l a g a
Gy-Guyt on
( I Ok - Ocklockonee
Ik - luke
Bn - Bienville
Es- Eusti s
Rs-Rust on
Sm-Smi thdal e
Ly - Lucy
Kv- Keit ti vi le Bb- Bi bb
391
Fig. VI-D-1. Distribution of soil series in the Vacherie dome area.
FIG. V l - D - I
■■5
. . . : ■ ■■■>. .
;-■■?■
y'<y: .
j ' i ' .
4
-
/ ; ■ ' ' I > 4 ''
•I —
:r
' -S- .a : . ,444 '
4 : '> .
,I,, ,>. , ■ ,v
•*'
■_
.4 : ' ^ '
•4/4
i m
' AV
sti*'
-
n.y.
'"fr. ' ' ■
' -> ■
^ .-V „..
I
The S olum
Genetic and
diagnostic horizons
which approxi­
mately parallel
the land surface
S urface accumulation of
organic matter
A ccumulation of humified
organic matter mixed
with mineral fraction.
L osses of Fe, A l, and
clay sized minerals to
subjacent horizons
M aximum accumulation of
silicate clays and Fe
and A l oxides. C lay
translocation recog­
nized by oriented clay
films on aggregate sur­
faces and channel in­
teriors
*C olors from M unsell
240 UJ
«_> i_
ddLI 220
< UJ
u .
Z 200
2 J
5 2
Mb
;5PARTA
60
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
MILES
Ruston
(Rs)
Transitional to C
horizon
Gleyed layer with base
i colors near neutral*
Weathered mineral
horizon or layer ;
that has been
relatively little
affected by
pedogenic processes •
H
UJ
UJ
color chart U- 4-
Cohaba
(Ch)
pale-brown
loamy sand
yellowish-red
sandy clay
loam
I mixture of A &
1 B material
yellowish-red
■ sandy clay loam
w/light gray
mottles
Bs
“ mottled yellow-
_ ish-red and light
E gray loamy sand
Molbis
(Mb)
pale-brown
loamy sand
mixture of
B material
A &
yellowish-red
sandy clay
loam
yellowish-red
sandy loam
mottled yellow­
ish red and
light gray
loamy sand
pale brown
fine sand
strong brown
sandy clay
loam w/light
gray and red
mottles and
grave1
yellowish-brown
sandy loam w/
yellowish-red
mottles
brownish-yellow
sandy loam w/
white sand
lenses
Guyton
(Gy)
tg
pale brown
silt loam
grayish-brown
silt loam
mixture of
A & B material
light gray silty
clay loam w/
yellowish-brown
mottles
gray silty clay
w/light yellow­
ish-brown
mottles
gray sandy loam
w/yellowish-brown
mottles w/gravel
00
to
oo
Fig. VI-D-2. Soil section A-A' (see Fig. VI-D-1 for location) showing landscape position, surface stratigraphy
and profile characteristics.
99999620
Bashaway
Creek .
I pale brown
I fine sand
UJ 3 -
4 -
5 -
strong brown
l o a m y f i n e
sand
reddish-
yellow
fine
sand
Boring
2
SPARTA
SANDS
200 -
M I L E S
Guyton
(Gy)
Malbis
(Mb)
Kiethville Meth
(Below 2 0 )
pale brown fine
sand w/gravel
I ronstone,
dark reddish-
brown loamy sand
grayish-brown
loamy sand
brown fine
sandy loam
pale brown
silt loam
pea gravel
light gray
fine sand
and sand
grayish-
brown loamy
sand
strong brown
sandy clay loam
w/gravel
light yellowish
brown laminated
loamy sand
grayish-brown
ilt loam
yellowish-red
sandy clay
loam
strong brown
sandy clay loam
/light gray
and red
mottles
yellowish-
brown loany
sand
red clay loam
w/pale brown
mottles
ture of A &
terials
mottled gray &
yellowish-brown
sandy loam
light gray and
red clay w/
gravel
yellowish-red
sandy clay
L oam w/light
gray mottle
light gray silty
clay loam w/yellowish
brown mottles mottled light
gray and red
laminated clay
light gray
laminated clay
loam
dark yellowish-
brown clay loam
w/pale brown gray silty clay
/light yellowish-
brown mottles
mottles & glan-
conite
ye 1lowi sh-brown
andy loam w/
yellowish-red
mottles
light brownish
gray clay loam
w/glanconite
gray sandy loam
w/yellowish-brown
mottles w/gravel brownish-yellow
sandy loam w/
white sand lenses
Ca>
KO
yellow laminated
silty clay
very dark gray
clay w/silt
lenses
Fig. VI-D-3. Soil section B-B' (see Fig. VI-D
and profile characteristics.
-1 for location) showing landscape position, surface stratigraphy
D:13^B
395
Three of the soils (Kelthville, Saucier and Beauregard) developed
in areas where a thin mantle of Pleistocene (Prairie?) sediments apparently
overlies clayey sediments of the Wilcox or Cane River formations. These
soils are characterized by secondary horizons of clay accumulation with
maximum clay contents of less than about 35 per cent. The total soil
profile thicknesses are greater than about 60 inches and generally exceed
the thicknesses of the soils developed entirely in the clayey Tertiary
sediments. The field investigations indicate that the overlying Quaternary
sediments may have been deposited on existing soils developed in the clayey
Tertiary deposits. This could account for the thicker profiles compared
to soils developed entirely in the clayey Tertiary sediments. The d i s t r i ­
bution of the soils (Figures VI-D-1, -2, and -3) and their characteristics
suggest that the Pleistocene sediment component of their profiles is
probably Prairie in age. The possibility that these and other soils have
developed in more recent colluvial footslope accumulations from soils
at higher landscape positions cannot be ruled out at this time.
The Malbis soils developed in Pleistocene deposits (Prairie? or
Deweyvilie?) and occupy gently sloping areas intermediate between the
Tertiary uplands and more recent stream terraces of Bashaway Creek
(Figure VI-D-2). Malbis soils also occupy higher landscape positions
(Figure VI-D-3) in the uplands and have developed in Pleistocene gully
f i l l or footslope accumulations on the dissected pre-Quaternary surface.
These soils developed in sandy sediments and are thought to be similar
in age. They are characterized by secondary horizons of accumulation
of clay with maximum clay contents of about 35 per cent and have profiles
that are greater than about 60 inches thick.
The minimum profile thicknesses described in Table VI-D-1 show a
general increase in thicknesses with increasing time of surface exposure
396
to pedogenic processes in soils developed in lithologically similar
parent materials in the area around Vacherie dome. For this reason,
i t is thought that the Malbis soils have developed in an older Pleistocene
formation (Prairie?) than the soils discussed in the following paragraphs,
which characteristically have thinner profiles and typically occur at
lower elevations.
Two of the soils (Cahaba and Guyton) developed in late Pleistocene
(Deweyville?) or early Holocene deposits that form terraces adjacent
to more recent stream deposits along Bashaway Creek. The Cahaba soil
formed in the more sandy and better drained old natural levee deposits,
whereas, the Guyton formed in sediments containing more s i l t and clay.
Both soils are characterized by horizons of secondary accumulations of
clay with maximum clay content of less than about 35 per cent. The
Cahaba and Guyton have minimum profile thicknesses of about 36 and 50
inches, respectively. Along Bashaway Creek the Cahaba soils appear to
conformably overlie Guyton-like soil profiles. This suggests that a cycle
of stream aggradation followed by a soil-forming interval may postdate
the Guyton soil and predate the recent alluvial deposits. The minimum
thickness described for the Cahaba soil profiles may further indicate
this possibility. Areas of Cahaba soils are also mapped in upland
positions where they appear to have developed entirely in parent material
comprised of foots lope accumulations of colluvial material eroded from
soils at higher elevations developed in the Sparta formation. The
typical setting in this position is illustrated in Figure VI-D-2 where
Cahaba soils occur in association with Ruston and Malbis soils. More
detailed f i e l d studies are planned which should determine i f the Cahaba
does include units developed in parent material of different ages.
397
Four of the soils (luka. Bibb, Bienville, Ocklockonee) developed
in recent (Holocene) floodplain deposits (Figure VI-D-1). They are
sandy throughout with thin stratification evident at shallow depths
(< 1 f t ) in most areas. Profi1e development in these soils is largely
limited to a 6-10 inch thick surface horizon characterized by an accumulation
of organic matter. Typically, they are underlain at shallow depths by weath­
ered surfaces that appear to include horizons of Cahaba-like or Guyton-like
soils. In soil identified as Bienville, the depth to the underlying Guyton­
like soil profile is characteristically less than three feet.
Additional fie ld work is planned in the area for more detailed
studies of the relationships between soils formed on the modern surface
and those in buried surfaces. Tentative sites have been selected for
detailed sampling of soils for chemical analyses and thin section studies.
The objective in site selection for detailed studies has been: 1) to
select soils developed in lithologically similar parent-materials of
different ages; and/or, 2) to select soils that will allow for comparisons
between soils on the modern surface and buried surfaces from the core
samples. At this time, soils selected for additional studies are the
Lucy, Saucier, Cahaba, Meth, Sacul, Keithville and Malbis.
Studies of the core sections collected from the Quaternary (Figures
VI-B-3 and VI-B-4) have not been completed. The core samples collected
along traverse S are being examined in detail for evidence of paleosols
in the underlying Tertiary and within the Quaternary. Similar studies
are also in progress on cores from traverses M and B. Unfortunately,
segments of many cores were lost during sampling. In some cases, the
appearance of subjacent samples indicate that these may have included
buried soil horizons. The preliminary observations on the core samples
lend support to interpretations based on the fi e l d studies and are providing
398
additional information concerning buried surfaces within the Quaternary
and underlying Tertiary. For example, weathered Tertiary sediments
that appear to contain pedogenic horizons underlie the Quaternary at
some sites. In some cases, these surfaces appear to have characteristics
somewhat similar to those of the modern surface. There is a minimum of
two zones within the Quaternary containing weathered strata that appear
to have preserved soil horizons. Organic materials have been sampled from
some of the cores for attempts at dating by radioactive carbon techniques.
Sections of cores from traverses have been tentatively selected for chemical
analyses and thin section studies.
In continuing the investigations, emphasis will be placed on the
study of any soils buried by Quaternary deposits as well as modern soils
developed in Quaternary and older sediments. The study areas will be
extended to include limited investigations at off-dome localities in
order that more extensive and definitive comparisons can be made. This
is essential to certain phases of the study such as establishing the
norm for thicknesses of profiles of different soils. Studies limited
to the dome areas proper allow only for comparisons among sites above
the salt domes. Inherent to the study is the implicit assumption that
conditions above the dome may differ from the norm as a result of tectonic
instability and/or certain hydrologic phenomena.
The investigations should be expanded to include detailed pedologic
and geomorphic studies in which comparisons are made between conditions
in the dome areas and areas outside the possible influence of dome-related
tectonic or hydrologic activity. Included in these studies would be
investigations to determine the source of the older Quaternafy sediments
in the dome areas, and the extent to which these and younger sediments
may be comprised of erosion products from the different deposits now
399
exposed in these areas. Dating of these deposits and reconstruction of
events which led to the present landscape would yield important information
regarding the tectonic history of the dome In the recent past. These
investigations could also provide additional information concerning the
rates of erosion over long time periods. The pedologic studies should
complement the Quaternary and Tertiary geologic studies and thereby
provide an additional method of evaluating and correlating possible 1ines
of evidence bearing on the tectonic and hydrologic stabil ity of the domes.
