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i

MINISTRY OF ENERGY AND PUBLIC UTILITIES













ENERGY OBSERVATORY REPORT
2011





12/2012


ii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................................................... iii
KEY FIGURES ................................................................................................................................................ 1
SUMMARY TABLE 2011 ............................................................................................................................. 2
SUMMARY TABLE 2010 ............................................................................................................................. 3
COMPARISON TABLE 2010 & 2011 ........................................................................................................ 4
ENERGY PATTERN 2011 ............................................................................................................................ 5
TABLE OF INDICATORS ............................................................................................................................. 6
ENERGY SUPPLY ......................................................................................................................................... 7
ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION BASE .......................................................................................................... 13
ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION .................................................................................................................... 15
DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRICITY ............................................................................................................. 19
FINAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION ............................................................................................................. 21
FOSSIL FUELS ............................................................................................................................................. 32
RENEWABLE ENERGY ............................................................................................................................... 33
CO
2
EMISSIONS DUE TO FOSSIL FUELS ............................................................................................... 36
GLOSSARY .................................................................................................................................................. 38
HOW TO READ SUMMARY TABLE ........................................................................................................ 42

iii

INTRODUCTION
This is the second report of the Energy Observatory for Mauritius. The aim for setting
up of the Energy Observatory, as one of the strategies of the Long Term Energy Strategy of
the Ministry of Energy and Public Utilities in the field of Energy Efficiency, is to create a
national database on energy usage in order to provide decisions makers with an instrument to
monitor energy use and assist in energy management. Its main objective is to present data on
energy use in the country with analysis of trends that have occurred.

The Energy Observatory report is provided on an annual basis and is posted on the
website of the Energy Efficiency Management Office (EEMO) as an easily accessible source
of information to all citizens and policy makers who want information about the energy
situation in the island.

The EEMO wishes to acknowledge the cooperation and assistance of the
organisations which have contributed for the development of the report for Mauritius namely;
Statistics Mauritius, the Central Electricity Board and the National Transport Authority.
























All data in this document refer to the Republic of Mauritius, unless otherwise specified and may be subject to
revision in subsequent issues.
1

KEY FIGURES

Surface area: 1864.8 km (Island of Mauritius)
2040 km

Indicator Unit 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Total primary energy
requirement ktoe 1157.3 1222.8 1255.8 1293.2 1376.8 1381.8 1404.4 1346.9 1430.7 1426.8
Imported ktoe 898.8 956.3 980.1 1030.5 1122.1 1136.0 1140.9 1110.6 1189.0 1195.7
Local ktoe 258.6 266.5 275.7 262.6 254.6 245.8 263.5 236.3 241.6 231.1
Annual increase % -2.1 5.7 2.7 3.0 6.5 0.4 1.6 -4.1 6.2 -0.3
Import Dependency % 77.7 78.2 78.0 79.7 81.5 82.2 81.2 82.5 83.1 83.8
GDP in 2000 rupees Rs M 128400 136084 141935 143996 150496 159338 168128 173247 180442 187919
Population 1210196 1222811 1233386 1243253 1252698 1260403 1268565 1275032 1280924 1286051
Energy intensity
toe per Rs
100000 GDP 0.90 0.90 0.88 0.90 0.91 0.87 0.84 0.78 0.79 0.76
Per capita primary
energy requirement toe 0.96 1.00 1.02 1.04 1.10 1.10 1.11 1.06 1.12 1.11






All data in this document refer to the Republic of Mauritius, unless otherwise specified and may be subject to revision in subsequent issues.
2

SUMMARY TABLE 2011


Coal Hydro Wind Electricity Heat TOTAL
-' Consumption in ktoe Gasoline Diesel Aviation fuel Kerosene HFO LPG Used oils Bagasse Landfill Gas Fuelwood Charcoal PV Thermal + Prod + Prod
+' Production and supply - Cons - Cons
Primary Energy and Supply
Local Production (LP) 218.1 0.3 7.6 4.9 0.2 231.1
Imported Resources 409.3 126.0 313.0 235.4 4.5 417.4 71.6 1577.3
R-exports and bunkering -101.2 -123.5 -177.6 -402.3
Stocks (+ destocking; - stocking) -11.6 4.0 -1.7 22.3 -0.1 8.3 -0.5 20.7
TOTAL Primary Energy (PE) 397.7 130.0 210.1 134.3 4.3 248.1 71.1 0.0 218.1 0.3 7.6 0.0 4.9 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 1426.8
% Energy independence (LP/PE) 16.2
Secondary Energy
Coal input for electricity production -382.7 95.3 -287.4
HFO and diesel input for electricity production -1.5 -205.9 91.0 -116.4
Bagasse input for electricity production -179.0 42.1 -136.9
Kerosene input for electricity production -3.8 1.0 -2.8
Biogas input for electricity production -0.3 0.3 0.0
Hydro input for electricity production -4.9 4.9 0.0
PV input for electricity production PV 0.0 0.0
Wind input for electricity production -0.2 0.2 0.0
Electricity production own use -3.8 -3.8
Solar Thermal heat production 0.0
Fuelwood to charcoal -0.9 0.4 -0.5
TOTAL Secondary supply (SS) -382.7 0.0 -1.5 0.0 -3.8 -205.9 0.0 0.0 -179.0 -0.3 -0.9 0.4 -4.9 0.0 0.0 -0.2 231.0 0.0 -547.8
Energy Distribution
Final distribution (D=PE+SS) 14.9 130.0 208.5 134.3 0.5 42.1 71.1 0.0 39.1 0.0 6.7 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 231.0 0.0 878.9
Losses (L=(D+F)) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 -16.7 0.0 -16.7
TOTAL final distribution (D+L) 14.9 130.0 208.5 134.3 0.5 42.1 71.1 0.0 39.1 0.0 6.7 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 214.3 0.0 862.3
Final Energy Consumption
Manufacturing -14.9 -43.5 -38.8 -5.7 -39.1 -0.5 -79.2 -221.8
Commercial -12.2 -0.3 -68.2 -80.7
Household -0.5 -48.2 -6.2 -0.1 -62.4 -117.4
Transport -130.0 -162.6 -134.3 -3.3 -4.9 0.0 -435.2
Agriculture -2.4 -1.9 -4.3
Others -0.3 -2.7 -2.9
TOTAL (F) -14.9 -130.0 -208.5 -134.3 -0.5 -42.1 -71.1 0.0 -39.1 0.0 -6.7 -0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 -214.3 0.0 -862.3
Fossil Fuels Renewable Energy
Petroleum products Biomas Solar
3

SUMMARY TABLE 2010


Coal Hydro Wind Electricity Heat TOTAL
-' Consumption in ktoe Gasoline Diesel Aviation fuel Kerosene HFO LPG Used oils Bagasse Biogas Fuelwood Charcoal PV Thermal + Prod + Prod
+' Production and supply - Cons - Cons
Primary Energy and Supply
Local Production (LP) 225.0 7.7 8.7 0.2 241.6
Imported Resources 409.6 130.6 313.5 244.2 7.0 327.8 67.7 1500.5
R-exports and bunkering -114.3 -119.6 -118.5 -352.4
Stocks (+ destocking; - stocking) 4.5 -2.9 14.4 -1.4 1.0 22.9 2.4 41.0
TOTAL Primary Energy (PE) 414.1 127.7 213.6 123.3 8.0 232.2 70.2 0.0 225.0 0.0 7.7 0.0 8.7 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 1430.7
% Energy independence (LP/PE) 16.9
Secondary Energy
Coal input for electricity production -398.7 89.4 -309.3
HFO and diesel input for electricity production -2.0 -189.0 84.0 -107.0
Bagasse input for electricity and heat production -182.5 47.3 -135.1
Kerosene input for electricity production -6.2 1.6 -4.6
Biogas input for electricity production 0.0 0.0
Hydro input for electricity production -8.7 8.7 0.0
PV input for electricity production PV 0.0 0.0
Wind input for electricity production -0.2 0.2 0.0
Electricity production own use -3.5 -3.5
Solar Thermal heat production 0.0
Fuelwood to charcoal -0.9 0.4 -0.4
TOTAL Secondary supply (SS) -398.7 0.0 -2.0 0.0 -6.2 -189.0 0.0 0.0 -182.5 0.0 -0.9 0.4 -8.7 0.0 0.0 -0.2 227.8 0.0 -560.0
Energy Distribution
Final distribution (D=PE+SS) 15.4 127.7 211.6 123.3 1.8 43.2 70.2 0.0 42.6 0.0 6.8 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 227.8 0.0 870.7
Losses (L=(D+F)) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 -16.7 0.0 -16.7
TOTAL final distribution (D+L) 15.4 127.7 211.6 123.3 1.8 43.2 70.2 0.0 42.6 0.0 6.8 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 211.1 0.0 854.0
Final Energy Consumption
Manufacturing -15.4 -47.0 -39.8 -5.5 -42.6 -0.5 -80.4 -231.2
Commercial -11.8 -0.3 -64.3 -76.5
Household -1.8 -47.6 -6.3 -0.1 -61.1 -116.9
Transport -127.7 -162.2 -123.3 -3.4 -5.0 0.0 -421.6
Agriculture -2.3 -2.1 -4.4
Others -0.2 -3.2 -3.5
TOTAL (F) -15.4 -127.7 -211.6 -123.3 -1.8 -43.2 -70.2 0.0 -42.6 0.0 -6.8 -0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 -211.1 0.0 -854.0
Fossil Fuels Renewable Energy
Petroleum products Biomas Solar
4

