Hsrpaæµane na ep±sxa meæµy mec±na±a

eaac± n rpaæµann±e npes ynpaeaenne na
xonqanx±n±e n pasannnn±a

Room I1
Hpo×muneo×o nomozono
4

CT±TPÆAHHE

HRKOH CTOBPAÆEHHR OTHOCHO H3HOA3BAHETO HA HPAKTHHECKOTO
HOMAIAAO .................................................................................................................. 4

Hnc1pyuen1 1: Ynpaanenne sa noµrpnnane/Aeµopasõnnau ........................................... 5

Hnc1pyuen1 2: Bssuoanoc1n sa npeµc1annne .................................................................. 6

Hnc1pyuen1 3: Ynpaanenne sa nssnpnn1nn1a ................................................................. 7

Hnc1pyuen1 4: Hpnunnn sa xonqnnx1 n c1pa1ernn sa nn1epnennnn ......................... 10

Hnc1pyuen1 5: Byxe1 o1 c1ap1epn n c1nuyna1opn ......................................................... 12

Hnc1pyuen1 6: Csõnpane na nnqopuannn sa xonqnnx1a ............................................ 13

Hpnuepna cn1yannn: E1o ro n xnap1ana! ........................................................................ 15

Hnc1pyuen1 7: Oõuen na npeµc1ann ................................................................................ 16

Hnc1pyuen1 8: Pasnpeµennne na ponn1e .......................................................................... 19

Hnc1pyuen1 9: C1pa1ernn sa ynpannenne na xonqnnx1n ............................................ 25

Hnc1pyuen1 10: Ponena nrpa sa noµene na nperonopn .................................................. 26

Hpnuepna cn1yannn: 3anasnane na Hen1spa sa µnennn rpnan n xnap1ana ............. 27

Hnc1pyuen1 11: Onenxa na uoµenn1e na nocpeµnnuec1no n cssµanane na coõc1nenn
uoµenn ................................................................................................................................... 30

Hnc1pyuen1 12: Ynpannenne na xonqnnx1n n nnac1 .................................................... 32

Hnc1pyuen1 13: Hncnennponxa na µncny1 ...................................................................... 36

Hpnuepna cn1yannn: Cnops1 c paspemn1enno1o sa c1poea ........................................ 37

Hnc1pyuen1 14: Hpeµc1ann sa µnanora ............................................................................ 40

Hnc1pyuen1 15: Ycnonnane na nsnmno1o nsxyc1no na µnanora .................................. 42

Hnc1pyuen1 16: Hnannpane na npnnoaenne1o na nayueno1o ..................................... 46




5


HRKOH CTOBPAÆEHHR OTHOCHO H3HOA3BAHETO HA HPAKTHHECKOTO
HOMAIAAO

Hac1 n1opa or resn marepnann npeµcrannxna xomnnexr nncrpymenrn sa nncrpyxropn n
]acnnnraropn (moµeparopn), xonro ônxa xenann µa oprannsnpar paôornn cpemn n µpyrn
rnnone yueônn µeñnocrn na ocnonara na xonnennnnre n nµenre, sacr¡nenn n Knnxxa 1.
Hncrpymenrnre ce ocnonanar na emnnpnunn noµxoµn x¡m nayuananero, nacouenn x¡m
noµnomarane na yuacrnnnnre n nsnnnuanero na onnra n snannxra, xonro nmar no remara n
x¡m pasnnnane na ymennxra nm µa ynpannxnar xon]nnxrn n pasnnunx no-e]exrnnno xaro
pesynrar or oôyuennero. Hncrpymenrnre ne ca noµpeµenn no naxnocr, nnro peµ¡r nm
nosnonxna µa ô¡µar “nsrernxnn” n nxnmunann n nporpamara na paôornara cpema xaro
san¡pmenn nponsneµennx na cnennunoro nsxycrno. Kaxro n npn ocranannre nncrpymenrn
n rasn nopeµnna, ônxme ncxann µa ce uyncrnare n npanoro cn µa rn npomenxre n
c¡ornercrnne c nyxµnre na yueônara nen n resn na ayµnropnxra, c xoxro me paôornre.

Bxnmunnn cme naôop or nncrpymenrn, xonro ca orpaxenne na c¡µ¡pxannero, pasrneµano
n uacr n¡pna, xaxro n ynpaxnennx nacouenn x¡m pemananero na pasnooôpasnn npoônemn
na noµµ¡pxanero na rpynara. Tesn nncrpymenrn sa noµµ¡pxane nañ-uecro ônnar
napnuann “.eoopasouea:u”, “cmapmepu” n “cmu+v.amopu”. Honxxora resn ynpaxnennx
sa noµµ¡pxane na rpynara nsrnexµar necepnosnn n ônxa mornn nancrnna µa ce oxaxar
raxnna, axo ce nsnonsnar rn¡pµe uecro nnn ce crnra µo xpañnocrn n npnnaranero nm. T¡ñ
xaro resn noµµ¡pxamn ynpaxnennx nnn “ynpaxnennx sa xnnmar” nonxxora ce cmecnar,
moxe ôn cn crpyna µa ô¡µar pasrneµann naxparxo.

“Heµopasônnaunre” n “craprepnre” nmar mnoro oômn ueprn, no n nxxon pasnnxn.
“Heµopasônnaunre” ca ornocnrenno nnmenn or remarnuna np¡sxa µeñnocrn, µoxaro
“craprepnre”, cnopeµ oômonpneroro onpeµenenne, ca cn¡psann c¡c c¡µ¡pxannero, xoero
noxpnna c¡ornernara paôorna cpema nnn yueôna µeñnocr. “Heµopasônnaunre” ce
nsnonsnar nañ-uecro, xoraro unenonere na rpynara ne ce nosnanar nomexµy cn. Te ca
ynpaxnennx, npeµnasnauenn µa nomornar na yuacrnnnnre µa ce onosnaxr n µa cnnxnar
eµnn c µpyr xaro naprntopn n oôyuennero.

“Craprepnre”, or µpyra crpana, ca nncrpymenrn, xonro nomarar na yuacrnnnnre µa
nannxsar n remarnxara. Te no npannno noµrornxr nounara sa nnrepaxrnnno oôyuenne,
nomarar na rpynara, n rona uncno n na ]acnnnraropa, µa nsôernar nnesannoro noranxne n
remara n xaro nxno npeµpasnonarar yuacrnnnnre x¡m marepnana, c xoñro nm npeµcron µa
ce sannmanar. Te ca “npenmµnn” x¡m c¡mnncxara paôora.

Tpernxr rnn ynpaxnenne sa c¡sµanane na armoc]epa n noµµ¡pxane na rpynara e
“crnmynaropa”. Oônxnoneno rona e saôannenne, xoero nenn µa noxaun xonexrnnnnx
aµpenannn na rpynara, xoraro ce ycema cnaµ n ronyca ñ. Vcranonnnn cme, ue n noneuero
rpennpon¡unn rpynn nma yuacrnnnn, xonro ymeno ce cnpanxr c noµenero na noµoôen rnn
ynpaxnennx. He ce xoneôañre µa nsnonsnare resn xopa. Or µpyra crpana, ne npexn¡pnxñre
nsnxno orronopnocrra sa nporpamara n¡pxy rxx. Vôeµenn cme, ue nxxon oôyuaemn ce
nxnmunar n nporpamn sa oôyuenne c eµnncrnenara nen µa npeµnarar ycnyrnre cn n
oprannsnpanero na “neµopasônnaun”, “craprepn” n “crnmynaropn”. Te morar µa ô¡µar
uyµecen pecypc, no n xpax na nxxon paôornn cpemn, x¡µero yuacrnnnnre noemar
orronopnocrra sa resn noµµ¡pxamn saµaun, e rpyµno µa ce xaxe xoñ “noµn xoporo”.
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Kaxro neue orôenxsaxme, resn nncrpymenrn ne ca npeµnnµenn µa ce npnnarar n peµa, n
xoñro ca npeµcranenn. Te ca nncrpymenrn, xonro µa ce nsnonsnar axo n xoraro orronapxr
na namnre nyxµn. Ocnen rona nne nn nac¡puaname µa rn npomenxre no naunn, xoñro ôn
mor¡n µa rn nanpann no-noµxoµxmn n nsnonsnaemn c orneµ na nosnanarennnre nyxµn na
yuacrnnnnre.

HHCTPYMEHT 1: YHPAÆHEHHE 3A HO±IPRBAHE/AE±OPA3BHBAH

OHEPTABAHE HA TEPHTOPHRTA HA YHPABAEHHE HA KOHmAHKTA

CTBETH HPH HTTVBAHETO: Tona ynpaxnenne nma mnoro no-ronxm norennnan, orxonxoro ôn morno µa
nponnun or nsnoxennx no-µony nponec. Hanpnmep, ônxre mornn µa ce n¡pnere x¡m npeµnoxennre or
yuacrnnnnre npoxnn na xon]nnxr n µa rn cn¡pxere c xareropnnre xon]nnxr y My¡p (nnx Hncrpymenr # 4).
Moxere µa noncxare or yuacrnnnnre µa rn pasµenxr na pannnma xon]nnxr, nanp. mexµynnunocren,
oprannsannonen, rpancrpannuen, nnn µa ce n¡pnere x¡m xaprnre n xpax na paôornara cpema n µa nomonnre
yuacrnnnnre µa rn µonnmar nnn µa rn npomenxr no nxxax¡n naunn. Cnrypnn cme, ue saeµno c yuacrnnnnre
me nn xpymnar mnoro µpyrn nµen ornocno rona xax µa nsnneuere ome ônaropoµen meran, xoraro y¡pmon¡r
e n xoµ, raxa ue nexa xaprnre µa ca nn noµp¡xa.


Heu ua oóyueuuemo
Tona ynpaxnenne nma sa nen µa ocnrypn na yuacrnnnnre n¡smoxnocr µa ce onosnaxr n µa
sanounar µa nscneµnar xonnennnnre n nµenre, cn¡psann c ynpannennero na xon]nnxra.

Heoóxoðu+o epe+e
Oxono 60 mnnyrn. Axo ornema noneue npeme, rona nepoxrno osnauana, ue yuacrnnnnre ca
npeµnoxnnn nxxon µoôpn xaprn na repnropnxra, c xoxro me ce sannmana y¡pmona.
Hpepasnpeµenere npemero cn n anraxnmenrnre no c¡orneren naunn.

Hauuu ua ðeùcmeue (+emoð)

1. Pasxcnere nenra na ynpaxnennero xaro naunn yuacrnnnnre µa ce onosnaxr
nsanmno n µa nspasxr n cnoµenxr cnonre ycemannx n onnr n xon]nnxrn cnryannn.
Pasµañre na yuacrnnnnre 4-6 ronemn ]nma n rn nomonere µa nannmar nmero cn na
eµno or xapronuerara. ¡oôpe ôn ônno rona xapronue µa e c pasnnuen nnxr or
ocranannre. Ha µpyrnre xapronuera rn nomonere µa nannmar na ncxxo eµno or rxx
no eµna µyma nnn ]pasa, nnn µa napncynar xaprnnxa nnn cnmnon, xoxro nspasxna
rexnnre nnunn uyncrna x¡m xon]nnxra. 3a µa cre cnrypnn, ue saµauara e pasôpana,
nn npeµnarame µa nannmere c ronemn ôyxnn na ]nnnuapr cneµnnx n¡npoc:

Koraro mncnnre sa “xon]nnxr”, xaxnn mncnn, uyncrna n oôpasn nsnnynar neµnara n yma nn?

2. Koraro yuacrnnnnre ca sanncann nµenre cn n¡pxy ]nmonere, rn nomonere eµnn no
eµnn µa ce npeµcranxr n µa xaxar xaxno c¡µ¡pxar xapronuerara nm. Ha rosn eran
saµanañre eµnncrneno yrounxnamn n¡npocn. Haxapañre rn µa sanenxr
xapronuerara cn na crenara xaro nocranxr nañ-orrope xapronuero c nmero cn, a
ocranannre nocranxr noµ nero.

3. Honnrañre yuacrnnnnre sa oômnre nm nneuarnennx or npeµnoxennre nµen n
oôpasn.

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4. Pasµenere rpynara na rpn nnn uernpn no-manxn rpynn or ne noneue or mecr
yuacrnnxa n rpyna n rn nomonere µa nanpanxr n¡pxy necrnnxapcxa xaprnx
xonnenryanna xapra (xapra na npeµcranennre nµen). Moxe ôn me e µoôpe µa nm
nanomnnre, r¡ñ xaro rax¡n n¡npoc e nepoxrno µa ô¡µe saµaµen, ue xonnenryannara
xapra e npocro naunn sa rpynnpane n oprannsnpane na nµen, nn]opmannx, µannn n
pasnnunn orx¡cneunn xpymnannx raxa ue µa ce nonyun pamxa sa pasc¡xµenne no
onpeµenen npoônem xaro nanpnmep ynpannennero na xon]nnxra.

5. C¡ôepere ornono rpynnre n rn naxapañre µa saxauar xonnenryannnre cn xaprn na
crenara.

6. Koraro yuacrnnnnre ca nsn¡nnnnn rasn saµaua, rn noµrnxnere x¡m oôc¡xµane na
ynpaxnennero n neronnx cmnc¡n xaro naunn no-µoôpe µa onosnaem c¡mnocrra n
nocneµcrnnxra or xon]nnxra. Fnxre mornn µa nsnonsnare nxxoñ or cneµnnre
n¡npocn, sa µa crnmynnpare µncxycnxra:

o Hsnenaµaxa nn nn nxxon or oôpasnre nnn rn¡pµennxra? Kaxno nn nsnenaµa nañ-mnoro?
o Kon ca nxxon or npnnnxnre n pasnnxnre n naunna, no xoñro yuacrnnnnre n¡snpnemar n
onncnar xon]nnxra?
o Kax ônxre nsnonsnann nne, n xauecrnoro cn na nncrpyxrop nnn nocpeµnnx, rosn rnn
ynpaxnennx, sa µa nomornere na resn, xonro ca n¡nneuenn n xon]nnxr µa rp¡rnar x¡m
cnoxoñno paspemanane na npoônema?

Hyecmeaùme ce ceoóoðuu ða npeqacouupame moea ynpaxueuue, sa ða omeoeopume ua
uyxðume ua epynama, c uoamo paóomume. 1o e czsðaðeuo sa ða ózðe npo+euauo u
+oðeuupauo c oeueð ua nopoðeuume om onuma uðeu u xpy+eauua.

HHCTPYMEHT 2: Bssuoanoc1n sa npeµc1annne

“Muc.ume .uueuu om cìoìprauue ca npasuu. Humvuµu»ma oes uoeu e c.»na.”
HMAHKEA KAHT

T¡ñ xaro noneuero nexnnn npornnopeuar na npnnnnnnre na yuenero nocpeµcrnom onnr,
na rxxno mxcro nne npeµnarame µnynocouen µnanor nnn nanpannxnana µncxycnx, upes
xoxro c n¡nexµa c¡mecrnena nn]opmannx nnn xonnennnx, xoxro e cn¡psana c¡c
cneµnamnx eran na npnnarane na nayuenoro n rpynara. Cxemara, xoxro cneµna e
npeµnasnauena µa nn nomorne npn noµroronxara na nnrepaxrnnnoro npeµcranxne na nonn
xonnennnn, nµen, nn]opmannx nnn marepnann.

0op+yuupoeua ua me+ama ua uanpaeuaeauama ðucuycua:
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Kumuoeu +o+eumu, ua uoumo ucuame ða ce cnpeme:
(Tpn nnn uernpn nepoxrno ca µocrar¡unn, axo ncxare yuacrnnnnre µa rn sanomnxr.)
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Hpu+epu om peauuua xueom, c uoumo ucuame ða uumcmpupame uumuoeume uðeu:
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Bznpocu uz+ ayðumopuama:
Te rpxôna µa ca nacouenn x¡m npeµnsnnxnanero na xomenrapn na ocnonara na rexnnx
onnr, n¡n np¡sxa c pasc¡xµennxra, xonro npeµnarare.
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Pesm+e ua eauume uumuoeu uðeu uuu noemopeuue ua uasauomo om eac!:
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Onuueme uau nuauupame ða usnouseame eusyauuu no+ouuu cpeðcmea, sa ða
sacuuume eqeuma ua npeseumauuama cu:
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Ome eµnn csne1 npn ns1ynane1o: Tona nscneµonarencxo n¡remecrnne sanouna µa crana nnrepecno. Hpeµn
µa npoµ¡nxnre narar¡x, nn npeµnarame µa pasrneµare nncrpymenrnre, xonro cme rpynnpann noµ ernxera
Hncrpymenrn 5. Tesn “neµopasônnaun”, “craprepn” n “crnmynaropn” ca camo uacr or mnororo, xonro ônxre
mornn µa nsnonsnare npes npemerpaenero na paôorna cpema.
B rosn momenr nne nn noµrnxname c¡mo n µa nomncnnre xax ônxre mornn µa noµôepere onpeµenen ôpoñ or
resn nncrpymenrn, sa µa noµrornnre y¡pmon sa eµna or rpynnre cn xnnenrn. Oxonuarennoro pemenne
xaxnn nncrpymenrn µa nsnonsnare me sanncn or nnannpanara ayµnropnx, neñnnre nosnanarennn nyxµn n
namero ymenne µa noµnecere oôyuennero n c¡ornercrnne c ycranonennre nyxµn. He ce xoneôañre µa
noµônpare nsmexµy nncrpymenrnre n rona nomarano onesn, xonro cmxrare ue me paôorxr, npomenxñre rn
raxa ue µa nacnar no-µoôpe na nyxµnre or oôyuenne na namnre xnnenrn, san¡nnañre npasnnnnre c
nncrpymenrn or µpyrn nsrounnnn n, nañ-naxnoro, c¡sµañre n cnon coôcrnenn.


HHCTPYMEHT 3: Ynpaanenne sa nssnpnn1nn1a

B Inana 2, Pasoupaue ua cìuuocmma ua rouq.urma, ce pasrnexµa n uacrnocr n ponxra na
n¡snpnxrnxra sa noµxpannanero n noµxnaxµanero na pasnornacnx n xon]nnxrn. uecro
n¡snpnxrnxra ca n¡nmnnre npoxnnennx na no-µ¡nôoxo nxopenenn npeµyôexµennx n
npeµpasc¡µ¡nn. Tona xparxo ynpaxnenne nma sa nen µa nomorne na yuacrnnnnre µa
oc¡snaxr, ue naunn¡r, no xoñro re n¡snpnemar nemara, moxe µa e pasnnuen or rosn na
µpyrnre. To c¡mo raxa e n nnmcrpannx na rona, ue n onpeµenenn cnryannn nxma
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npannnnn n rpemnn orronopn, a npocro pasnnunn, n sanncnmocr or rona xax nnxµame
nemara.

Tona ynpaxnenne c xnaµpa1n ôn morno µa ô¡µe n nooep»eauo x¡m no-saµ¡nôouenn
µncxycnn ornocno n¡snpnxrnxra, xonro µomnnnpar n oprannsannnre nnn oômnocrnre na
yuacrnnnnre n xonro ônxa mornn µa µoneµar µo no-cepnosnn pasnornacnx nnn µopn
xon]nnxr, axo ne ô¡µar nsxapann na non¡pxnocrra n pasrneµann. Hoµxoµere rnopuecxn
x¡m naunnnre, no xonro ônxre mornn µa nsnonsnare rona npocrnuxo ynpaxnenne, sa µa
nponnxnere n c¡mnocrra.

Vueóua ueu: B¡snpnemane na n¡srneµa, ue c¡mecrnyna noneue or eµnn norneµ x¡m µaµen
npoônem nnn n¡smoxnocr.

Heoóxoðu+o epe+e:
20-30 mnnyrn nnn noneue, axo ncxare µa npoµ¡nxnre c Eran II.

Heoóxoðu+u +amepuauu: Hxma

Memoð: Eman I

1. Hapncynañre cneµnara ]nrypa n¡pxy ]nnnuapr, xaro x nanpannre µocrar¡uno
ronxma sa µa morar ncnuxn n rpynara µa x nnxµar µoôpe. Pasµañre na ncexn or
yuacrnnnnre manxn nncruera oônxnonena xaprnx. Fes pasxcnennx nnn ynoµnn
µymn, naxapañre yuacrnnnnre µa pasrneµar ]nrypara n µa sannmar n¡pxy nncra
xaprnx orronopa cn na cneµnnx n¡npoc: Ko.ro reaopama euroame?






2. ¡añre na yuacrnnnnre 30 cexynµn, sa µa orôenexar orronopnre cn.

3aõeneaxa xsu nnc1pyx1opa. unrypnre n xpax na rona onncanne na saµauara nnmcrpnpar naunnn sa
onpeµenxne ôpox na xnaµparnre, xonro yuacrnnnnre me nnµxr n sannmar xaro orronop. Fpoxr nm
oônxnoneno napnpa mexµy 16 n 30.


3. C¡ôepere orronopnre n orôenexere n¡pxy c¡mnx nncr na ]nnnuapra uncnara or
rexnnre orronopn xaro n c¡moro npeme ne saxpnnare ]nrypara.