The writer is indebted for the help of graduate assistants Rose
Kress and James Rehage on this section of the report. He is also grateful
for suggestions and conments by J . Alford of Western I l l i n o i s University.
401
VI-E. NATURE OF QUATERNARY WARPING ABOVE DOMES
C. R. Kolb
One of the problems associated with the study of the Quaternary is
that there is almost no published data concerning the distortion of Qua­
ternary beds when they are warped upward above a salt dome or when they
are displaced downward by faulting or collapse. Questions that arise
because of this lack of data are numerous. For example, does u p l i f t occur
over a broad base l i f t i n g the Quaternary as an essentially unbroken stra­
tum with the greatest up lift near the center of the dome? Does the u p l i f t
cease only short distances beyond the dome boundaries, or does u p l i ft die
out gradually with distance from the dome boundaries? Is the up l i ft
highly irregular caused by sporadic upward movement of small portions of
the salt plug? Alternatively, does the u p l i f t result in a horst-and-
graben effect, segmenting the Quaternary into blocks and si ices? Answers
to these questions would be exceedingly helpful in analyzing the results
of our boring and seismic programs over north Louisiana salt domes.
There are excellent examples of the upwarping of the Quaternary above
salt domes in south Louisiana and south Texas. The Five Islands of south
Louisiana are cases in point. In each instance the Quaternary has been
1ifted upward above the level of the surrounding marsh and coastal plain.
In some instances gravel once several hundred feet below sea level is now
exposed at elevations tens of feet above sea level. No data are published,
however, that indicate how regularly or irregularly this u p l i f t has
occurred. I t is possible that oil and/or salt company f il es contain
shallow subsurface data crossing certain of the coastal domes where the
Quaternary has been 1ifted upward. A few acoustic subbottom profiles
have been published which show the warping of Holocene and Pleistocene
402
strata above domes in the offshore areas of Louisiana and Texas. These
show the Quaternary strata to have been 1ifted regularly and evenly with
no apparent offsets due to faulting. More of this kind of information
should be available from company f i 1es or from soils engineers involved
in foundation studies for offshore d r i l l rigs. German and Dutch inves­
tigators, as part of their nuclear waste storage research, have studies
i
underway concerned with the warping of the Quaternary deposits above salt
domes. Efforts will be made to assemble these kinds of data so that we
can more properly interpret our boring and shallow seismic information as
i t develops.
403
VI-F. TERRACE LEVELS
C. R. Kolb
An approach to the study of possible up l i ft of the Quaternary above
a salt dome is to map, identify, and compare the elevations of the various
Quaternary surfaces or their remnants over the dome and in a broad area
around the dome (C. R. Kolb in Martinez, et a l . , 1975). Delineation of
these surfaces requires closely spaced contour maps or lengthy field tr a­
verses along which elevations are surveyed to the nearest foot. Quad­
rangle maps available over Vacherie and Rayburn's domes have 20 f t con­
tour intervals and can only be used with caution. Moreover, both domes
li e below minor creeks--creeks that are tributary to bayous which in turn
are tributary to the larger streams along which the various Quaternary
terraces have been mapped. Extending the mapping of these surfaces involves
increasing complexities as one moves upstream to smaller and smaller t r i ­
butaries. Thus, assigning a specific age to the various levels of the
Quaternary that occur along, for example, Bashaway Creek and the valleys
f i l l e d with Quaternary alluvium that surround i t , is d i f f i c u l t and contro­
versial .
Fortunately, from the point of view of this study, assigning a
specific age to existing Quaternary levels, though desirable, is not
absolutely necessary. Present thinking is that the lowest level along
Bashaway Creek at Vacherie dome is of Holocene and Deweyville age and
that there is a higher level that corresponds to the Prairie Terrace.
Carbon-14 and other types of radiometric dating may permit the assign­
ment of specific age to the two levels of deposits. I t is highly sig­
nificant that these same two surfaces can be traced downstream into the
floodplain and bordering terrace along Black Lake Bayou and up into the
404
tributary valleys of Black Lake Bayou that flank Bashaway Creek on the
north and the south.
Two lengthy seismic lines were run in J une 1975 over Vacherie dome:
one in a northeast-southwest direction, the other generally at right
angles to the f i r s t , roughly paralleling Bashaway Creek. The location of
the northeast-southwest line of shotholes made for this survey is shown
in Figure VI-F-1. Returns from the shothole borings were logged from
cuttings in the f i e l d , and although not entirely accurate from the stand­
point of depths of the Quaternary, the identification of the Quaternary
because of the occurrence of chert gravels was readily determinable. Re­
sults and the basic data from these shotholes are reported in Martinez,
et a l . , 1976. Elevations along this line were carefully surveyed by the
contractor, and gravelly Quaternary deposits in the valleys to the north
and south of Bashaway Creek were encountered along this line at remarkably
concordant levels. Moreover, two levels of Quaternary deposits were found
in these adjacent levels that agree remarkably well with those known to
occur along Bashaway. The terrace level is at elevation approximately
240 msl; the Hoiocene-Deweyvi11e floodplain level is at about elevation
approximately 220 msl. Both levels are entirely consistent with the same
levels along Bashaway.
These data are shown in the subsurface section on Figure VI-F-1.
The point here is that correlative levels of alluvial deposits occur in
the valleys that flank Bashaway to the north and the south at distances
far removed from the influence of the salt dome. Had up lift occurred
since the deposition of these materials, i t should be reflected in a
definitely higher elevation of these features along Bashaway Creek. No
such upward movement is apparent; the elevations in adjoining valleys are
markedly concordant. I t might be argued that had the seismic line
L E GE ND
HOLOCENE-
DEWEYVILLE (?)
PRAIRIE
TERTIARY
6 000
FROM FIG. IV B-l (MARTINEZ E T A L 1976)
SUBSURFACE LIMITS
OF DOME AT -lOOO'MSL
BASED ON FIG. IV B - 4 MARTINEZ ET AL. 1976
Fig. VI-F-1. Concordant levels of Quaternary deposits along Bashaway Creek with similar deposits
in the valleys to the north and south.
406
been oriented more nearly north-south, the levels would not have been
so nearly the same. This is true in theory; however, the general direc­
tion of the three stream valleys involved is toward the southeast. The
seismic line is at right angles to this general trend and, thus, more
accurately reflects comparable positions within each of the valleys.
The proof of this pudding, of course, is in carefully mapping the
slopes of the two Quaternary surfaces along Bashaway, along Black Lake
Bayou, and along the streams in surrounding valleys. Slopes within the
valleys can then be correlated across the Tertiary divides with confidence.
They can also be merged with the slopes along the stream to which they
are tributary--Black Lake Bayou. Unfortunately, considerable fie ld work
and occasional borings would be required, as well as access rights to
properties miles on either side of the dome. One alternative is to pre­
pare maps at 5 or 2-1/2 f t contour intervals using a i r photos. This
would, at least, provide the necessary elevation control, and such maps
for Vacherie and Rayburn' s have been proposed in the 1978 budget. An­
other method is to search for elevation data in the f i 1es of oil and/or
geophysical companies. Gravity as well as seismic surveys require ele­
vation control that may be available at a reasonable price, or even
gratis.
In summary, the writer is impressed with the concordant elevations
of Quaternary levels in Bashaway and the valleys to the north and to the
south. He is convinced they are of the same age, and that i f u p l i f t of
any reasonable magnitude has occurred since their deposition, i t would
have been reflected by remnants of these Quaternary units at significantly
higher elevations along Bashaway Creek.
407
VI-G. TOPOGRAPHIC LOWS ABOVE DOMES
C. R. Kolb
An intriguing geomorphic fact about many of the north Louisiana
salt domes is that they 1ie beneath well developed topographic lows
which have formed above breached domes or anticlines. Vacherie (see
Figure VI-G-1) and Rayburn' s are examples. Many of the domes in south
Louisiana, on the other hand, where tectonic u p l i f t is thought to be
s t i l l going on or to have ceased only in the recent geologic past, form
topographic highs. The Five Islands of south Louisiana are good examples.
A reasonable conclusion might be that domes overlain by topographic lows
have long since ceased to be tectonically active and that those overlain
by topographic highs are s t i l l active or have ceased to be active only
recently.
This explanation is not necessarily true, however. Consider the
effect on the surface topography of the upward movement of a salt dome
(diagram "a" in Figure VI-G-2). I f the u p l i ft occurred beneath an existing
stream at a moderate rate, the stream would merely entrench i t s e l f as the
surface rose (diagram "b"). In such an instance, the presence of a topo­
graphic low above the dome today would be of no significance from the
standpoint of the tectonic stability of the dome. The dome could have
long since ceased moving upward or i t could be moving upward today. What
is d i f f i c u l t to accept, i f we choose this model, is that the domes of north
Louisiana have so often selected an existing stream to rise beneath.
On the other hand i f the u p l i f t occurred f a i r l y rapidly, normal drain­
age would tend to be diverted around i t , as in diagram "c". Because of
the increased r e l i e f , radial drainage would tend to develop over the dome
■%, I f
1
) ~ i \ * I ' ) ' ■ , ' ' S ' ■■■.
; ■ : * i
\
....
m w
4^
O
CO
SALT DOHfT
■ i H A » r D S P o a i T i
t O M E O U T H h l E
Fig. VI-G-1. Topographic low occupying the breached anticline over Vacherie dome.
(Photograph of model.)
409
A<'
A A A -A
An undisturbed plain.
The situation where u p l i f t is reasonably
slow so that the existing stream can
m a i n t a i n i t s e l f in its f o r m e r c h a n n e l .
V\^ ^ V
A -y N>
U p l i f t has been rapid enough to divert the
stream to the right. This also illustrates the
situation where no prior stream existed. Radi al
drainage develops over the top of the up lif t .
% > > V
The high basin that might form above the
up lif t as erosional processes strip an
erosion - resistant stratum.
i ' i - y
h.'i^ V
\f V
V
The formation of a we ll developed v a l l e y
above the dome due t o faulting because of
tenslonal stresses occurlng duri ng u p l i f t .
K
Erosional processes have worn the uplifted
area down considerably at which time dissolution
and collapse of the underlying salt result in
the formation of a valley above the dome.
Fig. VI-G-2.
Block diagrams illustrating hypothetical origins of topographic
lows over domes.
410
and erosive processes would begin to wear the topographic high down to
the former level from which i t originally was l i f t e d . I f the strata were
largely homogeneous, erosion would continue to be active but the h i l l could
hardly be eroded to an elevation lower than that of the surrouriding terrain.
This would be true whether the dome had ceased moving upward or was s t i l l
tectonically active. I f the surface moved upward at a faster rate than
erosion wore i t down, elevations of the topographic u p l i f t would increase
and there would even be less reason to expect a depression or a valley to
form above the dome.
I f the material composing the u p l i ft were heterogeneous, as in diagram
"d", erosion might eventually cut through the upper sandstone stratum and
encounter a less resistant shale beneath. At this stage in the development,
the sandstone might stand as a rim around a basin, but the basin would s t i l l
be higher than the surrounding topography and the plain which was originally
pushed upward by the rising salt dome. Again, cessation of upward movement
would only shorten the time i t would take to wear down the topographic knob,
but there is no reason to believe that a topographic low could develop at a
level below that of the surrounding plain.
