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Supreme Court


kL: !"#$%&'( )"*&! ,&*"- DA1LD IANUAk 11, 2010 CI AC1ING DIkLC1Ck ALLU A.

A.M. No. 10-1-13-SC

resenL: unC, !"#",
vLLASCC, !8.,
vlLLA8AMA, !8.,
L8LZ, and
MLnuCZA, ##.

romulgaLed: March 2, 2010
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k L S C L U 1 I C N

$&. *"./(-:
8efore us for conslderauon are Lhe lnLerrelaLed mauers llsLed below.

a. 1he 01234567 81950 :591; (dated Ianuary 11, 2010 and rece|ved by th|s
Court on Ianuary 18, 2010), |ssued by the Cmce of the Cmbudsman on the "Ch|ef, Cmce of
the Adm|n|stranve Serv|ces or AU1nCkI2LD kLkLSLN1A1IVL, Supreme Court, Man||a," for
the subm|ss|on to the Cmce of the Cmbudsman of the |atest ersona| Data Sheets and |ast
known forward|ng address of former Ch|ef Iusnce n||ar|o G. Dav|de, Ir. and former
Assoc|ate Iusnce Ma. A||c|a Austr|a-Marnnez. 1he %&'()*+, -&.*% /*.&0 was lssued ln
relauon Lo a crlmlnal complalnL under (b) below, pursuanL Lo Secuon 13, Arucle xl of Lhe
ConsuLuuon and Secuon 13 of 8epubllc AcL no. 6770. 1he Cmce of Lhe AdmlnlsLrauve
Servlces (123) referred Lhe mauer Lo us on !anuary 21, 2010 wlLh a requesL for clearance Lo
release Lhe specled documenLs and lnformauon.

b. Copy of the cr|m|na| comp|a|nt ennt|ed %<=>5? %@ A4B764 768 &>76C5<=65
A4B764D&68?=764 >@ E=<7?=4 F@ )7>=85G H?@G 5: 7<@G CM8-C-C-09-0327-!, clLed by Lhe
Cmbudsman as basls for Lhe Lhe %&'()*+, -&.*% /*.&0 lL lssued. We secured a copy of Lhls
crlmlnal complalnL from Lhe Cmbudsman Lo deLermlne Lhe legallLy and proprleLy of Lhe
%&'()*+, -&.*% /*.&0 soughL.

c. Crder dated Iebruary 4, 2010 (wh|ch the Court rece|ved on Iebruary 9,
2010), s|gned by Acnng D|rector Mar|beth 1aytaon-ad|os of the Cmce of the Cmbudsman
(w|th the approva| of Cmbudsman Ma. Merced|tas Navarro-Gunerrez), d|sm|ss|ng the
Lozano comp|a|nt and referr|ng |t to the Supreme Court for appropr|ate acnon. 1he order
was premlsed on Lhe Memorandum[1] lssued on !uly 31, 2003 by Cmbudsman Slmeon
Marcelo who dlrecLed LhaL all complalnLs agalnsL [udges and oLher members of Lhe !udlclary
be lmmedlaLely dlsmlssed and referred Lo Lhe Supreme CourL for approprlaLe acuon.


I. 1he !1234567 )1950 ,591;

ln llghL of Lhe Cmbudsman's dlsmlssal order of lebruary 4, 2010, any quesuon
relaung Lo Lhe legallLy and proprleLy of Lhe %&'()*+, -&.*% /*.&0 Lhe Cmbudsman lssued
has been rendered mooL and academlc. 1he %&'()*+, -&.*% /*.&0 merely drew lLs llfe and
conunued vlablllLy from Lhe underlylng crlmlnal complalnL, and Lhe complalnL's dlsmlssal -
belaLed Lhough lL may be - cannoL buL have Lhe eecL of renderlng Lhe need for Lhe
%&'()*+, -&.*% /*.&0 academlc.

As gulde ln Lhe lssuance of compulsory processes Lo Members of Lhls CourL, pasL
and presenL, ln relauon Lo complalnLs Louchlng on Lhe exerclse of our [udlclal funcuons, we
deem lL approprlaLe Lo dlscuss for Lhe record Lhe exLenL of Lhe Cmbudsman's auLhorlLy ln
Lhese Lypes of complalnLs.

ln Lhe approprlaLe case, Lhe Cmce of Lhe Cmbudsman has full auLhorlLy Lo lssue
subpoenas, lncludlng %&'()*+, -&.*% /*.&04 for compulsory auendance of wlLnesses and
Lhe producuon of documenLs and lnformauon relaung Lo mauers under lLs lnvesugauon.[2]
1he granL of Lhls auLhorlLy, however, ls noL unllmlLed, as Lhe Cmbudsman musL necessarlly
observe and ablde by Lhe Lerms of Lhe ConsuLuuon and our laws, Lhe 8ules of CourL and Lhe
appllcable [urlsprudence on Lhe lssuance, servlce, valldlLy and emcacy of subpoenas. under
Lhe 8ules of CourL, Lhe lssuance of subpoenas, lncludlng a %&'()*+, -&.*% /*.&0, operaLes
under Lhe requlremenLs of reasonableness and relevance.[3] lor Lhe producuon of
documenLs Lo be reasonable and for Lhe documenLs Lhemselves Lo be relevanL, Lhe mauer
under lnqulry should, ln Lhe rsL place, be one LhaL Lhe Cmbudsman can leglumaLely
enLerLaln, lnvesugaLe and rule upon.