COMPARISON TABLE 2010 & 2011


Coal Hydro Wind Electricity Heat TOTAL
Gasoline Diesel
Aviation
fuel Kerosene HFO LPG Used oils Bagasse Landfill Gas Fuelwood Charcoal PV Thermal
Primary Energy and Supply
Local Production (LP) -3.1 % -1.0 % -43.9 % 12.5 % -4.3 %
Imported Resources -0.1 % -3.5 % -0.2 % -3.6 % -36.4 % 27.3 % 5.8 % 5.1 %
TOTAL Primary Energy (PE) -4.0 % 1.8 % -1.6 % 9.0 % -46.1 % 6.8 % 1.4 % -3.1 % -1.0 % -43.9 % 12.5 % -0.3 %
Secondary Energy
Coal input for electricity production -4.0 % 6.6 %
HFO and diesel input for electricity production -23.7 % 9.0 % 8.4 %
Bagasse input for electricity production -1.9 % -11.1 %
Kerosene input for electricity production -39.1 % -38.8 %
Biogas input for electricity production
Hydro input for electricity production -43.9 % -43.9 %
PV input for electricity production PV
Wind input for electricity production 12.5 % 12.5 %
Electricity production own use 8.9 %
Solar Thermal heat production
Fuelwood to charcoal 2.3 % 2.4 %
TOTAL Secondary supply (SS) -4.0 % -23.7 % -39.1 % 9.0 % -1.9 % 2.3 % 2.4 % -43.9 % 12.5 % 1.4 %
Energy Distribution
Final distribution (D=PE+SS) -2.8 % 1.8 % -1.4 % 9.0 % -70.2 % -2.5 % 1.4 % -8.2 % -1.5 % 2.4 % 1.4 %
Losses (L=(D+F)) 0.1 %
Final Energy Consumption
Manufacturing -2.8 % -7.4 % -2.5 % 2.3 % -8.2 % -0.1 % -1.4 % -4.1 %
Commercial 3.1 % 3.5 % 6.0 % 5.5 %
Household -70.2 % 1.3 % -1.6 % -2.3 % 2.0 % 0.4 %
Transport 1.8 % 0.3 % 9.0 % -2.5 % -3.0 % 3.2 %
Agriculture 0.8 % -5.6 % -2.2 %
Others 4.0 % -17.7 % -16.2 %
TOTAL (F) -2.8 % 1.8 % -1.4 % 9.0 % -70.2 % -2.5 % 1.4 % -8.2 % -1.5 % 2.3 % 1.5 % 1.0 %
Fossil Fuels Renewable Energy
Petroleum products Biomas Solar
5

ENERGY PATTERN 2011
6

TABLE OF INDICATORS
Item Indicators Unit 2010 2011 2011/2010
Primary Energy
Consumption
Primary Energy
Consumption
ktoe 1430.7 1426.8 -0.3
Share of local resources:
local primary
consumption/total primary
consumption
% 16.9 16.2 -4.1
Energy intensity
Energy intensity per
inhabitant: Primary energy
Consumption/population
toe/inhab 1.12 1.11 -0.7
Energy intensity per
100,000 (1990 Rs): Primary
Energy Consumption/GDP
toe/Rs 0.79 0.76 -4.2
Electricity Production
Total fossil fuel input for
electricity production
ktoe 596.0 594.0 -0.3

Total renewable input for
electricity production
ktoe 191.3 184.4 -3.6

Total electricity production ktoe 231.2 234.8 1.5

Penetration of renewable
resources
% 21.5 20.2 -5.9
Final electricity
consumption per sector
Total electricity
consumption
ktoe 231.2 234.8 1.5
Domestic sector % 32.7 32.5 -0.4
Commercial sector % 34.4 35.6 3.4
Industrial sector % 31.2 30.5 -2.2
Electricity consumption per
consumer (Domestic)
toe/consumer 0.17 0.17 -0.1
Electricity consumption per
consumer (Commercial)
toe/consumer 1.74 1.81 3.9
Electricity consumption per
consumer (Industrial)
toe/consumer 8.32 8.57 3.1
Final energy consumption
in transport sector
Total energy consumption GWh and ktoe 421.6 435.2 3.2
CO2 Emissions
Total emissions kTCO
2
eq 3664.40 3639.50 -0.7
Energy sector % 60.70 60.61 -0.2
Manufacturing sector % 9.61 9.25 -3.7
Transport sector % 24.89 25.34 1.8
Residential sector % 3.70 3.67 -0.9
Others % 1.10 1.14 3.4
CO2 emissions per
inhabitant
TCO
2
eq/inhab 2.86 2.83 -1.1
CO2 emissions per kWh of
electricity generated
gCO
2
/kWh 827.3 807.9 -2.3

7

ENERGY SUPPLY
The energy supply of Mauritius is divided into:
- Imports of primary energy (Fossil fuels: Heavy Fuel Oil. Liquefied Petroleum Gas, Gasoline, Diesel,
Kerosene, Aviation fuel, Coal)
- Production of primary energy (Local resources: Bagasse, hydro, wind, landfill gas, fuelwood)
- Variation of stocks
- Primary energy re-exports

These elements allow us to know the primary consumption of Mauritius
Imports of energy sources:
Fossil Energy Imports 2011 ktonne ktoe
Coal 660.2 409.3
Gasoline 116.7 126.0
Diesel oil 309.9 313.0
Aviation fuel 226.4 235.4
kerosene 4.3 4.5
Fuel oil 434.8 417.4
Liquefied Petroleum Gas
(LPG) 66.3 71.6
TOTAL 1818.6 1577.3

Sources: Statistics Mauritius - Author: OEM



Source: Statistics Mauritius - Author OEM Percentages refer to values in ktoe
In 2011, imports of fossil fuels totalled 1577.3 ktoe, which were distributed as follows:
- 69.5 % for petroleum products (excluding LPG)
- 4.5 % for LPG
- 26.0 % for coal
Coal
26.0%
Gasoline
8.0%
Diesel oil
19.8%
Aviation fuel
14.9%
kerosene
0.3%
Fuel oil
26.5%
Liquefied
Petroleum Gas
(LPG)
4.5%
Fossil Energy Imports 2011
8


Petroleum products are intended mostly for the sectors of transport, electricity generation,
manufacturing and to a minor level household (LPG and kerosene), commercial and agriculture.
Coal is used primarily for power generation from thermal coal/bagasse power plants with a small
fraction being used in the manufacturing sector.
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) is used mainly as cooking and water heating fuel, to a lesser extent as
fuel for vehicles.