4. Koraro nnnmere ncnuxn rexnn orronopn, nonnrañre yuacrnnnnre xoñ or
orronopnre e npannnnnx. Orronop¡r na rosn n¡npoc me sanncn nepoxrno or nañ-
ronemnx ôpoñ npeôpoenn xnaµparn. Hxxoñ cnrypno me orronopxr, ue ncnuxn
orronopn ca nepnn, samoro saµaµennxr n¡npoc ce e ornacxn sa ôpox na xnaµparnre,
xonro nnxµame, a ne sa rona xonxo xnaµparn nma. Tona e orronopa, na xoñro ce
naµxnare, samoro roñ noµn µo nsnoµa, ue rona xoero e nxpno sa ncexn or nac e
onona, xoero nnxµame n µaµen momenr. Hamnre n¡snpnxrnx ca µeñcrnnrennocrra,
xoxro nnxµame n xoxro uecro pasxpnname nnn cnoµenxme c ocranannre.

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5. Honnrañre yuacrnnnnre rar ca ce no:vecmea.u, xoraro nxxoñ e saxnnn, ue nnxµa
noneue xnaµparn or rxx, nanp. ornecox ce cxenrnuno, nouyncrnax ce ne na nnno,
crana mn nnrepecno. Honnrañre rn rareo ca uanpaeu.u, xoraro ca pasôpann, ue
nxxoñ µpyr e nnµxn noneue xnaµparn or rxx, nanp. norneµnax ornono, sa µa nnµx
xaxno ôxx nponycnan n¡pnnx n¡r; onnrax ce µa orxpnx nnnara n ynpaxnennero
nnn nncrpyxropa sarona ue ce ôxx nouyncrnan snenocranen.

6. Hpeµnsnnxañre oôc¡xµane na ynpaxnennero xaro nonnrare yuacrnnnnre xon
pasnnuanamn ce mnennx ornocno ôpox na xnaµparnre na ]nnnuapra ônxa mornn µa
nmar nemo oômo c naunna, no xoñro xopara nnxµar npoônemnre n xon]nnxrnn
cnryannn.

E1an II: Hponnxnane n csmnoc11a

upes µncxycnxra n¡pxy ynpaxnennero c xnaµparnre, cmxrame ue yuacrnnnnre ônxa ônnn
noµrornenn µa pasrneµar npoônem n oômnocrra nnn oprannsannxra cn, npn xoñro
pasnnunn nnxµannx morar µa µoneµar µo no-ronemn pasnornacnx nnn µopn xon]nnxr, axo
ne ô¡µar nsnaµenn na non¡pxnocrra n nañ-ônnsxo ô¡µeme. Tona ôn morno µa ô¡µe,
nanpnmep, n¡nexµanero na nona cncrema sa onenxa na paôorara na cnyxnrennre, xoxro
me ce nsnonsna npn onpeµenxne na nonnmennxra n ynennuennxra na sannarnre, non µan¡x
npoµaxôn, nanoxen n¡pxy ncnuxn croxn n ycnyrn, npeµocranxnn or nenpannrencrnenn
oprannsannn n oprannsannn na oômnocren npnnnnn, nnn ycemannxra na rpaxµannre n¡n
np¡sxa c npnroxa na cencxn cemeñcrna n rpaµcxn xnapran. B¡snpnemanero na cnryannn
xaro resn moxe ô¡pso µa npepacne n no-µ¡nôoxo sanoxen naôop or ycemannx, xonro
npnemar µpyrn nasnannx.

B sanncnmocr or peannara cnryannx, npeµ xoxro ca nsnpanenn yuacrnnnnre n paôornara
cpema na paôornoro cn mxcro nnn n oômnocrra, npemnnere or ynpaxnennero sa
n¡snpnxrnxra n Eran I x¡m cneµnara nopeµnna or saµaun. Ho namn npeµcrann rosn eran
moxe µa orneme n nxxonxo uaca n sanncnmocr or oôc¡xµannre n¡npocn. Hsnonsnañre
npenenxara cn sa rona xonxo npeme µa orµennre.

1. Haxapañre nxnara rpyna µa npeµnoxn npoônem nnn npoônemn, xonro c¡mecrnynar
n oprannsannnre nnn oômnocrnre na yuacrnnnnre n xonro ca uecro cpemann n
pasônpaemn sa noneuero or rxx. Crecnere cnnc¡xa, axo e n¡smoxno, µo eµnn nnn
µna. Tasn saµaua me ô¡µe necno nsn¡nnnma, axo rpynara ce e c]opmnpana c orneµ
pemananero na xonxperen npoônem.

2. Oôpasynañre manxn paôornn rpynn no saµaun. Haxapañre rn µa nspeµxr n¡pxy
nncr necrnnxapcxa xaprnx pasnnunnre nnxµannx, xonro re cnoµenxr n¡n np¡sxa
c¡c cnryannxra, xonro ca uynn or µpyrn nnn sa xonro ca nayunnn no nxxax¡n µpyr
naunn, nanp. or mecrnnx necrnnx.

3. Haxapañre ncxxa rpyna µa noµpeµn nnxµannxra cnopeµ crenenra nm na cepnosnocr
xaro nspnnoonacnn nsrounnnn na ncxpa sa norennnanen xon]nnxr nnn rn
naxapañre µa onpeµenxr crenenra nm na saronnxne, npnemañxn ue xonxoro no-
nncoxa e remneparypara, ronxona no-ronxma e nepoxrnocrra or cnonranno
n¡snnamenxnane.

11
4. Axo rpynnre paôorxr no eµnn n c¡m npoônem, naxapañre rn µa ce c¡ôepar ornono
n µa npouerar na rnac cnnc¡nnre cn c nen cpannenne.

5. C¡ôepere paôornnre rpynn ornono n oôc¡µere xaxno moxe µa ce nanpann, sa µa ce
npomenxr c¡mecrnynamnre nnxµannx n µa ce namann norennnana sa no-ronxmo
pasnornacne no npoônema nnn µa ce namann nepoxrnocrra sa ô¡µem xon]nnxr.

6. ¡oxnaµnañre nnanonere sa µeñcrnne n rn oôc¡µere.

Ipaquuuo oóacueuue ua ezs+oxuua ópoù ueaðpamu, uoumo +oeam ða ózðam euðeuu
om yuacmuuuume e moea ynpaxueuue. Bcauo uucuo noð uecmuaùcem u uað mpuùcem
sacuyxaea ocoóeuo meopuecuu omeoeop.






















(Buxme ocmauauume ueaðpamu e opueuuaua)

HHCTPYMEHT 4: Hpnunnn sa xonqnnx1 n c1pa1ernn sa nn1epnennnn

Vueóuu ueuu: ¡a ce nonyuar snannx n µa ce ycnoxr ymennx sa nµenrn]nnnpane na
npnunnnre sa xon]nnxr n norennnannnre nnrepnennnn

Heoóxoðu+o epe+e: oxono 75-90 mnnyrn.

Heoóxoðu+u +amepuauu: Marepnan sa pasµanane, nxnmuen n ynpaxnennero n
oônuañnara necrnnxapcxa xaprnx, marnuecxn mapxepn n nxxaxno cpeµcrno sa sanennane,
no n¡smoxnocr raxona, xoero ne ocranx rpañnn cneµn no crennre na crpaµara.

Hauuu ua npoeexðaue:

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1. Hpeµcranere ynpaxnennero c nxxonxo µymn sa nyxµara or rona µa cme n
c¡croxnne µa ycranonxname npnunnnre sa xon]nnxr n pasnornacnx mexµy nnna,
oprannsannn, oômnocrn, nannn n r.n. 3a µa ô¡µere e]exrnnnn n ynpannennero na
xon]nnxrn, ce nyxµaere or xcna xonnenryanna xapra na npnunnnre sa
xon]nnxrnre n pasnornacnxra. Tona ynpaxnenne nma sa nen µa nomorne na
yuacrnnnnre n paôornara cpema µa oprannsnpar xon]nnxrnre n pasnornacnxra n
pasnnunn xareropnn cnopeµ npnunnnre. Be moxere µa nsnonsnare
xonnenryannara xapra na npnunnnre sa xon]nnxr, paspaôorena or Kpncro]¡p
My¡p (Hpoµecìm ua nocpeouu:ecmeo, crp. 27). Toñ ycranonxna ner oômn
xareropnn or npnunnn sa xon]nnxr: nn]opmannx, nnrepecn, crpyxrypnn,
nennocrno-opnenrnpann n nsanmoornomennx. Moxe µa nn ce nanoxn µa µaµere
npnmepn sa ncxxa or xareropnnre, no ne pasxpnnañre nennx apcenan or µoôpn
nµen. Tona e saµaua na yuacrnnnnre.

2. Pasµenere yuacrnnnnre na ner manxn exnna no saµaun, xaro nsnonsnare nxxax¡n
opnrnnanen naunn, xoñro ne cre npnnarann µo momenra, xaro nanpnmep nm
pasµaµere, ôes µa cnasnare nxxax¡n onpeµenen peµ, manxn nncruera c n¡pnara
ôyxna na ncxxa or xareropnnre npnunnn na rxx. Tona me nsncxna µa noµrornnre
eµnax¡n ôpoñ nncruera or ncexn nnµ, xoñro me nonyunre xaro pasµennre oômnx
ôpoñ yuacrnnnn na ner.

3. Oôxcnere na ncxxa or rpynnre, ue pasnonara c 30 mnnyrn, sa µa noµrornn µna
cnnc¡xa:

(a) Tnnone xon]nnxrn no xareropnx npnunnn x¡m xoxro cnaµar, nanp. nn]opmannonnnxr
xon]nnxr moxe µa ô¡µe npnunnen or µesnn]opmannx; n
(ô) B¡smoxnn nnrepnennnn sa orcrpanxnanero na xonxpernara npnunna sa xon]nnxra.

4. C¡ôepere ornono exnnnre n rn nomonere µa npouerar cnnc¡nnre or npnunnn,
cnaµamn x¡m saµaµenara xareropnx n npeµnarannre nnrepnennnn sa ncexn or
cnyuanre.

5. Haxapañre yuacrnnnnre µa µaµar npnmepn or coôcrnennx cn onnr sa xon]nnxrn n
pasnornacnx, na xonro ca ônnn cnnµerenn n sa crparernnre na nnrepnennnx, xonro
ca ônnn nsnonsnann sa onnaµxnane na cnryannxra. 3annmere resn npnmepn na
pasnnunn nncrone necrnnxapcxa xaprnx cnopeµ nerre xareropnn na My¡p.

6. Pasµañre Kaprara na xon]nnxrnre na My¡p xaro narpaµa sa µoôpe cn¡pmena
paôora. Tx e µocr¡nna sa ]oroxonnpane n ce namnpa na cneµnamara crpannna.

Kap1a na npnunnn1e sa xonqnnx1 n nssuoanoc1n1e sa nn1epnennnn
ns1ounnx: Hpoueczm ua nocpeðuuuecmeo (cmp. 27), Kpnc1oqsp Mysp

Hpnunnn sa xonqnnx1 Bssuoanoc1n sa nn1epnennnn
Hnqopuannonnn xonqnnx1n:
• Hnnca na nn]opmannx
• ¡esnn]opmannx
• Pasnnunx n¡n nnxµannxra sa
penenanrna nn]opmannx
• Pasnnunn nnrepnperannn na
Hnqopuannonnn nn1epnennnn:
• Cnopasymeñre ce xaxna nn]opmannx e
naxna
• Cnopasymeñre ce no nponeca na c¡ônpane
na nn]opmannx
• Paspaôorere oômn xpnrepnn sa onenxa na
13
nn]opmannxra
• Pasnnunn nponeµypn sa onenxa
na nn]opmannxra
nn]opmannxra
• Hsnonsnañre n¡nmen excnepr xaro rpera
crpana, sa µa nonyunre nenpeµyôeµeno
mnenne nnn µa nsnesere or saµ¡nenara
ynnna
Konqnnx1n na nn1epecn:
• Vcemane sa nnn µeñcrnnrenno
c¡nepnnuecrno, npeµnsnnxano
or:
• C¡µ¡pxarennn nnrepecn
• Hponeµypnn nnrepecn
• Hcnxonornuecxn nnrepecn
Hn1epnennnn nsn npssxa c nn1epecn1e
• uoxycnpañre ce n¡pxy nnrepecnre, a ne
n¡pxy nosnnnnre
• T¡pcere oôexrnnnn xpnrepnn
• Paspaôorere pemennx, xonro
yµonnernopxnar nyxµnre na ncnuxn
crpann
• Pasmnpere n¡smoxnocrnre n pecypcnre
• Paspaôorere “pasmennn monern”, sa µa
saµononnre pasnonocounn nnrepecn
C1pyx1ypnn xonqnnx1n:
• Paspymnrennn moµenn na
noneµenne nnn oômynane
• Heeµnax¡n xonrpon,
coôcrnenocr nnn
pasnpeµenenne na pecypcnre
• Hepanna nnacr nnn anropnrer
• Ieorpa]cxn, ]nsnuecxn nnn
]axropn na cpeµara, xonro
npeuar na c¡rpyµnnuecrnoro
• Orpannuennx n¡n npemero
C1pyx1ypnn nn1epnennnn:
• Onpeµenere xcno nnn npomenere ponnre
• 3amenere paspymnrennnre moµenn na
noneµenne
• Hpepasnpeµenere coôcrnenocrra nnn
xonrpona na pecypcnre
• Vcranonere nsanmno npnemnnn nponec na
nsnmane na pemennx
• Hpemnnere or nperonopn no nosnnnn x¡m
nperonopn sa nnrepecn
• Hpomenere cpeµcrnara sa nnnxnne,
nsnonsnann or crpannre
• Hpomenere npemennre orpannuennx
Hennoc1nn xonqnnx1n:
• Pasnnunn xpnrepnn sa onenxa
na nµen nnn noneµenne
• Hsxnmunrennn nenn, xonro ce
cn¡psnar c n¡rpemno npnc¡mn
nm nennocrn
• Pasnnunn crnnone na xnnor,
nµeonornx nnn pennrnx
Hn1epnennnn, cnspsann c nennoc1n1e:
• Hsôxrnañre µa µe]nnnpare npoônema
nennocrno
• Hosnonere na crpannre µa ce c¡rnacxnar n
µa cn n¡spasxnar
• C¡sµañre c]epn na nnnxnne, x¡µero µa
µomnnnpa eµnn naôop or nennocrn
• Hor¡pcere oôoômanamn nenn, xonro ce
cnoµenxr or ncnuxn crpann
Konqnnx1n n o1nomennn1a:
• Cnnnn emonnn
• Horpemnn cxnamannx nnn
crepeornnn
• Homa xomynnxannx nnn
nponaµannx n xomynnxannxra
• Honrapxmo ce nerarnnno
noneµenne
Hn1epnennnn nsn nsanuoo1nomennn1a:
• Konrponnpañre nspasxnanero na emonnn
upes nponeµypn, npannna n npouee.
• Hac¡puanañre nspasxnanero na emonnn
xaro ro nernrnmnpare onpeµenxre naunn
• Hsxcnere n¡srneµnre n nsrpaxµañre
nosnrnnnn cxnamannx
• Hoµoôpere xauecrnoro n xonnuecrnoro na
xomynnxannxra
• Fnoxnpañre nonrapxmoro ce nerarnnno
noneµenne xaro npomennre crpyxrypara
• Hac¡puanañre nosnrnnno ornomenne,
nacoueno x¡m pemanane na npoônemnre
14

HHCTPYMEHT 5: Byxe1 o1 c1ap1epn n c1nuyna1opn

Ero nxxon craprepn, crnmynaropn n µopn neµopasônnaun, xonro npeµcranxme sa name
saôannenne n pasmnc¡n. Te ca nnoµ rnanno na excnepnmenrannara paôora n Henrpanna n
Hsrouna Enpona n na y¡pmonnre sa oôyuenne na nncrpyxropn, cn¡psann c rona n µpyrn
noµoônn nomarana. Te ca npeµnasnauenn µa namanxr nanpexennero na oôyuanamnre xaro
ocnrypxr nennnno cnacenne or xox µa e nanacr, sacrnrnana rpynara n xoñ µa e µen or
paôornara cpema. Onncannero nm ne cneµna nxxax¡n onpeµenen peµ na naxnocr nnn
pannonannocr n npnnaranero.

A: C1ap1ep: Tona ynpaxnenne moxe µa ce nsnonsna xaro nnmcrpannx na nxxon acnexrn
na noneµennero “neuennnm-neuennnm” nnn na pasnnunn crnnone na ynpannenne na
xon]nnxrn cnopeµ pamxara or ner crnna, npeµnoxena or Kener Tomac n pasrneµana n
uacr 1 na rona nomarano.

Heoóxoðu+u +amepuauu: Eµna xnmnxanxa n eµnn nncr xaprnx A-4 sa ncexn orôop or
µnama µymn. Hpnrornere c¡mo sa ncexn manxn nncruera. Eµnara nononnna rpxôna µa
nmar nncruera c nsnncana na rxx µymara “cnon”, a µpyrara c µymara “x¡ma”.

Memoð: Haxapañre yuacrnnnnre µa ce pasµenxr na orôopn or no µnama µymn. ¡añre na
ncexn orôop eµna xnmnxanxa n eµnn nncr xaprnx A-4 n na eµnnnx unen na orôopa
nncruero c nsnncanara na nero µyma “cnon”, a na µpyrnx, nncruero c µymara “x¡ma”.

Oôxcnere nm, ue rpxôna µa napncynar µnere xaprnnxn na nncra A-4 xaro cnasnar cneµnnre
nncrpyxnnn: ¡a ne noxasnar nn xasnar na µpyrnx uonex xaxna e xaprnnxara, xoxro ca
nncrpyxrnpann µa napncynar. H µnamara ne rpxôna n nnro eµnn momenr µa ocranxr
xnmnxanxara. nxmar npano µa oômynar c µymn nomexµy cn. Hxmar npano µa nµnrar n¡pxa
na xnmnxanxara or non¡pxnocrra na xaprnxra. n, pasnonarar c ner mnnyrn, sa µa
napncynar µnere xaprnnxn. ôn ônno or nonsa µa nannmere nncrpyxnnnre, raxa ue ncnuxn
µa rn nnxµar.

Cneµ nsrnuane na nerre mnnyrn, npeycranonere paôorara n naxapañre ncexn orôop µa
µoxnaµna nocrnrnaroro n µa xaxe xax unenonere my ca paôornnn c¡nmecrno. Haxapañre
rn µa noxaxar meµtonpnre cn sa pasneµpxnane n noronopere sa reopnxra na xon]nnxra
“neuennnm-neuennnm”, “neuennnm-ryôem” nnn sa crparernnre na Tomac sa
c¡rpyµnnuecrno, c¡pennonanne/xonxypennnx n sa µpyrn crparernn, xonro nacnar xaro
nanpnmep npncnocoôxnanero/nocrnranero na xapmonnx.

B. C1nuyna1op: Tona ynpaxnenne nsncxna nxxax¡n nnµ ronxa. Axo nxmare ronxa nnn
xomnnexr or ronxn, xonro µa nocnre c¡c ceôe cn n xauecrnoro cn na oôyuanam, no-µoôpe
nsrnuañre n xynere nxxonxo. Te ca mnoro nonesnn cpeµcrna, ocoôeno npn nponexµanero
na noµoônn yueônn nnrepnennnn.

Memoð: Enemenrapen. Haxapañre yuacrnnnnre µa ce noµpeµxr n xp¡r n µa xn¡pnxr na
nxxoro ronxara c ycnonnero, ue roñ nnn rx rpxôna µa nasone nµex nnn naxno snanne,
npnµoônro n pamxnre na µenx, ceµmnnara nnn xax¡nro nepnoµ npenennre. Honyunnnxr
ronxara cneµ rona x xn¡pnx na µpyr n raxa, µoxaro ncnuxn yuacrnnnn nonyuar
n¡smoxnocr µa µonpnnecar sa nn]opmannonnara ôanxa. Tona npocrnuxo ynpaxnenne
15
nosnonxna µoôanxnero na ôesxpaen ôpoñ saµaun. Hsnonsnañre n¡oôpaxennero cn n onnra
na rpynara, sa µa noµµ¡pxare nnrepeca.

B. Tona moxe µa ô¡µe µoô¡p CTAPTEP HA ±EH BTOPH nnn crnmynarop, xoraro
nnnoro na rpynonara eneprnx yµapn µ¡noro. Hanpanere nensmennnx xp¡r n nexa ncexn
yuacrnnx µa nspasn ôes µymn xon]nnxr. F¡µere noµrornenn sa nxxon nenensypnn
orronopn or excrponeprnre n rañ]ara.

I. C1ap1eps1-c1nuyna1op c unoro1o 1onxn: Ero eµno ynpaxnenne, xoero µa ce
cn¡pxe c nponec na nocpeµnnuecrno nnn nperonopn, npn xoñro nmame mnoxecrno crpann.
Kaprnnara me nn ce nsxcnn, xoraro npouerere xax rouno ce nponeµnpa.

Heoóxoðu+u +amepuauu: Mnoro ronxn, ôanonn, crapn uopann, nan¡nnenn c ocrar¡nn or
neuepxra nnn xaxnoro n µa e or rosn nnµ.

Memoð: Ornono nanpanere nensmennnx xp¡r or yuacrnnnn. uacnnnrarop¡r oôxcnxna na
rpynara, ue ronxara, nnn noµoôen na nex npeµmer, ce xn¡pnx ncexn n¡r n eµna n c¡ma
nocneµonarennocr na xopara. 3a µa e xcno xax rouno crana rona: ronxara ce nonyuana
nnnarn or eµnn n c¡m yuacrnnx n ce npeµana na c¡mnx yuacrnnx, na xororo e ônna
xn¡pnena n npeµnmnnx n¡r.