ln Lhe presenL case, Lhe mauer" LhaL gave rlse Lo Lhe lssuance of a %&'()*+,
-&.*% /*.&0 was a crlmlnal complalnL led by Lhe complalnanLs Lozano for Lhe alleged
vlolauon by reured Supreme CourL Chlef !usuce Pllarlo uavlde, !r. and reured AssoclaLe
!usuce Ma. Allcla AusLrla-Marunez of Secuon 3(e) of 8.A. 3019, as amended (Lhe Anu-Cra
and CorrupL racuces AcL).

A rsL sLep ln conslderlng wheLher a crlmlnal complalnL (and lLs auendanL
compulsory processes) ls wlLhln Lhe auLhorlLy of Lhe Cmbudsman Lo enLerLaln (and Lo lssue),
ls Lo conslder Lhe naLure of Lhe powers of Lhe Supreme CourL. 1hls CourL, by consuLuuonal
deslgn, ls supreme ln lLs Lask of ad[udlcauon, [udlclal power ls vesLed solely ln Lhe Supreme
CourL and ln such lower courLs as may be esLabllshed by law. !udlclal power lncludes Lhe duLy
of Lhe courLs, noL only Lo seule acLual conLroversles, buL also Lo deLermlne wheLher grave
abuse of dlscreuon amounung Lo lack or excess of [urlsdlcuon has been commlued ln any
branch or lnsLrumenLallLy of governmenL.[4] As a rule, all declslons and deLermlnauons ln
Lhe exerclse of [udlclal power ulumaLely go Lo and sLop aL Lhe Supreme CourL whose
[udgmenL ls nal. ,I=0 9460J:1J467< 09I5;5 97664: 25 :IK7?:58 4? 012>5?:58 :I?41CI 7
9?=;=67< 94;3<7=6: :I7:G 1685? :I5 C1=05 4L =;31J6C 7 ;=08558 :4 :I5 *41?: 768 =:0
-5;25?0G 055M0 :4 ?5>=>5 768 ?5D<=JC7:5 ;7N5?0 :I7: I7>5 <46C 2556 <7=8 :4 ?50: 2O :I5
*41?:. Lecuvely, such crlmlnal complalnL ls a collaLeral auack on a [udgmenL of Lhls CourL
LhaL, by consuLuuonal mandaLe, ls nal and already beyond quesuon.

A slmple [urlsprudenual research would easlly reveal LhaL Lhls CourL has had Lhe
occaslon Lo rule on Lhe llablllLy of !usuces of Lhe Supreme CourL for vlolauon of Secuon 3(e)
of 8.A. 3019-Lhe very same provlslon LhaL Lhe complalnanLs Lozano lnvoke ln Lhls case.

ln 5+ 6* 7*+.*%8,) 9,&6*/,4[3] Lhe cllenL of Auy. LaureLa led a complalnL wlLh Lhe
:,+)-',;,+ charglng Members of Lhe Supreme CourL wlLh vlolauon of Secuon 3(e) of
8epubllc AcL no. 3019 for havlng knowlngly, dellberaLely and wlLh bad falLh rendered an
un[usL resoluuon ln a land dlspuLe. 1he CourL unequlvocally ruled LhaL lnsofar as Lhls CourL
and lLs ulvlslons are concerned, a charge of vlolauon of Lhe Anu-Cra and CorrupL racuces
AcL on Lhe ground LhaL such collecuve declslon ls un[usL" should not prosper, Lhe parues
cannoL rellugaLe ln anoLher forum Lhe nal [udgmenL of Lhe CourL," as Lo do so ls Lo
subordlnaLe Lhe CourL, ln Lhe exerclse of lLs [udlclal funcuons, Lo anoLher body.[6]

5+ 6* #),<&=+ :" >)66)0*)[7] relLeraLes Lhe 9,&6*/, rullng, parucularly LhaL (1)
[udgmenLs of Lhe Supreme CourL are noL revlewable, (2) admlnlsLrauve, clvll and
crlmlnal complalnLs agalnsL a [udge should noL be Lurned lnLo subsuLuLes for appeal, (3) only
courLs may declare a [udgmenL un[usL, and (4) a slLuauon where Lhe Cmbudsman ls made Lo
deLermlne wheLher or noL a [udgmenL of Lhe CourL ls un[usL ls an absurdlLy. 1he CourL
furLher dlscussed Lhe requlslLes for Lhe prosecuuon of [udges, as follows:

1haL ls noL Lo say LhaL lL ls noL posslble aL all Lo prosecuLe
[udges for Lhls lmproprleLy, of renderlng an un[usL
[udgmenL or lnLerlocuLory order, buL, Laklng accounL of
all Lhe foregolng conslderauons, Lhe lndlspensable
requlslLes are LhaL Lhere be a nal declarauon by a
compeLenL courL ln some approprlaLe proceedlng of Lhe
manlfesLly un[usL characLer of Lhe challenged [udgmenL
or order, and Lhere be also evldence of mallce and bad
falLh, lgnorance or lnexcusable negllgence on Lhe parL of
Lhe [udge ln renderlng sald [udgmenL or order.