Evolution of fossil fuel imports



Source: Statistics Mauritius - Author: OEM

In 2011 total imports of fossil fuels have increased by 5.1 %, compared to 2010.
The total imports bill of energy sources for 2011 amounted to Rs. 30, 973.9 M out of which Rs 28,
332.7 M were for petroleum products (Gasoline, Diesel Oil, Dual purpose kerosene, Fuel Oil, LPG)
and Rs 2, 641.2 M for coal, representing an increase of 25.3% over 2010.
193.5
179.4
205.7
235.1
304.0
401.6
376.0
347.1
409.6 409.3
86.7
93.7
94.7
93.7
96.0
104.1
117.2
112.8
130.2 126.0
349.9
312.3
322.9
333.2
330.8
310.6 331.7
290.9
313.5 313.0
219.6
215.8
236.1
228.9
245.4
273.1
272.7
212.9
244.2
235.4 200.2 276.5
277.3
324.0
292.2
320.6
279.4
330.0
327.8
417.4
58.4
52.7
58.1
67.7
63.5
67.8
68.2
67.6
67.7
71.6
0.0
200.0
400.0
600.0
800.0
1000.0
1200.0
1400.0
1600.0
1800.0
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
k
t
o
e

Year
Coal Gasoline Diesel oil
Aviation fuel kerosene Fuel oil
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)
1,123.2
1,151.5
1,225.8
1,311.7
1,338.1
1,481.7
1,451.4
1,365.6
1,500.5
.1
1,577.3

9

Primary energy requirement
Local resources
Total local resources amount to 231.1 ktoe distributed as follows:

Local Resources ktonne GWh Ktoe
Bagasse 1363.3 218.1
Hydro & Wind 59.3 5.1
Landfill gas 3.1 0.3
Fuelwood 20.1 7.6
Total 231.1

Source: Statistics Mauritius- Author: OEM

Evolution of primary energy obtained from local resources evolution to 2002 to 2011:


Source: Statistics Mauritius- Author: OEM
Fuel wood is mostly used for cooking in certain social classes. Values for fuel wood are estimates.
In 2011 primary energy obtained from local resources reached 231.1 ktoe. Bagasse is the main
source of primary energy from local resources. Compared to 2010 we observe a reduction in primary
energy obtained from bagasse and hydro due to a decrease in rainfall.




243.9
249.1
257.8
245.1
240.0
230.5
246.4
218.0
225.0
218.1
7.3
7.3
7.3
7.6
8.0
8.0
7.7
7.7
7.7
7.6
7.4
10.1
10.5
9.9
6.6
7.2
9.3
10.7
8.9
5.1
0.0
50.0
100.0
150.0
200.0
250.0
300.0
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
k
t
o
e

Year
Bagasse Fuelwood Hydro & Wind Landfill Gas
258.6
275.7
241.6
231.1
254.6
245.8
262.6
266.5
236.3
263.5

10

Primary energy requirement 2011
Primary Energy Requirement
(ktoe) 2010 2011 2010/2011
Imported fuels
Coal 414.1 397.7 -4.0 %
Gasoline 127.7 130.0 1.8 %
Diesel Oil 213.6 210.1 -1.6 %
Aviation
Fuel 123.3 134.3 9.0 %
Kerosene 8.0 4.3 -46.1 %
Fuel Oil 232.2 248.1 6.8 %
LPG 70.2 71.1 1.4 %
Sub Total 1189.0 1195.7 0.6 %

Bagasse 225.0 218.1 -3.1 %
Local resources
Hydro &
Wind 8.9 5.1 -42.6 %

Landfill gas 0.0 0.3

Fuelwood 7.7 7.6 -1.0 %

Sub Total 241.6 231.1 -4.3 %

TOTAL 1430.7 1426.8 -0.3 %
Source: Statistics Mauritius - Author: OEM
Energy export for Rodrigues Island is not mentioned.


Source: Statistics Mauritius- Author: OEM
Coal, 397.7,
27.9%
Gasoline,
130.0, 9.1%
Diesel Oil,
210.1, 14.7%
Aviation Fuel,
134.3, 9.4%
Kerosene, 4.3,
0.3%
Fuel Oil, 248.1,
17.4%
LPG, 71.1,
5.0%
Bagasse, 218.1,
15.3%
Hydro & Wind,
5.1, 0.4%
Landfill gas,
0.3, 0.0%
Fuelwood, 7.6,
0.5%
Primary Energy Requirement (ktoe)
11

Evolution of primary energy consumption from 2002 to 2011


Source: Statistics Mauritius - Author: OEM

Worth knowing:
Primary energy consumption Mauritius per capita: 1.1toe
Primary energy consumption Reunion Island per capita: 1.7toe
1

Primary energy consumption World per capita (2009): 1.8toe
2

1
Source: Bilan Energetique Reunion 2011
2
Source: OECD Factbook 2011

2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
LPG 52.5 55.8 59.2 65.7 69.0 68.9 67.9 68.9 70.2 71.1
Fuel oil 231.4 249.7 259.1 253.3 273.3 251.9 213.3 227.9 232.2 248.1
kerosene 14.4 18.9 26.3 28.6 6.0 2.4 4.0 6.7 8.0 4.3
Aviation fuel 113.3 128.6 142.5 143.1 146.7 143.6 136.9 110.5 123.3 134.3
Diesel oil 198.7 210.9 216.0 214.2 230.6 207.4 205.4 206.7 213.6 210.1
Gasoline 94.5 96.4 97.6 100.1 96.2 106.9 109.5 120.6 127.7 130.0
Coal 193.9 196.0 179.4 225.6 300.4 355.0 403.9 369.3 414.1 397.7
Landfill gas 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3
Fuelwood 7.3 7.3 7.3 7.6 8.0 8.0 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.6
Hydro & Wind 7.4 10.1 10.5 9.9 6.6 7.2 9.3 10.7 8.9 5.1
Bagasse 243.9 249.1 257.8 245.1 240.0 230.5 246.4 218.0 225.0 218.1
0.0
200.0
400.0
600.0
800.0
1000.0
1200.0
1400.0
1600.0
k
t
o
e


Primary Energy Consumption
1157.3
1222.8

1255.8

1426.8
1293.2
1376.8
1381.8 1404.4
1346.9
1430.7
12

Energy dependency rate:

In 2011, the energy dependency rate was 83.8 %.
Evolution of the energy dependency rate from 2002 to 2011:

2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
77.7% 78.2% 78.0% 79.7% 81.5% 82.2% 81.2% 82.5% 83.1% 83.8%

Stock variation in 2011:
Variations in stock are provided in the table below.


2011

Import Export Consumption Import-Export-Consumption

kton ktoe kton ktoe kton ktoe kton ktoe
Coal 660.2 409.3 641.4 397.7 18.8 11.7
Gasolene 116.7 126.0 120.4 130.0 -3.7 -4.0
Diesel oil 309.9 313.0 100.2 101.2 208.0 210.1 1.8 1.8
Aviation Fuel 226.4 235.4 118.8 123.5 129.2 134.3 -21.6 -22.4
Kerosene 4.3 4.5 4.2 4.3 0.1 0.1
Fuel oil 434.8 417.4 185.0 177.6 258.4 248.1 -8.6 -8.3
LPG 66.3 71.6 65.9 71.1 0.4 0.5

Source: Statistics Mauritius - Author: OEM
Note: A negative value indicates drawing from existing reserves.