Tona noµanane na n¡pnara ronxa npoµ¡nxana µoxaro ncexn n xp¡ra ne ce nxnmun. rorana
]acnnnrarop¡r nxapna ome ronxn n nrpara, ornauano no-ôanno, a cneµ rona nce no-ô¡pso.
Pasônpa ce, nrpara n xpañna cmerxa ce pasnaµa n oônxnoneno cranar nxxon nmôonnrnn
nema, xonro nnmcrpnpar xaxno moxe µa ce cnyun npn eµnn mnorocrpannn nperonopn nnn
nocpeµnnuecrno.

Bnnmannero na ncexn eµnn yuacrnnx ce crecnxna µo uonexa, or xororo nonyuana ronxara
n rosn, na xororo x xn¡pnx. Bcnuxn ocranann n xp¡ra ônnar npeneôpernarn no
neoôxoµnmocr. Hpeµanar ce cnrnann na pasµpasnenne, xonro mannnna µonanxr.
C¡mecrnynar npeµenn na paôorocnocoônocrra na rpynara n rosn nponec. H rorana
]acnnnrarop¡r xn¡pnx crap uopan nnn ôanon n µnnamnxara ce npomenx. Hxxon or
yuacrnnnnre morar µa nsnnrar sarpyµnenne µa ce cnpanxr c npomxnara. E, cxnamare
nµexra. Tona e ynpaxnenne, xoero moxe µa nnmcrpnpa pasnnunn rnnone noneµenne, c
xoero moxere µa ce côn¡cxare npn mnorocrpannn nperonopn nnn nocpeµnnuecrno.

±. Aeµopasõnnau sa c1ap1epn

Tona ynpaxnenne nma sa nen µa nomorne na yuacrnnnnre n rpynara µa ce onosnaxr n
nauanoro na paôornara cpema.

Heoóxoðu+u +amepuauu: Camo µocrar¡uno npocrpancrno sa cnoôoµno µnnxenne na
yuacrnnnnre.

Memoð: Hncrpyxryp¡r-]acnnnrarop monn yuacrnnnnre µa ce cxynuar n pasnnunn uacrn
na craxra cnopeµ cneµnnre xpnrepnn: or xox reorpa]cxa rouxa ca (naxapañre rn µa cn
npeµcranxr noµa xaro ronxma xapra na oônacrra nnn crpanara); x¡µe paôorxr (moxe ôn
xaro onpeµennre pasnnunn mecra sa pasnnunnre rnnone oprannsannn); onnr n
nocpeµnnuecrno, oôyuenne nnn nemo µpyro; a cneµ rona n ncxxaxna µpyra nn]opmannx,
xoxro cmxrare, ue nma ornomenne nnn npeµnsnnxna nnrepec, nnn n µnere.
16

Cneµ nxxonxo noµoônn rypa, naxapañre manxnre rpynnuxn, xonro ca ce oôpasynann
nocneµnn µa orµenxr nxxonxo mnnyrn n µa noronopxr sa cnonre ouaxnannx or nporpamara
n µa nmar roronnocr µa npeµcranxr cnnc¡xa cn or ouaxnannx npeµ µpyrnre.

B saxnmuenne, pesmmnpañre oômnre pesynrarn or ynpaxnennero.

E: Ome eµnn c1ap1ep, cnspsan c xonnennnn1e “neuennnm-neuennnm”
nnn, uoae õn, “neuennnm-ryõem”?

Heoóxoðu+u +amepuauu: Mnoro ôonôonn.

Memoð: Haxapañre yuacrnnnnre µa oôpasynar orôopn or no µnama. xaxere nm, ue me
paôorxr n exnn no saµaua n me ô¡µar narpaµenn nnµnnnµyanno sa µoôpo nocrnxenne.
¡oôporo nocrnxenne ce µe]nnnpa cnopeµ rona xonxo n¡rn rexnnxr nanen me ô¡µe
orrope n µnyôoñ c narncxane na nannn. Haxapañre orôopnre µa crncnar p¡nere cn raxa, ue
µnara nanena µa ca orrope n µa ca roronn µa sarncnar nanena na c¡nepnnxa, pasônpa ce.
¡pyro mnoro naxno yxasanne: re nxmar npano µa oômynar c µymn nomexµy cn! ¡añre nm
camo oxono 15 cexynµn sa npnxnmuar c¡c c¡cresannero.

Hpeycranonere µnyôox mexµy nannnre n oônxonere craxra xaro saµanare na ncexn
n¡npoca, xonxo n¡rn rexnnxr nanen e ycnxn µa sarncne nanena na µpyrnx n cneµ xaro
nonyunre orronop narpaxµanare yuacrnnxa c¡c c¡ornernnx ôpoñ ôonôonn. He e
npenop¡unrenno µa ce nsxn¡pnxre c ôenrnñcxn moxonaµ! Hxxon orôopn neµnara me
onenxr npeµnmcrnara na c¡rpyµnnuecrnoro, raxa ue n µnamara yuacrnnxa µa cneuenxr.
¡pyrn me cn c¡nepnnuar noneue n me cn nsnomnar no-manxo xonnuecrno xanopnn.

HHCTPYMEHT 6: CTBHPAHE HA HHmOPMAHHR 3A KOHmAHKTA

Vueóua ueu: Vmennx n paspaôornanero na meroµn sa c¡ônpane na nn]opmannx sa
xon]nnxra npeµn namecara sa neronoro paspemanane.

Heoóxoðu+o epe+e: 90-120 mnnyrn

Heoóxoðu+u +amepuauu: Onncanne na npnmepna cnryannx, namnpamo ce n xpax na
ynpaxnennero.

Memoð:

1. Cncremarnunoro c¡ônpane na nn]opmannx sa xon]nnxra, maxap n nan¡nno
nornuno na reopnx, uecro ônna npeneôpernano n npaxrnxara, xoraro crpannre n
xon]nnxra ca nor¡nnarn or namnpanero na ô¡pso pemenne na cnopa cn.
Ocnonnnre saµaun na rona ynpaxnenne ca µa c¡sµaµe ymennx sa pasônpane na
n¡npocnre, xonro rpxôna µa ô¡µar saµanann n µa paspaôorn meroµn sa c¡ônpane na
nn]opmannx n sa nnnxnane n xon]nnxra npeµn µa ce nnoxn npeme n µpyrn
pecypcn n ycnnnero roñ µa ô¡µe paspemen. Vuacrnnnnre me paôorxr n manxn
rpynnuxn or ner µo ocem µymn, sa µa paspaôorxr meroµ sa c¡ônpane na
nn]opmannx, xoñro me nm nomorne µa pasôepar no-µoôpe ecrecrnoro na rosn
xnapranen xon]nnxr npeµn roñ µa “nsnese nsnoµ xonrpon”. Pesynrarnre or
rxxnara crparernx na ycranonxnane na ]axrnre me npeµcrannxna ocnonara na
17
crparernx na nnrepnennnx, xoxro µa nomorne na xnrennre na xnaprana µa
paspemar npornnopeunxra cn.

H¡pnara nn saµaua xaro nncrpyxrop e µa noµemere xparxa nanpannxnana µncxycnx,
nocnerena na ycranonxnanero na ]axrnre n anannsa. Moxe ôn nañ-necnnxr naunn
µa ce noµrornnre sa rasn saµaua e xaro ce oô¡pnere x¡m c¡n¡rcrnamoro nomarano
Hseparoaue ua epìsra :pes cìe+ecmuo n.auupaue. Koraro ce µoôepere µo rosn
“nenen” µoxymenr, ornopere na rn. 6, x¡µero me namepnre naôop or n¡npocn,
nacouenn x¡m pasônpane na npoônema n na rn. 7 sa noµpoôno onncanne a
n¡smoxnocrnre sa ycranonxnane na ]axrnre n c¡ônpane na nn]opmannx. Ho
c¡mecrno, nma mecr ocnonnn anrepnarnnnn n¡smoxnocrn sa c¡ônpane na
nn]opmannx sa cnryannx, noµoôna na onncanara n rona ynpaxnenne. Te ca:
nnrepnmra; n¡npocnnnn; xomônnannx or resn µna noµxoµa; ananns na
µoxymenrnre; µnpexrno naônmµenne n onnra, snannxra n nnrynnnxra na exnna.

2. Henocpeµcrneno cneµ rasn nanpannxnana µncxycnx ornocno meroµnre sa
ycranonxnane na npoônemnre n cn¡psannre c rxx ]axrn, pasµenere yuacrnnnnre na
exnnn or no 5-8 µymn, sa µa onpeµenxr noµxoµnre, xonro me nsnonsnar, sa µa
pasôepar no-µoôpe xon]nnxra npeµn µa c¡ôepar crpannre n µa nm nomornar µa
nsrnaµxr npornnopeunxra cn. 3aµauara nm e µnyxxa: µa pemar xaxna µon¡nnnrenna
nn]opmannx me nm e nyxna, sa µa paspemar saµ¡nôouanamnx ce xon]nnxr n µa
onpeµenxr nncrpymenrnre sa ycranonxnane na ]axrnre, xonro me nsnonsnar, sa µa
nonyuar nn]opmannx.

Or rxx ce ouaxna µa nxnmuar pasnooôpasnn nncrpymenrn sa onenxnane xaro uacr
or nxnocrnnx nm nnan sa onenxa. Tasn saµaua me orneme oxono 45-60 mnnyrn.
Moxere µa npnnneuere nnnmannero nm x¡m xaprara na My¡p c npnunnnre sa
xon]nnxrn xaro eµnn nncrpymenr, xoñro µa nacoun pasc¡xµennxra nm ornocno
]axrnre, xonro ônxa ncxann µa c¡ôepar xaro eµna or n¡pnnre cr¡nxn n
paspemananero na norennnannnx xon]nnxr, xoñro spee n npeµcranenara npnmepna
cnryannx.

Hxxon or n¡npocnre, na xonro me r¡pcxr orronopn ca:

1. Kaxnn npoônemn ca n ocnonara na xon]nnxra?
2. Koñ e n¡nneuen n no xax¡n naunn?
3. Or xora npoµ¡nxana xon]nnxra?
4. Kaxno e nanpaneno µocera sa paspemananero my?
5. Kaxnn ônxa ônnn nocneµcrnnxra, axo ne ô¡µe namepen naunn sa paspemanane
na xon]nnxra?

3. Koraro manxnre rpynn nsn¡nnxr rasn saµaua, rn naxapañre µa ce c¡ôepar ornono n
µa oôc¡µxr ynpaxnennero. Bcxxa or manxnre rpynnuxn cneµna µa npeµcrann
nxnocrnara cn crparernx na c¡ônpane na ]axrn n nn]opmannx. Hpoµ¡nxere
µncxycnxra xaro saµanare cxoµnn c npeµcranennre no-µony n¡npocn, sa µa
nac¡punre oômena na n¡srneµn:

o C¡µeñxn no npesenrannnre na rpynnre, xaxnn cxoµcrna n noµxoµnre sa
onenxa na ncexn or exnnnre nsnxsoxa naxne?
o Kaxnn c¡mecrnenn pasnnxn saôenxsaxre?
18
o Kaxnn npomenn ônxre nanpannnn n noµxoµa sa onenxa na cnoxra rpyna n¡s
ocnona na npesenrannnre na pasnnunnre rpynn?
o Kaxna nonsa nnxµare n cncremarnunoro c¡ônpane na nn]opmannx npeµn
namecara sa paspemanane na xon]nnxra?

Onncannero na npnmepnara cnryannx moxere µa namepnre na cneµnamnre
crpannnn.
Csne1n npn ns1ynane1o: Onncanara npnmepna cnryannx µana n µpyrn yueônn
n¡smoxnocrn, orn¡µ saµaunre sa ycranonxnane na nn]opmannx, onncann no-rope. moxere
µa naxapare yuacrnnnnre n paôornara cpema µa cn npeµcranxr, xaxno ôn ce cnyunno, axo
ne ce npeµnpnemar nnxaxnn µeñcrnnx. ôes c¡mnenne nepoxrnocrra sa xon]nnxr me
napacne. Hanpnmep, crapn xonn or “nonara” anrox¡ma napxnpann nancxx¡µe, noneue
xamnonn npes ynxenµa, nonn orpaµn, xyuera nasaun, nanµanns¡m, ome nonoµomnn n ... e,
cxnamare nµexra. Tona e n¡smoxnocr µa ce nscneµna, xax ecxannpar xon]nnxrnre.

Homncnere µann µa ne nsnonsnare npnmepnara cnryannx c no-cepnosna yueôna nen xaro
naxapare yuacrnnnnre, nce raxa pasµenenn na manxn paôornn exnnn, µa paspaôorxr
crparernn sa npeoµonxnane na resn pasnnunx n n¡smoxnnx ô¡µem xon]nnxr. Moxere µa
µoôannre ome µerañnn x¡m npnmepnara cnryannx (uacr II), sa µa oôorarnre
n¡smoxnocrnre sa ycnoxnane na snannx, cn¡psann c paspaôornanero na crparernn sa
pemanane na npoônemn. Hanpnmep, moxere µa nxnmunre nn]opmannx sa: nonnneñcxnre
µoxnaµn; nponeµennre cpemn; n¡spacronnre pasnnxn; ôpox µena n npeµyunnnmna n¡spacr;
µeñcrnnxra na mecrnara nnacr µo rosn momenr; ôespaôornnara n pañona; ôpox na crapnre
oônrarenn cnpxmo rosn na nonosacennnnre ce n r.n.
Ho-rope cnomenaxme yueônoro nocoône no c¡nmecrno nnannpane, xoero e uacr or rasn
nopeµnna. B nero ce c¡µ¡pxar ynpaxnennx, xonro moxere µa nsnonsnare, sa µa µoônxr
yuacrnnnnre onnr n pemananero na npoônemn upes npnnaranero na noµxoµn sa
paspemanane na cnopone, xonro ca n no-ônnsxa np¡sxa c npnnnnnnre n npaxrnxnre na
ynpannennero.

HPHMEPHA CHTYAHHR: ETO IO H KBAPTAAA!

Konqnnx1na cn1yannn, nsncxnama pasõnpane n paspemanane

Bne cre uacr or nncrnryr sa connannn nscneµnannx, xoñro ce namnpa n pernon, xoñro
npes nocneµnoro µecernnerne npexnnxna ô¡psn oômecrnenn n nxonomnuecxn npomenn.
K¡m namnx exnn ca ce oô¡pnann c monôa µa c¡µeñcrnare na manxo rpaµue, orµaneueno na
oxono 80 xm, n xoero ce naônmµana napacrnamo nanpexenne mexµy xnrennre. Bc¡mnocr,
nanocneµ¡x ram e nmano nxxon µocra nennnenpnxrnn côn¡c¡nn. Kmer¡r xasna, ue pasônpa
npnunnnre sa xon]nnxra, no ce nyxµae or n¡nmno mnenne, xoero µa ce ocnonana noneue
na ]axrn, orxonxoro na emonnn. Ipaµ¡r c nacenenne or oxono 10 000 µymn e nasapen n
oôcnyxnam nenr¡p na semeµencxn pañon, no mnoro or oxonnnre ]epmn neue ne
nponsnexµar n ynaµ¡x¡r n cencxocronancxoro nponsnoµcrno e sacernan nxnara
nxonomnxa. Pannnmero na ôespaôornna n rpaµa n oxonnnre cennma e nncoxo.

Cnopeµ onncannero na xmera na c¡mnocrra na neorµannamnnre xon]nnxrn, re ce
]oxycnpar n eµnn xonxperen xnnnmen pañon na rpaµa. Knapran¡r, x¡µero xon]nnxrnre
nsrnexµar nañ-nsocrpenn e cpannnrenno crap xnnnmen pañon c mnoxecrno neoônraemn
x¡mn n µpyrn, xonro ca orµaµenn noµ naem or orc¡crnamnre cn coôcrnennnn na
19
cemeñcrna c nnc¡x µoxoµ, npecennnn ce ryx npes nocneµnnre roµnnn or oxonnnre cencxn
pañonn.

Knapran¡r e pasnonoxen mexµy µne norouera, xonro ce nnnnar n ronxma pexa n nenr¡pa
na rpaµa. Mouypnnnnre semn n c¡ceµcrno c noronnre rpaµnnnonno ce nsnonsnar or
xnrennre xaro rpaµnnn. Bce no-manxo or crapnre oônrarenn, oôaue, sacaxµar rpaµnnn n
ôperonere na noronnre ca ce npen¡pnann n cmernma. Eµnn or nonoµomnnre n xnaprana
µopn e nxapan crap anromoônn n saµnara uacr na oônranannx or nero napnen. B¡pnxr
cnyxone, ue roñ n¡snamepxna µa orxpne rpoônme sa xonn n¡pxy coôcrnenocrra cn, r¡ñ
xaro ne c¡mecrnyna saxon, xoñro µa saôpanxna rona.

Cemeñcrnara na crapnre oônrarenn xnnexr n xnaprana or noxonennx n ce ropµexr c rona,
ue ca onasnnn nmornre cn n oxonnnre cnoôoµnn npocrpancrna n µencrneno c¡croxnne. Ho
mnoro or rxx ca neue na n¡spacr n nxmar cnnn µa ce rpnxar sa coôcrnenocrra cn raxa
xaxro ca ro npannnn n mnnanoro. B¡npexn rona re ca cnnno npnrecnenn or npomennre n
cnox xnapran. Crapnre oônrarenn neeµnoxparno ca ce oôp¡mann x¡m nonnnnxra n ca
noµanann xanôn cpemy nonnre cn c¡ceµn – cnnnnxr mym, nexenannero nm µa noµµ¡pxar
nmora cn n npocrpancrnara sa oômecrneno nonsnane n µoôpo c¡croxnne n manxnre µena,
xonro nrpaxr n¡pxy uacrnara nm coôcrnenocr. Kaxro e cnoµennn eµnn or crapnre
oônrarenn c p¡xonoµnrenx na nscneµonarencxnx exnn:

“He +oea oa pasoepa rar u»rou xopa +oeam oa ruee»m mara! Te u»+am veareuue rì+
:acmuama coocmeeuocm. µeµama u+ uepa»m oes uaosop ua v.uµama. Opeauusupam
coopuua e saouume cu oeopoee, ua roumo uoea c»rau ecu:ro rueo om paùoua. Xeìp.»m
cu npasuume rvmuu om oupa e nomo:emo, a ocmaua.ume oor.vµu no opeeoeeme +v. 3auo
ue ce eìpuam ma+, omrìoemo ca oou.u?”

Honeuero or nonoµomnnre n xnaprana npnnaµnexar x¡m eµna xonxperna ernnuecxa rpyna,
xoxro ce cnann c¡c crnn na xnnor, rn¡pµe pasnnuen or rosn na nacneµnnnnre na n¡pnnre
oônrarenn na pañona. Honoµomnnre ca no-oômnrennn, xapecnar nnxanrnn xpann, or
xonro nxxon or c¡ceµnre nm µopn ce onnaxnar sapaµn cnnnnre mnpnsmn, uecro ce necenxr
µ¡nro cneµ xaro c¡ceµnre nm ca cn nernann µa cnxr n cn nsxapnar npexpanara xaro
npeµnarar ycnyrn n npoµanar croxn, nnecenn or µpyrn crpann. Hpes ynxenµnre re
napxnpar xamnonnre cn na recnnre ynnnn n xnaprana n rona c¡mo µpasnn c¡ceµnre nm.
Tona ca nxxon or npoônemnre, sa xonro e nayunna nscneµonarenxara npn eµno or n¡pnnre
cn n¡rynannx sa sanosnanane c¡c cnryannxra. Tx e cnoµennna c xonernre cn, ue resn
npoônemn ca camo n¡pxa na añcôepra. Axo cnemno ne ô¡µe nanpaneno nemo, sa µa ce
onnaµexr pasnornacnxra, xonro c¡mecrnynar n rosn xnapran, rx ouaxna cnryannxra µa ce
nnomn.