1hus, conslsLenL wlLh Lhe naLure of Lhe power of Lhls CourL under our consuLuuonal
scheme, only Lhls CourL - noL Lhe Cmbudsman - can declare a Supreme CourL [udgmenL Lo
be un[usL.

ln 28?&, @" 26+,8)/,[8] Lhe CourL ruled LhaL [udges of superlor and general
[urlsdlcuon are noL llable Lo respond ln clvll acuon for damages, and provlded Lhls rauonale
for Lhls rullng: LlablllLy Lo answer Lo everyone who mlghL feel hlmself aggrleved by Lhe acuon
of Lhe [udge would be lnconslsLenL wlLh Lhe possesslon of Lhls freedom and would desLroy
LhaL lndependence wlLhouL whlch no [udlclary can be elLher respecLable or useful." 1he same
rauonale applles Lo Lhe lndlscrlmlnaLe aurlbuuon of crlmlnal llablllLy Lo [udlclal omclals.

lalnly, under Lhese rullngs, a crlmlnal complalnL for vlolauon of Secuon 3(e) of
8A 3019, ',%*- )+ /A* 8*B,8 .)66*./+*%% )C /A* )D.=,8 ,./% )C #&%E.*% )C /A* 3&(6*0* !)&6/,
cannoL prosper and should noL be enLerLalned. 1hls ls noL Lo say LhaL Members of Lhe CourL
are absoluLely lmmune from sulL durlng Lhelr Lerm, for Lhey are noL. 1he ConsuLuuon
provldes LhaL Lhe approprlaLe recourse agalnsL Lhem ls Lo seek Lhelr removal from omce lf
Lhey are gullLy of culpable vlolauon of Lhe ConsuLuuon, Lreason, brlbery, gra and corrupuon,
oLher hlgh crlmes, or beLrayal of publlc LrusL.[9] Cnly aer removal can Lhey be crlmlnally
proceeded agalnsL for Lhelr Lransgresslons. Whlle ln omce and Lhereaer, and for Lhelr
omclal acLs LhaL do noL consuLuLe lmpeachable oenses, recourses agalnsL Lhem and Lhelr
llablllues Lherefor are as dened ln Lhe above rullngs.

Secuon 22 of 8epubllc AcL no. 6770, ln facL, speclcally granLs Lhe Cmbudsman
Lhe auLhorlLy Lo lnvesugaLe lmpeachable omcers, buL only when such lnvesugauon ls

Secuon 22. 5+@*%EB,/)6; F)G*6. 1he Cmce of Lhe
Cmbudsman shall have Lhe power Lo lnvesugaLe any
serlous mlsconducL ln omce allegedly commlued by
omclals removable by lmpeachmenL, for Lhe purpose of
llng a verled complalnL for lmpeachmenL, lf warranLed.

Conversely, lf a complalnL agalnsL an lmpeachable omcer ls unwarranLed for lack of legal basls
and for clear mlsappllcauon of law and [urlsprudence, Lhe Cmbudsman should spare Lhese
omcers from Lhe harassmenL of an un[usued lnvesugauon. 1he presenL crlmlnal complalnL
agalnsL Lhe reured !usuces ls one such case where an lnvesugauon ls noL warranLed, ',%*- ,%
=/ =% )+ /A* 8*B,8 .)66*./+*%% )C /A*=6 )D.=,8 ,./%, and Lhe Cmbudsman should have
lmmedlaLely recognlzed Lhe crlmlnal complalnL for whaL lL ls, lnsLead of lnlually proceedlng
wlLh lLs lnvesugauon and lssulng a %&'()*+, -&.*% /*.&0.

II. ,I5 %;2180;76P0 )=0;=007<
4L :I5 *?=;=67< *4;3<76:

As Lhe Cmbudsman's dlsmlssal of Lhe crlmlnal complalnL (18=@*6 1" 9)?,+) ,+-
H@,+B*8=+* 9)?,+)IH+-6=,+) @" J=8,6=) K" L,@=-*4 #6"4 */ ,8", CM8-C-C-09-0327-!) clearly
lmplled, no compleLe dlsmlssal Look place as Lhe mauer was slmply M6*C*66*- /) /A* 3&(6*0*
!)&6/ C)6 ,((6)(6=,/* ,.E)+""

AlLhough lL was belaLedly made, we cannoL faulL Lhls Cmbudsman acuon for Lhe
reasons we have already dlscussed above. Whlle boLh accused are now reured from Lhe
servlce, Lhe complalnL agalnsL Lhem sull qualles for excluslve conslderauon by Lhls CourL as
Lhe acLs complalned of sprlng from Lhelr [udlclal acuons whlle Lhey were wlLh Lhe CourL.
lrom Lhls perspecuve, we Lherefore pass upon Lhe (6=0, C,.=* merlLs of Lhe complalnanLs
Lozano's crlmlnal complalnL.