13

ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION BASE
Capacity of power plants connected to the grid in 2011:
Type of power plant
Installed
plant
capacity
(MW)
Total
Installed
plant
capacity
(MW)
Effective
plant
capacity
(MW)
Total
effective
plant
capacity
(MW)
BAGASSE (during cane harvest)
Medine 13.0
27.0
13.0
26.6
Mon Loisir 14.0
13.6
COAL- BAGASSE
F.U.E.L 36.7
226.3
33.0
210.5
Compagnie
thermique de
Belle Vue
71.2
62.0
Consolidated
energy limited
28.4
25.5
Compagnie
thermique de
Savannah
90.0
90.0
COAL
Compagnie
thermique du Sud
32.5 32.5
30.0
30.0
HYDRO
Champagne 30.0
59.8
28.0
53.5
Ferney 10.0
10.0
Tamarind Falls 11.1
7.0
Le Val 4.0
4.0
Reduit 1.2
1.0
Cascade Cecile 1.0
1.0
Magenta 0.9
0.9
La Nicoliere 0.4
0.4
La Ferme 1.2
1.2
LANDFILL GAS Sotravic Ltd 2.0 2.0
2.0 2.0
KEROSENE Nicolay 78.0 78.0
76.0
76.0
DIESEL & FUEL OIL
St Louis 113.2
300.8
78.6
263.6 Fort Victoria 49.6
48.0
Fort George 138.0
137.0
Island of
Rodrigues
9.8 9.8
8.9
8.9
WIND
Island of
Rodrigues
1.3 1.3
1.3
1.3
Total power available on grid
(Island of Mauritius) (MW)
726.4 726.4 662.2 662.2
Total power available on grid
(Island of Rodrigues) (MW)
11.1 11.1 10.1 10.1
Total (MW)
737.5 737.5
672.3 672.3
Sources: Statistics Mauritius Author: OEM

14

Evolution of power plant capacity from 2008 to 2010 (Island of Mauritius)


Source: Statistics Mauritius -Author: OEM








14.0
27.6
37.6
26.6
194.5
210.5
210.5
210.5
32.5
32.5
30.0
30.0
53.1
53.1
53.5
53.5 0.0
0.0
0.0
2.0
76.0
76.0
76.0
76.0
247.6
247.6
247.6 263.6
0.0
100.0
200.0
300.0
400.0
500.0
600.0
700.0
2008 2009 2010 2011
E
f
f
e
c
t
i
v
e

c
a
p
a
c
i
t
y

M
W

Evolution of effective power plant capacities
Diesel & Fuel Oil
Kerosene
Landfill gas
Hydro
Coal
Coal-Bagasse
Bagasse (during cane harvest)
617.7
647.3
655.2
662.2
15

ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION
Electricity production in 2010:
Overall conversion efficiencies thermal power plants 2011

2010 Fuel input Electricity production Overall conversion efficiency
ktoe GWh ktoe
Coal 398.7 1115.9 96.0 24.1%
Diesel & Fuel Oil 191.0 976.6 84.0 44.0%
kerosene 6.2 18.9 1.6 26.1%
Bagasse 182.5 474.1 40.8 22.3%
TOTAL (Thermal) 778.4 2585.5 222.4 28.6%

2011 Fuel input Electricity production Overall conversion efficiency
ktoe GWh ktoe
Coal 382.7 1108.2 95.3 24.9%
Diesel & Fuel Oil 207.5 1058.7 91.0 43.9%
kerosene 3.8 11.6 1.0 26.2%
Bagasse 179.0 489.5 42.1 23.5%
TOTAL (Thermal) 773.1 2668.0 229.4 29.7%

Source: Statistics Mauritius - Author: OEM
Rounding of error may be present on certain totals .

We note an improvement in overall conversion efficiency of thermal power plants as
compared to year 2010.



Sources: Statistics MauritiusAuthor: OEM
In 2011 the total electricity production reached 2730.4 GWh or 234.8 ktoe. 79.8% of electricity
production was derived from fossil sources and 20.2% from renewable sources.
Coal
41.0%
Diesel & Fuel Oil
38.1%
kerosene
0.4%
Bagasse
18.1%
Hydro
2.1%
Wind
0.1%
Landfill gas
0.1%
Solar
0.0%
Share of electricity production by fuel type 2011
16

Evolution of electricity production from 2002 to 2011


Source: Statistics Mauritius- Author: OEM
Electricity production from hydro and bagasse varies each year depending on factors such as rainfall,
and the quality/quantity of cane harvested. In 2011, we can observe a decrease in electricity
production from bagasse while electricity production from hydro showed a significant decrease -
43.9%.

Compared to 2010, electricity production from coal decreased by 0.7% while electricity production
from heavy fuel oil and diesel increased by 8.4% and bagasse increased by 3.2%.

Total electricity production increased by 1.5 % compared to 4.3 % in 2010. Electricity generated from
renewable sources contributed 551.9 GWh (20.2%) which is less than in 2010 (24.3%).
505.5 497.6
470.3
609.7
798.3
993.6
1,128.7
1,015.3
1,115.9 1,108.2
887.4
985.0
1,058.3
1,038.0
1,023.3
915.7
827.2
938.0
976.6
1,058.7
18.0
32.3
44.3
56.2
5.7
3.2
6.6 15.3
18.9
11.6
452.1
448.9
469.6
452.9
445.7
467.9
486.4 485.0
474.1
489.5
85.9
117.8
122.3
114.9
76.6
83.9
108.0
122.4
100.7
56.5
0.0
500.0
1,000.0
1,500.0
2,000.0
2,500.0
3,000.0
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
G
W
h

Year
Coal Diesel & Fuel oil kerosene Bagasse Hydro Wind Landfill gas
2,730.4
1,948.9
2,081.6
2,165.2
2,272.1
2,350.1
2,464.7
2,557.3
2,577.4
2,688.7
17

Peak electricity demand 2011 (Island of Mauritius)

Source: Statistics Mauritius Author: OEM

In 2010, peak power demand varied between 348.3MW to 404.1MW.
In 2011 peak power demand varied between 349.8 MW to 412.5 MW
The peak power demand is observed to follow prevailing meteorological conditions mainly temperature. This implies heavy use of electricity
for cooling across the island during the summer period.


Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
2009 386.2 388.6 375.6 373 371.7 357.9 333.6 336.9 339.4 357 368.1 386.9
2010 384.8 395.9 404.1 387.1 375.1 359.1 352.7 348.3 356.7 370.8 377.7 398.2
2011 394.6 404.0 402.3 395.2 384.7 369.9 364.3 349.8 365.4 385.4 394.1 412.5
300
320
340
360
380
400
420
M
W

Peak electricity demand
18

Summary table for electricity production from 2002 to 2011 (Island of Mauritius):

2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Fossil (GWh) 1,410.9 1,514.8 1,573.0 1,704.0 1,827.4 1,912.5 1,962.5 1,968.5 2,111.4 2,178.5
Renewables (GWh) 538.0 566.7 592.3 568.2 522.7 552.2 594.8 608.9 577.3 551.9
Increase (GWh) 38.2 132.6 83.7 106.9 78.0 114.6 92.5 20.2 111.3 41.7
Percentage increase overall 2.0 % 6.8 % 4.0 % 4.9 % 3.4 % 4.9 % 3.8 % 0.8 % 4.3 % 1.5 %
Percentage of renewables 27.6% 27.2% 27.4% 25.0% 22.2% 22.4% 23.3% 23.6% 21.5% 20.2%
Peak demand (MW) (Island of Mauritius) 308.6 323.8 332.6 353.1 367.3 367.6 378.1 388.6 404.1 412.5
Peak demand evolution 3.8 % 4.9 % 2.7 % 6.2 % 4.0 % 0.1 % 2.9 % 2.8 % 4.0 % 2.1 %

Source: Statistics Mauritius - Author: OEM




Worth Knowing
In 2011, 20.2% of electricity generation was derived from renewable sources in Mauritius compared to nearly 30.3% in Reunion Island
19

DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRICITY
The electric network (Island of Mauritius)

Source: CEB (Date: 30-11-11)
20

Petroleum products
The State Trading Corporation (STC) is responsible for the importation of all the countrys
requirements of petroleum products. These include the demands for the running of public transport,
industrial and commercial activities, private motor vehicles, the needs of the Central Electricity
Board in fuel oils for its power plants, the needs for aircraft refuelling at the SSR International
Airport and the needs of bunker fuels for international shipping.
Annual demand in Petroleum Products to meet domestic and international demand has increased
from 1, 090,600 tonnes in 2010 to 1,158,100 tonnes in 2011, representing an increase of 6.2%.
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Gasoline 80.3
86.8 87.7 86.8 88.9 96.4 108.5 104.4 134.0 116.7
Diesel oil 346.4
309.2 319.7 329.9 327.5 307.5 328.5 288.0 310.4 310.0
Aviation fuel 211.1
207.5 227.0 220.1 236.0 262.6 262.2 204.7 234.9 226.0
kerosene 14.3
20.2 29.8 27.9 6.0 3.7 5.9 4.1 6.7 4.3
Fuel oil 208.6
288.0 288.8 337.5 304.4 333.9 291.0 343.7 341.5 434.8
Liquefied
Petroleum Gas
(LPG)
54.1
48.8 53.8 62.7 58.8 62.8 63.1 62.6 63.2 66.3
TOTAL
(thousand
tonnes)
914.8 960.5 1006.9 1064.9 1021.5 1066.9 1059.
2
1007.
6
1090.
6
1158.
1
Source: Statistics Mauritius Author: OEM

Upon arrival at the New Oil Jetty of Port Louis Harbour, those products are pumped out of tanker
and delivered through pipelines into fuel tanks owned and operated individually or jointly in the Port
Area by local oil companies. They also operate a Jet Fuel tank near SSR Airport.