HHCTPYMEHT 7: Oõuen na npeµc1ann

Csne1n npn ns1ynane1o: Tosn nncrpymenr moxe µa ô¡µe mnoro e]exrnnen, axo ce
nsnonsna npn onpeµenenn oôcroxrencrna. Hanpnmep, n¡pnonauannnxr anrop nsnonsna
noµxoµa na oômen na npeµcrann, sa µa oôc¡xµa pemenne na npoônem mexµy rpynn
cnyxnrenn or mecrnoro ynpannenne na pasnnunn oômnocrn, xonro ca nmann snaunrennn
pasnornacnx n ca ônnn ocoôeno sannrepeconann µa noµoôpxr µenonnre nsanmoornomennx
nomexµy cn. Ocnonnara npomennnna ônna n eomoeuocmma nm µa npeµnpnemar µeñcrnnx.
Toñ ycranonnn c¡mo, ue rona e e]exrnnen nncrpymenr sa nsnonsnane n oprannsannn, n
xonro c¡mecrnynar c¡mecrnenn npornnopeunx, xonro sacxrar npoµyxrnnnocrra n µyxa na
20
ncnuxn sacernarn or xon]nnxra.
Axo e ronxona e]exrnnen, rorana samo ca nn cìeemu npu nìmveauemo? Tona e rax¡n rnn
ynpaxnenne, xoero ne paôorn ocoôeno µoôpe n xnnorernuna cnryannx, xaro nanpnmep
cnryannxra x¡m Hncrpymenr 6. Bc¡mnocr, ro ôeme recrnano no npeme na noµroronxara
na nomaranoro n pesynrar¡r ôeme no-cxopo oruañnam. Hesanncnmo or rona, oôaue,
nponec¡r na oômen na npeµcrann e µoxasan neneµn¡x cnoxra e]exrnnnocr, xoraro e ônn
npnnaran cnpxmo cnryannn, n xonro n µnere crpann n xon]nnxra nmar xenanne µa
npeµnpnemar xoncrpyxrnnnn cr¡nxn sa paspemanane na npornnopeunxra cn.
Hpenop¡uname nn µa ro nsnonsnare, xoraro paôornre c xnnenrn pemenn µa r¡pcxr nsxoµ
or npornnopeunero nnn xon]nnxra nomexµy cn.
Hncrpymenr 8, xoñro e cneµnamnx no peµ, e mnoro cxoµen n cnox noµxoµ, raxa ue me my
orµennm nxxonxo µymn n cnonre cìeemu rì+ nìmeuecmeeuura. Vrounxnanero na ponnre
e nncrpymenr, xoñro moxe µa ce nsnonsna, xoraro nma pasnnunx n¡n nnxµannxra no rona,
xaxnn ca saµ¡nxennxra na onpeµeneno nnne nnn na rpyna nnna n pamxnre na onpeµenena
saµaua. Tesn nnxµannx ce rpanc]opmnpar n µeñcrnnx, xoñro ome noneue ycnoxnxnar
cnryannxra. Kaxro n nncrpymenr¡r sa oômen na npeµcrann n rosn µeñcrna nañ-µoôpe n
xonrexcra na eµna peanna cnryannx, n¡npexn ue oôyuanamnre ce yuacrnnnn ônxa mornn
µa “nsnrpaxr” meroµonornxra, sa µa pasôepar xax µa x nsnonsnar.
C orneµ na neoôxoµnmocrra Hncrpymenrn 7 n 8 µa ô¡µar npnnarann cnpxmo xon]nnxrnn
cnryannn, a ne no npeme na cecnn sa nsrpaxµane na ymennx n pamxnre na eµna paôorna
cpema, ]opmar¡r nsnonsnan sa npeµcranxne na resn nncrpymenrn me ô¡µe manxo no-
pasnnuen.


Vueóua ueu: ¡a nomorne na orµennn nnna n rpynn n paspemananero na npornnopeunxra n
pemananero na npoônemnre upes oômen na nnxµannx sa ceôe cn n sa µpyrnre.

Heoóxoðu+o epe+e: B sanncnmocr or cnoxnocrra na npornnopeunxra mexµy
anraxnpannre n xon]nnxra rpynn, µeñnocrra moxe µa orneme n nxn eµnn µen.
Hnannpañre npemero cn cnpxmo nsnecrnoro n n¡smoxnoro xaro ne saôpanxre, ue paôornre
c xopa, xonro ca sannrepeconann n pemenn µa nocrnrnar nosnrnnna npomxna n¡n
nsanmoornomennxra cn.

Heoóxoðu+u pecypcu: Tona ynpaxnenne nsncxna or crpannre n xon]nnxra µa noµrornxr
cnnc¡nn c nnxµannxra cn n c nn]opmannx sa cnonre µenonn nsanmoornomennx. C orneµ
na rona, me ca nn neoôxoµnmn nncrone sa ]nnnuapr, crarnnn, mapxepn n rnxco nnn µpyr
sanennam marepnan, raxa ue nnoµonere na rexnnx rpyµ µa ô¡µar npeµcranenn na
nnnmannero na ncnuxn yuacrnnnn. Be ca nn neoôxoµnmn n µne orµennn cran, raxa ue
crpannre, mexµy xonro c¡mecrnynar pasnornacnx nnn xon]nnxr µa morar µa paôorxr
cnoôoµno npn c¡cranxnero na cnnc¡nnre cn. Cmxrame c¡mo, ue e naxno µa nma µnama
xoncynranrn-]acnnnraropn npn nsn¡nnennero na rona ynpaxnenne, raxa ue n µnara
exnna µa morar µa pasunrar na nomom n paôorara cn n orµennn rpynn.

Memoð ua ðeùcmeue:

1. Heoõxoµnuoc1 o1 npeµnapn1enna noµro1nn1enna paõo1a: Camnxr nponec na oômen
na npeµcrann e enemenrapen. Toñ nxnmuna renepnpanero n oômena na nnxµannx n
nn]opmannx mexµy crpannre n xon]nnxra. B c¡moro npeme rona e n eµnn cnoxen
nponec, r¡ñ xaro sacxra nnna, rpynn n oprannsannn, xonro ca n¡nneuenn n nxxax¡n nnµ
xon]nnxr. Camnxr oômen na npeµcrann oônxnoneno ce npeµxoxµa or cepnx “µoronopnn”
21
cpemn mexµy xoncynranr-]acnnnraropa n µnere crpann, xonro ca saxnnnn xenanne µa ce
cpemnar n µa oôc¡µxr npornnopeunxra cn. (Bnx nomaranoro no Cìe+ecmuo n.auupaue sa
noµpoônn nncrpyxnnn ornocno “µoronopnnre” cpemn xoncynranr-xnnenr.) Koraro n
µnere crpann ca ce c¡rnacnnn µa ce cpemnar, na nac me nn e neoôxoµnmo yµoôno n
neyrpanno mxcro sa nponexµane na cpemara, x¡µero µa nporexar cecnnre sa oo+eu ua
npeocmaeu n pemanane na npoônema.

2. Paõo1nn1e cecnn: Cneµ c¡ornerno sanosnanane n noµxoµxmo ynpaxnenne
“neµopasônnau”, onnmere meroµa na µeñcrnne n noµpoônocrn sa resn, xonro me ce
nxnmuar n oômena na npeµcrann. Cneµ n¡npocnre n noxcnennxra ornocno meroµa,
naxapañre µnere rpynn,xonro cnopxr nomexµy cn µa ce c¡ôepar noorµenno n µa noµrornxr
rpn cnnc¡xa c nnxµannx sa nsanmoornomennxra cn. Tasn uacr or nponeca moxe µa
nsncxna µocra npeme. Homonere rn µa µoxnaµnar cneµ eµnn uac, no ô¡µere roronn µa
yµ¡nxnre npemero npn neoôxoµnmocr.

3. Txxnara saµaua, n paôorara nm na µne orµennn rpynn, e µa µaµar orronopn na cneµnnre
rpn n¡npoca.

Kax nnxµame ceôe cn c orneµ na pasnnunxra, xonro nmame c µpyrara rpyna nnn
oprannsannx?
Kax n¡snpnemame nac, rpynara c xoxro cme n xon]nnxr?
Kax cmxrame, ue nn n¡snpnemare nne?

4. C¡ôepere ornono µnere rpynn n rn naxapañre µa npeµcranxr orronopnre cn na n¡pnnx
n¡npoc, xax n¡snpnemar ceôe cn. Hosnonxnañre camo yrounxnamn n¡npocn, ôes cnopone n
ôes oôopnane na uyroro. Hpoµ¡nxere c npeµcranxne or ncxxa rpyna na nropnx cnnc¡x
orronopn n cneµ rona µañre n¡smoxnocr sa yrounxnamn n¡npocn. H naxpax, naxapañre
ncxxa or rpynnre µa npeµcrann nocneµnnx cnnc¡x c nnxµannx.

5. Cneµnamara cr¡nxa n nponeca e ncxxa or rpynnre µa cpannn cnnc¡nnre cn c nen
ycranonxnane na c¡nnaµennxra. Cneµ rasn µncxycnx nµna npeme sa marenen nperneµ na
npeµcrannre, xonro no nxxaxna npnunna ce ocnopnar. Te moxe µa ca nopoµenn or
oô¡pxnane, norpemna nn]opmannx, crepeornnn, npeµpasc¡µ¡nn nnn µpyrn npnunnn.
Bcnuxn re rpxôna µa ce pasrneµar noµpoôno, sa µa ce onpeµenxr n¡pnonpnunnnre, xonro
rn npenp¡mar n nsrounnnn na npornnopeunx n xon]nnxrn.

6. Cneµ npesenrannnre n µncxycnnre, naxapañre rpynnre ornono µa ce c¡ôepar
noorµenno. Tosn n¡r, naxapañre ncxxa rpyna µa c¡crann n¡pxy ]nnnuapra µna nonn
cnnc¡xa:

(a) Ha oasama ua uav:euomo :pes mosu oo+eu c+e eomoeu oa npeonpue+e+ c.eouomo c
oe.eo paspeuaeauemo ua uauume npomueope:u»:
(o) H oux+e ucra.u eue oa uanpaeume c.eouomo c oe.eo paspeuaeauemo ua uauume
npomueope:u»:

¡añre na rpynnre none eµnn uac sa nsn¡nnennero na rasn saµaua, no cneµere nnnmarenno
paôorara nm, sa µa cre cnrypnn ue pasnonarar c µocrar¡uno npeme sa µa ce cnpanxr.
3anomnere, re me ce onnrar µa nocrnrnar xoncencyc no ncxxa eµna rouxa or cnnc¡nnre cn
c “xenannx” n “npeµnoxennx”.

22
7. Koraro yuacrnnnnre ce c¡ôepar ornono, naxapañre n µnere rpynn µa µoxnaµnar n nm
µañre µocrar¡uno npeme sa nsxcnxnane na ncnuxn n¡npocn, no xonro nma nexcnora. Cneµ
µoxnaµnre naxapañre rpynnre ornono µa ce c¡ôepar noorµenno. Tosn n¡r re rpxôna µa
nsemar c¡c ceôe cn cnnc¡xa c xenannx na µpyrara rpyna n µa orµenxr nxxonxo mnnyrn sa
µa pemar xax µa pearnpar na rona, xoero µpyrara rpyna ncxa or rxx. Tpn yµaunn naunna sa
orronop ônxa ônnn:
(a) 3a uac ue e npoo.e+ oa uanpaeu+ moea; ue c+e oonvcra.u, :e moea e ueuo roemo
re.aeme;
(o) Iomoeu c+e oa uanpaeu+ moea, uo ca+o aro eue …
(e) He +ore+ oa uanpaeu+ moea, sauomo…

¡añre na manxnre rpynn ome eµnn uac sa nsn¡nnenne na rasn saµaua.
8. Koraro yuacrnnnnre ce c¡ôepar ornono, naxapañre ncxxa or rpynnre µa nsn¡un
ronopnren, xoñro µa µaµe neoôxoµnmnre pasxcnennx. Hpes rona npeme noµxanxñre
yuacrnnnnre µa cnymar nnnmarenno n na rosn eran µa saµanar camo yrounxnamn n¡npocn.

9. Cneµ xaro cn¡pmar npesenrannnre n ncnuxn neµopasymennx n nexcnorn ô¡µar
nsuncrenn, moxere µa npeµnpnemere nxxonxo n¡smoxnn cr¡nxn, sa µa rapanrnpare
cnasnanero na noernre anraxnmenrn. Onnr¡r nn c nsnonsnanero na rosn meroµ na
nperonopn ornocno naunnnre sa cnpanxne c npornnopeunx n enenryannn xon]nnxrn e
nonoxnrenen. B noneuero cnyuan na rosn eran yuacrnnnnre n oômena na nnxµannx
noemar nponeca n cnon p¡ne n npeµnarar µnpexrnn naunnn na µeñcrnne n manxn cmecenn
rpynn sa pemanane na npoônemnre, xonro rn pasµenxr.

10. Koraro re nancrnna c¡ymexr µa paspemar npornnopeunxra cn, orµañre µ¡nxnmoro na
rxxnara pemnmocr xaro nm npeµnoxnre nyxnara nm nomom n c¡cranxnero na nnanone sa
µeñcrnne n crparernn sa monnropnnr n onenxa. Tyx ornono nn nacouname x¡m nomaranoro
no Cìe+ecmuo n.auupaue, x¡µero me namepnre ôorar marepnan, xoñro me nn nomorne µa
ocnrypnre c¡µeñcrnne na exnnnre n paspaôorxara na rexnnre nnanone sa µeñcrnne n
crparernn sa xonrpon.

11. Tosn rnn cecnn sa paspemanane na cnopone n nsrnaxµane na npoônemn sacnyxanar
narpaµa sa ]nnan. Taxa ue nnannpañre neuepx nnn npasnencrno sa µa orôenexnre
ycnexnre na yuacrnnnnre.


HHCTPYMEHT 8: PA3HPE±EARHE HA POAHTE

Cauo eµno nanounnne sa rona, ue rosn nncrpymenr e npeµnasnauen µa ô¡µe nsnonsnan sa
nsxcnxnane na ponnre n ornomennxra mexµy nnna, rpynn n oprannsannn, xonro nsnnrnar
sarpyµnennx n c¡nmecrnara cn paôora. Maxap nncrpymenr¡r µa moxe µa ce nsnonsna n
paôorna cpema sa pasnnnane na ymennx sa ynpannenne na xon]nnxrn n npornnopeunx, me
ca nyxnn nsnecrnn npomenn n nncrpyxnnnre, sa µa orronapxr na yueônnre nn nenn.


Vueóua ueu: ¡a nsxcnn n npomenn ouaxnannxra sa ponnre n ornomennxra mexµy nnna,
rpynn n oprannsannn, xonro nsnnrnar sarpyµnennx n c¡nmecrnara cn paôora.

Heoóxoðu+o epe+e: 3anncn or rona, xonxo xomnnexcnn ca nexcnornre n ponnre, no
orµenere ne no-manxo or 180 mnnyrn sa nocrnrane na cnopasymenne.
23

Heoóxoðu+u pecypcu: Be nn e nyxno rnxo n µncxperno npocrpancrno, µocrar¡uno
oômnpno sa µa noôepe xopara, c xonro paôornre, sa µa ce nsn¡pmn rona yrounxnane na
ponnre. Or nonsa ôn ônno µa nma na pasnonoxenne nxxaxnn ônanxn, n¡pxy xonro
yuacrnnnnre µa sanncnar naunnnre sa no-e]exrnnna ô¡µema c¡nmecrna paôora, sa xonro
ca ce cnopasymenn. Cneµ onncannero na meroµa nn npeµnarame nxxon oôpasnn.

Memoð ua ðeùcmeue:

1. Haunn¡r na µeñcrnne, xoñro n¡snamepxname µa onnmem npeµnonara, ue cre µocrnrnann
momenra, n xoñro n µnere crpann ca roronn µa ce cpemnar n c nomomra na ]acnnnrarop
µa nsxcnxr npoônemnre c ponnre, orronopnocrnre n ornomennxra cn. T¡ñ xaro rasn
nopeµnna or nomarana e nacouena µo ronxma crenen x¡m nsanmoornomennxra mexµy
nenpannrencrnenn n oprannsannn n pamxnre na oômnocrra or eµna crpana n mecrnara
nnacr or µpyra, me nsnonsname rosn xonrexcr sa µa onnmem nponeca. Hecno ônxre mornn
µa cmennre µeñcrnamnre nnna, xonro cme nsnonsnann n resn onncannx, sa µa orronapxr na
xapaxrepncrnxnre na onesn, xonro ca nor¡pcnnn namero c¡µeñcrnne sa yrounxnane na
cnonre ponn c nen no-e]exrnnna c¡nmecrna paôora.

2. 3anounere c nanpannxnana µncxycnx sa rona, xaxno nsoômo npeµcrannxna rosn nponec n
xaxno moxe µa ce nocrnrne upes nsxcnxnane na ponnre. Hpeµnarame nn nxxon nµen n¡n
np¡sxa c¡c c¡µ¡pxannero na rasn ynoµna cecnx.
Vrounxnanero na ponnre e nnrepaxrnnen nponec, upes xoñro anraxnpannre n nero
crnrar µo c¡nmecrnn pemennx sa ponnre cn n sa rona xax ônxa mornn µa paôorxr no
e]exrnnno saeµno.

Ponxra, n rosn xonrexcr, nxnmuna ne camo o]nnnannnre onncannx na manµara na
µaµena µn¡xnocr nnn oprannsannx, no c¡mo raxa ncnuxn ne]opmannn cnopasymennx,
ouaxnannx n yronopxn, xonro ca ce axymynnpann n no rosn naunn ca µe]nnnpann
µenonnre nsanmoornomennx.

Hpn rasn rexnnxa ce npnema, ue noneuero xopa npeµnounrar µa nperonapxr sa
naunnnre, no xonro cn nsanmoµeñcrnar n paôorxr c¡nmecrno npeµ rona µa ce namnpar
n c¡croxnne na nepaspemen xon]nnxr, sar¡nann n pasnornacnx n nepasônparencrna.

Tesn nperonopn sa ponnre xpnxr nsnecrnn pncxone. Vuacrnnnnre rpxôna µa npoxnxnar
orxpnrocr no ornomenne na npomennre, xonro xenaxr µa nanpanxr µpyrnre n
cn¡psanoro c ponxra nm noneµenne, npana nnn saµ¡nxennx, sa µa noµoôpxr xauecrnoro
n pesynrarnre or cnonre µenonn nsanmoornomennx. Cnopasymennxra, nocrnrnarn no
npeme na resn cecnn sa yrounxnane na ponnre ce npeµnonara µa ô¡µar cnasenn. Axo
rona ne crane, µenonnre np¡sxn morar µa ce nnomar ome noneue.

Hxxon ocnonnn npannna ca or c¡mecrneno snauenne, sa µa ce rapanrnpa ycnexa na
rosn nponec na yrounxnane na ponnre. H¡pno, ne e µonycrnmo µa ce nrpae c uyncrnara
n emonnnre na µpyrara crpana. Hperonapxnero sa ponnre ce ornacx µo rona xoñ xaxno
npann, c xoro n xax ro npann. Bropo, or ncnuxn crpann, anraxnpann n nperonopnre, ce
ouaxna µa ô¡µar uecrnn n orxpnrn no ornomenne na coôcrnenoro cn noneµenne n
noneµennero na µpyrnre n µa ô¡µar pemenn µa paôorxr sa npeµe]nnnpane na ponnre,
xoero µa ô¡µe n ocnonara na nsanmoornomennxra nm orryx narar¡x. Tpero,
nperonopnre ca µnycrpanen nponec. Bcxxo nemo, xoero ce nsncxna or µpyrara crpana
24
rpxôna µa ô¡µe c¡nponoµeno c nemo, xoero ce npeµnara n samxna. Haxpax, sannaxnre n
narncx¡r ca nenpnemnnno noneµenne, xoraro crpemex¡r e µa ce nocrnrne
cnopasymenne, xoero n µnere crpann cunrar sa npnemnnno.

Cnopasymennxra, nocrnrnarn upes rosn nponec na nperonopn, ce npeµnonara µa ô¡µar
o]opmenn n nncmen nnµ n µa ô¡µar oµoôpenn or ncnuxn crpann.

3. Cneµ nanpannxnanara µncxycnx no neue cnomenarnre nynxrone, naxapañre ncxxa or
crpannre n nperonopnre sa ponnre µa orµenn nsnecrno npeme n µa nsnese c mnenne no
cn¡psannre c saµauara rn¡pµennx, xonro cneµnar. Maxap resn rn¡pµennx µa ca orpaxenne
na nponec na yrounxnane na ponnre mexµy nnµepn na mecrnara nnacr n na oprannsannx
na rpaxµancxoro oômecrno (nenpannrencrnena nnn n¡rpeoômnocrna), ]opmynnponxara
moxe µa ô¡µe npomenena, sa µa orpasn µpyrn oôcroxrencrna, nanpnmep nperonopn sa
ponnre mexµy p¡xonoµnren n paôoren exnn, unnro paôornn ornomennx ce nnomanar nnn
mexµy µnama me]one na orµenn, xonro rpxôna µa paôorxr no-e]exrnnno saeµno. Ero rn n
rn¡pµennxra or saµauara, xonro nn oôemaxme. B¡pxy rxx moxe µa ce paôorn
nnµnnnµyanno n cneµ rona µa ce c¡ôepar n eµno, axo nma noneue or eµno nnne, xoero
npeµcrannxna nperonapxmnre crpann, nnn exnn¡r µa paôorn saeµno. Fn ônno c¡mo or
nonsa, axo nn]opmannxra ce npeµcrann n¡pxy xaprnx, raxa ue ncnuxn crpann µa morar µa
cneµxr nanncanoro eµnonpemenno. Hanpnmep:

Axo nne n namara oprannsannx sanounere µa npannre cneµnnre nema n no-ronxma
crenen n no-µoôpe, rona me nomorne na men n moxra oprannsannx µa nonnmnm
e]exrnnnocrra cn.

Axo nne n namara oprannsannx sanounere µa npannre cneµnnre nema n no-manxa
crenen, nnn cnpere µa rn npannre, rona me nomorne na men n moxra oprannsannx µa
nonnmnm e]exrnnnocrra cn.

Cneµnnre nema, xonro nne n namara oprannsannx npannre nomarar na men n moxra
oprannsannx µa ô¡µem no-e]exrnnnn n ce naµxnam, ue me npoµ¡nxnre µa rn npannre.