a. Grounds for the D|sm|ssa| of the Comp|a|nt

8y lLs express Lerms, Lhe crlmlnal complalnL sLemmed from Lhe paruclpauon of
Lhe accused ln Lhe 8esoluuon Lhe llrsL ulvlslon of Lhls CourL lssued ln J*=6% )C 2+/)+=) F,*8 @"
!)&6/ )C 2((*,8%, dockeLed as C.8. nos. 133347 and 133843. 1he reured Chlef !usuce and
reured AssoclaLe !usuce allegedly commlued Lhe followlng unlawful acLs:

1) CverLurnlng Lhe ndlngs of facL of Lhe CA,

2) SLaung ln Lhe 8esoluuon LhaL Lhe Chln-Mallarl properLy overlaps Lhe u
properLy," when Lhe uLn8 Survey 8eporL sLaLed LhaL Lhe u uLle/
properLy overlaps Lhe Chln-Mallarl properLy,"

3) lssulng a 8esoluuon, for whlch Lhree !usuces voLed, Lo seL aslde a ueclslon
for whlch ve !usuces voLed.

8y Lhese acLs, Lhe reured Members of Lhls CourL are belng held crlmlnally
accounLable )+ /A* /A*)6; /A,/ /A*; @=)8,/*- /A* !)+%E/&E)+ ,+- /A* 8,G =+ /A*=6 6&8=+B =+ /A*
.=/*- .,%*%4 /A*6*'; .,&%=+B M&+-&* =+N&6;O /) /A* (,6E*% /) /A*%* .,%*%.

Aer due conslderauon, we dlsmlss Lhe crlmlnal complalnL agalnsL reured Chlef
!usuce Pllarlo C. uavlde, !r. and reured AssoclaLe !usuce Ma. Allcla AusLrla-Marunez under
Secuon 3(e) of 8A 3019. We fully expound on Lhe reasons for Lhls concluslon ln Lhe
dlscusslons below.

a. Contrary to the comp|a|nants' pos|non,
the Supreme Court has the power to rev|ew
the |ower courts' hnd|ngs of fact.

1he Supreme CourL ls Lhe hlghesL courL of Lhe land wlLh Lhe power Lo revlew,
revlse, reverse, modlfy, or amrm on appeal or .*6E)6,6=, ,% /A* 8,G )6 /A* P&8*% )C !)&6/ 0,;
(6)@=-*, nal [udgmenLs and orders of Lhe lower courLs.[10] lL has Lhe auLhorlLy Lo
promulgaLe rules on pracuce, pleadlngs and admlsslon Lo Lhe bar, and suspend Lhe operauon
of Lhese rules ln Lhe lnLeresL of [usuce.[11] !urlsprudence holds, Loo, LhaL Lhe Supreme CourL
may exerclse Lhese powers over Lhe facLual ndlngs of Lhe lower courLs, among oLher
prerogauves, ln Lhe followlng lnsLances: (1) when Lhe ndlngs are grounded enurely on
speculauons, surmlses, or con[ecLures, (2) when Lhe lnference made ls manlfesLly mlsLaken,
absurd of lmposslble, (3) when Lhere ls grave abuse of dlscreuon, (4) when Lhe [udgmenL ls
based on a mlsappreclauon of facLs, (3) when Lhe ndlngs of facL are conlcung, (6) when, ln
maklng lLs ndlngs, Lhe same are conLrary Lo Lhe admlsslons of boLh appellanL and appellee,
(7) when Lhe ndlngs are conLrary Lo Lhose of Lhe Lrlal courL, (8) when Lhe ndlngs are
concluslons wlLhouL clLauon of speclc evldence on whlch Lhey are based, (9) when Lhe facLs
seL forLh ln Lhe peuuon as well as ln Lhe peuuoner's maln and reply brlefs are noL dlspuLed by
Lhe respondenL, and (10) when Lhe ndlngs of facL are premlsed on Lhe supposed absence of
evldence and conLradlcLed by Lhe evldence on record.[12] 1hus, conLrary Lo Lhe
complalnanLs Lozano' asseruons ln Lhelr complalnL, Lhe Supreme CourL, ln Lhe proper cases,
can and does ru|e on factua| subm|ss|ons before |t, and even reverses Lhe lower courL's
facLual ndlngs when Lhe clrcumsLances call for Lhls acuon.

b. Consntunona| rov|s|ons were m|sused.