The local oil companies are represented by:
1. Vivo (Mauritius) Ltd (Ex-Shell)
2. Total Mauritius Ltd
3. Engen (Mauritius) Ltd
4. Indian Oil (Mauritius) Ltd
The oil companies market, distribute and retail the products through their respective networks of
about 135 filling stations across the country. Some also operate barges to carry out their bunker
supply operations at sea.


21

FINAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION
Final energy consumption describes consumption of end users, excluding electricity generation
sector and losses. The total final energy consumption in 2011 amounted to 862.3 ktoe, representing
an increase of 1.0 % compared to 2010.

Final energy consumption per sector for 2011 was:
- Manufacturing: 221.8 ktoe
- Commercial: 80.7 ktoe
- Household: 117.4 ktoe
- Transport: 435.2 ktoe
- Agriculture: 4.3 ktoe
- Others: 3.2 ktoe


Source: Statistics Mauritius- Author: OEM
249.2
262.3 259.3
248.7
270.8
264.0
247.7
224.1
231.2
221.8
368.5
394.5
412.6
422.6
430.0
415.6
410.6
394.9
421.6 435.2
41.7
47.7
51.5 55.7
62.7
65.2
69.1
72.3
76.5
80.7
102.8
107.1
110.9
115.4
108.8
108.7
110.2
113.1
116.9
117.4
0.0
100.0
200.0
300.0
400.0
500.0
600.0
700.0
800.0
900.0
1000.0
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
k
t
o
e

Year
Manufacturing Transport Commercial Household Agriculture Others
862.3



762.6
812.0
834.9
843.0
873.0
837.8
853.9
804.9
854.0
22

Fuel consumption in the transport sector
Fuel consumption
transport sector 2011
Gasoline Diesel
Aviation
fuel (local
aircraft)
LPG Fuel Oil
Total
(ktoe)
Land 126.8 161.5 4.9 293.1
Aviation 134.3 134.3
Sea 3.3 1.1 3.3 7.7
Total (ktoe) 130.0 162.6 134.3 4.9 3.3 435.2

Source: Statistics Mauritius - Author: OEM

Source: Statistics Mauritius Author: OEM
Fuel consumption in the transport sector

Source: Statistics Mauritius Author: OEM
Total fuel consumption for the transport sector in 2011 increased by 3.2% from 2010.
Land
67%
Aviation
31%
Sea
2%
Fuel share in transport sectors
250.8
261.7 266.2
275.5 279.1
267.3 269.6
280.8
290.6 293.1
113.3
128.6
142.5
143.1
146.7
143.6 136.9 110.5
123.3
134.3
8.5
8.2
8.6
7.5
8.6
7.8
8.4
8.0
7.7
7.7
0.0
50.0
100.0
150.0
200.0
250.0
300.0
350.0
400.0
450.0
500.0
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
k
t
o
e

Land Aviation Sea
435.2

364.1

390.2

408.8

418.6

425.9

406.4

410.9

391.3

421.6

23

Fuel consumption in the road transport sector in 2011
Fuel consumption in road transport reached 293.2 ktoe in 2011; representing an increase of 0.9%
over 2010.


Source: Statistics Mauritius - Author: OEM
The share of diesel has continued to decline in favour gasoline. From 2010 to 2011:
- Diesel consumption increased by 0.3%.
- Gasoline consumption increased by 1.8%.
- LPG (autogas) consumption has decreased by 3.0%

The decline in use of LPG (autogas) may be caused by the lack of filling stations retailing the
product, risk of voided vehicle warranty caused by aftermarket LPG (autogas) kit
installations and presence of plastic air intake on newer car engines which makes LPG kit
installation prohibitive.








94.5 96.3 97.6 100.1
96.2
106.8 109.5
120.6
124.5 126.8
154.9
162.9
165.7
168.2 175.5 153.3
154.4
155.2
161.1
161.5
1.3
2.4
2.9
7.3
7.4
7.2
5.6
5.0
5.0
4.9
0.0
50.0
100.0
150.0
200.0
250.0
300.0
350.0
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
k
t
o
e

Gasoline Diesel oil LPG (autogas)
293.2

250.7
261.6
266.3
275.5 279.2
269.5
267.3
280.8
290.6
24

Vehicle fleet
The fleet of powered vehicles for Mauritius contained 399 085 vehicles in 2011.

Evolution of vehicle fleet by type of fuel


Source: NTA - Author: OEM
The growth in vehicle fleet in 2011 that the purchase of gasoline powered vehicles are still favoured
(+5.1%) compared to diesel powered engines (+3.9) in Mauritius. Also from 2010 to 2011 the
number of hybrid powered vehicles increased by from 118 to 154.






2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Other (Estimated figures) 9300 10100 10600 10900 10600 10300 10000
Electric 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
Hybrid 0 0 0 0 43 118 154
Diesel 95531 99176 103334 107955 111970 116283 120236
Gasoline 198900 208408 218416 230742 242085 255593 268693
0
50000
100000
150000
200000
250000
300000
350000
400000
450000
N
o
.

303731
317684

332350

349597

364698
382294

399085

25

New registration of private cars
There has been a decrease in new car registrations between 2010 and 2011 of +0.4%. We can
observe that the major share of new cars registered is in the engine capacity range of 1251cc to
2000cc (73%).
Engine capacity 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Up to 1,000 c.c 1171 722 535 726 804 948 856
1,001 - 1,250 c.c 803 1224 1338 1580 1211 1060 1158
1,251 - 1,400 c.c 1135 879 1283 1801 1691 2205 2015
1,401 - 1,500 c.c 2926 2465 2033 2042 1835 2384 1771
1,501 - 2,000 c.c 1184 1945 2482 2858 2927 2105 2867
2,001 - 2,250 c.c 141 100 72 338 32 9 20
2,251 - 2,500 c.c 57 59 91 169 155 196 166
2,501 - 3,000 c.c 54 54 129 162 139 154 185
Above 3,000 c.c 44 30 82 115 72 87 71
Total 7515 7478 8045 9791 8866 9148 9109
Source: NTA - Author: OEM
Energy consumption in vehicles 2010

Author: OEM
Fuel consumption per vehicle for gasoline powered vehicles has been steady since 2005 whereas for
diesel powered vehicles we observe that the consumption per vehicle has decreased from 2007 to
2011. This indicates an increase in fuel efficiency of new diesel powered vehicles attributed to
factors such as the quality of fuel imported for the local market being better suited to newer diesel
engines.
Per vehicle consumption of diesel vehicles is higher since nearly all heavy vehicles using larger
engines (e.g. bus, lorry etc...) use diesel engines whereas gasoline is used for mostly cars and
motorcycles.
0.00
0.20
0.40
0.60
0.80
1.00
1.20
1.40
1.60
1.80
2.00
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
t
o
e

Evolution of fuel consumption per vehicle
Gasoline consumption per vehicle (toe) Diesel consumption per vehicle (toe)
26

Manufacturing sector
Total energy consumption in the manufacturing sector amounted to 221.7 ktoe in 2011 indicating an
overall decrease of 4.1% since 2010.
Distribution of fuel types

Source: Statistics Mauritius Author: OEM
Evolution of fuel consumption in the Manufacturing sector