8. Koraro nnnara nnn npeµcrannrennre na oprannsannnre npnxnmuar c nanncnanero
na resn saxnnennx, naxapañre rn µa rn npeµcranxr sa oôc¡xµane. Ha rosn eran or
nponeca ncxare or rxx µa nocrnrnar xcnora no nynxronere, a ne µa ce sannmanar c
onponepranane. C orneµ na rona, noµxoµxmn n¡npocn ca “xaxno”, “samo” n “xora”.
3axnnennxra ne ca npenop¡unrennn.

9. Haxapañre crpannre n nperonopnre µa nsôepar onesn nynxrone or cnnc¡nnre, no
xonro necno ônxa ce c¡rnacnnn µa nanpanxr nemo, µa cnpar µa npanxr nemo nnn µa
ro npanxr no µpyr naunn, sa µa cn nomornar nsanmno n µa ô¡µar no-pesynrarnn n
c¡nmecrnara cn paôora. 3annmere mnennxra nm npeµn µa ca ce sannenn n no
rpyµnn npoônemn, no xonro me ce nperonapx na cneµnam eran or nponeca.

10. Ha rosn eran or nperonopnre sa ponnre, naxapañre n µnere crpann µa ce
c¡cpeµorouar n¡pxy onesn or ocranamnre npoônemn, xonro ca nañ-naxnn sa rxx n
xonro me noµoôpxr rxxnara coôcrnena e]exrnnnocr, xaxro n xauecrnoro na
paôornnre nm nsanmoornomennx. Oônxnoneno resn nperonopn snyuar no cneµnnx
naunn: “roronn cme µa nanpannm ..., axo nne cre roronn µa nanpannre ...” Hnn: “ne
moxem µa nanpannm rona, samoro”. B rosn momenr µnere crpann rpxôna µa ca n
25
c¡croxnne µa npeµnoxar nonn anrepnarnnn, sa µa cn nomornar nsanmno µa ô¡µar
no-e]exrnnnn.

11. Hperonopnre san¡pmnar, xoraro crpannre ca nsuepnann ncnuxn n¡smoxnocrn sa
noµoôpxnane na paôornnre cn nsanmoornomennx n na e]exrnnnocrra na ncxxa or
oprannsannnre n neñnoro p¡xonoµcrno na ocnonara na pesynrarnre or
nperonopnre. 3annmere cnopasymennero, n xonxoro e n¡smoxno no xonxperna
]opma, xaro nsnonsnare npeµocranenara ônanxa nnn µpyr no noµxoµxm ]opmar.

12. 3an¡pmere nperonopnre xaro nomonnre crpannre µa cnoµenxr nneuarnennxra cn or
npexnnxnoro.



HOCTHIHATA ±OIOBOPEHOCT MEƱY...

___________________ n ____________________

Hspasxname nsanmnoro cn c¡rnacne µa npnemem n µa paôornm sa npomennre n
nsn¡nnennero na ponnre, nsôpoenn no-µony:

Karo npeµcrannrenn na ................................... cme c¡rnacnn µa nanpannm cneµnoro:
(Hme na oprannsannxra)
1.....................................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................................

2.....................................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................................


3.....................................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................................


Karo npeµcrannrenn na ................................... cme c¡rnacnn µa nanpannm cneµnoro:
(Hme na oprannsannxra)

1.....................................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................................

2.....................................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................................


3.....................................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................................



26









HHCTPYMEHT 9: CTPATEIHH 3A YHPABAEHHE HA KOHmAHKTH

Vueóua ueu: ¡a ce saµ¡nôouar snannxra sa nerre crparernn sa ynpannenne na xon]nnxrn
cnopeµ moµena na Kener Tomac n xora e peµno n xora ne re µa ô¡µar nsnonsnann.

Heoóxoðu+o epe+e: 90 mnnyrn

Hauuu ua npoeexðaue:

1. 3anounere ynpaxnennero c oôc¡xµane na moµena na Tomac sa ynpannenne na
xon]nnxrn, npeµcranen n Inana 3 na Xpucmo+amu»ma. B¡pxy ]nnnuapr
nanpanere cnnc¡x na nerre crparernn n rn onnmere. Homncnere sa uecro cpemann
cnryannn, xonro nnmcrpnpar ncxxa or rxx. Hoµueprañre, ue nxma npannnnn n
rpemnn crparernn. Hsnonsnanero n ymecrnocrra na µaµena crparernx sanncxr or
xon]nnxrnara cnryannx, xaxro n or xynrypnnx xonrexcr, n xoñro rx ce npnnara.
Vnpaxnennero e n¡smoxnocr sa yuacrnnnnre µa nperernxr nnmconere n mnnycnre
na nerre crparernn n¡s ocnona na coôcrnennx cn onnr n onnra na ocranannre
yuacrnnnn.

2. Pasµenere yuacrnnnnre na ner paôornn rpynn n n¡snoxere na ncxxa or rpynnre
eµna or nerre crparernn cnopeµ moµena na Tomac: c¡pennonanne/xonxypennnx,
c¡rpyµnnuecrno, xomnpomnc, nsôxrnane n npncnocoôxnane/nocrnrane na
xapmonnx. Texnnre saµaun ca µa:

o onpeµenxr cnryannnre, n xonro saµaµenara nm crparernx sa ynpannenne na
xon]nnxrn ôn ônna ymecrna;
o xora ne ôn ônno ymecrno µa ce nsnonsna; n,
o npeµnmcrnara n neµocrar¡nnre nsoômo na nsnonsnanero na crparernxra sa
ynpannenne na xon]nnxrn n pasnnunx.

3. C¡ôepere ornono yuacrnnnnre n nomonere ncxxa or paôornnre rpynn µa µoxnaµna
nonyuennre pesynrarn. Hponeµere µncxycnx sa nonesnocrra or rasn xonnenryanna
xapra npn ynpannennero na xon]nnxrn n pasnnunx.

1. Cìnepuu:ecmeo/rourvpeuµu». Honeµenne xapaxrepnsnpamo ce c nanarane n
nexenanne sa c¡rpyµnnuecrno, ]oxycnpano n¡pxy nnunnre nnrepecn sa cmerxa na
µpyrnre.
2. Hpucnocoo»eaue/nocmueaue ua xap+ouu». Honeµenne xapaxrepnsnpamo ce c nnnca
na nanarane n xenanne sa c¡rpyµnnuecrno, xoero npeneôperna nnunnre nnrepecn c
nen µa saµononn nnrepecnre na µpyrnre.
27
3. Hso»eeaue. Honeµenne xapaxrepnsnpamo ce c nanarane n nexenanne sa
c¡rpyµnnuecrno, xoero ne npecneµna nnro coôcrnennre nnrepecn, nnro resn na
µpyrnre.
4. Cìoeùcmeue. Honeµenne xapaxrepnsnpamo ce eµnonpemenno c nanarane n xenanne
sa c¡rpyµnnuecrno, xoero naônxra n¡pxy c¡µeñcrnnero c µpyrara crpana sa
saµononxnane xaxro na coôcrnennre, xara n na nnrepecnre na µpyrnre.
5. Ko+npo+uc. Mexµnnno nonoxenne no ornomenne xaxro na nanaranero, raxa n na
c¡rpyµnnuecrnoro, xoero uecro ônna xapaxrepnsnpano xaro pasnononxnane na
pasnnunero, r¡pcene na necna cpeµna nosnnnx.



C1pa1ernn sa ynpannenne na xonqnnx1n
Cnopeµ moµena na Kener Tomac


Cìnepuu:ecmeo/rourvpeuµu» Cìoeùcmeue
Ko+npo+uc
Hso»eeaue Hpucnocoo»eaue/nocmueaue ua xap+ouu»

_______________ CTTPV¡HHuECTBO ______________



HHCTPYMEHT 10: POAEBA HIPA 3A BO±EHE HA HPEIOBOPH

Vueóua ueu: Hpnµoônnane na ymennx n npaxrnxynanero na nperonopnnx nponec

Heoóxoðu+o epe+e: uac µo uac n nononnna. Moxe µa ô¡µe n noneue n sanncnmocr or
nsôpannx or nac naunn na nponexµane na ynpaxnennero.

Heoóxoðu+u +amepuauu: Konnx or onncannero na npnmepnara cnryannx sa ncnuxn
yuacrnnnn (uacr 1); xonnx or pasnnunnre ponn sa ncexn or yuacrnnnnre, xenaemn µa
yuacrnar xaro nsn¡nnnrenn na ponnre; nncrone c¡c saµaun sa naônmµarennre.

Hauuu ua ðeùcmeue: Tosn cnenapnñ sa nperonopn nma sa nen µa µaµe n¡smoxnocr na
yuacrnnnnre µa ce nxnmuar n nperonopn sa orcroxnane na nnrepecn xaro rpxôna µa
ô¡µar nac¡puenn µa ce crpemxr x¡m nañ-ônaronpnxrnnx sa rxx nsxoµ cnopeµ
xonxpernara cnryannx.

1. Pasrneµañre naxparxo Inana 5 or Xpncromarnxra n npnnomnere na yuacrnnnnre
nxxon or ocnonnnre nonoxennx npn noµenero na npnnnnnnn nperonopn.
Hsr¡xnere pasnnxnre mexµy nperonopn sa uumepecu n nperonopn om nosuµu».
Tesn, xonro nperonapxr na ocnonara na nosnnnn ce cpemar xaro µeôarnpamn. Te
npeµcranxr cnoxra rneµna rouxa, saemar rn¡pµa nosnnnx n, axo e neoôxoµnmo,
npanxr xomnpomnc.

Or µpyra crpana, xoraro ce nperonapx c orneµ nnrepeca n na µnere crpann, moxe µa ce
rp¡rne or µaµenn nosnnnn, no ô¡pso µa ce npemnne x¡m ycranonxnane na npnunnnre
sa c¡mecrnynanero na pasnornacnx mexµy rxx. Tona, xoero moxe µa sanoune xaro “xax
28
µa noµennm nax” ô¡pso ce npenp¡ma n eneprnuen nponec na orxpnnane na npoônemnre
n r¡pcene na pemennx, xaro ce paôorn c orneµ nnrepecnre na ncnuxn crpann,
yuacrnamn n nperonopnre, a ne c orneµ nosnnnnre nm sa rona, xax¡n rpxôna µa e
nocrnrnarnx pesynrar n xpax na nponeca.

2. Fnxre mornn µa crpyxrypnpare rona ynpaxnenne no nxxonxo naunna n sanncnmocr
or onpeµenenoro sa nero npeme, ôpox na yuacrnnnnre n paôornara cpema n rona,
xoero ce naµxnare µa nocrnrnere. Axo ncxare npocro µa nsr¡xnere pasnnxnre
mexµy nperonopnre sa nnrepecn n nperonopnre or onpeµenena nosnnnx, rorana ôn
ônna µocrar¡una eµna ponena nrpa, nocneµnana or nanpannxnana µncxycnx na
cnyunnoro ce no npeme na nrponara cnryannx. Axo ncxare µa µaµere n¡smoxnocr
na no-ronxm ôpoñ or yuacrnnnnre µa µoônxr nenocpeµcrnen onnr n nperonapxnero,
moxere µa pasµennre rpynara na noµrpynn or no rpnma, µnama or xonro
nsn¡nnxnar ponnre na nperonapxmn, a rpernxr e naônmµaren.

Axo nsôepere neue cnomenarara pasmnpena nepcnx, pasµenere yuacrnnnnre na
noµrpynn or no rpnma n rn naxapañre µa pemar, xoñ me nsn¡nnxna ponxra na r-xa
Maponn, nnn xaxro pemnre µa napeuere rona nnne, n na r-n Cyapn n xoñ me ô¡µe
naônmµaren. Pasµañre na ncnuxn xonne or onncannero na nperonopnara cnryannx
n rn nomonere µa orµenxr nxxonxo mnnyrn, sa ca ro npouerar. ¡añre n¡smoxnocr
sa yrounxnamn n¡npocn.

3. Pasµañre ponnre n n¡npocnnxa sa naônmµarenx n nomonere yuacrnnnnre µa cn
namepxr cnoxoñno mxcro sa nponexµane na nperonopnre. Homonere rn µa npouerar
onncannxra na ponnre n µa orµenxr µnañcer µo rpnñcer mnnyrn sa nponexµane na
nperonopnnx nponec.

4. C¡ôepere noµrpynnre n naxapañre ncexn or naônmµarennre µa µoxnaµna sa
cnopasymennero, nocrnrnaro or µnamara nperonapxmn n, axo xenae, µa cnoµenn
naônmµennxra cn n¡pxy nponeca.

5. 3an¡pmere cecnxra xaro naxapare yuacrnnnnre µa npeµnoxar nµenre cn sa
xauecrnara, xonro xapaxrepnsnpar eµnn npnnnnnen noµxoµ x¡m µoronapxnero.
F¡µere roronn µa µoôannre onesn enemenrn, xonro re ônxa mornn µa nponycnar.



HPHMEPHA CHTYAHHR: 3AHA3BAHE HA HEHTTPA 3A ±HEBHH IPHÆH B
KBAPTAAA:

Hpnuepna cn1yannn sa pasnnnane na yuennn1a sa noµene na nperonopn

Iocnoxa Byôa Maponn p¡xonoµn Henr¡p sa µnennn rpnxn n eµnn or ôeµnnre
xnaprann na Tnmapam. Vcnyrnre, xonro npeµnara ca mnoro nonynxpnn cpeµ xnnenrnre
ñ n ca nenenn or rpaµcxnre nnacrn n mecrnara T¡proncxa xamapa, sapaµn npnnoc¡r nm
sa c¡xnnxnanero na mecrnara nxonomnxa. Poµnrennre na noneue or 70% or µenara n
npeµyunnnmna n¡spacr n neñnara nporpama paôorxr n oôynna ]aôpnxa na oxono ner
npeceuxn or nacroxmoro mecrononoxenne na nenr¡pa.

29
3a c¡xanenne, cxopo µoronop¡r sa naem na r-xa Maponn me ô¡µe npexparen n sarona
rx rpxôna µa namepn µpyro mxcro sa nenr¡pa npeµn nsrnuanero my cneµ uernpn
mecena. Tx nma nµen, xax ôn morna µa npeµnara noneue ycnyrn na xnneemnre n
xnaprana, no ñ e nyxno no-ronxmo npocrpancrno. Ocnen rona, ne ñ ce ncxa µa nnara
napn n pemonra na nmor noµ naem, a cneµ rona n nxxoñ ô¡µem momenr µa ô¡µe
npnnyµena µa ce nsnece. Hpes nocneµnnre nxxonxo roµnnn e ycnxna µa cnecrn oxono
5,000 µonapa c naµexµara, ue me ycnee µa xynn crpaµa.

Mecrnnxr ônsnecmen Hose] Bnapn e pasôpan, ue r-xa Maponn me ô¡µe npnnyµena µa
ce mecrn cneµ nxxonxo mecena n ce nnrepecyna or noxynxara na nmor n c¡mnx
xnapran. Kaxro cnoµennn npeµ r-xa Maponn, xoraro ñ ce oôaµnn n¡n np¡sxa c
xenannero ñ: “Ho eµna cnyuañnocr npnrexanam crapa nsocranena r¡proncxa crpaµa
camo na rpn npeceuxn or ceramnnx nn nenr¡p. Hµeanna e sa nyxµnre Bn. Pasônpa ce,
me rpxôna nsnecrno ycnnne, sa µ crane nsnonsnaema, no c¡m yôeµen, ue me ce
cnopasymeem.”

¡namara ce cpemar nxxonxo µnn no-x¡cno, sa µa pasrneµar crpaµara. Byôa neµnara e
sannrpnrynana, no xaro onnrna µenona xena, noµrncxa enrycnasma cn npeµ Hose].
Koraro my saµana n¡npoca, xonxo ncxa sa nmora, roñ orronapx: “Tpxôna µa nonyua
50,000 µonapa.” Heñnara nesaôanna peaxnnx e : “Cnrypno ce merynare! As p¡xonoµx
µercxa rpaµnna, a ne xasnno.” Ha xoero roñ orronapx: “Cnrypen c¡m, ue me ce
cnopasymeem.” Hpeµn µa nanycnar crpaµara µnamara ce yronapxr µa ce cpemnar cneµ
nxxonxo µnn n µa nnµxr µann ônxa mornn µa nocrnrnar cnopasymenne ornocno
npoµaxôara na crpaµara.

Hnc1pyxnnn sa r-aa Maponn

Pasronapxnn cre c mecrna ôanxa n re ca cxnonnn µa ornycnar camo 45,000 µonapa sa
noxynxa na crpaµara. Ocnen rona cre ronopnnn n c mecren npeµnpnemau sa pemonra,
xoñro me ô¡µe neoôxoµnm npeµn crpaµara µa moxe µa ce nonsna xaro nenr¡p sa
µnennn rpnxn n, no nerona npenenxa, nenara na pemonra me ô¡µe oxono 7,000 µonapa.
Pasxoµnre sa oôopyµnanero n sa npemecrnanero na meôennre or crapara crpaµa µo
nonara ce nsuncnxnar na 3,000 µonapa. Koraro c¡ôepere pasxoµnre sa noxynxa na
crpaµara, pemonrn n npemecrnane, cymara µocrnra 60,000 µonapa. C¡c cnecrennre or
nac 5,000 µonapa n saema ne Bn µocrnrar 10,000 µonapa. Ho nnxax¡n naunn ne moxere
µa noxpnere pasnnxara, no ne ncxare µa nponycnere n¡smoxnocrra µa xynnre nmora,
samoro cmxrare, ue orronapx na nyxµnre Bn.

B saµnara uacr na nmora nma manxa crpaµa, xoxro ne Bn e nyxna n cmxrare, ue rx ôn
morna µa ce µaµe noµ naem, no ne xenaere µa ce nar¡pônare c rona. uynn cre c¡mo, ue
r-n Bnapn npnrexana manxa xomnannx sa npenos na croxn. C npnxoµnre, no
npeµnapnrennn nsuncnennx, or µon¡nnnrennara ôpoñxa µena, xonro me moxere µa
npnemere, me ycneere µa nnarnre na Bnapn 50,000 µonapa, axo roñ ce c¡rnacn
noracxnanero na oxono 4,000 µonapa or oômara cyma µa crane c meceunn nnocxn sa
nepnoµ or µne roµnnn. Ho ne cre cnrypnn, ue roñ me ô¡µe cxnonen µa npneme µa ne
nonyun nxnara cyma naneµn¡x. ¡opn axo ce c¡rnacn µa nonyun 4,000 µonapa noµ
]opmara na meceunn nnocxn, ornono nxma µa Bn µocrnrar 6,000 µonapa cnopeµ
nsuncnennre pasxoµn sa pemonr n npemecrnane. Ioronn cre µa nperonapxre sa
nxnocrno cnopasymenne, xoero µa nosnonn µa npemecrnre Bamnx nenr¡p sa µnennn
30
rpnxn na rona nono mxcro npn nsrnuanero na ceramnnx Bn µoronop sa naem. B¡npexn
rona cre pemenn a nocrnrnere nañ-µoôporo n¡smoxno cnopasymenne.

Hnc1pyxnnn sa r-n mnapn

He cre roronn µa cnannre nenara ncxana sa crpaµara. B¡npexn rona no nnunn npnunnn
cre mnoro sannrepeconan µa npoµaµere nmora na r-xa Maponn. Mañxa Bn e poµena n
manxa x¡mnuxa, xoxro ce e namnpana n¡pxy rosn nmor npeµn nocrpoxnanero na
r¡proncxara crpaµa. Tx e npexapana µercrnoro cn n xnaprana npeµn µa ce npemecrn n
µpyra uacr na rpaµa. ¡o cm¡prra cn npeµn nxxonxo roµnnn rx mnoro axrnnno e
noµnomarana oômnncxnre nporpamn sa µena or cemeñcrna c nnc¡x µoxoµ. Mnnanana
nn e npes ym mnc¡nra, ue ôn ônno xyôano, axo nenr¡p¡r sa µnennn rpnxn ô¡µe
napeuen na nmero na mañxa Bn, no ne cre cnrypen xax µa nonµnrnere n¡npoca npeµ r-
xa Maponn.

Hpeµn µa nsemere pemennero sa npoµaxôa na nmora cre nmann nµex µa npen¡pnere
manxara crpaµa n saµnara my uacr n o]nc na ]npmara cn sa npenos, no raxa n ne cre x
oc¡mecrnnnn. T¡pcnnn cre µpyro mxcro n xnaprana sa nenra, r¡ñ xaro cre cn mncnenn,
ue r¡proncxnxr nmor me ce npoµaµe no-necno, axo manxara crpaµa e nxnmuena n
cµenxara.

Tona ne e n¡pnnx nmor n xnaprana, xoñro npoµanare. Hpn npoµaxôara na µna or
µpyrnre nmorn cre ce c¡rnacnnn manxa uacr or cymara µa ô¡µe nsnnarena pascpoueno
n pamxnre na xpar¡x nepnoµ or npeme. H n µnara cnyuax xynynaunre ca sax¡cnxnann c
mnoro or nnocxnre n cre saryônnn mnoro npeme n onnrn µa nonyunre napnre cn.
Heorµanna cre saxnnnn npeµ c¡npyrara cn: “Hxma µa npoµam neue nmor ôes µa cn
nonyua napnre npeµnapnrenno. Hnaue npocro ne cn crpyna xµonere.” Cmxrare, ue
nenr¡p¡r sa µnennn rpnxn µonpnnacx mnoro sa xnaprana, no ne cre roronn µa ro
sanasnre na ncxxa nena. rn¡pµo pemenn cre µa nonyunre n¡pnonauanno saxnenara nena
na nmora.