To what, then, can we attribute the pronounced topographic lows that have
developed above Vacherie and Rayburn's domes i f we do not consider the
highly coincidental situation where the u p l i f t begins beneath an existing
stream? The most obvious reasons are: (1) formation of faults/grabens
above the dome due to tensional forces caused by the u p l i f t ; or, (2) depres­
sions caused by dissolution and collapse of the underlying salt. The writer
feels the latter is the more probable cause at Vacherie and Rayburn's.
Considering faulting and graben formation f i r s t , i t is well known from
studies of other domes that such features characteristically occur above
411
domes. Figure VI-6-3 shows the actual fault pattern over a deep-seated
salt dome at the Heidelberg structure in J asper County, Mississippi.
Note the complexity of the faulting. Diagram "e" in Figure VI-G-2
sketches such a situation in simplified form. I f the magnitude of
downfaulting due to tectonic u p l i ft is sufficiently great, the zone
weakened by faulting could well become the path for surface drainage
that could eventually develop into a valley such as the one which has
formed above Vacherie.
A second method for producing a depression above a salt dome—one
that can eventually develop into a significant valley—is through dis­
solution and collapse of the underlying salt. The potential for depression
formation is considerably greater through this process. There is a decided
and roughly calculable limit to the amount of downthrow that can occur
because of faulting and r e l i e f of tensional stresses above a rising dome.
The wedges of faulted strata are 1imited in their downward movement by
the geometry of the u p l i f t . I t is apparent in Figure VI-G-3 that the amount
of subsidence of individual wedges, particularly as this subsidence affects
the near surface formations such as the Selma Chalk, is relatively small.
I f the amount of uplift is low, the amount and magnitude of faulting and
graben formation is low. I f the amount of up lift is high, the formation
of a depression below the level of the surrounding unaffected terrain depends
on large downward displacements of wedges of material which must have room
to move downward.
Collapse due to dissolution of the underlying salt, however, is un­
restricted by such factors. An area where up lift had occurred in the past
but which had long since ceased to be tectonically active, would be partic­
ularly susceptible to depression formation due to collapse. Although some
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Fig.VI-G-3. Actual fault pattern over a deep-seated salt dome at the Heidelberg structure in
J asper County, Mississippi (From Hughes, 1960).
413
residual r e l l e f due to the former u p l i ft might remain, the r e l i e f would
be low and even a minor amount of subsidence due to collapse could form
a depression which, on draining, could become a val1ey of significant
size and depth (diagram "f" in Figure VI-G-2).
In this regard one feature of the valleys above Vacherie and Rayburn's
domes is pertinent. Both domes, and others in north Louisiana, are
characterized by Quaternary deposits which broaden out in plan above the
dome. Thus, the Quaternary alluvium flanking Bashaway Creek above Vacherie
dome narrows markedly in plan just at the borders of the dome where the
Bashaway Creek alluvium merges with the alluvium of Black Lake Bayou flood-
plain (Figures VI-B-1 and VI-G-1). Similarly, Fouse Creek at Rayburn' s
dome is flanked by a broad, roughly circular area of Quaternary alluvium
above the dome and exits southward near the dome boundaries along a narrow
corridor of alluvium (Figure VI-B-2).
The shape of these valleys suggests the formation of depressions over
both domes compatible with the shape of the domes, and the exit of surface
drainage at a low spillover point —drainage which later developed into
the narrow floodplains of Bashaway and Fouse creeks. A further point to
be considered is that present topography in the area is largely the result
of geomorphic processes active during Quaternary time. Given the present
weight of evidence for tectonic stabil ity of the domes during Quaternary
times, i t is more logical to assign responsibility for formation of the
original depressions over the domes to collapse of the underlying salt.
In summary, the fact that Vacherie and Rayburn' s domes 1ie in topo­
graphic depressions is considered to be of 1i t t l e significance from the
standpoint of the tectonic stability of the salt. In considering processes
which produced these depressions, i t is important to note that the depressions
414
l i e within deep valleys which have reached the base levels of the valleys
to which they are tributary. The establishment of such drainage can be due
to the existence of a through-flowing stream prior to u p l i f t , major dis­
placements caused by faulting due to tectonic u p l i f t , or by dissolution
and collapse of the underlying salt. The writer, at this stage of the
investigation, believes that the topographic lows can be most logically
explained as resulting from dissolution and collapse. A final point: i f
collapse is eventually determined to be the cause for the topographic lows
above the domes, i t is obvious that the domes must be considered tectonically
stable; or that they are being dissolved at a faster rate than they are
moving upward.
415
VI-H. DRAINAGE BASIN ANALYSIS
A. J . Lewis
The analysis of drainage pattern, form, and texture has long been
used to help determine llthology, possible faults and fractures, soil
texture, and topography (Strandberg, 1967). Drainage pattern form Is a
reflection of llthology, slope, and bedrock structure; whereas drainage
pattern texture Is related to soil properties such as texture and per­
meability. Offset and the alignment of offset streams are Indications
of faults and/or fractures. Several drainage pattern forms, such as
barbed, asyimetrlcal, e t c . , indicate up lift ; whereas others, such as
contorted and rectangular patterns, suggest structural control.
The basic steps In drainage basin analysis Include:
1) stream course delineation,
2} basin and sub-basin delineation,
3) drainage pattern and form analysis,
4) drainage texture analysis, and
5) basin shape vs age analysis.
Drainage basin shapes are genetically linked to the erosional pro­
cesses of drainage systems and supply useful criteria for defining geomor­
phic regions of erosional origin. Drainage basin shapes may also act as
Independent variables In predicting the sediment discharge from these
basins (McArthur and Ehrllch, 1977).
The feasibility of this approach for separating drainage basins
formed on Pleistocene vs Tertiary surfaces has already been demonstrated
In Louisiana by McArthur and Ehrllch. The approach may prove valuable
In dating the drainage basins that are located In topographic lows over
many of the north Louisiana salt domes, In determining their history, and
416
in determining i f the lows are due to faulting and graben formation asso-
dated with u p l i f t , or to dissolution and subsidence.
McArthur and Ehrlich suggest that drainage basin morphology may also
help predict sediment discharge. I f so, basin morphology could be used
to supplement, corroborate, or di f f e r with the estimate of erosion rates
in north Louisiana based on variations in terrace levels. (A discussion
of erosional effects is presented in the following section.)
417
V I - I . EROSIONAL EFFECTS DURING NEXT 250,000 YEARS
C. R. Kolb
One of the factors that must be c r i t i c a l l y examined at each site
proposed for nuclear waste storage 1s the projected effect of erosional
processes on the site during the 250,000 years that the waste will remain
radioactive. Elevations at Vacherie and Rayburn's domes generally range
from 200 to 250 f t msl. Under current conditions, and assuming there is
no upward movement of the salt and the waste entombed in i t , i t is im­
possible for a repository at a depth of 3000 f t to be exposed by erosion.
Erosion in today's climatic regimen could only strip the h i l l area at
Vacherie and Rayburn's to local base level—at approximately 180 f t msl
in both instances. Even given the outside chance that erosion would
reduce the topography in the area to its ultimate base level, sea level,
there would s t i l l be some 2800 f t of material above a 3000-ft-deep re­
pository.
However, this simplified model is complicated by a number of factors.
These include: (1) the normal tectonic rise in north Louisiana during
the next 250,000 years; (2) an ice age or two in this time interval, a
very probable occurrence; and, most important, (3) the effect on the
Integrity of the repository of exposing caprock and possibly underlying
salt. The 1atter situation would hardly be a factor at Vacherie where
caprock and salt are at considerable depth, but might possibly be a factor
at Rayburn's where the salt is thought to be at depths of less than 100 f t .
Certainly the situation should be considered in the engineering design
of any salt repository where the salt is this close to the surface.
Thoroughly grouting the caprock to provide a positive, erosion-resistant
shield above the salt might be one way to circumvent the possible effects
418
of erosion on shallow salt domes. The following sections present a brief
discussion of the other two factors listed above: (1) normal tectonic
rise of the area; and (2) the effect of an ice age and the accompanying
drop in sea level during the next 250,000 years.
1. Regional Tectonism
Fortunately, we have a f a i r l y good measure of the overall tectonic
rise in the north Louisiana area and the rate of rise during Pleistocene
times. The base levels of major creeks and streams are preserved as
terrace levels along these streams in a region that is rising tectonically.
The highest terrace levels reflect the oldest base levels; the present
floodplains of the creeks and streams measure today's base level. In north
Louisiana there is a marked consistency in the levels of the terraces,
the elevation differences between terraces, and the elevation difference
between the highest and lowest terraces. Generally speaking. Figure VI-I-1
1ists the approximate levels of the terraces and the names of the terraces
that have been mapped in the Vacherie area. Those in the Rayburn's dome
area are from 20 to 30 f t lower.
-------------------------------- 300 FT MSL-
WIUIANA
BENTliL-,--------------- 270----------
MONTGOMERY______ __________
PRAIBIL
DEWEY VIUEII2I ,90____ IHOIOCENE
Fig. V I - I - 1 . Approximate msl elevations of the Quaternary levels in the
vicinity of Vacherie dome area.
419
Regional tectonic uplift since Willi ana time, the earliest of the
Pleistocene interglacials, is on the order of 110 f t . I f 1.5 million
years is assumed from Williana time to the present, this would amount to
less than 20 f t in 250,000 years—a value too small to be of significance.
2. Glaciation
What is the possibility of an ice age occurring in the 250,000 year
time span during which the waste w ill be radioactive, and what effect might
an ice age have on hastening erosion of, or exposing the salt? Similarly,
what is the possibility of the ice caps on Greenland and Antarctica melting
in this time interval, and how might this affect the integrity of the
nuclear waste repository? Geologists and climatologists conclude that one
major ice age (the Wisconsin) and at least one minor ice age (the Late
Wisconsin) have occurred during the past 100,000 years, and that at least
three additional major ice ages occurred during the 1.5 million years that
have resulted in the deposition of the Quaternary terraces in Figure V I - I - 1 .
There is every reason to believe that we are currently living in an inter­
glacial period and that the ice will advance again in the next 250,000 years.
What might such an advance mean in terms of increased erosion and the
general stability of a shallow dome such as Rayburn's? The most obvious
natural phenomenon associated with such an ice advance is the eustatic
lowering of sea level. There is l i t t l e reason to believe that an ice
sheet might reach the latitude of north Louisiana; a l 1 previous Quaternary
sheets in North America have reached no farther south than the latitude
of St. Louis. Lowering of sea level, however, by as much as 450 f t (the
generally accepted value for the Wisconsin glaciation) reduces the base
levels of the major streams. In time the effect of this lowered base level
is f e l t on even such minor tributaries as Bashaway and Fouse creeks at
420
Vacherie and Rayburn's domes. The change in base level and the amount
of erosion that results is plainly evident along these creeks and can be
estimated by measuring the thickness of the Quaternary f i l l , i . e . , the
depth of the entrenched valleys which contain the Quaternary f i l l . In
the case of Bashaway Creek this amounts to about 50 f t ; in the case of
Fouse Creek, somewhat less.