Source: Statistics Mauritius Author: OEM

Coal
6.7%
Diesel oil
19.6%
Fuel oil
17.5%
Liquefied
Petroleum Gas
(LPG)
2.6%
Fuelwood
0.2%
Bagasse
17.6%
Electricity
35.7%
Distribution of energy sources Manufacturing Sector
16.1 18.0
15.0 14.4 13.4 12.4
25.8
13.4 15.4 14.9
37.8
41.7
43.8
41.5
50.3
48.8
46.8
46.3
47.0
43.5
59.0
53.4
47.9
44.9
55.8
58.1
52.5
45.0 39.8
38.8
3.8 3.2
3.0
4.2
4.3 4.4
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.7
70.8
81.6
82.9
76.2
74.2
64.1
38.3
36.3 42.6
39.1
61.2
63.8
66.1
66.9
72.3
75.6
78.5
77.2
80.3
79.2
0.0
50.0
100.0
150.0
200.0
250.0
300.0
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
k
t
o
e

Coal Diesel oil Fuel oil Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Fuelwood Bagasse Electricity
221.8

249.2
262.3 259.3
248.7
270.8
247.7
264.0
224.1 231.2
27

Household Sector
Total energy consumption in the household sector amounted to 117.4 ktoe in 2011.
Distribution of fuel types

Source: Statistics Mauritius Author: OEM
The main sources of energy for the household sector are LPG and electricity. Liquefied Petroleum
Gas is used mostly for cooking and water heating. Fuel wood is still in use as cooking fuel in some
social classes. Use of kerosene as fuel has nearly disappeared since the price increase in retail price
which occurred in 2005. Consumption of electricity and LPG has both increased compared to 2010
(2.0% and 1.3% respectively).
Evolution of fuel consumption in the Household sector

Source: Statistics Mauritius Author: OEM

kerosene
0.5%
Liquefied
Petroleum Gas
(LPG)
41.1%
Fuel wood
5.3%
Charcoal
0.1%
Electricity
53.1%
Distribution of energy sources household sector
8.7 8.6 9.0 10.2
4.1
1.2 1.9 1.5 1.8 0.5
42.1
43.8
46.3
46.7
44.9
45.5
45.8 46.7
47.6
48.2
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.3
6.7
6.7
6.3 6.3
6.3 6.2
45.8
48.6
49.5
52.2
53.1
55.3
56.1
58.5
61.1 62.4
0.0
20.0
40.0
60.0
80.0
100.0
120.0
140.0
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
k
t
o
e

kerosene Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Fuel wood Charcoal Electricity
117.4
102.8
107.1
110.9
115.4
108.8 110.2 108.7
113.1
116.9
28

Commercial Sector
Total energy consumption in the commercial sector amounted to 80.7 ktoe in 2011.
Distribution of fuel types


Source: Statistics Mauritius Author: OEM

Evolution of fuel consumption in the Commercial sector


Source: Statistics Mauritius Author: OEM
Electricity consumption in the commercial sector has increased by 3.9% since 2010 indicative of
continued expansion of this sector. The main areas of electricity use in this sector would be climate
control (refrigeration and air conditioning) and decorative/security lighting.
Liquefied
Petroleum
Gas (LPG)
15.1%
Charcoal
0.4%
Electricity
84.5%
Distribution of energy sources Commercial sector
4.9
6.2 6.9 7.5
12.4 11.8
10.9 11.4 11.8 12.2
36.5
41.2
44.4
47.9
50.0
53.1
57.9
60.6
64.3
68.2
0.0
10.0
20.0
30.0
40.0
50.0
60.0
70.0
80.0
90.0
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
k
t
o
e

Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Charcoal Electricity
80.7
41.7
47.7
51.5
55.7
62.7
69.1
65.2
72.3
76.5
29

Agriculture Sector
Total energy consumption in the agriculture sector amounted to 4.4 ktoe in 2010.
Distribution of fuel types


Source: Statistics Mauritius Author: OEM
Evolution of fuel consumption in the Agriculture sector


Source: Statistics Mauritius Author: OEM




Diesel oil
55.0%
Electricity
45.0%
Distribution of energy sources Agriculture
sector
2.4 2.4 2.4
2.3 2.3
2.5
2.2
2.3 2.3 2.4
2.4 2.3
2.0
2.3
2.5
2.4
2.2
1.8
2.1
1.9
0.0
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
k
t
o
e


Diesel oil Electricity
4.3
4.8 4.7
4.5
4.7
4.8
4.4
4.9
4.1
4.4
30

Electricity consumption
Electricity sales for 2011 were 2,228.2 GWh showing an increase of +2.5 % as compared to 2010.
Electricity consumption summary

Type of tariff
Number of consumers Consumption GWh Consumption %
2010 2011 2010 2011 2010 2011
Domestic 364,474 372,315 710.7 725.3 32.7 32.5
Commercial 36,956 37,685 748.0 792.6 34.4 35.6
Industrial (including irrigation) 7,008 6,818 677.6 679.4 31.2 30.5
Other 429 465 37.6 30.9 1.7 1.4
Total 408,867 417,283 2,173.9 2,228.2 100 100

Source: Statistics Mauritius - Author: OEM




Source: Statistics Mauritius Author: OEM






372,315
32.5 725.3
37,685
35.6 792.6
6,818
30.5 679.4
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
Number of consumers Comsumption % Consumption GWh
Electricity consumption 2011
Domestic Commercial Industrial (including irrigation) Other
31

Domestic electricity consumption 2011:
Total domestic electricity consumption was 725.3 GWh in 2011. This corresponds to an average
consumption of 1.95 MWh per consumer.

Domestic consumers 2008 2009 2010 2011
Consumption (GWh) 652.2 680.1 710.7 725.3
Number of consumers 350627 358359 364474 372315
Average consumption per consumer (MWh) 1.86 1.90 1.95 1.95
Growth rate % -0.7% 2.0% 2.7% -0.1%

Source: Statistics Mauritius Author: OEM

The increase in average domestic consumption could be due the increase in use of air conditioning in
houses and use of computers/ home entertainment systems for longer periods. Efficiency in the
domestic sector has increased as we note that there is larger number of consumers while the
average consumption per consumer has stayed same.



Worth Knowing
In 2011 the average consumption per inhabitant in Reunion Island was 2.98MWh/yr
1
.


1
Source: Bilan Energtique Reunion 2011












32

FOSSIL FUELS
Fossil fuel consumption per sector

2011 Coal Gasoline Diesel
Aviation
fuel Kerosene HFO LPG
Total
(ktoe)
Electricity
production 382.7 1.5 3.8 205.9 594.0
Manufacturing 14.9 43.5 38.8 5.7 102.9
Commercial 12.2 12.2
Household 0.5 48.2 48.7
Transport 130.0 162.6 134.3 3.3 4.9 435.2
Agriculture 2.4 2.4
Others 0.3 0.3
Total 397.7 130.0 210.1 134.3 4.3 248.1 71.1 1195.6



Source: Statistics Mauritius - Author: OEM
Final uses of fossil fuel in Mauritius:
- Energy industries (electricity production): 594.0 ktoe
- Transport sector: 435.2 ktoe
- Manufacturing sector : 102.9 ktoe
- Household, Commercial and agriculture sectors: 63.5 ktoe
Electricity
production ,
594.0, 49.7%
Manufacturing,
102.9, 8.6%
Commercial, 12.2,
1.0%
Household,
48.7, 4.1%
Transport, 435.2,
36.4%
Agriculture, 2.4,
0.2%
Others, 0.3, 0.0%
Fossil fuel consumption by sector
33

RENEWABLE ENERGY
Renewable energy sources are wind, solar, geothermal, wave, tidal, hydro and energy from biomass,
landfill gas, sewage gas and biogas. In Mauritius the main sources of renewable energy exploited are
biomass (in the form of bagasse) and hydro. Fuel wood can be considered as a renewable source of
energy if trees are planted to make up for those cut down and the consumption rate of fuel wood is
controlled to sustainable levels.

Hydroelectricity
Hydroelectricity is the production of electricity from the potential energy of falling water. There
were eight plants in operation as at December 2011 across the Island of Mauritius.