Bsnpocnnx na naõnmµa1enn1e

1. Feme nn naxcno ncxxa or crpannre ornocno rona, xoero ncxa or nperonopnre?
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................

2. Kon ôxxa nañ-rpyµnnre sa npnmnpxnane nnrepecn no npeme na nperonopnre?
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................

3. Hmame nn momenr n nperonopnre, xoraro nacr¡nn ouennµen npoônn n ncxxa or
crpannre sanouna µa n¡pnn x¡m c¡nmecrno pemanane na npoônema? Axo µa, xoñ
ôeme roñ?
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................

31
4. Fxxa nn yµonnernopenn nnrepecnre na µnere crpann n pesynrar na oôc¡xµannxra?
Onnmere xpañnoro cnopasymenne:
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................









HHCTPYMEHT 11: OHEHKA HA MO±EAHTE HA HOCPE±HHHECTBO H CT3±ABAHE HA
COBCTBEHH MO±EAH

Vueóuu ueuu:

1. ¡a ce pasôepe xora moxe µa ô¡µe nsnonsnano n xora ne nocpeµnnuecrnoro xaro nnµ
nnrepnennnx sa paspemanane na xon]nnxrn.

2. ¡a ce ycnon ymennero sa nnannpane na rnnone nponecn na nocpeµnnuecrno, xonro ca
noµxoµxmn npn pemananero na xon]nnxrn n xonxperen nannonanen n xynrypen
xonrexcr.

Heoóxoðu+o epe+e: 120 mnnyrn

Heoóxoðu+u +amepuauu: Marepnann sa pasµanane n c¡ornercrnne c nncrpyxnnnre n
Knnxxa 1 or rona p¡xonoµcrno

Hpouec:

1. Hpeµcranere ynpaxnennero xaro onnmere µ¡nrara ncropnx n npnnoxennero n
pasnnunn xynrypn na nocpeµnnuecrnoro xaro nncrpymenr sa paspemanane na
xon]nnxrn (sa nµen nnxre Inana 6 or Xpucmo+amu»ma). Hspeµere n¡pxy ]nnnuapr
nxxonxo µe]nnnnnn sa “nocpeµnnuecrno” n naxapañre yuacrnnnnre µa rn npouerar n
µa oôc¡µxr xoe e oômoro n resn µe]nnnnnn. Hpoµ¡nxere µncxycnxra xaro rn
nonnrare xax nocpeµnnuecrnoro xaro meroµ sa paspemanane na xon]nnxrn ce
pasnnuana or nperonopnre.

2. B¡pxy nncr xaprnx nanpanere nponsnonen n noµpeµôara cn n nan¡nno pasô¡pxan
cnnc¡x or ycnonnx, xonro npanxr nocpeµnnuecrnoro noµxoµxma nnn nenoµxoµxma
crparernx na nnrepnennnx npn paspemanane na cnopone. Bnxre cnnc¡xa or
noµxoµxmn n nenoµxoµxmn ycnonnx na nocneµnara crpannna na ynpaxnennero.

3. Pasµenere yuacrnnnnre na µne pannn rpynn. Haxapañre ncxxa rpyna µa pasrneµa
cnnc¡xa n µa noµôepe ycnonnxra, xonro cnopeµ nex ca noµxoµxmn sa nocpeµnnuecrno
n ycnonnxra, xonro ônxa ônnn neônaronpnxrnn, xaxro n µa npeµcrann n¡pxy
32
]nnnuapr xparxo nncmeno oôxcnenne na nsôopa cn n¡n ncexn eµnn cnyuañ. ¡añre 30
mnnyrn na yuacrnnnnre µa nsn¡nnxr saµauara.

4. Cneµ 30 mnnyrn c¡ôepere ornono rpynnre n rn naxapañre µa µoxnaµnar
c¡µ¡pxannero na cnnc¡nnre cn. Cneµ nscnymnane na µnara µoxnaµa oôc¡µere
enenryannnre pasnnxn n naunna, no xoñro ca pasnpeµennnn ycnonnxra n cnnc¡xa.
Cpannere orronopnre nm c¡c cnnc¡xa na cneµnamara crpannna.

5. Karo noµroronxa sa ]nnannara ]asa na ynpaxnennero, pasµañre na yuacrnnnnre
xonne or rpnre moµena na nocpeµnnuecrno, onncann noµpoôno n rn. 6, uacr 1 or
nomaranoro – moµen¡r na Peñµ¡p-Koynm¡n; nponec¡r na nocpeµnnuecrno na
nporpamara “Hpnxrenn” n noµxoµ¡r na Kpncro]¡p My¡p. Haxapañre rn µa npouerar
rpnre onncannx n cneµ rona pasµenere yuacrnnnnre na manxn rpynn or no uernpn nnn
ner µymn. Bcxxa rpyna rpxôna µa oôc¡µn cxoµcrnara n pasnnunxra mexµy rpnre
moµena n n¡s ocnona na rexnnre µncxycnn, yuacrnnnnre rpxôna µa paspaôorxr nponec
na nocpeµnnuecrno, xoñro cnopeµ rxx me ô¡µe nañ-npnnoxnm n rxxnara crpana nnn
pernon. Bcxxa rpyna rpxôna µa onnme naxparxo cnox noµxoµ n¡pxy xaprnx n µa ro
npeµcrann sa oôc¡xµane. ¡añre na rpynnre 60 mnnyrn sa nsn¡nnenne a saµauara.

6. C¡ôepere ornono rpynnre, sa µa npeµcranxr µoxnaµnre cn. Honcxañre or ncxxa rpyna
µa onnme xax e µocrnrnana µo cnox moµen na nocpeµnnuecrno. Hoµrnxnere rn x¡m
µncxycnx sa npnnnxnre n pasnnxnre mexµy rpynnre.

7. 3axpnñre cecnxra c µncxycnx sa nsnonsnanero na rosn noµxoµ sa paspemanane na
cnopone n rxxnara oômnocr nnn na paôornoro nm mxcro. Moxere c¡mo µa rn
nomonnre sa xomenrap sa rona, µann cnopeµ rxx rosn noµxoµ sa ynpannenne na
xon]nnxrn rpxôna µa ce nsnonsna no-uecro n rexnnre oômnocrn. Axo µa, xax ôn
mor¡n µa ce nsnonsna e]exrnnno?

Ycnonnn, npn xon1o nocpeµnnuec1no1o e noµxoµnma nn1epnennnn

o Cnnnn emonnn ca nonnnxnn na npenenxara nm.
o Crpannre ce nosnanar.
o Hxma ronxmo pasmnnanane n¡n nnacronnre ornomennx mexµy crpannre.
o B¡nneuennre n xon]nnxr xnnexr saeµno, paôorxr saeµno nnn, no nxxaxna µpyra
npnunna, ne morar µa ce µncrannnpar eµnn or µpyrn.
o Eµnara crpana nsnnrna neyµoôcrno µa ce nsnpann cpemy µpyrara n orc¡crnnero na
rpera crpana.
o Anraxnpannre n xon]nnxra ncxar µa xonrponnpar pesynrarnre.
o 3anasnanero na ornomennxra e naxno.
o B¡nneuennre n xon]nnxra cmxrar, ue nmar nyxµa or ymennxra n noµxpenara na
rpera crpana sa paspemanane na npornnopeunxra cn.
o Hyxµara or ô¡pso pemenne.
o Baxna e xon]nµennnannocrra.
o Anraxnpann ca mnoro xopa, nanp. n xnapranen cnop.
o Crpannre ncxar µa nsôernar o]nnnanna, cx¡nocrpynama nponeµypa, nanp.
c¡µeôen nponec.

Ycnonnn, npn xon1o nocpeµnnuec1no1o e nenoµxoµnma nn1epnennnn

33
o Hma xcnn npnsnann, ue eµna or crpannre nma namepenne µa nsnonsna
nocpeµnnuecrnoro sa pasnannane na xon]nnxra nnn nma xopncrnn nenn, nanp.
ornpanxne na sannaxn; c¡ônpane na nn]opmannx, xoxro µa nsnonsna no-x¡cno;
cnmynnpane na c¡rpyµnnuecrno n r.n.
o eµna or crpannre ce npoxnxna n npeµnapnrennnre oôc¡xµannx xaro necnocoôna µa
cnyma µpyrnre nnn n¡x crpanara e rn¡pµe pasrpenoxena, sa µa paôorn sa
nocrnrane na oômo cnopasymenne.
o T¡xmo ce e cnyunno nemo rn¡pµe rpanmnpamo n ro n¡snpenxrcrna eµnara nnn
µnere crpann µa yuacrnar e]exrnnno.
o C¡mecrnyna µncôananc no ornomenne na nnacrra, xoñro npann c¡nmecrnoro
nsnmane na pemenne manxo nepoxrno.
o 3a eµna or crpannre nnn sa µnere crpann me ô¡µe no-µoôpe, axo paôorxr upes
µpyrn ]opymn, nanp. c¡µnnnmara.
o Ocnonnnxr npoônem nnn cnop ne moxe µa ô¡µe paspemen upes nocpeµnnuecrno.
o Ocnonnnre crpann ne xenaxr µa yuacrnar n nponeca.
o Hnxox or crpannre ne e rorona µa oôc¡xµa ypexµanero na pasnornacnxra cn c
µpyrara.
o ¡pyr ]opym e no-noµxoµxm sa paspemanane na xon]nnxra, nanp. napymenn ca
saxonn.
o Hxma mexanns¡m, xoñro µa rapanrnpa cnasnanero na cnopasymennero.



HHCTPYMEHT 12: YHPABAEHHE HA KOHmAHKTH H BAACT

Hncrpymenr¡r, xoñro cneµna, e npeµnasnauen µa nomara na nocpeµnnnnre n
nperonapxmnre npn onenxara na pasnnunnre nsrounnnn na nnacr na nnnara, rpynnre nnn
oprannsannnre, na xonro me npeµocranxr ycnyrnre cn. Hepanencrnara n craryca,
nonoxennero, pecypcnre n µpyrn ]opmn na norennnanna nnacr nnnarn ca nocranenn na
macara sa nperonopn, excnnnnnrno nnn ne. Te morar µa nmar µ¡nôox e]exr n¡pxy
pasncxnannxra n pesynrarnre. Ho-µoôpe e µa npnsnaem c¡mecrnynanero nm n µa ce
noµrornnm sa rxx, orxonxoro µa npnemem, ue re nxxax me nsuesnar nnn nxma µa nmar
snauenne.
C nxxon nsmenennx n onncannx no-µony meroµ, rosn nncrpymenr moxe µa cnyxn c¡mo n
xaro ynpaxnenne sa nnnxnane n oôorarxnane na snannxra n pamxnre na eµna paôorna
cpema. Axo ro nsnonsnare n yueôen xonrexcr, npenenere µann µa ne sanounere cecnxra c
nanpannxnana µncxycnx na onncarennnre marepnann, xonro npeµxoxµar n¡npocnnxa.

Vueóua ueu: ¡a ô¡µar onenenn pasnnunnre nsrounnnn na nnacr na yuacrnamnre crpann,
xonro rpxôna µa ce nxnmuar n nponeca na nperonopn nnn nocpeµnnuecrno.

Heoóxoðu+o epe+e: 90-120 mnnyrn

Heoóxoðu+u +amepuauu: B¡npocnnx sa camoonenxa

Kouuenmyauua uapma ua usmouuuuume ua euacm: upenu n Peñn¡n
1
ca ycranonnnn
pasnnunn xareropnn nnacr, xonro e µoôpe µa ô¡µar nosnanann or rneµna rouxa na
ynpannennero na pasnornacnxra n xon]nnxrnre. Hpn onncannero na resn nsrounnnn na

1
upenu n Peñn¡n, “Ocnonnre na oômecrnenara nnacr” n ¡. Kaprpañr (peµ.) Hsc.eoeauu» no coµua.uu .. (An
Apô¡p, Mnunrancxn ynnnepcnrer, 1959).
34
nnacr me npnemem, ue n xon]nnxra nnn cnopa ca n¡nneuenn camo µne crpann. B¡smoxno e
µa nma mnoro n ncxxa or rxx rpxôna µa ô¡µe onenena cnpxmo ocranannre na ôasa
xonxpernara cnryannx. Hsrounnnnre na nnacr ca:

o Bnac11a na narpaµa1a ce ocnonana na yôexµennero na crpana F, ue Crpana A n
xon]nnxrnara cnryannx moxe µa ocnrypn narpaµn – nonnmennx, npnnnnernn,
npnsnanne, µocr¡n µo marepnann n µpyrn pecypcn.
o Bnac11a na npnnyµa1a sanncn or npeµcranara na F, ue A nma cnocoônocrra µa
naxasna – µa npnunnxna ôonxa, µa nopnnana, µa nonnxana n µa ornema
npnnnnernn.
o Aern1nuna1a nnac1 ce ocnonana na orcroxnanero na onpeµeneno nonoxenne,
rnrna nnn nosnnnx n oprannsannx nnn oômecrno. Honoxennero µana npano na rasn
crpana µa ynpaxnxna nnacr n¡pxy µpyrnre.
o Peqepen1na1a nnac1 ce ocnonana na nµenrn]nxannxra na F c A xaro crpana,
xoxro npeµnsnnxna peaxnnn xaro ynaxenne, noµunnenne n nxpnocr.
o Excnep1na1a nnac1 nponsrnua or yôexµennero na F, ue A npnrexana nxxaxno
cnennanno snanne, ymenne nnn nemnna.
o Hnqopuannonna1a nnac1 ce ocnonana na yôexµennero na F, ue A npnrexana
nn]opmannx nnn µocr¡n µo nn]opmannx, xoxro e c¡mecrnena sa nsxoµa na
nponeca.

K¡m resn mecr xareropnn nnacr no upenu n Peñn¡n, µoôanxme ome µne, xonro uecro
ce naônmµanar n xon]nnxrnn cnryannn.

o Bnac11a na npssxn1e ce ocnonana na yôexµennero na F, ue A nma np¡sxn c
nnnxrennn nnn naxnn nnunocrn.
o Ka1ann1nuna1a nnac1 e pesynrar na cnocoônocrra sa c¡ueranane na µne nnn
noneue ocnonannx sa nnacr, ncxxo or xonro camo no ceôe cn moxe µa e
neµocrar¡uno sa nocrnrane na pesynrarn.

Or resn ocnonannx na nnacrra, rpn: nnacrra na narpaµara, na npnnyµara n
nernrnmnara nnacr nmar sa cnoñ ]oxyc nnacrnmamnx n neronara nnn neñnara
cnocoônocr µa npomenx noneµennero na µpyrara crpana, n¡npexn neñnara c¡npornna.
Ocranannre uernpn rnna nnacr: nn]opmannonna, pe]epenrna, excneprna n nnacr na
np¡sxnre, uecro µonpnnacxr sa ycnexa na eµna or crpannre n xon]nnxrnara cnryannx
n sanncnmocr or ycemannxra na µpyrara sa cnnnnre n cnaônre crpann na resn
nsrounnnn na nnacr.

YHPABAEHHE HA BAACTOBHTE OTHOmEHHR

Fn ônno nonesno µa pasrneµame nxxon ocnonnn nocranonxn ornocno ecrecrnoro na
nnacrra ram, x¡µero nma pasnnunx n xon]nnxrn, xonro ouaxnar cnoero paspemenne.

o Bnacronnre ornomennx ca µnnamnunn, a ne crarnunn n ca oôexr na nocroxnno
npeµoronapxne.
o Hnncara na nnacr n mnoro nsanmoornomennx moxe µa ô¡µe no-ncenponnxnama,
orxonxoro nsnonsnanero na nnacrra.
o Bnacronnre npasnnnn npanxr xopara n nncrnrynnnre yxsnnmn cnpxmo cpeµara cn.
o 3an¡nnanero n ynpannennero na nnacronnre npasnorn moxe µa ô¡µe no-
e]exrnnno, orxonxoro ynpannennero na npnnnnnre na nnacr.
35
o Hnmennre or nnacr n oprannsannnre n oômnocrnre uecro ne oc¡snanar
coôcrnenara cn cnna n¡n nnacronnre ornomennx.
o Hponec¡r na sanasnane na nnacrra e cn¡psan c nenpex¡cnarn nperonopn mexµy
resn, xonro cmxrar, ue nmar nnacr n resn, xonro cmxrar, ue nxmar.
o Bnacrnmamnre ce nyxµaxr or norn¡pxµenne, ue rxxnara nnacr e nernrnmna n
pamxnre na nsanmoornomennx, xonro paspemanar nsnonsnanero ñ n yrn¡pxµanar
neñnoro npano.
o Ocnonnara nnacr na neonnacrennre e cncremnoro ynpaxnxnane na nenepne, nanp.
orxas¡r µa npnemem onpeµenennero sa ceôe cn, xoero µanar resn, xonro nmar
nnacr.
o Hncrnrynnonannnre nnacronn nsrounnnn ca orpannuenn, no rpannnnre morar µa
ô¡µar npeµe]nnnpann.
o Pasµenxnero na nnacrra ne e nµenrnuno c orxas or nex.

Vcnemnnxr meµnarop nnn nperonapxm ne e nnro nannen, nnro nnnnuen cnpxmo ponxra,
xoxro moxe µa nrpae nnacrra n oônuañnoro ynpannenne na xon]nnxrn n pasnnunx.



OHEHKA HA H3TOHHHHHTE HA BAACT B KOHmAHKTHH CHTYAHHH

Bcxxa crpana n xon]nnxrnara cnryannx pasnonara n pasnnuna crenen c nsrounnnn na
nnacr, xonro morar µa ñ nomornar µa paspemn xon]nnxra nnn µa ro noµµ¡pxa.
B¡npocnnx¡r, xoñro cneµna, e npeµnasnauen µa onenn nepoxrnocrra ocnonnnre crpann n
onpeµenena xon]nnxrna cnryannx µa nsnonsnar resn nsrounnnn na nnacr, sa µa nonnnxxr
na nsxoµa or nex. B nxnara uacr na raônnnara ca nsôpoenn ceµem norennnannn nsrounnxa
na nnacr. Orµxcno nma µne xononn, c¡µ¡pxamn onenxa sa rona, µann resn nsrounnnn na
nnacr ônxa mornn µa ô¡µar ]axropn, xonro µa nonnnxxr na pesynrarnre or xoe µa e
cnopasymenne, nocrnrnaro upes nperonopn nnn nocpeµnnuecrno. Hncrpymenr¡r npnema,
ue ycnnnero sa paspemanane na xon]nnxra anraxnpa camo µne crpann. ¡oôanere ome
xononxn, axo e neoôxoµnmo.

Hma rpn n¡smoxnocrn sa onenxa na rona, µann ncexn or resn nsrounnnn na nnacr moxe µa
ô¡µe ]axrop, nnnxem n¡pxy nsxoµa na cnopasymenne, nocrnrnaro upes nperonopn nnn
nocpeµnnuecrno:

1=He e qax1op; 2=Moae µa õsµe qax1op; 3=Ka1eropnuno me õsµe qax1op

Orpaµere nn]para n¡n ncxxa xononxa, xoxro orronapx na namara npenenxa sa
nepoxrnocrra ncexn or resn nsrounnnn na nnacr µa ô¡µe ]axrop, xoñro µa nonnnxe n¡pxy
nsxoµa or nperonopnre nnn nocpeµnnuecrnoro n xon]nnxrnara cnryannx.

THH BAACT CTPAHA
A
CTPAHA
B
Bnac1 na narpaµa1a: cnocoônocr sa narpaxµanane upes
nonnmennx, ycnyrn, npnsnanne, µocr¡n µo nn]opmannx n
µpyrn pecypcn.

1 2 3

1 2 3
Bnac1 na npnnyµa1a: n¡smoxnocr sa naxasnane upes
nonnxennx, ynonnennx, nopnnannx n ornemane na npnnnnernn.

1 2 3

1 2 3
Aern1nuna nnac1: nma nernrnmnoro npano µa ynpaxnxna
36
nnacr n¡pxy µpyrnre. 1 2 3 1 2 3
Peqepen1na nnac1: B¡snpnemana xaro npnrexanne na nnunn
xauecrna, xonro npeµnsnnxnar ynaxenne, noµunnenne nnn
nxpnocr.

1 2 3

1 2 3
Excnep1na nnac1: npnrexana ymennx n npo]ecnonannn
snannx µa nonyun rona, xoero xenae.

1 2 3

1 2 3
Hnqopuannonna nnac1: pasnonara c nn]opmannx nnn µocr¡n
µo nn]opmannx, xoxro e naxna sa rxx n rasn cnryannx.

1 2 3

1 2 3
Bnac1 na npssxn1e: Pasnonara c np¡sxn c nnnxrennn nnn
naxnn nnunocrn, xonro morar µa nm nomornar.

1 2 3

1 2 3




Paspaõo1nane na nnac1ona c1pa1ernn

Kax ônxre nsnonsnann n cnox nonsa roxy-mo nanpanenara onenxa n xauecrnoro cn na
crpana n nperonopnre nnn nocpeµnnuecrnoro, nnn na rpera crpana – nperonapxm nnn
nocpeµnnx? Hpn ncnuxn cnyuan ônxre xenann µa noµrornnre crparernxra cn npeµn
sanounanero na nperonopnre nnn nocpeµnnuecrnoro. Ero nxxon nµen ornocno cr¡nxnre,
upes xonro µa ce noµrornnre.