1he complalnanLs Lozano appear Lo us Lo have brazenly mlsquoLed and mlsused
appllcable consuLuuonal provlslons Lo [usufy Lhelr case agalnsL Lhe reured !usuces. We refer
parucularly Lo Lhelr use (or sLrlcLly, 0=%&%*) of Arnc|e k, Secnon 2(3) of the QRST
Consntunon whlch Lhey clalm Lo be Lhe governlng rule LhaL Lhe reured !usuces should have
followed ln acung on F,*8. 1hls consuLuuonal provlslon sLaLes:

Cases heard by a dlvlslon shall be declded
wlLh Lhe concurrence of aL leasL ve Members, buL lf
such requlred number ls noL obLalned Lhe case shall be
declded en banc, rovlded, LhaL no docLrlne or prlnclple
of law lald down by Lhe CourL ln a declslon rendered en
banc or ln dlvlslon may be modled or reversed excepL
by Lhe CourL slmng en banc.[13]

lor fallure of Lhe reured !usuces Lo acL accordlng Lo Lhese Lerms, Lhe complalnanLs clalm LhaL
Lhe former subverLed Lhe ConsuLuuon by reverslng, '; , @)/* )C , 0,N)6=/; )C )+8; /A6**
0*0'*6%, Lhe declslon of Lhe llrsL ulvlslon unanlmously approved by lLs full membershlp of
ve members.

Pad Lhe complalnanLs boLhered Lo carefully conslder Lhe facLs and
developmenLs ln F,*8 and accordlngly relaLed Lhese Lo Lhe 733<=972<5 9460J:1J467<
3?4>=0=46, Lhey would have dlscovered LhaL F,*8 was declded ln 2003 when Lhe 1987
Consntunon, not the 1973 Consntunon, was Lhe prevalllng CharLer. 1hey Lhen would have
easlly learned of Lhe manner cases are heard and declded by ulvlslon before Lhe Supreme
CourL under Lhe 1987 ConsuLuuon. Secnon 4(3), Arnc|e VIII of Lhls ConsuLuuon provldes:

Cases or mauers heard by a dlvlslon shall be
declded or resolved wlLh Lhe concurrence of a ma[or|ty
of the Members who actua||y took part ln Lhe
dellberauons on Lhe lssues ln Lhe case and voLed
Lhereon, and |n no case, w|thout the concurrence of at
|east three of such Members. When Lhe requlred
number ls noL obLalned, Lhe case shall be declded *+
',+., rovlded, LhaL no docLrlne or prlnclple of law lald
down by Lhe courL ln a declslon rendered *+ ',+. or ln
dlvlslon may be modled or reversed excepL by Lhe courL
slmng *+ ',+.." (Lmphasls supplled.)

1hls was Lhe provlslon LhaL governed ln 2003 and sull governs Lo Lhls day. 1hus, Lhe
complalnanLs' argumenL and basls for Lhelr crlmlnal complalnL - LhaL ln rullng on a mouon for
reconslderauon, all ve members of Lhe ulvlslon should concur - ls LoLally wrong.

c. 1he e|ements of the oense charged are
not sumc|ent|y a||eged |n the comp|a|nt

A publlc omclal can vlolaLe Secuon 3(e) of 8epubllc AcL no. 3019[14] ln Lwo
ways: (1) by causlng undue ln[ury Lo any parLy, lncludlng Lhe CovernmenL, or (2) by glvlng any
prlvaLe parLy any unwarranLed beneL, advanLage or preference,[13] ln elLher case, Lhese acLs
musL be commlued wlLh manlfesL paruallLy, evldenL bad falLh, or gross and lnexcusable

aruallLy" ls dened as a blas or dlsposluon Lo see and reporL mauers as
wlshed for, raLher Lhan as Lhey are. 8ad falLh" connoLes noL only bad [udgmenL or
negllgence, buL also a dlshonesL purpose, a consclous wrongdolng, or a breach of duLy
amounung Lo fraud. Cross negllgence," on Lhe oLher hand, ls characLerlzed by Lhe wanL of
even sllghL care, acung or omlmng Lo acL ln a slLuauon where Lhere ls a duLy Lo acL, noL
lnadverLenLly buL wlllfully and lnLenuonally, wlLh a consclous lndlerence Lo consequences as
far as oLher persons are concerned.[16]

1he crlmlnal complalnL ln Lhls case falled Lo allege Lhe facLs and clrcumsLances
showlng LhaL Lhe reured !usuces acLed wlLh paruallLy, bad falLh or negllgence. A [udlclal
omcer's acL ln revlewlng Lhe ndlngs of facL ln a declslon and voung for lLs reversal cannoL by
lLself consuLuLe a vlolauon of Secuon 3(e) of 8epubllc AcL no. 3019 ln Lhe absence of facLs,
alleged and proven, demonsLraung a dlshonesL purpose, consclous paruallLy, exLrlnslc fraud,
or any wrongdolng on hls or her parL. A complalnanL's mere dlsagreemenL wlLh Lhe
maglsLraLe's own concluslons, Lo be sure, does noL [usufy a crlmlnal charge under Secuon 3(e)
agalnsL Lhe lauer. ln Lhe absence of alleged and proven parucular acLs of manlfesL paruallLy,
evldenL bad falLh or gross lnexcusable negllgence, good falLh and regularlLy are generally
presumed ln Lhe performance of omclal duues by publlc omcers.[17]

lor Lhe crlmlnal complalnL's faLal omlsslons and resulLanL fallure Lo allege a
(6=0, C,.=* case, lL rlghuully deserves lmmedlaLe dlsmlssal.