Evolution of hydro electric generation from 2005 to 2011

Source: Statistics Mauritius - Author: OEM

Hydroelectric power generation accounted for 2.1% of electricity produced in 2011.
While fluctuations in hydro electric power generation tend to follow annual rainfall levels as shown
in the figure above. The discrepancy between hydro electric power generation and rainfall level can
be attributed to the water shortage that affected the island of Mauritius in 2011 where water, that
otherwise, would have been used for hydro electric power generation had to be diverted for use in
other sectors.



0.0
20.0
40.0
60.0
80.0
100.0
120.0
140.0
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
m
m

G
W
h


Hydro power generated (GWh) Mean rainfall whole island (mm)

34

Bagasse: is the fibrous residue of sugar cane used by sugar factories for heat production to meet
their own requirements. Surplus of bagasse is converted into electricity by thermal power plants
found mostly on sugar estates.

Evolution of electricity generation from bagasse from 2002 to 2011

Source: Statistics Mauritius - Author: OEM

2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
1
2011
Bagasse input
(ktonnes) 1081.7 1046.8 1092.8 1055.7 1036.6 1040.3 1300.9 1135.6 1140.4 1119.0
Electricity (GWh) 452.1 448.9 469.6 452.9 445.7 467.9 486.4 485.0 474.1 489.5
Ratio electricity
produced to
bagasse input
(MWh/tonne) 0.42 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.45 0.37 0.43 0.42 0.44

1
Revised

In 2011 the ratio of electricity produced per tonne of bagasse was 0.44. Also 17.9 % of electricity
production was from bagasse representing a decrease of 11.1% from 2010.


0.0
100.0
200.0
300.0
400.0
500.0
600.0
0.0
200.0
400.0
600.0
800.0
1000.0
1200.0
1400.0
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
k
t
o
n
n
e
s

G
W
h

Electricity (GWh) Bagasse input (ktonnes)
35

Photovoltaics (PV)
Photovoltaics is a method of generating electrical power by converting solar radiation into direct
current electricity using semiconductors that exhibit photovoltaic effect.

PV installations are generally used as source of electricity in remote areas where access to the CEB
network was not accessible or the cost of extension of the existing network is too high. The main
applications were in private hunting ground or domains. Another use of PV is for solar powered
street lighting.
In 2010 the Central Electricity Board set up a Grid Code for the Small Scale Distributed Generation
(SSDG) scheme. This scheme supports democratisation of energy production by allowing Small
Independent Power Producers (SIPP) to generate electricity through micro, mini or small PV, wind or
hydro power plants installed on their premises. The initial limitation for the total electricity
generation was 2 MW or 200 installations whichever came first. Electricity generated thereby could
be sold to the CEB at a subsidised rate defined in the Feed In Tariff for a period of fifteen years after
which the Feed In Tariff would be the marginal electricity production cost of the CEB.

Wind energy
Wind energy comes from the movement of air across the atmosphere of the Earth. Wind power is
the conversion of wind energy into a useful form of energy, such as using wind turbines to generate
electricity, windmills for mechanical power, wind pumps for water pumping or sails to propel ships.
Electricity production
2.8GWh of wind energy was produced in Rodrigues Island.

Biogas
Biogas is a gas, constituted of mostly methane, produced by the fermentation of organic waste in
landfills in the absence of oxygen.

Electricity production

Electricity produced from landfill in Mauritius in 2011 amounted to 3.1 GWh.
Biogas from sludge digester has also been used to partially meet the electricity requirements of the
St Martin wastewater treatment plant.

Solar Thermal

Solar water heaters in Mauritius
Solar waters are mostly used on an individual basis with the latest technology in use being evacuated
tubes that are more efficiency that conventional flat plate water heater. Large scale installations are
found in hotels and textile factories and are used to preheat water for boilers/ swimming pools.
The census carried out by Statistics Mauritius revealed that more than 41 000 households use solar
water heating as source of energy for water heating for bathing.
The solar energy captured by this number of water heaters correspond to nearly 30 GWh* under the
assumption that the average solar energy per year is 4 kWh/m
2
/day for the island of Mauritius.


*Provisional figure subject to revision

36

CO
2
EMISSIONS DUE TO FOSSIL FUELS
Introduction
The Green house effect:
This is a natural phenomenon that captures part of the energy emitted by the Sun to the Earth.
Greenhouse Gases (sometimes abbreviated GHG) have a role comparable to that of glass of a green
house shed. The heat from the atmosphere depends on solar radiation (constant) and the amount of
radiation trapped by greenhouse gases.

Greenhouse gas emissions:

A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation within the thermal
infrared range. This process is the fundamental cause of the greenhouse effect. The primary
greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere are water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous
oxide, and ozone.
Emissions from human activities mainly concern the following six gases, covered by the Kyoto
Protocol: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs),
perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6).
Human activity since the industrial era has led, due to the consumption of fossil energy stocks, to the
increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, despite the uptake of a large portion of the emissions
through various natural "sinks" involved in the carbon cycle. carbon dioxide (CO
2
) emissions
produced by human activities come mainly from combustion of fossil fuels, principally coal, heavy
fuel oil and its derivatives (gasoline, diesel, Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) etc), and natural gas.
Inventory of CO
2
from energy sources for Island of Mauritius in 2011
In this report we focus only on CO
2
emissions (excluding other green house gases) during
combustion of fossil fuels. The scope of emissions thus studied concerns all CO
2
emissions due to
fossil energy conversion in all sectors (electricity generation, transport, residential and
manufacturing).

Source: Statistics Mauritius- Author: OEM

Total CO
2
emissions for Mauritius in 2011: 3, 639, 500 tonnes
Energy industries
(electricity),
2205.8 ktonne,
60.6%
Manufacturing
industries, 336.6
ktonne, 9.2%
Transport, 922.1
ktonne, 25.3%
Residential, 133.5
ktonne, 3.7%
Other sectors
(Commercial,
Agriculture), 41.5
ktonne, 1.1%
Sectoral carbon dioxide emissions from fuel combustion
activities
37

CO
2
emissions for electricity generation
Total CO
2
emissions from electricity generation amounted to 2 205 800 tonnes.
The average ratio of emissions per kWh consumed by all sources: 807.9 gCO
2
/kWh, which represents
a decrease of 2.3 % as compared to 2010. This decrease can be attributed to the increase in overall
conversion efficiency of thermal power plants.

CO
2
emission in the transport sector (inclusive of aviation)
In 2011 emissions have reached 922 100 tonnes of CO
2
representing an increase of 1.1% compared
to 2010.

CO
2
emission in the manufacturing sector:
In 2010 the manufacturing sector emitted 336 600 tonnes of CO
2
.

CO
2
emission in the other sectors:
Sectors such as residential, commercial and agriculture amounted to 4.8% of total CO
2
emissions.

CO2 emissions per inhabitant 2010:
- Emissions from electricity generation per inhabitant: 1.72 tonnes of C0
2
.
- Emissions from transport sector per inhabitant: 0.72 tonnes of C0
2
.
- Emissions from manufacturing sector per inhabitant: 0.26 tonnes of C0
2
.
- Emissions from residential sector per inhabitant: 0.10 tonnes of C0
2
.
- Emissions from other sectors per inhabitant: 0.03 tonnes of C0
2
.

Total: 2.83 tonnes per inhabitant in 2011

Worth knowing:
Total CO2 emissions per inhabitant Reunion Island: 4.96 tonnes in 2011
1

1
Source: Bilan Energtique Reunion 2011




38

GLOSSARY
Aviation fuel:
A kerosene type meeting the required properties for use in jet engines and aircraft-turbine engines.

Bagasse:
Cellulosic residue left after sugar is extracted from sugar cane.

Capacity:
The maximum power available from a power station at a point in time:
- Installed capacity: The nameplate capacity of the generator set.
- Plant capacity: The net capacity measured at the terminals of the stations, i.e., after deduction of
the power absorbed by the auxiliary installations and the losses in the station transformers.
- Effective capacity: It is the plant capacity less any amount of derated capacity from the installed
capacity.

Charcoal:
Comprises the solid residue obtained by the destructive distillation of wood in the absence of air.