1. Hanpanere cnnc¡x na nsrounnnnre na nnacr, onenenn c 3 - rn¡pµ ]axrop n 2 –
]axrop “moxe ôn” n orronopere na cneµnnre n¡npocn.

C1pana A: _____________
max1op: _______________

Be ô¡µe nn nsnonsnan rosn nsrounnx na nnacr sa paspemanane na xon]nnxra nnn
pasnornacnero?
(¡a: __ He: __) Hnn sa noµµ¡pxanero my? (¡a: __ He: __)? H, samo mncnnre, ue e
raxa?
.................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................

Axo nne cre Crpana A, xaxna me ô¡µe namara crparernx n nsnonsnanero a rosn
nsrounnx na nnacr? Axo nne cre Crpana F, xaxna me ô¡µe namara crparernx sa
cnpanxne c nsnonsnanero na rosn nsrounnx na nnacr or µpyrara crpana n xon]nnxra?
.................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................
[Hanpanere µon¡nnnrennn ônanxn, sa µa noµrornnre crparernxra cn.]

C1pana B: _____________
max1op: _______________

Be ô¡µe nn nsnonsnan rosn nsrounnx na nnacr sa paspemanane na xon]nnxra nnn
pasnornacnero?
(¡a: __ He: __) Hnn sa noµµ¡pxanero my? (¡a: __ He: __)? H, samo mncnnre, ue e
raxa?
.................................................................................................................................................
37
.................................................................................................................................................

Axo nne cre Crpana F, xaxna me ô¡µe namara crparernx n nsnonsnanero a rosn
nsrounnx na nnacr? Axo nne cre Crpana A, xaxna me ô¡µe namara crparernx sa
cnpanxne c nsnonsnanero na rosn nsrounnx na nnacr or µpyrara crpana n xon]nnxra?
.................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................
[Hanpanere µon¡nnnrennn ônanxn, sa µa noµrornnre crparernxra cn.]






HHCTPYMEHT 13: Hncnennponxa na µncny1


Vueóua ueu: Vnpaxnxnane na ymennxra sa noµroronxa sa nocpeµnnuecrno n
nocpeµnnuene n nncnennponxa na cnop no nanaranero na rpaµcxnx crponrenen xoµexc.

Heoóxoðu+o epe+e: 180 mnn.

Hpouec:

1. 3anounere ynpaxnennero xaro oôxcnnre na yuacrnnnnre, ue re me ce nxnmuar n
nncnennponxa or µne uacrn. Cnyuaxr, Cnopìm sa paspeuume.uomo sa cmpoer,
npeµocranx cnryannxra sa nncnennponxara. Toñ ce ornacx µo cnop mexµy cnyxnrenn
na rpaµcxnre nnacrn n mecrno nponsnoµcrneno npeµnpnxrne, na xoero e ônno
orxasano paspemnrenno sa crponrencrno na ]aôpnxa sapaµn napymenne na rpaµcxnx
crponrenen xoµexc. H¡nnnxr rexcr na cnyuax moxere µa namepnre n xpax na
onncannero na ynpaxnennero.

2. H¡pnara uacr na nncnennponxara e cpema mexµy nocpeµnnnnre n ocnonnnre crpann n
xon]nnxra: npesnµenra na nponsnoµcrnenoro npeµnpnxrne, xoero ncxa µa crpon n
rpaµa, rnannnx nnxenep, xmera n cnyxnrenx, orronapxm sa cnasnanero na saxonnre sa
oxonnara cpeµa. Henra na cpemara e µa ce nomorne na npeµcrannrennre na µnere
crpann µa pasôepar npnnnnnnre n npnñomnre n nocpeµnnuecrnoro. Tosn n¡pnn eran
ornema oxono 45 mnn.

3. Onnmere nropara uacr na nncnennponxara, xoxro ce c¡cron or µna xp¡ra na
nocpeµnnuecrno, sa µa ce µaµe n¡smoxnocr na noneue yuacrnnnn µa npnµoônxr
nenocpeµcrnen onnr n nponeca. Bcxxo or resn nncnennpann nocpeµnnuecrna rpxôna µa
npoµ¡nxn mexµy 60 n 90 mnn.

4. Pasµenere yuacrnnnnre na 2 rpynn. Pasµañre na yuacrnnnnre or ncxxa rpyna xonne or
cnryannxra n rn naxapañre µa ro npouerar. Koraro ca roronn, orµenere nxxonxo
mnnyrn, sa µa pemnre xon me nrpaxr ponnre na µnyunennnx nocpeµnnuecxn exnn n na
uernpnre ocnonnn crpann n xon]nnxra n µnere uacrn na nncnennponxara. Koraro ce
pemn rona, xaxere na xopara n¡n ncxxa or rpynnre, xonro nsn¡nnxnar ponxra na
nocpeµnnnn, µa nsnonsnar moµena sa nocpeµnnuecrno na Peñµ¡p n Koynman, onncan n
38
rn. 6 na Xpucmo+amu»ma. Hsnonsnanero na rosn moµen ce oôocnonana c neronara
npocrora n cpannenne c µpyrnre µna. Kaxere na yuacrnnnnre n rpynnre, xonro ne
nsn¡nnxnar ponn, ue re me ce nxnmuar xaro naônmµarenn. Pasµañre na ncexn or
naônmµarennre yxasanne sa naônmµarenx, n¡pxy xoero µa cn noµn sanncxn µoxaro
neronara rpyna e saera c nncnennponxara.

5. Homonere µnere rpynn µa ce oôocoôxr n orµennn paôornn npocrpancrna. Haxapañre
yuacrnnnnre, crpann n cnopa n nocpeµnnuecxnre exnnn n¡n ncxxa rpyna µa ce c¡ôepar
noorµenno, sa µa ce noµrornxr sa cpemara. Bnxre erana sa “pasrpxnane” n moµena na
Peñµ¡p n Koynman. Cneµ 15 mnnyrn xaxere na yuacrnnnnre or ncxxa rpyna µa
oc¡mecrnxr “pasrpxnamara” cpema xaro noµroronxa sa nncnennpanoro
nocpeµnnuecrno, xoero cneµna.

6. ¡oxaro µnere rpynn ca ce c¡ôpann, sa µa ce noµrornxr sa “pasrpxnamara” cecnx,
naxapañre naônmµarennre or ncxxa rpyna µa nomornar n noµpexµanero n
oôopyµnanero na yueônara sana, sa µa ce c¡sµaµe c¡ornernara oôcranonxa sa
nocpeµnnuecrno. Bnxre Eman 1, 3ano:eaue ua nocpeouu:ecmeo or moµena na Peñµ¡p
n Koynm¡n. Koraro yuacrnnnnre or µnere rpynn ca roronn, sanounere nropara uacr na
nncnennponxara, xaro nomonnre unenonere na n¡pnara rpyna µa ceµnar na macara,
noµrornena sa nncnennpano nocpeµnnuecrno. Koraro naônmµarennre n unenonere na
nropara rpyna saemar mecrara cn n xp¡r oxono macara na nocpeµnnuecrnoro,
sanounere nncnennponxara. Cneµ 60 µo 90 mnnyrn n cneµ saxnmunrennnx eran na
nocpeµnnuecrnoro, npnxnmuere nncnennponxara. Cneµ nxxonxo mnnyrn, xoraro
unenonere na nropara rpyna ce nacranxr oxono macara, sanounere nropnx ryp na
nocpeµnnuecrno, xaro rosn n¡r naônmµarennre n unenonere na n¡pnara rpyna ce
pasnonarar n xp¡r oxono macara sa nocpeµnnuecrno.

7. Koraro npnxnmun nropnxr ryp na nocpeµnnuecrno, nomonere naônmµarennre µa
cnoµenxr nneuarnennxra cn n anraxnpañre yuacrnnnn n or µnere rpynn n oôc¡xµane
na ynpaxnennero.

Beneaxa xsu nnc1pyx1opa: Tona ynpaxnenne c nncnennponxa moxe µa ô¡µe npomenxno
no mnoro naunnn, sa µa nacne na nyxµnre na oôyuanannre yuacrnnnn. Tona moxe µa
osnauana µa ô¡µe nanncan µpyr cnenapnñ, xoñro µa orpasxna cnryannx no-ônnsxa sa
yuacrnnnnre, npomxna na ponnre n nponeca na nocpeµnnuecrno nnn nsnonsnane na
pasnnuen moµen na nocpeµnnuecrno. Henra oôaue ôn ocranana nenpomenena: µa ce
nomorne na yuacrnnnnre µa pasôepar nponeca na nocpeµnnuecrno n µa npnµoônxr
nocpeµnnuecxn ymennx.










39

HPHMEPHA CHTYAHHR: Cnops1 sa paspemn1enno1o sa c1poea


Cnyxnrenxara, xoxro orronapx sa cnasnanero na saxonnre sa oxonnara cpeµa n
rpaµa, roxy-mo e orxasana µa µaµe oµoôpennero cn sa nsrpaxµanero na nono
nponsnoµcrneno npeµnpnxrne n rpannnnre na rpaµa. Orxas¡r e mornnnpan c rexnnuecxa
]opmannocr, ornacxma ce µo emncnnre na rasooôpasno nemecrno, xonro cnopeµ
nanpanennre nsuncnennx naµxn¡pnxr c 5 % cranµaprnre, sanoxenn n mecrna napeµôa.
3axon¡r sa emncnnre e npner or npeµnmen c¡ner, nsôpan c mecrnn nsôopn. Cnyxnrenxara
r¡nxyna napeµôara npannnno n n neñnnre cnyxeônn npana e µa orxaxe paspemnrenno sa
crponrencrno. Tx nma noµxpenara na manxa, no mnoro axrnnna exonornuna oprannsannx,
xoxro nma o]ncn n rpaµa. Exonornunara rpyna e saxnnna npeµ nex neo]nnnanno, ue e
rorona µa npeµnpneme c¡µeônn µeñcrnnx cpemy rpaµa, axo pemennero ñ ô¡µe npomeneno
or neñnnx npxx nauannnx, or xmera nnn rpaµcxnx c¡ner.

Kmer¡r ce xanµnµarnpa sa npensônpane n xamnannxra my nxnmuna oôemannx sa
ynennuanane na n¡smoxnocrnre sa rpyµona saerocr n rpaµa. Honoro npomnmneno
npeµnpnxrne me c¡sµaµe 250 nonn paôornn mecra, or xonro rpaµ¡r n pañon¡r oxono nero
oruaxno ce nyxµaxr. Ho roñ e nsnecren n c rn¡pµara cn noµxpena sa cnonre cnyxnrenn,
ocoôeno xoraro rexnnre pemennx ce rpaµxr n¡pxy sµpannx pasym n saxononnre
pasnopeµôn. Kmer¡r c¡mo e nman noµxpenara na exonornunara oprannsannx n neñnnre
unenone, xoraro npeµn 3 roµnnn ce e xanµnµarnpan sa nocra, n e nsnecren c
xareropnunnre cn n¡srneµn ornocno onasnanero na oxonnara cpeµa. Kmer¡r roxy-mo e
oôxnnn, ue me noµxpenn pemennero na cnoxra cnyxnrenxa, n¡npexn ue ro me nma
orpnnarenno orpaxenne n¡pxy nxonomnuecxnx norennnan na rpaµa, none n nañ-ônnsxo
ô¡µeme.

Koraro nayuanar sa pemennero na xmera, or mecrnara T¡proncxa xamapa cnnxnar
npecxon]epennnx n ocrpo pasxpnrnxynar xmera sa pemennero my, xaro c¡menpemenno
saxnxnar, ue xamapara c¡mo e sarpnxena sa onasnanero na oxonnara cpeµa. Exonornunara
oprannsannx e eµnn or nañ-axrnnnnre unenone na xamapara. Ha npecxon]epennnxra
npnc¡crna ronopnren na nponsnoµcrnenoro npeµnpnxrne n npann nsxnnenne, ue
xomnannxra e rorona µa namepn µpyro mxcro, axo rosn cnyuañ na ouennµen
“ômpoxparnuen aôcypµ” ne namepn paspemenne. Ionopnrenxr na npeµnpnxrnero npeµn e
orronapxn sa cnasnanero na saxonnre n rpaµcxnx c¡ner, no e ônn ynonnen sapaµn
npexaneno cnoôoµnoro npnnarane na napeµônre sa oxonnara cpeµa.

Manxo npeµn xpax na npecxon]epennnxra, ônnmnxr npesnµenr na xamapara,
nncoxo ynaxanan n rpaµa aµnoxar, npeµnara µa ô¡µe noxanen exnn or nocpeµnnnn or µpyr
rpaµ, sa µa ce nnµn µann xon]nnxr¡r ne ôn mor¡n µa ô¡µe paspemen c rxxna nomom. B
cnoero nsxasnane roñ npnsnana npanoro n na µnere crpann µa ce oô¡pnar x¡m c¡µa, no
nspasxna npnrecnennero cn or rasn anrepnarnna. Toñ npeµpnua c¡mo, ue “nepoxrno me ca
neoôxoµnmn mecenn npeµn c¡µ¡r µa nsnese c pemenne, µnere crpann me nnarxr ronemn
c¡µeônn raxcn n me ce crnrne µo pasnennenne cpeµ rpaxµancrnoro, xoero nxma µa ô¡µe
npeoµonxno n npoµ¡nxenne na roµnnn”.

Koraro na cneµnamara cyrpnn xmer¡r npounra n¡n necrnnxa sa
npecxon]epennnxra, roñ nnxa cnox npnxren, ônnmnx npesnµenr na xamapara, sa µa
nonyun noneue nn]opmannx sa rona xax µa noncxa nocpeµnnuecrno n xon]nnxra. Cneµ
40
pasronopa nm xmer¡r nnxa p¡xonoµnrenx na ]npmara, xoxro e nnannpana µa nocrpon nono
npomnmneno npeµnpnxrne n rpaµa. Cneµ µ¡n¡r pasronop re ce cnopasymxnar µa ce
cn¡pxar c nsnecrna nocpeµnnuecxa oprannsannx n µa nacpouar cpema.
Yxasanne sa naõnmµa1enn na nocpeµnnuec1no1o


1. Karo nxno, xonxo µoôpe noµrornenn nsrnexµar µnere crpann n nauanoro na
nocpeµnnuecrnoro, r. e. nsrnexµar nn roronn µa yuacrnar n nocpeµnnuecrnoro,
pasônpar nn nocpeµnnuecxnx nponec n nxpnar nn nnµnmo na nocpeµnnxa.
Kaxno cnnµerencrna rona no ornomenne na npeµmecrnamara noµrornnrenna
cpema?

…………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………


2. Kaxna e onenxara Bn sa npeµcranxnero na nocpeµnnxa npn orxpnnanero na
nponeca na nocpeµnnuecrno, xaxro e onncan n Eman 1: Omrpueaue ma
nocpeouu:ecmeomo?

…………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………


3. Ho npeme na Eman 2: µequuupaue ua npoo.e+ume, µoxonxo e]exrnnen ôeme
nocpeµnnx¡r n moµennpanero na noneµennero, xoero ce ouaxna or crpannre,
r.e. axrnnno cnymane, µoôpn n¡npocn, pesmmnpane na cranonnmara, nsxasann
or crpannre, ouepranane na c]epnre, n xonro nma c¡rnacne?

…………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………


4. ¡oxonxo nomorna nocpeµnnx¡r na yuacrnnnnre nsanmno µa pasôepar cnonre
rneµnn rouxn no npoônema n xoµa na Eman 3: Ha+upaue ua peueuu», upes
c¡µeñcrnne npn nsxcnxnanero na rexnnre nosnnnn n renepnpane na
n¡smoxnocrn sa pemenne?

…………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………





41
5. ¡oxonxo pesynraren ôeme nocpeµnnx¡r na Eman 4: Hpur.m:eaue ua
nocpeouu:ecmeomo upes c¡µeñcrnnero cn npn nsnpoônanero na nocrnrnaroro
pemenne n n nonyuananero na ynepennxra na crpannre sa roronnocrra nm µa
nsn¡nnxr noernre eµnn x¡m µpyr saµ¡nxennx no cnopasymennero?

…………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………



HHCTPYMEHT 14: HPE±CTABH 3A ±HAAOIA

Tona e eµno noµxoµxmo ynpaxnenne, c xoero µa saxpnere namara paôorna cpema.
Hponec¡r, xoñro onncname n nncrpyxnnnre no-µony, cneµna onncannx n eµna nsnxsna
neorµanna xnnra n¡pxy npaxrnxara na µnanora (nnxre ôenexxara n xpax sa noneue
noµpoônocrn ornocno xnnrara). Pasnonnµnocr na ynpaxnennero ôeme nsnonsnana n xpax
na eµna pernonanna paôorna cpema, nponeµena n Pym¡nnx, x¡µero resn marepnann ôxxa
nsnpoônann na npaxrnxa. B npaxrnuecxnx recr, na ncexn yuacrnnx ôxxa µaµenn nncr
oônxnonena xaprnx n mnoro nnernn mapxepn n ncexn ôeme nomonen µa napncyna ceôe cn n
nenr¡pa na xon]nnxr. Cneµ xaro nspasnxa rnopuecxn cnonre nnxµannx, ncexn yuacrnnx
rpxôname µa npeµcrann pncynxara cn na µpyrnre n re µa x µon¡nnxr. ¡oxaro resn
yuacrnnnn ôxxa nomonenn µa paôorxr n manxn rpynn or no 6-8 µymn, yuacrnnnnre n¡n
namara paôorna cpema, axo pemnre µa nanpannre nemo noµoôno, moxe µa noxenaxr µa
oômynar c µpyrnre n pasnnunn rpynn. Hpn rona n npn µpyrn ynpaxnennx e µoôpe µa cre
orxpnrn sa npeµnoxennx.
Cneµ npnxnmunanero na resn rpynonn onnrn, pncynxnre ôxxa nocranenn na noµa,
sa µa o]opmxr mosañxa na rpynara. Bcexn yuacrnnx ronopn sa cnoxra pncynxa n sa rona
xaxno roñ nnn rx cmxra, ue osnauana rx, ocoôeno c µon¡nnennxra na xonernre cn.
Tona ouennµno e nncrpymenr, xoñro moxe µa ô¡µe npomenxn, sa µa orronopn na
nnrepecnre n naxnonnocrnre na oôyuanamn n yuacrnnnn. He ce xoneôañre µa
excnepnmenrnpare c nero xaro naunn µa nomornere na yuacrnnnnre µa uepnxr
noµc¡snarenno or npexnnxnoro n paôornara cpema n or onnra cn n xon]nnxrn nsoômo.
Hncrpymenr 15, xoñro cneµna, c¡mo ce ornacx µo nponeca na ycranonxnane na µnanor.
Moxere µa ce sanosnaere n c nero, npeµn µa pemnre xax µa npeµcrannre na yuacrnnnnre n
paôornara cpema rosn naxen nncrpymenr sa ynpannenne na xon]nnxrn.



Tyx npeµocranxme na Bamara npenenxa opnrnnannnx napnanr.


Vueóua ueu: 3aµ¡nôouanane na nosnannxra n ymennxra sa sanounane na npoµyxrnnen
µnanor.

Heoóxoðu+o epe+e: 30 mnn.

Heoóxoðu+u cpeðcmea:

42
• Eµnn uncr nncr nn¡rna xaprnx sa ncexn yuacrnnx. Pasmep¡r na nncra rpxôna µa ô¡µe
µnoen A-4 nnn none 18 x 24 nnua;

• Mnoro noµnn ôon, nnernn mapxepn, noµnopasrnopnmn ôon, nacrenn nnn xaxnoro
nmare noµ p¡xa, sa µa npen¡pnere ynpaxnennero n “nnerno npexnnxnane”;

• B sanncnmocr or nsôpannre or Bac rnopuecxn nncrpymenrn, moxe µa ce nyxµaere or
uerxn, uamn c noµa n r. n.;

• Cexynµomep nnn uaconnnx c¡c cexynµna crpenxa; n

• Hxxaxno sn¡nue. Moxe µa ô¡µe n oônxnonena cr¡xnena uama c n¡xnuxa, nsern nasaem
or xyxnxra na nenr¡pa sa oôyuenne.


Hpouec:


1. Axo paôornre c rpyna, xoxro e n c¡croxnne na xon]nnxr nnn e nsnpanena npeµ
npoônem, xoñro npoµ¡nxana c¡c ceµmnnn n mecenn, nsnonsnañre cnryannxra xaro
]oxyc na ynpaxnennero. Anrepnarnnara e µa naxapare rpynara µa nsôepe xon]nnxren
n¡npoc, xoñro n momenra rn sannmana. Hsôop¡r na npoônem, xoñro e nosnar na
yuacrnnnnre, me nm nomorne µa nnnxnar n nero n µa pasmnpxr nnxµannxra cn sa
neronoro paspemanane.

2. Pasµañre na ncexn yuacrnnx nncr nn¡rna xaprnx n neoôxoµnmnre rnopuecxn cpeµcrna,
onncann no-rope. Hacranere yuacrnnnnre na macn, µocrar¡uno ronemn, sa µa noôepar
yµoôno 6-8 µymn, npn neoôxoµnmocr nanpanere noneue rpynn. Hannmere n¡pxy
]nnnuapr remara, no xoxro rpynara e pemnna µa paôorn n, cneµ xaro yuacrnnnnre
saemar mecrara cn, oôxcnere nponeca.