Another effect of lowered base levels is the general lowering of
water tables. Again this effect becomes less with distance from the Gulf
and with distance from the major stream valleys. I t is doubtful i f water
tables would drop significantly from their present levels in north
Louisiana. There is good evidence that pluvial periods, periods of rain­
f a l l amounts much higher than those of the present, or distinctively arid
periods occurred during both glacial and interglacial periods. Thus,
periods of increased, as well as reduced, erosion due to climatic fluctu­
ations should be expected many times during the next 250,000 years. But
the overall effects of such fluctuations on water tables and on erosion
rates should be minor. Their total effect is conveniently reflected in
the differences in elevation of the terrace levels of north Louisiana.
A final consideration associated with glaciation is the possibility
of the ice caps melting entirely. This is believed to have been the
normal situation on our planet during the past billion years when clima­
tologists estimate that average global temperatures stood close to 72° P.
Today world temperatures average only about 59° F. Should we revert to
more "normal" times in the next 250,000 years, and should the ice caps
melt, i t is estimated that sea level could rise as much as 200 f t . Thus
the sea could conceivably cover Rayburn' s and Vacherie domes. As the
sea advanced over what is now land, base levels and water tables would
421
rise and f i r s t the major valleys and then their tributaries would begin
to aggrade. This would be reflected in additional alluvial deposition
above the domes and eventually i f the sea actually covered the domes, by
marine deposition. The effect of such an occurrence on a repository is
conjectural. On the one hand, a rise in sea level would bury a waste
repository even more deeply. On the other hand, a remote adverse
possibility might be that additional sedimentation above the domes would
reactivate upward movement of the dome. On balance, however, adverse
effects should be minimal.
To summarize, the magnitude of the erosional and depositional
processes predicted for the next 250,000 years is too small to be of
any real consequence. The caprock on a shallow dome such as Rayburn' s
might become exposed or moderate changes in ground-water level might
affect the salt in ways as yet unclear; but i t is f e l t that such effects
can be designed for should further study conclude they might be signi­
ficant.
423
VI-J . FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
C. R. Kolb
1. Findings
Originally the studies of the Quaternary had as their objective the
determination of the tectonic stability of the salt domes. As the studies
progress, however, i t becomes apparent that they may also develop informa­
tion useful in determining the hydrologic stabil ity of the salt during Qua­
ternary and pre-Quaternary time. Definitive conclusions concerning tectonic
and hydrologic stability based on Quaternary studies are premature at this
stage in the investigation, but several preliminary findings of importance
are sunmarized below.
1) Detailed borings made at Vacherie have not been completely analyzed,
but two subsurface sections crossing the dome at roughly right angles to its
long axis (Figures VI-B-3, -4, -5, and -6) show no irregularities that can
be attributed to u p l i f t , i . e. tectonic instability.
2) The borings along the subsurface section at the western end of
Vacherie dome (Figures VI-B-4 and -6) encountered three anomalous zones where
oxidized fine sandy sil ts and s i l t y sands reach depths of at least 200 f t .
These are interpreted as lows caused by dissolution and collapse of the
underlying salt in pre-Quaternary times, e.g. Miocene or Pliocene times.
3) Lineations detected on radar, color, and black and white imagery
have been mapped (Figure VI-C-1) extending through two of the three anomalous
zones mentioned above. Arcuate lineations in Quaternary deposits on the
eastern flank of the dome in the floodplain of Black Lake Bayou suggest the
only possibility found to date of upward movement of the salt during Qua­
ternary time.
424
4) Concordant elevations of the Quaternary deposits flanking Bashaway
Creek over Vacherie dome with the Quaternary deposits In the valleys to the
north and south of Bashaway Creek are excellent evidence that no up lift due
to salt movement has occurred In Quaternary time. Unfortunately only one
sufficiently detailed topographic profile Is available on which to base this
conclusion (Figure VI-F-1).
5) Vacherie and Rayburn's domes l i e In topographic depressions above
breached structural domes or anticlines. The most probable reason for
these topographic depressions Is that they are due to dissolution and
collapse of the underlying salt.
6) The magnitude of the erosional processes predicted for the next
250,000 years Is too small to be of any real consequence. The caprock on a
shallow dome such as Rayburn's might become exposed In this time period, but
I t Is f e l t that this situation can be designed for should further study con­
clude that such exposure might cause problems.
2. Recommendations
Recommendations for further study are contained throughout the text of
this section of the report. Much of the data already collected Is only partly
analyzed; other portions are currently being obtained. Some of the fie ld
work has been deferred until access rights are available to the areas In
question. Office studies are continuing.
A summary of recommendations follows.
1) Continue cored boring program at Rayburn' s and Vacherie and extend
I t , In fiscal year 1978, Into areas where access was denied In fiscal year
1977.
425
2) Use seismic refraction methods for delineation of the contact be­
tween the Quaternary and pre-Quaternary wherever possible. Use selected
borings or up-hole seismic methods where anomalous situations are found.
3) Determine the lateral extent of anomalous lows and through use of
pollen analysis or possible radioactive dating, determine the age of the
material in these lows. Attempt deeper penetration with seismic methods in
order to locate collapse of caprock beneath surface lows.
4) Continue pedologic studies to determine their effectiveness in
detecting irregularities that suggest warping of the soil profiles formed
above the dome resulting from tectonic instability.
5) Study cases of known Quaternary warping above salt domes, e . g . ,
Five Islands, German and Dutch domes, e t c . , in order to better interpret
boring and seismic profiles at Vacherie and Rayburn' s.
6) Continue studies of the significance of the topographic lows above
north Louisiana domes. I t is f e l t that drainage basin analysis as discussed
in the text may prove an excellent and sophisticated tool to examine this
problem.
7) Collect as much detailed elevation data as possible in a broad zone
around both domes in order to map the extent and the elevation differences
in the Quaternary surfaces. Correlation of corresponding levels away from
the dome with those above the dome are considered an excellent method to
determine tectonic stability.
8) Refine the preliminary conclusions presented here on erosional
effects at Rayburn's and Vacherie during the next 250,000 years.
4 2 7
VI I . REFERENCES
429
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21st International Geology Congress, Copenhagen, Denmark, p. 28-33.
Muehlberger, W. R., 1976, Genesis and growth of salt domes in the northeast
Texas salt-dome basin: in Netherland, Sewell & Assoc., I n c. , Geologic study
of the interior salt domes of northeast Texas salt-dome basin to investigate
their suitability for possible storage of radioactive waste material as of
May, 1976: Report prepared for the Office of Waste Isolation, Union Carbide
Corporation, Nuclear Division, Energy Research and Development Administra­
tion, p. 1 - 4 . (Y/OWI/SUB-76/99939)
Murray, G. E., 1961, Geology of the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Province of
North America: Harper & Bros., New York, 629 p.
Musgrave, A. W., Woolley, W. C., and Gray, H., 1960, Outlining of salt
masses by refraction methods: Geophysics, Vol. 25, p. 141-167.
Netherland, Sewel1 and Associates, 1976, Geologic study of the interior salt
domes of northeast Texas salt-dome basin to investigate their suitability
for possible storage of radioactive waste material as of May, 1976: Report
prepared for the Office of Waste Isolation, Union Carbide Corporation,
Nuclear Division, Energy Research and Development Administration.(Y/OWI/SUB-76/99939)
Nettleton, L. L . , 1934, Fluid mechanics of salt domes: American Association
of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, Vol. 18/9, p. 1175-1204.
Nettleton, L. L . , 1976, Gravity and magnetics in oil prospecting: McGraw-
Hill , Inc., New York, 464 p.
Newcome, R., J r . , 1975, Formation factors and their use in estimating water
quality in Mississippi aquifers: U. S. Geological Survey, Water Resources
Investigations, 2-75.
Obert, L . , 1962, In situ determination of stress in rock: Mining Engineer,
August 1962, p. 51-58.
Obert, L . , 1964, Deformation behavior of model pillars made from salt, trona,
and potash ore: Proceedings, 6th Symposium on Rock Mechanics, Rolla,
Missouri, p. 339-560.
Payne, J . W., 1975, Geohydrologic significance of lithofacies of the Carrizo
sand of Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas and the Meridian sand of Mississippi:
geohydrology of the Claiborne group: U.S. Geological Survey Professional
Paper No. 569-D, p. D-3 - D-10.
434
Pitts, F. H., 1976, A three-dimensional, time-dependent model of Mobile
Bay: Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. Chemical Engineering Department,
Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
Reese, R. J . , 1977, Salt kinematics of southern Bienville Parish, Louisiana:
Unpublished thesis. Geology Dept., Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge,
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Rocha, M., Silveira, A. D., Grossmann, N., and Oliveira, E. D., 1969,
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Rollo, J . R., 1960, Ground water in Louisiana: Louisiana Geological Survey,
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Sannemann, D., 1968, Salt stock families in northwestern Germany: American
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Schmertmann, J . , 1976, The measurement of in situ shear strength: Pro­
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Selig, F . , and Wallick, G. C., 1966, Temperature distribution in salt domes
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Serata, S., 1974, Borehole stress-property measuring system: U. S. Patent
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Shows, T. N., et a l . , 1969, Water for industrial development in Forrest,
Greene, J ones, Perry and Wayne Counties, Mississippi: Mississippi
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Strandberg, C. H., 1967, Aerial discovery manual: J ohn Wiley & Sons, In c.,
New York, 249 p.
Thoms, R. L . , and Manning, T. A., 1976, Monitoring salt dome movement:
Proceedings, International Conference on Finite Elements Methods in Engi­
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Thoms, R. L . , et a l . , 1977, Site specific study for possible ongoing salt
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Keystone, Colorado, p. 4B6-1 - 4B6-10.
Thoms, R. L . , and Manning, T. A., 1977, Monitoring current rates of salt
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mental Considerations, Institute for Environmental Studies, Louisiana State
University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, p. 171-187.
435
Trotter, C. L., Preliminary palynologlcal report on samples from the well
L. I . G, storage #1, Sorrento salt dome. Ascension Parish, Loyisiana, Shell
Oil Co., Private Report, J une 1961.
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American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Bulletin, Vol. 44, p. 1519-
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theory and practice: Louisiana Department of Conservation and Louisiana
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Walker, C. W., 1972, The nature and origin of caprock overlying Gulf Coast
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Louisiana: Unpublished thesis, Dept, of Geology, Louisiana State University,
Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 77 p.
Wroth, C. P., 1976, In situ measurement of i n i t i a l stresses and deforma­
tion characteristics: Proceedings, Specialty Conference of Geotechnical
Engineering Division, Amer. Soc. of Civil Engineers, Vol. 2, p. 181-230.
Wu, S., 1976, Analysis of three-dimensional flow in confined aquifers by
the f i n i t e element method: Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. University of
Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky.
Zienkiewicz, 0. C., 1976, Recent developments, trends and applications of
fi n i t e element methods: Proceedings, Internation Conference on Finite
Element Methods in Engineering, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia.