CPP (Continuous Power Producers)
Entities which, in addition to their main activities, themselves produce (individually or in
combination) electric energy intended, in whole or in part, to meet their own needs from bagasse
only and the surplus for sale to the CEB only during the cane harvest period.

Coal:
Fossil fuel that has a high degree of coalification, with a gross calorific value over24MJ/kg (5700
Kcal/kg) on an ash-free but moist basis.

Diesel Oil:
Consists primarily of medium oil distilling between 180
0
C and 380
0
C.

Electric energy dependence:
The ratio of electricity generation from fossil fuels and electricity generation total.

Electric dependency ratio:
Ratio between electricity production from fossil fuels and the total electricity production.

Energy:
Capacity for doing work or for producing heat. Producing heat is a common manifestation of doing
work as are producing light and motive force.

Energy intensity
A measure of the energy efficiency of the economy of the country

Energy unit:
The International System of Units (SI unit) of energy is the Joule.
Final energy:
Energy that is supplied to consumers (electricity, petrol, diesel, natural gas, fuel oil, heating oil).
39

Final Energy Consumption:
Energy consumption by final user- i.e. energy which is not being used for transformation into other
forms of energy. The consumption by sector is presented as follows:
Agriculture: Energy used for irrigation and by other agricultural equipments;
Commercial & distributive trade: Energy consumed by the business and commercial sector;
Residential: Consumption of energy by residential sector;
Manufacturing: Consumption in industry and construction; and
Transport: Includes consumption by land vehicles, ships and local aircrafts.

Fossils fuels:
Formed from the fossilized remains of dead plants and animals by exposure to heat and pressure in
the Earths crust over hundreds of millions of years.

Fuels:
Term used to describe energy sources that must be subjected to combustion in order to release the
energy stored up inside them.

Fuel wood:
All forms of woody material.

Fuel Oils:
Heavy oils from the refining process of crude oil and used as fuel in power stations. It is also
commonly used by ships and industrial large-scale heating boilers installations as a fuel in furnaces
or boilers in the manufacturing sector.

Gasoline:
A mixture of relatively volatile hydrocarbons, which have been blended to form a fuel suitable for
use in spark-ignition internal combustion engines.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP):
The aggregate money value of all goods and services produced within a country out of economic
activity during a specified period, usually a year, before provision for the consumption of fixed
capital.

Gigawatt hour (GWh):
Unit of electrical energy, equal to 3.6 terajoules (TJ).

Hybrid vehicle:
A vehicle that uses different types of energy for power. This vehicle has usually two types of engines:
internal combustion engine and electric motor.

IPP (Independent Power Producers):
Entities which, in addition to their main activities, themselves produce(individually or in
combination) electric energy intended, in whole or in part, to meet their own needs and for sale to
the CEB throughout the year from bagasse during the cane harvest period and coal outside this
period.

Kerosene (excl. Aviation fuel type):
A medium oil distilling between 150
0
C and 300
0
C and which is used in sectors other than aircraft
transport.
40


Kilowatt (kW):
Unit of electrical power equal to 1 000 watts

Kilowatt hour (kWh):
Unit of electrical energy equal to one kilowatt (1 kW) of power expended for one hour (3 600 s) or 3
600 000 joules.

Liquefied petroleum Gas (LPG):
Consists mainly of propane or butane, derived from either petroleum refining process or extracted
from petroleum streams. It is normally liquefied under pressure for transportation and storage. In
Mauritius it is often used to power cooking stoves or gas water heaters and to fuel some types of
vehicle.

Losses (transmission / distribution losses):
Comprise losses in transmission and distribution of electric energy and losses in transformers, which
are not considered as integral parts of the power stations.

Own use (Station use and loss):
Included are consumption by station auxiliaries and losses in transformers, which are considered as
integral parts of the power stations.

Peak demand:
Term used in energy demand management describing a period in which electrical power is expected
to be provided for a sustained period at a significantly higher than the average supply level. Peak
demand fluctuations may occur on daily, monthly seasonal and yearly cycles.

Petroleum products:
The primary source of petroleum products is crude oil. Petroleum or crude oil is a naturally
occurring, flammable liquid found in rock formations in the Earth. Diesel oil, fuel oils, Gasoline,
Kerosene and Liquefied petroleum gas(LPG) are among the major products derived from crude oil
distillation.

Primary energy:
Primary energy designates energy from sources that involve only extraction or capture. Primary
energy is not derived from any other forms of energy. By convention, sources of energy that occur
naturally such as coal,heavy fuel oil, fuel woodare termed primary energy.

Primary energy consumption:
The final energy consumption in which is included the losses and consumption of producers and
transformers of energy.

Production:
Comprises gross production, i.e., the amount of electric energy produced, including that consumed
by station auxiliaries and any losses in transformers that are considered integral parts of the power
station.

Renewable energy or Renewables;
Natural resources that, after exploitation, can return to their previous stock levels by natural
processes of growth or replenishment.

41

Secondary energy:
Designates energy from all sources of energy that results from transformation of primary sources.
e.g. electricity from coal.

Solar Thermal
Solar energy harnessed in the form of thermal energy

Thermal plants:
Comprises of conventional thermal plants of all types that require combustion of fuels to generate
electricity. They include steam-operated generating plants and plants using internal combustion
engines or gas turbines.

Thermal sources of electricity:
These include coal, oil and its derivatives and bagasse.

Tonne of oil equivalent(toe):
Amount of heat obtained by the perfect combustion one tonne of oil, defined as 41.868 gigajoules.

Watt (W):
The conventional unit to measure a rate of conversion of energy. One watt equals to 1Joule per
second.

Energy conversion factors


tonne toe

Gasoline 1 1.08

Diesel Oil 1 1.01

Dual Purpose Kerosene (DPK) 1 1.04

Fuel Oil 1 0.96

Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG) 1 1.08

Coal 1 0.62

Bagasse 1 0.16

Fuelwood 1 0.38

Charcoal 1 0.74




GWh ktoe

Hydro/Wind/Bagasse 1 0.086

Electricity 1 0.086


1 toe = 0.041868 terajoule (TJ) (net calorific value)

One tonne of CO
2
is emitted by the combustion of:
Coal Heavy fuel oil Gasoline Diesel Charcoal LPG
Equivalent in toe 0,266 0.305 0,326 0,317 0,251 0,360
42

HOW TO READ SUMMARY TABLE

The summary table is presented at the beginning of document shows in a synthetic way the energy
flows in Mauritius according to the activities and the types of energy:

- Energy activities: Primary production and supply, secondary production, distribution, final
consumption
- Types of energy: coal, petroleum products, Biomass, Hydro, Solar, Wind, Electricity, Heat

The values shown are expressed in ktoe and the following convention has been used to differentiate
the energy consumption: positive values indicate production while negative values indicate
consumption.



43


The table can be read in two ways:

- Reading horizontally:
A line indicates flows specific to a specific activity for different types of energy shown in a
column
o For example, the line Coal input for electricity production indicates a production of
electricity of 89.4 ktoe (+89.4at the intersection with the electricity column) from
the combustion of 398.7 ktoe of coal (-398.7 at the intersection with the coal
column); thus, generation of electricity from coal has a negative overall balance of
309.3 ktoe in the TOTAL column, indicating that it took more fossil energy to
produce electrical energy.

- Reading vertically:
A column indicates the flow of a particular type of energy for different activities
o For example, the column Diesel indicates imports of 313.5 ktoe (+313,5at the
intersection with the line imported resources), 114.4 ktoe for re-exports and
bunkering (+114.4 at the inter section with the line "re-exports and bunkering"),
with an addition of 14.4ktoefromstocksduring the year(+14.4at the intersection with
the line "Stocks"), the use of 1.9ktoefor electricity production(-1.9 at the
intersection with the line "HFO and diesel input for electricity production"), final
consumption of 47.0 ktoe in the manufacturing sector, 162.2 ktoe in the transport
sector and 2.3 ktoe in the agricultural sector(-47.0, -162.2and -2.3respectivelythe
intersection with the lines "manufacturing", " transport" and "agriculture")

These background explanations allow you to combine both approaches and perform cross "vertical"
and "horizontal" readings.