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The Pizeta

It is a sealed cylindrical vessel with screw cap, which has a tubular extension
having an opening, able to deliver water or liquid contained in the squeeze bottle
which, in small amounts is found.
Usually, it is made of plastic and its main function in the laboratory is "wash",
that is the reason because receives the name of bottle washer or wash bottle too. It
uses distilled water to remove or reagents impregnated materials.

Pipet
Pipettes allow transfer of generally no more than 20 ml of one vessel to another
volume, accurately. This allows measurement of fluid aliquots quite accurately.
They tend to be glass, but there are also plastic.
Classification of pipettes
Graduated pipettes: They are calibrated in convenient units to allow the transfer of
any size from 0.1 to 25 ml. They make possible the delivery of fractional volumes.

Volumetric pipette: It is made to deliver a well-defined volume (nominal volume),
which is given by one or two marks on the pipette.

Management of the pipette
1. The liquid is sucked by a vacuum using suction bulb light or propipette never
mouth.
2. Make sure there are no bubbles or foam in the liquid.
3. Clean the pipette tip before moving liquid.
4. Fill the pipette on the graduation mark and transfer the desired volume. The
edge of the meniscus should be on the graduation mark.
Margin of Error by Pipette Capacity.
Capacity (until) Error Limit
2 0,006
5 0,01
10 0,02
30 0,03
50 0,05
100 0,08
200 0,10

Volumetric Flask
They are glass containers with flat bottom and long, narrow neck, with a
capacity that denotes where to make the mark, which indicates a volume with high
accuracy and precision. In the same way that the pipettes, the neck of the flask is
built relatively thin, so that a small change in volume of the liquid causes a
considerable difference in the height of the meniscus; consequently the error by
adjusting the meniscus in the brand is very small.
Volumetric flasks are calibrated to contain the specified volume of liquid at a
definite temperature. As graduation surrounds the neck of the flask is easy to avoid
parallax errors when the liquid is brought to the mark, aligning the eye so that the
nearest and farthest ring sides are tangent to the bottom edge of the meniscus.
It is essential that the flask is free of fat, especially in signal measurement or
near to this. Volumetric flasks are used to prepare solutions of known
concentration to exact dilutions.
Utilization

1. Weigh or measure the required substance amount and transfer it to the flask.
2. Fill the flask with the minimum amount sufficient to dissolve or dilute the
substance transferred to it (the height of the liquid should not exceed half of the
height of the widest part).
3. Stir in circles to ensure that the substance is completely dissolved.
4. Continue filling the flask to about an inch below the capacity.
5. Dry the inside wall of the flask neck with a piece of absorbent paper placed
around a glass rod, taking care not to touch the solution.


Burettes
They are long graduated tubes, of uniform inner diameter throughout its length,
with a key chain or a clamp adapted of Mohr, so allowing pouring liquid dropwise.
Used to deliver variable amounts of liquid with great accuracy and precision, and
therefore, they have several subdivisions.
Utilization
1. When working with a burette, keep it upright , fixing on a stand.
2. Prior to the assessment itself, the buret must be rinsed with several small
portions of the solution with which it will be filled.
3. Fill the burette above the 0.00 mL mark.
4. Some burettes have special tanks for an easier filling, but if necessary it can
be filled with the help of a graduated pipette or by pouring the liquid through
a funnel from a jar.
5. Open the clamp shut allowing it to fill burette. Consider that there are no air
bubbles, eliminate them if any ( for that, cover with a finger the output of
peak , remove the clip and press on the gum to remove all bubbles , if
necessary , refill the burette again always above the 0.00 mL mark).
6. Dry out the peak of the burette.
7. Supporting the peak in the clean dry container wall used to rule out liquid,
open the clamp until the liquid level reaches 0.00 mL , ie , the base of the
meniscus must be tangent to the line that marks 0.00 mL. The eyes should
be at the height of the stroke.
8. During the assessment, must observe care when handling the burette key
or Mohr clamp that is used to close the peak . This will be handled with the
non-working hand so that the hand surrounds the burette, and fingers can
make the necessary pressure on the clamp to release the liquid. The skilled
hand is thus free to shake the titration flask.







Petri Dish
Forms and Features
Round container made of glass or plastic, having different diameters, it is shoal,
with a cover in the same way that the plate, but a little larger in diameter as it can
be placed on top and close the container as a lid.
Uses
1. It is used to observe different types of biological and chemical samples which
are enclosed within the plate.
2. It is used for growing of bacteria and other related species.
3. It is also used for solid knead together with the balance.
Precautions
It should be used with caution, since it must avoid contact with biological
organisms, in case working with them. Use protective attachment before working
with biological organisms (Robe, Gloves, etc.)

Spatula
This tool is classified as metal materials residing in the lab. The spatula is a
narrow flat sheet which is attached to a handle made of wood, plastic or metal. It is
mainly used to take small quantities of compounds or solid substances, especially
granular.

Mortar
Mortar aims crushing or grinding the solid substances.
Features and Forms
Mortar has a small instrument created from the same material called "Hand or
pylon" and is responsible for the shredding. They are usually found in wood,
porcelain, stone and marble.
Precautions
If the crush hazardous substances or liquids together with solid, they should be
milled or ground very gently to avoid splashing.

Thiele tube
It is mainly used for the determination of melting points of a given substance. To
this is filled with a liquid having a high melting point, and heated. Its peculiar shape
causes convection currents formed by heating the entire tube to maintain constant
temperature.



Erlenmeyer flask
Is a round bottom flask, which has a conical structure in the upper area and a
mouth with a narrow neck.
When discussing Erlenmeyer flask, was talking about a graduated flask containing
marks that indicate a certain volume.
They are in different capacities. It is mainly used for the preparation of solutions.
Advantages of use
It is safer than a beaker, since the structure of the flask prevents loss of
substance contained solution (agitation or evaporation)
It is ideal for stirring solutions.
It can be easily cover with cotton or lid.

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