437
VI I I . APPENDICES
A. Soundi ngs and Bor i ngs: Vacher i e S a l t Dome
B. Wat er Well Records; Vacher i e S a l t Dome
439
APPENDIX A
Soundings and Borings:
Vacherie Salt Dome
441
SOIL DESCRIPTION
■ 1 0 -
■ 2 0 -
-30-
- 7 0 - '
-80-,
- 90-
100-
SURFACE ELEV.;
TAN FINE SAND
i / -
RED SANDY SILT
DENSE TO VERY DENSE RED SILTY
FINE SAND
2 3 '
VERY DENSE TAN FINE SAND
- TAN AND YELLOW 33'-35'
51
HARD TAN SILTY CLAY with silt
SEAMS AND POCKETS
GRAY 68'-70'
SHEAR STRENGTH, TSF
9 Unconflntd Comprattion
O Pocktt P»n»trom»t»r
■ Trioxial Compreuion
A Torvonp
0.8 1.0 1.5
*
t
■V
m
»
o
03
srtc:
Ol _J
z
at uj
LUf-

OS
— i-
10 20 30 40 90 60
50/6'
50/5"
I
5 0 / 4 "
98/9
5 0 / 2 "
I „
50/5"
78
92
88
98
50/5'
COMPLETION DEPTH: 150'
DATE: 8/12/77
*140 LB. HAMMER DROPPED 30 INCHES
LEGEND;
| - UNDISTURBED SAMPLE
0 - UNDISTURBED SAMPLE ATTEMPT
SPT DRIVE SAMPLE
LOG OF BORING NO. 1 FIG. A-1
VACHERIE SALT DOME
DUBBERLY, LOUISIANA
SHEET 1 OF 2
FUORO 6ULF, INC.
Contuiting Engin«* r> and 6* ologitt« PLATE
442
a.
u
o
I
I
I
O
m
>-
CO
SOIL DESCRIPTION
Z
SURFACE ELEV.:
SHEAR STRENGTH, TSF
% Unconfined Compression
O Pocket Penetrometer
■ Trioxial Compression
A Tofvone
0.5 1,0 1.5
!|!
I
CD
o
1~
z
OC UJ Q.
UJH
< o
o z
CL _l 9 a _J.J
- j ------------
— Q ------
— f -
10 20 30 40 50 SO
■no
120-
130
140
150
I
HARD TAN SILTY CLAY WITH SILT
SEAMS AND LAYERS
160-
170-
18a
H9a
200-
TERMINATION DEPTH = 150'
50/4"
I
90/10"
50/6
55/5"
50/4"
COMPLETION DEPTH; 150'
DATE- 8/12/77
*140 LB. HAMMER DROPPED 30 INCHES
LOG OF BORING NO. 1
FIG. A-1
SEE SHEET 1 FOR VACHERIE SALT DOME (cont’d)
LEGErO DUBBERLY, LOUISIANA
SHEET 2 OF 2
FUORO GULF, INC.
Consulting Engineers and Geologists
PLATE
443
1 0 -
20
30-
-50-
60-
-70-'
-80-
-90-
hlOO
SOIL DESCRIPTION
SURFACE ELEV.:
TAN FINE SAND 2 . 5 '
RED SANDY SILT
18'
DENSE TO VERY DENSE RED & TAN
FINE SAND
:E
I
77'
VOID OR VERY SOFT SOIL
(DRILL RODS DROPPED UNDER THEIR
OWN WEIGHT)
91
TAN FINE SAND
TERMINATION DEPTH = 96'
COULD NOT CONTINUE DUE TO LOSS OF
CIRCULATION.
SHEAR STRENGTH, TSF
9 Unconfinsd Comprtssion
O Pocket Penetrometer
■ Trioxial Compression
A Torvone
0.5 1.0 1.5
s
m
14
20
41
73
48/5"
q: uj
UJt-
§ i
4- Q h
10 20 30 40 SO 60
50/4"
I
50/5"
50/3"
26
COMPLETION DEPTH: 96'
DATE: 8/14/77
*140 LB. HAMMER DROPPED 30 INCHES
LEGEND;
LOG OF BORING NO. 2
FIG. A-2
1 - UNDISTURBED SAMPLE
VACHERIE SALT DOME
0 - UNDISTURBED SAMPLE ATTEMPT
g - SPT DRIVE SAMPLE
DUBBERLY. LOUISIANA
FUORO 6ULF, INC.
Consulting Engineers and Geologists PLATE
444
a.
UJ
Q
o
m
S
>
CO
SOIL DESCRIPTION
SURFACE ELEV,:
SHEAR STRENGTH, TSF
% Unconfined Compression
O Pocket Penetrometer
■ Trioxial Compression
A Torvone
0.5 1.0 1.5
s-
u.
CO
3
CD
z
q: lj
UJh-
<o
H ©-
2?
_ i _ i
10 20 30 40 50 60
••
a
1 0 -
20
-30-
-40-
■50
-60-;
-70-
■80 M B
} m
ioa
TAN FINE SAND
DENSE TO VERY DENSE RED FINE
SAND
- TAN & WHITE BELOW 48’
- WITH CLAY SEAMS 88'-90'
31
73
85/10'
50/4
50/1"
81/9'
COMPLETION DEPTH: 175'
DATE: 8/19/77
* 140 LB. HAMMER DROPPED 30 INCHES
LEGEND:
■ - UNDISTURBED SAMPLE
0 - UNDISTURBED SAMPLE ATTEMPT
H- SPT DRIVE SAMPLE
LOG OF BORING NO. 2C3
VACHERIE SALT DOME
DUBBERLY, LOUI SI ANA
FIG. A-3
SHEET 1 OF 2
FUSRO 6ULF. INC.
Consulting Engineers and Geologists
PLATE
445
f7
_i
o
X 05
a.
s
V
UJ
o
m
SOIL DESCRIPTION
Z
SURFACE ELEV.;
SHEAR STRENGTH, TSF
9 Unconfirxd Compression
O Poekel Penetrometer
■ Trioxial Compression
A Torvone
0.6 1.0 1.5
U.
X
so
K . q: u j
OTt UJt-
< o
Q - - J
i i
_l_l
_ _j _
+ - O-
10 20 30 40 50 60
VERY DENSE TAN FINE SAND
121 '
HARD GRAY SILTY CLAY WITH SILT
SEAMS AND POCKETS
•180
190
eoo
TERMINATION DEPTH = 175'
50/2
22
84
95/8'
50/6'
50/6"
COMPLETION DEPTH; 175'
DATE: 7/19/77
* 140 LB. HAMMER DROPPED 30 INCHES
LOG OF BORING NO. 2C3
FIG. A-3
SEE SHEET 1 FOR
VACHERIE SALT DOME
(cont’d)
LEGEND DUBBERLY, LOUISIANA
SHEET 2 OF 2
FUORO OULF, INC.
Consulting Engineers and Geologists PLATE
446
SOIL DESCRIPTION
SURFACE ELEV.:
TAN FINE SAND
-40
50-
■70
-80-
-90-
»*•*•*«
8 e
m
• • • • •
*V V*
• ••
RED SANDY SILT
i r
7'
RED & TAN CLAYEY SILT
.2ZL
M
DEf4SE TO VERY DENSE FINE SAND
1 0 0 - ^ ^ ^
97'
HARD TAN & GRAY SILTY CLAY
\ - GRAY BELOW 99*
/
SHEAR STRENGTH, TSF
# Unconfincd Cotnprsfstion
O Pocket Penetrometer
■ Trioxial Compression
A Torvone
0.5 1.0 1.5
I—
U.
X .
m
I
26
13
16
37
41
27
32
63
69
50/Al
17
55
c/>tl
2?
0 . _ !
Z
a; UJ
UJI~
S o
5o
0 5
_J_I
-j © h
10 20 30 40 50 60
33
COMPLETION DEPTH: 160’
DATE- 8/23/77
*140 LB. HAMMER DROPPED 30 INCHES
LEGEND;
i ” UNDISTURBED SAMPLE
0 - UNDISTURBED SAMPLE ATTEMPT
R - SPT DRIVE SAMPLE
LOG OF BORING NO. 3
VACHERIE SALT DOME
DUBBERLY, LOUISIANA
FIG. A-4
FUORO OULF, INC.
Consulting Engintor* and Gtologistt
PLATE
447
-12(
t
x ’
h-
Q.
lU
Q
O
m
s
>-
CO
SOIL DESCRIPTION
SURFACE ELEV.;
hl30
H7(>
■180
190
«0O
I
HARD GRAY SILTY CLAY
TERMINATION DEPTH = 160'
SHEAR STRENGTH, TSF
9 Unconfined Compr«»»ion
O Pockdt Penetrometer
■ Trioxial Compression
A Torvone
0.5 1.0 1.5
CO
o
_i
CD
66
o
SX. Id O
c o t UJH
< 2
H Z
< o
O S
OL _l 5 o _ I _ i
H------------
- 0 - -
— H
iO 20 30 40 50 60
50/6:
50/6
COMPLETION DEPTH: 160'
DATE= 8/23/77
*140 LB. HAMMER DROPPED 30 INCHES
SEE SHEET 1 FOR
LEGEND
LOG OF BORING NO. 3
VACHERIE SALT DOME
DUBBERLY, LOUISIANA
FIG. A-4
(cont’d)
SHEET 2 OF 2
FU8R0 eULF, INC.
consulting Engineers and Geologists
PLATE
448
FRICTION RATIO,% | CONE RESISTANCE,qc, TSF—
5 4 3 2 1 0 25 50 7 5 100 1 2 5 1 50 175 2 0 0 2 2 5 2 50 2 7 5
i l l
U f l + H
1 I U 1
J j i u . l U i i J
3 4 5 6 7 8 9
SLEEVE FRICTION, fs. TSF —
SOIL
DESCRIPTION
VERY STIFF TO
HARD SANDY
CLAY WITH
SAND SEAMS
SOFT 2 3 ’ - 2 6 *
SAND LAYER AT
4 3*
DENSE CLAYEY
SAND
HARD CLAY
- SANDY CLAY OR
L I G N I T E 6 7 ' -
7 2 '
SURFACE ELEV.:. . COMPLETION DEPTH: 8 5 . 5 F T . DATE: 6 / 2 2 / 7 7 I QDATinM: DUBBERLY. LOUISIANA
•V
r
m
FRICTION
SL £EV£ -
29^2 SO IN.
ASTV TEST METHOD
RATE Of RENETRATION
APPROX 4 F I / 1ilN
AREA I M SO. IN.
CONE PENETRATION TEST NO. 5WC
VAOeiE SALT DOTE FIG. A-5
449
FRICTION RATIO,*/. CONE RESISTANCE,qc,TSF-
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
SLEEVE FRICTION, fg. TSF —
SOIL
DESCRIPTION
SI lTV
\ SAND
HARD CLAY
HARD SANDY CLAY
SURFACE ELEV.:_ . COMPLETION nPPTH-. 16 F T . DATF-. 6 / 2 2 / 7 7 I n r f l T I T I N : DUBBERLY. LCXJISIANA
"O
r
m
SLEEVE
2 » 2 SO.
ASTM TEST METHOD
0 344t-75T
RATE Of PCNETfUnOM
APPROX 4 f l / 1 « M .
CONICAL TIP,
CROM SCCTMNAl.
AREA I M SO. IN
CONE PENETRATION TEST NO. 6 W C
VACICRIE SN.T iXTE
FIG. A-6
FRICTION RATIO,"/. |
S 4 3 2 I 0 25
CONE RESISTANCE,qc.TSF-
7 5 100 125 ISO 1 7 5 2 00
SOIL
DESCRIPTION
SOFT TO HARD
SANDY CLAY
WITH SA60
SEAMS
- DENSE SAND
O ' - l '
- HARD BELOW 3 '
DENSE SAND
DENSE CLAYEY
SAND WITH
CLAY SEAMS
AND LAYERS
_______________________________SLEEVE FRICTION, fs, TSF— ____________ .
SURFACE ELEV.:_________COMPLETION DEPTH■. .s.s. f t . d a t f : 6 / 2 3 / 7 7 i n r f l r t n r j : d u b b e r l y . L o u i s i a n a
•V
r
>
nUCTlON
2 3.2 SO IN
* ASTM TEST METHOD
D3 44 I-7 5T
RATE Of PENETRATION
APPROX 4 F I A I I N .