III. 1he Comp|a|nants' otenna| L|ab|||ty
for I|||ng the Cmbudsman Comp|a|nt

ln llghL of Lhe above concluslons and under Lhe auendanL clrcumsLances of Lhe
crlmlnal complalnLs, we cannoL avold conslderlng wheLher Lhe complalnanLs Lozano acLed
properly as members of Lhe 8ar, as omcers of Lhls CourL, and as professlonals governed by
norms of eLhlcal behavlor, ln llng Lhelr complalnL.

ln Lhelr crlmlnal complalnL, Lhe complalnanLs gave a slanLed vlew of Lhe powers
of Lhls CourL Lo sulL Lhelr purposes, for Lhese same purposes, Lhey wrongly clLed and
mlsapplled Lhe provlslons of Lhe ConsuLuuon, noL [usL any ordlnary sLaLuLe. As lawyers, Lhe
complalnanLs musL be famlllar and well acqualnLed wlLh Lhe fundamenLal law of Lhe land, and
are charged wlLh Lhe duLy Lo apply Lhe consuLuuonal provlslons ln llghL of Lhelr prevalllng
[urlsprudenual lnLerpreLauon. As law pracuuoners acuve ln Lhe legal and pollucal clrcles, Lhe
complalnanLs can hardly be characLerlzed as unknowlng" ln Lhelr mlsuse and mlsappllcauon
of consuLuuonal provlslons. 1hey should, aL Lhe very leasL, know LhaL Lhe 1973 ConsuLuuon
and lLs provlslons have been superseded by Lhe 1987 ConsuLuuon, and LhaL Lhey cannoL
assall - lnvoklng Lhe 1973 ConsuLuuon - Lhe [udlclal acLs of members of Lhe Supreme CourL
carrled ouL ln 2003 when Lhe 1987 ConsuLuuon was ln eecL. 1helr mlsuse of Lhe
ConsuLuuon ls made more reprehenslble when Lhe overrldlng LhrusL of Lhelr crlmlnal
complalnL ls consldered, Lhey used Lhe 1973 provlslons Lo falsely aurlbuLe mallce and
ln[usuce Lo Lhe Supreme CourL and lLs Members.

ln our vlew, Lhe complalnanLs' errors do noL belong Lo Lhe genre of plaln and
slmple errors LhaL lawyers commlL ln Lhe pracuce of Lhelr professlon. 1helr plaln dlsregard,
mlsuse and mlsrepresenLauon of consuLuuonal provlslons consuLuLe serlous mlsconducL LhaL
reecLs on Lhelr Lness for conunued membershlp ln Lhe hlllpplne 8ar. AL Lhe very leasL,
Lhelr Lransgresslons are blaLanL vlolauons of 8ule 10.02 of Lhe Code of rofesslonal
8esponslblllLy, whlch provldes:

8ule 10.02. A lawyer shall noL knowlngly mlsquoLe or
mlsrepresenL Lhe conLenLs of a paper, Lhe language or
Lhe argumenL of opposlng counsel, or Lhe LexL of a
declslon or auLhorlLy, or know|ng|y c|te as a |aw a
prov|s|on a|ready rendered |noperanve by repea| or
amendment, or asserL as a facL LhaL whlch has noL been
proved. (Lmphasls provlded.)

1o emphaslze Lhe lmporLance of requlrlng lawyers Lo acL candldly and ln good falLh, an
ldenucal provlslon ls found ln Cannon 22 of Lhe Canons of rofesslonal LLhlcs. Moreover,
lawyers are sworn Lo do no falsehood, nor consenL Lo Lhe dolng of any ln courL." before
Lhey are even admlued Lo Lhe 8ar. All Lhese Lhe complalnanLs appear Lo have serlously

ln Lhe lnLeresL of due process and falr play, Lhe complalnanLs Lozano should be
heard, ln relauon Lo Lhelr crlmlnal complalnL before Lhe Cmbudsman agalnsL reured Chlef
!usuce Pllarlo C. uavlde, !r. and reured AssoclaLe !usuce Ma. Allcla AusLrla-Marunez, on why
Lhey should noL be held accounLable and accordlngly penallzed for vlolauons of Lhelr duues
as members of Lhe 8ar and omcers of Lhls CourL, and of Lhe eLhlcs of Lhe legal professlon.

WnLkLICkL, premlses consldered, we DISMISS Lhe crlmlnal complalnL enuLled
18=@*6 1" 9)?,+)4 */ ,8" @" J=8,6=) K" L,@=-*4 #6"4 */ ,8"4 CM8-C-C-09-0327-! for uuer lack of
merlL, and DLCLAkL as MCC1 and ACADLMIC Lhe quesuon of compllance wlLh Lhe %&'()*+,
-&.*% /*.&0 daLed !anuary 11, 2010 LhaL Lhe Cmbudsman lssued agalnsL Lhls CourL.