3. uacnnnraropnre sanounar nponeca, xaro xapar ncexn yuacrnnx, raxa xaro e ceµnan, µa
sanasn sa mnnyra nnn µne m¡nuanne, xoero my µana n¡smoxnocr µa ce c¡cpeµoroun
n¡pxy npoônema n roñ µa sanoune µa npnema ]opma n neronoro nnn neñnoro c¡snanne
n noµc¡snanne.

4. Cneµ mnnyra nnn µne ]acnnnrarop¡r µana c¡c sn¡nuero cnrnan sa nauano na n¡pnnx
or cepnx eµnomnnyrnn rypone. Ho npeme na ncexn ryp, ncexn eµnn or yuacrnnnnre
rpxôna µa npexn¡pnn n¡pxy npeµocranenara my xaprnx eouu oopas na npoônema.

5. Cneµ eµna mnnyra, ]acnnnrarop¡r µana cnrnan c¡c sn¡nuero n ncexn npeµana nncra,
n¡pxy xoñro roxy-mo e nspasnn npoônema n oôpas, na uonexa n µxcno or nero.

6. Bom ncexn nonyun nonnx naôop or oôpasn, xasna nm ce µa nomncnxr “xaxno moxe µa
ce µoôann, sa µa ce nspasn ome no-xcno npoônema?” n cneµ rona µa µoôanxr cnox non
oôpas n¡pxy xaprnxra. Eµnomnnyrnnre rypone ce nonrapxr, µoxaro ncnuxn na macara
ne nonyuar oôparno nncra xaprnx, c xoñro ca sanounann.

7. Ha rosn eran ]acnnnraropnre ncxar or yuacrnnnnre µa nsnoxar nncronere cn n¡pxy
macnre, µa rn sanenxr na crenara sa oôc¡xµane nnn µa n¡snpnemar onsn noµxoµ x¡m
43
rpynonnx µnanor, xoñro nm ce crpyna npannnen n momenra. uacnnnrarop¡r noµrnxna
ncxxa rpyna µa pasc¡xµana n¡pxy renepnpanara cnmnonnuna nn]opmannx, sa µa
nnnxne no-µ¡nôoxo n npoônema.

8. uacnnnrarop¡r moxe µa saµana nxxon n¡npocn n µa npann nsxasnannx, xaro
nomecrennre no-µony, sa µa noµnomorne rpynnre µa oôpaôorxr nn]opmannxra n
nµenre, xonro ca ce poµnnn n pesynrar na ynpaxnennero.

• Kaxno nnxµare?

• Ocranere oôpasnre µa nn ronopxr

• Konexrnnnnre aprncrnunn rnopennx ouepraxa nn oômn remn n nµen?

• Hma nn nxxaxnn ouennµnn pasnnunx? Axo nma, xaxno mncnnre, ue osnauanar re?

• Brnexµañre ce n rnopônre n ce ncnymañre eµnn n µpyr.

• He npnô¡psnañre c onenxnre cn.


[Tona ynpaxnenne e aµanrnpano or paôornoro npnnoxenne, nxnmueno n xnnra c¡c
sarnanne µua.oeìm: Hpeomrpuùme mpucqop+upauama euepeu» ua paseoeopa, or Hnnµa
Ennnop n Inena ¡xepapµ. Hsµaµena e npes 1998 r. or “¡xon Vañnn n cnnone” n
“paôornoro npnnoxenne”, xoero nsnonsname, e na crp. 130-2. Axo xenaere µa nayunre
noneue sa nponeca na µnanora, ropemo nn npenop¡uname rasn xnnra.]

HHCTPYMEHT 15: YCBORBAHE HA H3RmHOTO H3KYCTBO HA ±HAAOIA

Vueóua ueu: 3aµ¡nôouanane na pasônpanero n ymennxra sa nsnonsnane na onpeµenxmnre
xauecrna na µnanora.

Heoóxoðu+o epe+e: 90-120 mnnyrn

Heoóxoðu+u +amepuauu:

1. Ioeopeua npì:ra. Ionopemara np¡uxa e nµex, nacneµena or rysemnara
amepnxancxa oômnocr. Ha rexnnre c¡nern rx ce e npeµanana or eµnn nnµep na µpyr
xaro snax sa rona, xoñ nma µymara nnn xaro npnsnara n¡smoxnocr µa ce nsxaxem.
Tx e ônna cnmnon na ynaxenne, xoñro nacounan nnnmannero x¡m µ¡pxamnx
ronopemara np¡uxa. H xoero e nañ-naxno, rx npeµornparxnana eµnonpemennoro
ronopene n saôanxna remnoro na pasronop.

2. Bìnpocuur sa oµeura. B¡npocnnx¡r sa onenxa nma sa nen µa ocnrypn oôparna
nn]opmannx sa ymennxra, xonro cnocoôcrnar sa pesynraren µnanor. Bxnmueno e
xonne or npeµnarannx n¡npocnnx, saeµno c ôenexxn ornocno p¡xonoµenero na
nanpannxnanara µncxycnx, npeµxoxµama ynpaxnennero c µnanora.

Memoð:

44
1. 3anounere ynpaxnennero c nanpannxnana µncxycnx sa ymennxra n rnnonere
noneµenne npn nponexµane na µnanor. Bnxre ôenexxnre x¡m oôyuanamnx cneµ
onncannero na npeµnarannx yueôen meroµ.
2. Pasµenere yuacrnnnnre na manxn rpynn or ocem µo µecer µymn n nomonere µnama
µa noemar ponxra na naônmµarenn. Hncrpyxrnpañre rn ornocno ponnre nm:
o Tesn, xonro me yuacrnar n µnanora, nsônpar rema, xoxro no rxxno nnxµane me
npeµnsnnxa nonxpnn mnennx n rpynara. Hanpnmep, eµnonononnre ôpaxone,
nonnrnxara nnn axryanen cnopen n¡npoc n rxxnara oômnocr, crpana nnn pernon.
Hpeµnoxere nm µa nsnonsnar “ronopemara np¡uxa”, sa µa ynpannxnar µnanora.
Hanomnere nm, ue rona ne e µncxycnx c ]acnnnrarop.
o Haônmµarennre cneµna µa naônmµanar µnanora n µa ca noµrornenn µa oôc¡µxr c
rpynara nneuarnennxra cn or µnanora, xaro ô¡µar mnoro xonxpernn no ornomenne
na rona, µann unenonere na rpynara ca cneµnann npeµnoxennre nacoxn, oueprann
no npeme na nanpannxnanara µncxycnx.

3. Homonere ncxxa rpyna µa cn namepn rnxo mxcro n µa nponeµe µnanor no nsôpanara
rema. Tpxôna µa ce cnpanxr n pamxnre na 60 mnnyrn.
4. B xpax na µnanora, naônmµarennre me rn nomonxr µa non¡nnxr xpar¡x n¡npocnnx
sa nneuarnennxra or µnanora, a cneµ rona me nponeµar xparxo oôc¡xµane na
pesynrarnre. Ho npeme na oôc¡xµanero naônmµarennre me cnoµenxr c¡mo n
coôcrnennre cn nnxµannx sa xauecrnoro na µnanora.
5. Cneµ oxono 15 mnnyrno oôc¡xµane n noµrpynnre, naxapañre nxnara rpyna µa ce
c¡ôepe ornono sa eµno ]nnanno oôc¡xµane na nayuenoro. san¡pmere
ynpaxnennero xaro nonnrare yuacrnnnnre xax ônxa mornn µa nsnonsnar rosn
noµxoµ, sa µa nomornar na n¡nneuennre n xon]nnxr no-µoôpe µa pasôepar
pasnnunxra cn.

Beneaxa xsu oõyuanamnn: Konnennnnre n crparernnre, cn¡psann c nponeca na µnanor,
ca naxnn n¡smoxnocrn sa cmexuanane na µ¡nroroµnmnn xon]nnxrn n oômnocrn n
oômecrna. Karo ce nma npeµnnµ norennnannara nm ponx n nnnnnnpanero na ncrnncxn
µnanor na nnno oômnocr, ôn ônno nexañcrno or nama crpana µa ne npeµnoxnm none eµno
yueôno npnnoxenne, xoero µa µaµe n¡smoxnocr µa ce nomorne na µpyrnre µa pasnnxr
cnonre µnanornunn ymennx.
Maxap µa nxma eµno xcno onpeµenenne na µnanora, nµenre xonro cneµnar, ôn rpxônano µa
cnomornar sa nsxcnxnanero na nponeca n neronnre erann. Hnnµa Ennnop n Inena
¡xepapµ n nponnxnonenara cn xnnra “¡nanor¡r” npeµnarar sa oôc¡xµane nxxon
nnrepecnn n¡npocn.
2
Te npanxr pasnnxa mexµy µnanor n µncxycnx xaro rn pasrnexµar
xaro uacr or eµno oômo npocrpancrno.
¡nanor¡r e cn¡psan c narpynnanero n pasrp¡manero na cmnc¡na, xoñro ce c¡ônpa or
mnoro uacrn, µoxaro µncxycnxra e cn¡psana c pasônnane na nxnoro na mnoxecrno uacrn.
Pasronop¡r xnonn x¡m µnanornunnx xpañ na xonrnnyyma, x¡µero ocnonnara µnnxema
cnna e nayuananero n pasmnpxnanero na snannero sa nemo nnn renepnpanero na nonn
rneµnn rouxn or n¡srneµnre na mnosnna. Oôparno, xoraro µnnxemara cnna e namnpanero
na eµno pemenne nnn na nañ-µoôpara anrepnarnna cpeµ mnoro, rorana nmame
npnônnxanane x¡m µncxycnonnnx xpañ.
Ero nxxon or pasnnxnre mexµy oua.oea n oucrvcu»ma/oeoamume, xonro ycranonxnar
Ennnop n ¡xepapµ. Oô¡pnere nnnmanne, ue re nocranxr n µeôara n µncxycnonnnx xpañ na
xonrnnyyma.

2
Ennnop, Hnnµa n Inena ¡xepapµ, “¡nanor¡r: Hpeorxpnnane na rpanc]opmnpamara eneprnx na
pasronopa”. (Hm Hopx, nsµarencrno “¡xon Vañnn n cnnone”, 1998), crp. 20-1.
45

µuauoe

o Bnxµane na µ».omo cpeµ uacrnre
o Bnxµane na epìsrume mexµy uacrnre
o Hsc.eoeaue na npesymnnnnre
o Hayuanane upes µnpene n orxpnnane
o ¡ocrnrane µo eµnn oou cmnc¡n cpeµ mnoxecrno µpyrn.

µucuycua/µeóamu

o Pasµpoôxnane na n¡npocnre/npoônemnre na :acmu
o Bnxµane na om.urume mexµy uacrnre
o µoraseaue/sauumaeaue na npesymnnnnre
o Voeroaeaue, npooaeaue (ua uoeu), raseaue
o ¡ocrnrane µo c¡rnacne no eouo snauenne

Koraro orc¡crna narncx sa npnxnmunane nnn pemenne, yuacrnnnnre oônxnoneno sanarar
na cnrypno n npeµnarar pasnnunn rneµnn rouxn ôes µa nma neoôxoµnmocr µa µoxasnar
“npanorara” na rn¡pµennero cn. Henra na µnanora e µa ce yunm eµnn or µpyrn n µa raµnm
cnoµenen cmnc¡n, xoñro nxnmuna n ceôe cn ncnuxn rneµnn rouxn.

Kaxro nsrnexµa, c¡mecrnyna oômo c¡rnacne mexµy onesn, xonro noµxpenxr
nsnonsnanero na µnanora, ornocno nxxon or nañ-c¡mecrnennre xauecrna, xonro
µe]nnnpar nponeca. Te nxnmunar:

o Bìsoìpraue om npeµeuru. Tona e moxe ôn nañ-rpyµnoro ymenne. To ne ce c¡cron
n neµonycxane ]opmnpanero na npenenxa, a no-cxopo n pasnnnane na
cnocoônocrra sa naônmµenne na npenenxnre, xaxro coôcrnennre, raxa n resn na
µpyrnre, or neyrpanna nosnnnx xaro n c¡moro npeme ocranare neôesnpncrpacrnn n
nepeaxrnnnn.
o Omcmpau»eaue om o:areauu»ma ua uvroama om rourpemuu pesv.mamu.
¡nanor¡r ne e paspemanane na npoônemn. Toñ e nponec na c¡nmecrno orxpnnane
na npoônemnre. He e nepeanncrnuno µa ouaxname, ue cnoµenennxr cmnc¡n n
pasônpane me µoneµar µo pemenne na npoônema.
o Hsc.eoeaue ua ocuoeuume npesv+nµuu e ovx ua .moosuame.uo oupeue.
“Hpesymnnnnre ca npnunnara sa momenrannnre onenxn, xonro npannm, xoraro
c¡µnm.”
3
“Tona ôeme eµna µoôpa, nnn eµna noma, nµex, samoro – (npesymnnnx).”
Hocroxnno nsemame pemennx nnn npeµnpnemame µeñcrnnx n¡s ocnona na
npenenxn, xonro ce xopenxr n eµna nnn noneue npesymnnnn. Te ca rpaµnnnnre
enemenrn, xonro axymynnpame n reuenne na xnnora cn, sa µa ocmncnxme cnera, n
xoñro xnneem. Karo nscneµname resn remenn “n µyx na nmôosnarenno µnpene”,
moxem µa rn moµn]nnnpame n µopn µa rn npomennm, sa µa µocrnrnem µo µpyrn
npenenxn, xonro cneµ rona µa npen¡pnem n pemennx n µeñcrnnx. C µpyrn µymn,
npesymnnnnre, xonro rpaµnm, ca nemara, xonro mncnnm ue snaem – µoxaro ne
ycranonnm µpyro. ¡nanor¡r e eµnn or nañ-e]exrnnnnre nncrpymenrn sa
ycranonxnane na “µpyro”.

3
Hax ram, crp. 78.
46
o Hcmuuuocm. C µpyrn µymn, nspasxnañre rona, xoero uyncrnare n n xoero nxpnare n
ô¡µere roronn µa ro samnrnre.
o 3aoae»ue ua me+nomo u cìsoaeaue ua navsu +erov eoeopeuume, mara :e
c+ucì.ìm ua ov+ume u+ oa +ore oa npouurue e ro.ermueuomo cìsuauue.
o Buu+ame.uo ec.vueaue e rasauomo om opveume u om uac ca+ume. Mnoro or nac
ca sanosnarn c nµenre n ymennxra na axrnnnoro cnymane. Moxe ôn e naxno n rosn
momenr µa rn npeµcrannm ornono.

Hoµxanname nn c¡mo µa pasrneµare ornono µncxycnxra na µnanora n rn. 4 na
Xpucmo+amu»ma.

Yxasanne sa naõnmµa1enn na µnanora

3aµaunre, xonro cneµnar nmar sa nen µa nn nomornar µa anannsnpare µnanora,
n¡snoxen nn sa naônmµenne n µa npeµcrannre nneuarnennxra cn or nero cneµ
npnxnmunanero my. F¡µere xonxoro e n¡smoxno no-xonxpernn no ornomenne na
naônmµanannre or nac rnnone noneµenne n na uyroro no npeme na µnanora.

Onenere npeµcranennre no-µony rn¡pµennx no cxana or 1 µo 5, ornacxma ce µo
nxnocrnara e]exrnnnocr na rpynara n npnµ¡pxanero x¡m cneµnnre xpnrepnn n¡n
np¡sxa c µnanornunnx pasronop nponeµen or rxx. Eµno (1) = uanì.uo ueeqermueuu;
rpn (3) = oou»rìoe eqermueuu; n ner (5) = +uoeo eqermueuu.

0. Cnocoônocrra na unenonere na rpynara µa ce n¡sµ¡pxar or npenenxn.

Han¡nno nee]exrnnnn 1 2 3 4 5 Mnoro e]exrnnnn

1. Cnocoônocrra nm µa ce npnµ¡pxar x¡m nponeca na vcmauoe»eaue n npoônemnre
ôes µa npemnnanar x¡m peuaeaue na npoônemnre.

Han¡nno nee]exrnnnn 1 2 3 4 5 Mnoro e]exrnnnn

2. Cnocoônocrra nm µa nscneµnar sanoxennre npesymnnnn xaro uacr or nponeca na
µnanor.

Han¡nno nee]exrnnnn 1 2 3 4 5 Mnoro e]exrnnnn

3. Cnocoônocrra na yuacrnnnnre µa ô¡µar nenoµnpanenn xaro saxnxnar rona, n xoero
nxpnar n nspasxnar uyncrnara cn n pasronopnre cn c µpyrnre.

Han¡nno nee]exrnnnn 1 2 3 4 5 Mnoro e]exrnnnn

4. 3aôanxne na remnoro na pasronopnre cn n npeµocranxne na npeme sa pasmnc¡n.

Han¡nno nee]exrnnnn 1 2 3 4 5 Mnoro e]exrnnnn

5. Camo eµnn ronopem n¡n ncexn eµnn momenr.

Han¡nno nee]exrnnnn 1 2 3 4 5 Mnoro e]exrnnnn

47
6. ¡emoncrpnpane na cnocoônocrra sa c¡cpeµoroueno cnymane na µpyrnre.

Han¡nno nee]exrnnnn 1 2 3 4 5 Mnoro e]exrnnnn

7. Vuene upes µnpene n pasxpnnane.

Han¡nno nee]exrnnnn 1 2 3 4 5 Mnoro e]exrnnnn

Axo cre onennnn nxxoe or raxa ]opmynnpannre xauecrna na µnanora c rpn (3) nnn no-
manxo, orôenexere n npasnoro mxcro noµ n¡npoca ocnonannxra cn sa rona. Hocouere
xonxpernn npnmepn, xonro ca nonnnxnn na onenxara nn.

Onpeµenere xoñ or unenonere na rpynara e ônn nañ-e]exrnnen n e nsnonsnan eµno nnn
noneue or resn nnunn xauecrna, sa µa rapanrnpa ycnexa na µnanora. He ce npnrecnxnañre
µa ornnunre noneue or eµnn uonex sa nonoxnrennnx my npnnoc n µnanora.


HHCTPYMEHT 16: HAAHHPAHE HA HPHAOÆEHHETO HA HAYHEHOTO


Henra na noneuero yueônn cnryannn e µa ocnrypxr na yuacrnnnnre n¡smoxnocr µa
npomenxr n noµoôpxnar paôorara cn nnn nnunnx cn xnnor. Taxa ue ôn ônno nornuno µa
saxnmunm, ue croñnocrra na eµno oôyuenne ne moxe µa ce onenn nan¡nno npeµn
yuacrnnnnre µa nanpanxr ncxpeno ycnnne µa npnnoxar na npaxrnxa nayuenoro. H
n¡npexn ue rona nancrnna snyun nornuno, c¡mecrnynar mnoxecrno ]axropn, xonro
sarpyµnxnar npnnaranero na nonn snannx n ymennx. Honxxora npeuxnre ca n¡nmnn, xaro
nanpnmep, xoraro nacrannnx nnn xonera npeneôpernar ycnnnxra nn sa yc¡n¡pmencrnane n
nn ce npncmnnar sa nonnre nµen, xonro excnepnmenrnpare. B µpyrn cnyuan npeuxnre ca
n¡rpemnn. Hamepennxra nn ca µoôpn, no crapnre nannnn ca cnnnn. Moxe µa ca nn
neoôxoµnmn noneue npeme, r¡pnenne n ynepenocr n coôcrnennre n¡smoxnocrn, sa µa
npnµoônere nonn nannnn nnn sa µa npnnoxnre nonnre snannx n ymennx, orxonxoro cre
cxnonnn µa µaµere or ceôe cn.

Eµnn or nañ-µoôpnre meroµn sa nac¡puanane rpanc]epa na snannx, xonro c¡mecrnynar, e
nnan¡r. Bepoxrnocrra µa nanpannre nemo c nononpnµoônrnre snannx n ymennx
snaunrenno napacrna, axo cre ce samncnnnn nanpeme sa nayuenoro or nac n sa nperpaµnre,
na xonro ônxre mornn µa ce nar¡xnere, xoraro ce n¡pnere cpeµ xonernre cn.

A cera orµenere nsnecrno npeme na non¡nnanero na npeµnoxenara no-µony paôorna pamxa
xaro naxna cr¡nxa n noµroronxara na cnoñ nnan sa npnnoxenne na nayuenoro sa
ynpannennero na xon]nnxrn.

0. B¡s ocnona na nayuenoro sa ynpannennero na xon]nnxrnre n pasnornacnxra, ero
µne nnn rpn xonxpernn nema, xonro nnannpam µa nsnonsnam n xon]nnxrnn
cnryannn, sa µa µonpnneca sa nonoxnrenna npomxna.

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1. Fnx ncxan/a cneµnnre nnna µa mn c¡µeñcrnar n resn ycnnnx n cmxram µa nonyua
rxxnara noµxpena no cneµnnre naunnn.

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2. Axo cpemna c¡npornna npn npnnaranero na nonnre cn snannx n ymennx sa
ynpannenne na xon]nnxrn, nnannpam µa ce cnpanx c nex no cneµnnre naunnn.

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3. Ero xaxno cmxram µa nanpanx, sa µa onenx ycnemnocrra na crparernxra cn sa
n¡nexµane na ynpannennero na xon]nnxrn.

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