AREA 136 SO. IN.
CONE PENETRATION TEST NO. 7 W C
VACHERIE SALT DOfT FIG. A -7
450
CONE RESISTANCE,qc,TSF'
100 125
FRICTION RATIO®/® SOIL
DESCRIPTION
75 25 50 150 175 225 250 200 275
LOOSE TO DENSE
SILTY SAND
IQ­
S'
•so­
l o
SLEEVE FRICTION, fc, TSF —
COMPLETION nPPTH: 14 f t . SURFACE ELEV.:. DATE: 6 / 2 3 / 7 7 location : DUBBERLY. LOUISIANA
ASTM TEST METHOD
0 3441-7^1
m
CONE PENETRATION TEST NO. ICl
VACERIE SALT DOT
OONICAU TIP,
FIG. A-8
FRICTION RATIO,*/. CONE RESISTANCE,qc, TSF-
100 125 150 175 200
SOIL
DESCRIPTION
75 25 50 225 250 275
DENSE SAND
HARD SANDY CLAY
DENSE SILTY
SAMD
10-
20-
10
SLEEVE FmCTION, fc, TSF —
COMPLETION nFPTH:_ i ^ f t . h a t f : 6 / 2 3 / 7 7 i n c . A T \ m : d u b b e r l y , L o u i s i a n a SURFACE ELEV.:.
ASTM TEST NETHC©
D344I-75T
CONE PENETRATION TEST NO. 1C2
VACERIE SALT DOT
CONICAL TIP,
FIG. A-9
FRICTION RATIO,•/. |
5 4 3 2 1 0
CONE RESISTANCE,qc, TSF-
75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275
SOIL
DESCRIPTION
MEDIUM DENSE TO
DENSE SILTY
SAND
HAR6 SANdV clav
DENSE SILTY
SAND
SLEEVE FRICTION, fs. TSF
COMPLETION DFPTH'. 19 FT. SURFACE ELEV, d a t e : 6 / 2 3 / 7 7 location : d u b b e r l y , LOUISIANA
2>2 sam.
ASTM TEST METHOD
D344I-75T
RATE OF PENETRSnON
APPROX. PFTPWtH.
AREA IE8 SO. IN.
CONE PENETRATION TEST NO. 1C3
VAOERIE SALT DOT
FIG. A-IO
451
i i
r O
i i
I i
e
a.
r
f
FRICTION RATIO,% CONE RESISTANCE,qc,TSF-
8 4 3 2 1 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275
SOIL
DESCRIPTION
SILPT
; 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
SLEEVE FRICTIQN, fg, TSF —
SURFACE ELEV.:. . COMPLETION DFPTH: > 2 f t . DATE: _ 6 / 2 4 / 7 7 _ _ xnCATlCN: DUBBERLY. LOUISIANA
FRI C TI ON
29.2 sa
CONICAL TIP,
* ASTM TEST ftCTHOO
D344t-75T
RATE GF PENETRATION
APPROX. 4FI/MN.
CONE PENETRATION TEST NO. 2C1
VACieiE SALTDOE
FIG. A-11
4 5 2
S O I L
D E S C R I P T I O N
C O N E R E S I S T A N C E . q c . T S F —
FR IC T I O N RA T IO ,* /.
DENSE SILTY
SAND
NOTE: F R I C T I O N ( f , )
I S 1 / 2 SCALE VALUE
BETWEEN S ' 6 2 2 '
1
0 1 2 3 A 5 6 7 8 9
S L E E V E F R I C T I O N , f s , T S F
COMPL ET ION n PP TM: 44 f t . D A T E : ■■6 / 2 4 / 7 7 | n r . A T i n M : DUBBERLY. L OU IS IA N A SURFACE ELEV.
ASTM TEST METHOD
D 344I-75T
FWCTION
SLEEVE
23.2 SaiN
CONE P E N E T R A T I O N T E S T NO. 2 C 2
VACfERIE SALT D O T
CONICAL TIP,
CN085 SECTIONAL
AREA IAS SO. IN F I G . A - 1 2
APEX 60
4 5 3
S O I L
D E S C R I P T I O N
C O N E R E S I S T A N C E , q c , T S F —
1 00
F RIC TIO N RATIO ,%
r O
• o
250 75 125 150 175 225 275 25 50 20
DENSE SILTY
SAND
10-
■ - 20-
so­
l o
SLEEVE FRICTION, f c , T S F —
COMPL ET ION DEPTH DATE- 6 / 2 4 / 7 7 location : DUBBERLY. LOU IS IA NA SURFACE ELEV. :.
ASTM TEST METHOO
D 344I-75T
CONE P E N E T R A T I O N T E S T NO. 2 C 3
V A O E R I E SALT DO^E
CONICAL TIN,
F I G . A - 1 3
S O I L
D E S C R I P T I O N
C O N E R E S I S T A N C E , q c , T S F
1 00
F RIC T I O N RAT IO ,%
?o 225 250 2 75 175 200 125 150 75 25 50
~^ENSE_5AND__
HARD CLAY
- SAND BELOW 5 ’
10-
10
SLEEVE FRICTION, f c , T S F —
COMPLE TION nFPTH: 6 . 5 F T . nATF: 6 / 2 5 / 7 7 t n r. A T i n M : DLBBERLY, LOU IS IA NA
SURFACE ELEV.:.
ASTM TEST PyETHOO
D 3441-75T
CONE P E N E T R A T I O N T E S T NO. 3 C 1
V A O E R I E SALT DOTE
CONICAL TIP,
F I G . A - U
454
FRICTION RATIO,% | CONE RESISTANCE,qc, TSF
5 4 3 2 1 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550
SOIL
DESCRIPTION
DENSE SAND WITH
SILTY SAND
LAYERS
HARD CLAY
FRICTION SLEEVE DID
NOT FUNCTION PROPER
LY BELOW 29 FT
SLEEVE FRICTION, TSF —
COMPLETION depth: 76FT SURFACE ELEV DATE* 8 / 1 / 7 7 location : DUBBERLY, LCXIISIANA
ASTM TEST fiCTHCO
D3441-75T
CONE PENETRATI ON TEST NO. 3C2
VAC!€RIE SALT B K
CONICAL TIP,
CROSS secTiopuy.
F I G . A - 1 5
455
SOIL
DESCRIPTION
CONE RESISTANCE,«ic,TSF-
100 125 150 175 200
FRICTION RATIO,%
25 50 75
PREPUNChED HOLE
TO 1 2 . 5 FT.
10"
DENSE SILTY
SAND
HARD SANDY CLAY
WITH CLAY
SEAMS
20-
•30-
DENSE SILTY
SAND
40-
50-
■60-
CLAY SEAM AT
6 7 '
TO-
so­
l o
SLEEVE FRICTION, fs, TSF
SURFACE ELEV.:. COMPLETION DFPTH: 77 f t DATE:A / 3 / 7 7 LOCATION: d l b b e r l y . L o u i s i a n a
ASTM test method
D3441-751
CONE PENETRATION TEST NO. 3C3
VACieiE SALT DOT
1 k CONICAL TIP,
CROSS sssmm
AR£A iS6 SO. IN.
FIG. A-16
APEX SO®-
456
SOIL
DESCRIPTION
CONE RESISTANCE,qc, TSF—
100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275
FRICTION RATIO,%
75 25 50
DENSE SILTY
SAND
20-
.30-
s l e e v e FRICTION, fc, T S F -
SURFACE ELEV.:. COMPLETION D F P T H FT , d a t f : 6 / 2 5 / 7 7 I nr.AT>nM: d u b b e r l y , LOUISIANA
1.4 IN.
ASTM TEST METHOD
D3441-75T
CONE PENETRATION TEST NO. ACl
VACHERIE SALT DOME
A PPROX. 4 FXAflN.
C ONI C A L TIP,
-C RO^ S E C TI ONA L
A RE A I S6 80.IN.
FIG. A-17
FRICTION RATIO,®/. CONE RESiSTANCE,qc,TSF—
5 4 3 2 1 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275
I l l l l l l l l i a f Z ^ I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I
B I I H I I I I I I S ' r f l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l
i m i i i i i v . i i n i i i i i i i i i i i i i H
i m i l l l l B i i Z M t l l l l l l l l l l l l l l
■■■■a :!!!!■■ m i l i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i
B m i i i i i i i i u a : ? ' i i i i i i i i i i i i i
IIIIIIIIIII8 IIIIIH IIIIIIIIH ’ tllB B IIlS IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIillllllin iE IM S IIIIIIIIII
» BI I I I IBIIIIB”- ... liBlilBBBiilB
II limiiiit.......... BBIBB
IB lllllllililiS liailB|IIBIBBIBH|Mpifniii*"P>S •J :;h m h h i h h i » » iih«nil.... Ill
II liili lllllll
I B ........ •"■■■■■■•iiiiiBiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiii iiiiiii
II I I I ..— ^-r"*»iBiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiBiiiRiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii mil lllllll
II i i i i i i i i i h i : .............. ; i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i m i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i
n i l iiiniMiiiiiniiMp-i:- - . . : . ; : : : . : . . h i a t H i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i
IIIIBIIIIBIIBB
i i i i i i m ill
iiiiB i m ill
m m I I I I I I
H ill! m ill
m m m ill
I I I I I I m ill
m m m ill
I I I I I I m ill
40-
SURFACE ELEV,;,
SLEEVE FRICTION, fs. T S F "
. COMPLETION 0 E P T H : .-,35 FT . nATF: 6 / 2 5 / 7 7 innflTlOM: DLBBERLY, LOUISIANA
SOIL
DESCRIPTION
HARD SAf«Y CLAY
WITH SANDY
SEAMS
STIFF 1 3 ’ - 1 6 ’
23.2 S aiN.
ASTM TEST METHOD
D3441-‘rar
RA TE Q/F PE HE TRA nM
A PPROX. 4FtA HN.
TIP,
mmtm.
CONE PENETRATION TEST NO. AC2
VACHERIE SALT DOME
FIG. A-18
457
FRICTION RATIO,% j
§ 4 3 2 1 0
CONE RESISTANCE,to TSF—
75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275
3 4 5 6 7
SLEEVE FRICTION, fg, TSF"
SOIL
DESCRIPTION
DENSE SAf€)
FIRM TO VERY
STIFF CLAY
- STIFF BELOW 8'
- VERY STIFF
BELOW 13'
SURFACE ELEV:_ .COMPLETION OFPTH: 25 FT,
HATF! 6 / 2 5 / 7 7 i n r H T i n d : DUBBERLY, LOUISIANA
23-2 SO.IN.
ASTM TEST METHOD
D3441-75T
RATE OF PENETRATION
APPROX. 4 Ft/MIN.
AI^A Ifi6 S0.1N.