We hereby CkDLk Lhe complalnanLs Auy. Cllver C. Lozano and Auy. Lvangellne
Lozano-Lndrlano Lo LkLAIN IN WkI1ING Lo Lhls CourL, wlLhln a non-exLendlble perlod of 13
days from recelpL of Lhls 8esoluuon, why Lhey should noL be penallzed as members of Lhe 8ar
and as omcers of Lhls CourL, for Lhelr open dlsregard of Lhe plaln Lerms of Lhe ConsuLuuon
and Lhe appllcable laws and [urlsprudence, and Lhelr mlsuse and mlsrepresenLauon of
consuLuuonal provlslons ln Lhelr crlmlnal complalnL before Lhe Cmce of Lhe Cmbudsman,
enuLled 18=@*6 1" 9)?,+)4 */ ,8" @" J=8,6=) K" L,@=-*4 #6"4 */ ,8"4 CM8-C-C-09-0327-!.


Chlef !usuce

AssoclaLe !usuce

AssoclaLe !usuce

AssoclaLe !usuce

Ak1UkC D. 8kICN
AssoclaLe !usuce

AssoclaLe !usuce

kC8Lk1C A. A8AD
AssoclaLe !usuce

AssoclaLe !usuce

AssoclaLe !usuce

AssoclaLe !usuce

AssoclaLe !usuce

AssoclaLe !usuce

AssoclaLe !usuce

AssoclaLe !usuce

AssoclaLe !usuce

[1] 1he perunenL parL of Lhe Memorandum reads:
PenceforLh, on Lhe basls of Lhe foregolng, and ln keeplng wlLh Lhe splrlL of Lhe sLaLed
docLrlne, all crlmlnal complalnLs agalnsL [udged and oLher members of Lhe Supreme CourL shall be
lmmedlaLely DISMISSLD and kLILkkLD Lo Lhe Supreme CourL for approprlaLe acuon. 1he dlsmlssal
shall noL ln any manner Louch on Lhe merlLs of Lhe complalnL, and shall be made for Lhe sole purpose
of referrlng Lhe same Lo Lhe Supreme CourL. (emphasls found ln Lhe orlglnal.)
[2] Secuon 13 of 8ep. AcL no. 6770 reads:
Secuon 13. owers, luncuons and uuues.-1he
Cmce of Lhe Cmbudsman shall have Lhe followlng powers
funcuons and duues:
x x x x

(4) ulrecL Lhe omcer concerned, ln
any approprlaLe case, and sub[ecL Lo
such llmlLauons as lL may provlde ln
lLs rules of procedure, Lo furnlsh lL
wlLh coples of documenLs relaung Lo
conLracLs or Lransacuons enLered
lnLo by hls omce lnvolvlng Lhe
dlsbursemenL or use of publlc funds
or properues, and reporL any
lrregularlLy Lo Lhe Commlsslon on
AudlL for approprlaLe acuon,
(3) 8equesL any governmenL agency
for asslsLance and lnformauon
necessary ln Lhe dlscharge of lLs
responslblllues, and Lo examlne, lf
necessary, perunenL records and

aragraphs 4 and 3 of Secuon 13, 8ule xl of Lhe ConsuLuuon are slmllarly phrased:

Secuon 13. 1he Cmce of Lhe
Cmbudsman shall have Lhe followlng funcuons
and duues:
x x x x
(4) ulrecL Lhe omcer concerned, ln
any approprlaLe case, and sub[ecL Lo
such llmlLauons as may be provlded
by law, Lo furnlsh lL wlLh coples of
documenLs relaung Lo conLracLs or
Lransacuons enLered lnLo by hls
omce lnvolvlng Lhe dlsbursemenL or
use of publlc funds or properues,
and reporL any lrregularlLy Lo Lhe
C o mml s s l o n o n A u d l L f o r
approprlaLe acuon.
(3) 8equesL any governmenL agency
for asslsLance and lnformauon ln
Lhe dlscharge of lLs responslblllues,
and Lo examlne, lf necessary,
perunenL records and lnformauon.
[3] See: Secuons 3 and 4, 8ule 21, 8ules of CourL.
[4] CCnS1l1u1lCn, Arucle vlll, Secuon 1.
[3] 232 hll 333 (1987).
[6] 1o quoLe Lhe perunenL poruons of 9,&6*/,, pp. 384-388:

As apLly declared ln Lhe Chlef !usuce's SLaLemenL
of uecember 24, 1986, whlch Lhe CourL hereby adopLs =+ /)/),
lL ls elemenLary LhaL Lhe Supreme CourL ls supreme-Lhe Lhlrd
greaL deparLmenL of governmenL enLrusLed excluslvely wlLh Lhe
[udlclal power Lo ad[udlcaLe wlLh nallLy all [usuclable dlspuLes
publlc and prlvaLe. no oLher deparLmenL or agency may pass
upon lLs [udgmenLs or declare Lhem 'un[usL.'" lL ls elemenLary
LhaL (A)s has ever been sLressed slnce Lhe early case of 26+*-)
@" 98)6*+/* (18 hll 237, 263[1911]) 'conLrolllng and lrreslsuble
reasons of publlc pollcy and of sound pracuce ln Lhe courLs
demand LhaL aL Lhe rlsk of occaslonal error, [udgmenL of courLs
deLermlnlng conLroversles submlued Lo Lhem should become
nal aL some denlLe ume xed by law or by a rule of pracuce
recognlzed by law, so as Lo be Lhereaer beyond Lhe conLrol
even of Lhe courL whlch rendered Lhem for Lhe purpose of
correcung errors of facL or of law, lnLo whlch, ln Lhe oplnlon of
Lhe courL lL may have fallen.."