CONE PENETRATION TEST NO. AC3
VACHERIE SALT DOME
FIG. A-19
I i
FRICTION RATIO,*/. |
6 4 3 2 1 0
CONE RESISTANCE,qc, TSF—
25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275
SOIL
DESCRIPTION
HARD CLAY WITH
SAND LAYERS
- SAND BELOW 10*?
4 5 6 7 8 9
SLEEVE FRICTiON, fs. TSF —
SURFACE ELEV.:. . COMPLETION nPPTH: 11 f t . DATF: 6 / 2 3 / 7 7 I DC A TinN: P^BERLY, LOJ ISIANA
■0
5
SLEEVE
2&2saiN
* ASTM TEST
D344I-75T
RATE OF PENETRATtON
APPROX. 4FVMm.
AREA IBS SQ.IN.
CONE PENETRATION TEST NO. B2C
VACHERIE SALT DOME
FIG. A-20
458
I
1
SOIL
DESCRIPTION
CONE RESISTANCE,<fc,TSF—
7 5 100 125 150 175 200 225 250
FRICTION RATIO,%
50 275 25
DENSE SILTY SAND
CLAY
10-
5
•20- - FIRM 2 0 ’ - 2 I *
30-
10
SLEEVE FRICTION, h, TSF —
SURFACE ELEV.:. COIWPLETION DFPTH: ?4 ft DATE: 6 / 2 3 / 7 7 l o c a t i o n : DUBBERLY. LOUISIANA
ASTM TEST METHOD
D344l-ireT
s
m
CONE PENETRATION TEST NO. BIOC
VACHERIE SALT DOME
CONICAL TIP,
’CNOSt 8KTI0NAL
AI«A L86 SQ.m.
FIG. A-21
459
APPENDIX B
Water Well Records;
Vacherie Salt Dome

i
4 6 1
Table B-1. Well completion description, Well V-4 , Vacherie
salt dome.
Log of Well f n r L o u i s i a n a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y ______________________________
V - 4
Address (City) f 1 1 n
( C o u n t y ) _ _ W e k S . t £ £ _
_Well No_
T . o n i s i f l n a
Locofion of Well 6 m i l e s E a s t o f H e l f i n , -Mode in Test Klole No_____
4 87 464
454
DRILLER'S LOG
TOTAl
DEPTH
€A£H
STRATUM
FORMATION
0-6 ped Clay
6 - 1 6 Eted Clay, Green Sand
1 6 - 69 (Vhite C la y, Green Sand
6 9 - 70 L i g n i t e
70 - 71 Rock
71 - 90 L i g n i t e
90 - 1 1 2
Fine W h i t e . Sand
1 1 2 - 1 6 4 r-Jhite Sand & L i g n i t e
1 6 4 -1 6 5 Etock
1 6 5-1 95 Pink Clay
1 99-220 Sand, C la y, Boulder
220-280 Slay
280-233 Sard sandy Clay
233-4 50 ^ i t e Clay and Sand
4 50-4 90 Sard Sand
4 90-555 l a r d Clay
555-590 l a r d Clay & P i ^ r i t e
590-754 l a r d Clay and Lime
STAKTEo WELL_ March 1 7,
4 87'
.77
AND COMPLETED
March 28
. i»
77
TOTAL DEPTH __ STATIC WATEt LEVEL
6 0. 7
ALL MEASUREAAENTS TAKEN FROM (GROUND) (TOP OF FOUNDATION) (TOP OF CASING) (TOP RASE PLATE)
SURFACE CASINGi SIZE___________________________ LENGTH_____________________ THICKNESS __________________ WELDED
CEMENTED WITH____
WELL CASINGi SIZE-
CEMENTED W I T H - „ . .
INNER CASING SIZE .
WITH_________ X____
6 "
-SACKS CEMENT
_________LENGTH .
OR PACKER TYPE-
„ 4 m : _____
X
110
- SACKS CEMENT .
.................. LENGTH
(GUIDES LOCATED)____________
WEIGHT___________
OR PACKER TYPE
T S C
TYPE MATERIAL ........... WELDED
l e f t hand
. TYPE BACKOFF-
LENGTH GUIDE -
OPENING.
SIZE SEAL 3-X. . 5 ______ BACKPRESSURE VALVE_____n O n e _ . . SIZE____
WELL STRAINER: AULKE ^Q?!¥^.§.9%PE . . . . . S I Z E ™ ? . - ........ LENGTH 1.P
TYPE AAATERIAL S . t a . i H l e . S S . * S . t j _ WITH T_..&.._.C....... CONNECTIONS
SIZE HOLE DRILLED FOR SURFACE CASING_________________ WITH - ..
SIZE HOLE DRILLED FOR WELL CASING. ......................... WITH . B o l L e r .
SIZE HOLE DRILLED FOR STRAINER WITH . ..................... .......
YARDS OF GRAVEL USED__________HOW PLACED_____________________________________________ TYPE
020
BIT
BIT
REAMER
L A Y N E C E N T R A L D I V I S I O N
p. O. BOX 278
CLEVELAND. HISS. 36732
HOW WAS WELL DEVELOPED___________A i r ----------
YES
FOUNDATION INSTALLED N W _ X _ . DEPTH FEELING RODS . . X
NOTES:__________________________________________ ___
SANDT- CLEAR?-
X
TOP OF WELL-
RIG USED 15.Q.0.__ SUPT.
DRILLER Elgyn,.,&nith..
462
Table B-2. Well completion description, Well V-5, Vacherie
salt dome.
Logof Well for_
Address (City).__
L o u i s i a n a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y
^W.!l
V-5
Heflin
( C o n n t y l Rifsnv i U p State ■LA
Locofion of Wail 9 m i l e s E a s t o f . H e f l i n t J ^d« in T®st Hoi®No..
3 8 6 '
366
356
10
LAYNE CENTRAL DIVISION
P. O. BOX 278
CLEVELAND, MISS. 38732
DRILLER'S LOG
EACH
STRATUM
FORMATION
0 - 1 8 Red C l a y
, 8 - 2 0 L i g n i t e
1 0-21 W h i t e C l a y
: i - 2 6 L i g n i t e
: 6 - 9 0 P i n k C l a y
' 0 - 1 1 5 C l a y & L i g n i t e
1 5 - 1 1 6 Bock
. 1 6 - 1 7 9 C l a y & L i g n i t e
. 7 9 - 2 0 7 S a n d y C l a y
; 0 7 - 2 0 8 Rock
0 8 - 2 1 4 L i g n i t e
1 4 - 2 6 0 C l a y
6 0 - 3 0 0 L i g n i t e , C l a y
h O - 3 6 5 C l a y
6 5 - 3 9 5 Sa n d y
; ; 9 5 - 4 6 0 C l a y
1 6 0 - 5 3 0 H a r d C l a y
1 6 0 - 5 3 0 H a r d C l a y s t r k s . , P y r i t e
! 3 0 - 6 7 0 H a r d C l a y L i m e
( 7 0 - 6 9 7 L i m e , S h a l e
( 0 7 - 7 7 5 l i m e s t o n e
• 7 5 - 8 1 5 Rock
C L - 0 3 8 5
M a r c h 28
3 8 6 ' "
_ i f .
77
CONTEACT NO.
AND COMFLETfO ^ ^^1 14 . I f .
77
STATIC WATSi LEVEL
6 0 . 1
STMTIO VlfiLl.
TOTAL DEPTH ............ ELEVATION .
A l l MIASUBEMENTS TAKEN « O M IGUOUND) (TOP OF FOUNDATION) (TOP OF CASING) (TOP iASE PLATE^I ^
SUtFACE CASING! SIZE____________________________ LENGTH-----------------------------------THICKNESS ............. WELDED
CEMENTED WITH____
WELL CMINGi SIZE_
CEMENTED WITH____
INNEB CASING SIZE..
WITH__________X____
.I.O_Q_
5"
.SACKS CEMENT
_________LENGTH
O i PACKM TYPE,
366'
.....................SACKS CEMENT -
............................ LENGTH
(GUIDES LOCATED)..
SIZE SEAL________________________ BACKPSESSUtE VALVE
WELL STRAINEK: MAKE _...........SIZE
TYPE M A T E * I A L . . . S t a i n l e s s S t WITH
SIZE HOLE DRILLED FOR SURFACE CASING ......
SIZE HOLE MILLED FOR WELL CASING ...............
Size MOie Dt i ti Eo f o r s t r a i n e r . . . .................... £ .
YARDS OF GRAVEL USED_________ HOW PIACED.
HOW WAS WELL DEVELOPED____
YES
FOUNDATION INSTALLED
NOTES:
8" _ _
7/ e "' "
. . . . . . SIZE_____
LENGTH . . I P . . .
CONNECTIONS
WITH .... ..
WITH ____
WITH ..........
- WEIGHT-------------------
. O t PACKER WPi
_ TYPE MATERIAL------
T * C
T ac
WELDED
LENGTH GUIDE .........
OPENING ......P.2.P.
B i t
. . . SIT
tIT
.iEAMES
.Aut-
LINE
DEPTH FEELING RODS
SAND?.
TOP OF WELL-
CLEAST_
s c r e e n h o l e .
RIG USED ....15.0.0... »J PT.
463
Table B-3. Well completion description, Well V-6, Vacherie salt dome.
Lanford Drilling Company, Inc.
• P . O . Box 9B • Shreveport, L a . * 71161
CUSTOMER.
LOCATION .
ADDRESS_
L.S.U. BOARD OF SUPERVISORS
WELL NO. V-6
UNIVERSITY STATION
COMPLETED
BATON ROUGE, LOUISIANA 70803
PURCHASE ORDER NO.
CONTRACT NO. H f - 7 7 4 BID M) . 2168-A
1
12
I T
HALIBURTON CEMENT-
FLOAT SHOE SET AT
596 FT.
•5 14'BLIND FLANGE
3x3x6
CONCRETE
FOUNDATION
GROUND WATER OBSERVATION WELL
No. V - 6 AT VACHERIE SALT DOME
596 xS'/o 0.D.X.25B
WALL BLACK STEELCASING
CEMENTED BY THE HALIBURTON CO.
■nh " c : "
- 3 / 2 X 5 - LEAD SEAL SET
AT 56§' ON sl'g'O.D. PIPE
•HALIBURTON CEMENT BASKET
SET AT 5 9 4 '
3"x Io' X 20 Go. JOHNSON TYPE
STAINLESS STEEL SCREEN SET
FROM 6 0 8 - 6 1 8 FT.
3 " BACK PRESSURE VALVE SET
AT 6]8 FT.
WELL DRILLED TO TOTAL DEPTH
OF 643 FT. WITH 8^4"R0CK BIT
464
Table B-4. Well completion description. Well V-7, Vacherie salt dome.
Lanford Drilling Company, Inc.
• P . O . Box 98 • Shr evepor t , La. * 71161
CUSTOMER L.S.U. TOARD OF SDPERVISORS
WELL NO. V-7
UNIVERSITY STATION April 1977
LOCATION COMPLETED__________________________
PURCHASE ORDER NO.
CONTRACT NO. -13.9-774 BID NO. 2168-A
BATON ROUGE, LOUISIANA 70803
ADDRESS
GROUND WATER OBSERVATION WELL No.7
AT VACHERIE SALT DOME
5^9 BLIND FLANGE
3’x3'x6"
CONCRETE
FOUNDATION
796'x5 !/2"0.D.x.258"
WALL BLACK STEELCASING
CEMENTED BY THE HALIBURTON CO.
t L ' * c r "
3 / 2 X 5 -LEAD SEAL SET
AT &54‘ 0N3'/2 O.D.PIPE
■HALIBURTON CEMENT BASKET
SET AT 7 9 4 '
HALIBURTON CEMENT-
FLOAT SHOE SET AT
79 6 FT.
3 X 10 X 20 Go. JOHNSON TYPE
STAINLESS STEEL SCREEN SET
FROM 7 9 6 - 8 0 6 FT.
3" BACK PRESSURE VALVE SET
AT 2 0 ^ FT.
WELL DRILLED TO TOTAL DEPTH
OF S I S FT. WITH 8 ^ " ROCK BIT
465
Table B-5. D r i l l cuttings description, Well V-4, Vacherie salt dome.
WELL V-4
iepth (feet)
Dri l l Cuttings Description
30-70 S i l t , clay, brown, glauconitic
Lignite, black
70-74
74-90 S i l t , clay, streak of 1ignite
90-100 S i l t , fine sand, l i g h t grey, grains
subangular to subrounded
100-110 S i l t , fine sand, gray, glauconitic,
grains subangular to subrounded
110-120 Clay, grey
120-130
Clay, grey, s i l t y , lignite
130-140 Clay, grey, si l t y
140-150 Si I t , fine sand, grey, grains
subangular to subrounded
150-160 Clay, grey, si l t y, streak of lignite
160-190 Clay, grey, si l t y
190-210 Clay, light-grey, s i l t y , glauconitic,
mi caceous
210-230 Si I t , fine sand, cl ay, light grey
230-240 Clay, light grey, si l t y
240-246 Lignite
246-276 Clay, light grey, si l t y
276-280 Lignite
280-294 Clay, light grey, si l t y
294-300 Lignite
300-310 Clay, light grey, si l t y
310-330 Clay, light grey, s i l t y , streaks of
l i gni te
330-345 Clay, l ight grey
345-430 Clay, l i ght grey, si l t y
430-460 S i l t , fine sand, light grey
460-482 Sand, fine grained, streaks of shale
482-754 Shale, grey
466
Table B-6. Drill cuttings description. Well V-5, Vacherie salt dome.
WELL V-5
Depth (feet)
0-12
12-22
22-26
26-42
42-52
52-72
72-82
82-92
92-102
102-112
112-122
122-132
132-162
162-172
172-222
222-245
245-260
260-282
282-302
302-332
332-385
385-525
525-605
605-615
615-815
Ori 11 Cuttings Description
S i l t , clay, red
Clay, l i ght grey, si l t y
Lignite
S i l t , clay, grey with minor red
and buff clay
S i l t , fine sand, grains subrounded to
subangular, 1ight grey, clayey
Fine sand, s i l t , grains subrounded to
subangular, light brown, clayey
S i l t , clay, grey
Clay, s i l t , grey
Clay, grey, si l t y
Clay, grey, si l t y
Clay, grey to blue grey, s i l t y , l ignite
Clay, grey to blue grey with minor red,
si l t y
Cl ay,grey, si l t y
Si l t and clay, grey
Fine sand and s i l t , grey, grains
subrounded to subangular, clayey
Lignite
Clay, grey, si l t y
Si l t and clay, grey
Clay, grey, si l t y to sandy, streaks
of l ignite
Si l t clay, grey, calcareous
Fine sand, s i l t , clay, grey
Clay, grey, sli ghtly calcareous
Clay, grey
Clay s i l t , grey, siightly calcareous
Shale, calcareous, grey
467
Table B-7. Drill cuttings description, Well V-6, Vacherie salt dome.
WELL V-6
Depth (feet) Dri l l Cuttings Description
10-20 S i l t , shale, gravel, brown
20-30 Clay, brown, si l t y
30-40 Clay, dark grey
40-50 Clay s i l t y , gravel, dark grey
50-60 Cl ay,grey, s i l t y , l i gni t i c
60-70 S i l t and clay, grey
70-80 Si l t and clay, grey, lignite
80-90 Si l t and clay, grey, mi caceous,
lignite
90-100 S i l t , grey, micaceous, clayey
100-110 S i l t and clay, grey
110-120 Si I t and clay, grey to black.
lignite
120-140 Si l t and clay, grey, micaceous
140-150 S i l t and clay, g r e y l i g n i t e
150-170 S i l t and clay, grey, brown and green
170-230 Cl ay, grey, green si l t y
230-235 Si l t and clay, grey
235-242 Lignite
242-248 Clay, grey, si l t y
248-255 Lignite
255-280 Clay, grey, si l t y
280-300 Clay, grey, s i l t y , calcareous, glauconitic
300-420 Clay, grey, s i l t y , calcareous,
glauconitic
420-450 S i l t and Clay, brown, slightly
calcareous
450-490
Si l t and Clay, light grey, slightly
calcareous
490-510
Si l t and clay, light grey, calcareous
510-610
Clay s i l t y, limestone, light grey
468
Table B-8. D r i l l cuttings description^ We11 V-7, Vacherie s a l t dome.
WELL V-7
Depth (feet) Drill Cuttings Description
0-20 Clay, red and white
20-30 Clay, tan to light red, s i l t y ,
lignite
30-40 Si I t , dark grey, clayey, mi caceous
40-50 Clay, dark grey, s i l t y , mi caceous
50-60 S i l t , dark grey, mi caceous, l ignite
60-80 Lignite, clay s i l t y , dark grey
80-90 Fine sand, grey
90-100 Clay, light grey, si l t y
100-110 Clay, light grey, pyritic
110-120 Clay, light grey, si l t y
120-130 S i l t , light grey, clayey
130-140 S i l t , light grey
140-150 S i l t , l i ght grey, clayey
150-160 Fine sand, tan
160-170 S i l t , grey, clayey, glauconitic
170-180 Fine sand, light brown
180-190 Fine sand, light brown, clayey
190-220 Fine sand, light brown
220-280 Fine sand, light red to brown,
lignite (231-250), pyrite
280-300 Fine sand, grey, 1ignite
300-350 Fine sand, grey, clayey
350-370 Clay, red brown, si l t y
370-400 Clay, dark grey, calcareous
400-415 Clay, dark grey, very calcareous,
glauconiti c pyri t i c
415-535 Clay, grey green, very calcareous,
limestone
535-570 Clay, slightly calcareous, less
glauconitic
570-800 Anhydrite
800-850 Salt; no returns, no samples
Borehole
Compensated
Sonic Log
‘ 1 Tffj’ * * "l
| M 1
(r
f
l i | s
.........
_{£
»
1 s :
I f
[ '
r??
CQUMM i n i i i s i a n A
W I l D C f l T
>i£LLX-a
m
lANA ST /iT E
FIG. B-1
l € L L V - ^
E O P H Y S I C A L W E L L L O G S
? - i Si i >!
'ton'*, location end bot*>>ol« '*l*t*nt* dole v*'* furnithed b)i
Compensated
Formation
D ensity Log
Qig9 7
F U L L *■' ' TlllliVl"' ^
r
kel* Up Hel* IkoteDewn Hole
iaJhittf • PPMCl
^.P.M“
b"- ®
, « o p » p
J
PC-416
liA
?fi7rri ^7fffp
M
L--2727
C r & U
W - 2 7 J S
F-U *
U5-’.'
f i f l . C A S I N G 3E_T l N _ W £ L L , t l X i «
UP t f g b ' BELbt/ SURFACE DeHtlnce^
pMHvf* Wheel <CPW)
I n * CeniwiMn
|>oiW OH • ln«he>
0.1. WO. • CPI
OJ. fay*«* • CPt
M . i — -HO
t , l . Cer>. • Mele »»*
0. t, l« ete>ef lOOOl*
0.1. ■T.C
SPONTANEOUS-POTENTIAL
H
SPONTANEOUS POTINTIAl
millivaHt
HESISTIVITY OHMSM>
DEEP INOUCTION
AVERAGED LATEROLOG-
^ ■ r r r r ; ^ . r . r r 7 . r m
AMP. AVE. LATEROLOG -
l l V t V
CTKNIO <
MCE t A m OtOG t
c uc r i v
u <c
Dl >CT or l (
M l f t tltl
L i r a m
m
..:4? ..
^ a « f a f f i . d l f e a 8 a i a
■■4 " : '■
/ _ ■ ' v : . ,
. . g i . . ' .
if ,
g?g ■' ' ' '
■ g
; - g
~ --I
s
r f l
j
4
I
BI ENVI LLE. U .
WI LD CAT
V A C H E R T I S A L T D O H r
w m . 5
U NlVniST T T
re<«rence data atacs tvrni<Ked by
H K F O T B !
Typalog Oaplh kola Up Hola kola Down Mwa
F I L M S P L I C E & SP MECH
SHI FT AT sag
OJ. CortridQa
Tapa lacerdar (TTI) SflMOF FRRD R. JLM 2
Dapihfncodar (DM) SflNDF F RRf W - ll n— S
Prauvra Wkaal (CFW
Spaad- P.P.M
IKarn*o*natar PI
TKaratomatar P7
RESISTIVITY OHMS
DEEP INDUCT ION R
CONOUOIVITY MIUIMHOS
6FF40 INOU CT ION
1000
SPONTANEOUS-POTENTIAL
FOCUSED RESISTIVITY R
FIG. B-2
^ € L L V - 5
G E O P H Y S I C A L W E L L L O G S
Compensated
Formation
D ensity Log
i
J L
coaaKiOM
~ r
Borehole
Compensated
Sonic Log
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ig:
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FIG. B-3
W E L L V - 6
G E O P H Y S I C A L W E L L L O G S
. . . e i i f . . . -
Q497I
F U L L
Seal* Up Hi>i;
Borehole
Compensated
Sonic Log
( o g r
S.C. U i • AM
SPONTANEOUS-POTENTIAL
1000
RESISTIVITY
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V A C H E R Ì E S A L T DOME
A. ST ATE U NI VERSI T Y • 6 ' 4 i f i r ►1 ' ' ? , * f i I '
FIG. B-4
W E L L V - 7
G E O P H Y S I C A L W E L L L O G S
SCALE CHANGES
loQ Dcp*h Scole Up Holf S<ol#Dow>'Hole
ONE
46809
FU LL
HIG H
m
Rvx NP
Oedt
fluid l*.« l
Soiie.lr PPMCl
______ ff M______
fSu i ? M E N m T A S5H
^ ■ O iov.1 COM •
REMARKS
T APED GB Caei No
Top* Boto'do' • ITT*
^p>K Encedtr (DBL
f'oikuip WKtol (CBW
T|rpoCcnnpl
^ n d OK
REPEAT RUN ON T :P
BOTTOM SECT I ON REPEAT ED
MORE SENSI T I VE SCALES.
CALIMATION DATA
teivdo f rrer
Sondo Efro' ILU
SB »KC
G B Soviet ' CfS
iOGCINC DATA
SE log
5 E log ilD
Holt ' Otpth
Sf Coir Holt Sot
G B Scolt pt ' >00 [>I.
CB f C
SPONTANEOUS POTENTIAL
f t
CONDU aiVIT Y
SPONTANEOUS POTENTIAL
mil livoli* DEEP INDUCTION
1000 2000
LATEKAI V>i|(MAL
IQfiUS lOQ / v
AVERAGED
' I M K.t IP
I
Borehole
Compensated
Sonic Log
o
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t :
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I
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