8espondenLs should have known LhaL Lhe
provlslons of Arucle 204 of Lhe 8evlsed enal Code as Lo
'renderlng knowlngly un[usL [udgmenL' refer Lo an lndlvldual
[udge who does so ln any case submlued Lo hlm for declslon"
and even Lhen, lL ls noL Lhe prosecuLor who would pass
[udgmenL on Lhe un[usLness" of Lhe declslon rendered by hlm
buL Lhe proper appellaLe courL wlLh [urlsdlcuon Lo revlew Lhe
same, elLher of Lhe CourL of Appeals and/or Lhe Supreme CourL.
P*%()+-*+/% %A)&8- 8=Q*G=%* Q+)G /A,/ 07=8 3567< 7?J9<5 I70 64
733<=97J46 :4 :I5 ;5;25?0 4L 7 94<<5C=7:5 941?: 019I 70 :I=0
*41?: 4? =:0 )=>=0=460 GA) 6*,.A /A*=6 .)+.8&%=)+% =+ .)+%&8/,E)+
,+- ,..)6-=+B8; 6*+-*6 /A*=6 .)88*.E@* N&-B0*+/ ,R*6 -&*
-*8='*6,E)+" /: 7<04 L4<<4K0G 94605U156:<OG :I7: 7 9I7?C5 4L
>=4<7J46 4L :I5 (6JDF?7V 768 *4??13: $?79J950 (9: 46 :I5
C?4168 :I7: 019I 7 94<<59J>5 859=0=46 =0 W16X10:Y 97664:
3?4035?" (emphasls supplled)


1o sub[ecL Lo Lhe LhreaL and ordeal of
lnvesugauon and prosecuuon, a [udge, more so a member of Lhe
Supreme CourL for omclal acLs done by hlm ln good falLh and ln
regular exerclse of omclal duLy and [udlclal funcuons ls Lo
subverL and undermlne Lhe very lndependence of Lhe [udlclary,
and subordlnaLe Lhe [udlclary Lo Lhe execuuve. xxxx

1o allow lluganLs Lo go beyond Lhe CourL's
resoluuon and clalm LhaL Lhe members acLed wlLh dellberaLe
bad falLh" and rendered an un[usL resoluuon" ln dlsregard or
vlolauon of Lhe duLy of Lhelr hlgh omce Lo acL upon Lhelr own
lndependenL conslderauon and [udgmenL of Lhe mauer aL hand
would be Lo desLroy Lhe auLhenuclLy, lnLegrlLy and
concluslveness of such colleglaLe acLs and resoluuon and Lo
dlsregard uuerly Lhe presumpuon of regular performance of
omclal duLy. 1o allow such collaLeral auack would desLroy Lhe
separauon of powers and undermlne Lhe role of Lhe Supreme
CourL as Lhe nal arblLer of all [usuclable dlspuLes.

ulssaused lluganLs and/or Lhelr counsels cannot
wlLhouL vlolaung Lhe separauon of powers mandaLed by Lhe
ConsuLuuon re||ngate |n another forum the hna| [udgment of
th|s Court on legal lssues submlued by Lhem and Lhelr
adversarles for nal deLermlnauon Lo and by Lhe Supreme CourL
and whlch fall wlLhln [udlclal power Lo deLermlne and ad[udlcaLe
excluslvely vesLed by Lhe ConsuLuuon ln Lhe Supreme CourL and
ln such lnferlor courLs as may be esLabllshed by law.
[7] 311 hll 441, 309 (1993).
[8] 21 hll 308, 326 (1912).
[9] CCnS1l1u1lCn, Arucle xl, Secuon 2.
[10] CCnS1l1u1lCn, Arucle vlll, Secuon 3(2).
[11] 5-", Secuon 3(3).
[12] P*;*% @" S)+/*0,;)6, C.8. no. 166316, SepLember 3, 2009, T; @" U=88,+&*@,, C.8. no. 137831, !une
29, 2007, 326 SC8A 73, 83-84, S,8=%)+ @" !)&6/ )C 2((*,8%, C.8. no. 147776, !uly 10, 2007, 327 SC8A
109. 117, and >&*+,@*+/&6, @" P*(&'8=., C.8. no. 166863, March 2, 2007, 317 SC8A 271, 282.
[13] arL of Lhe Crlmlnal ComplalnL-AmdavlL for CorrupL racuces, slgned by Auy. Cllver C. Lozano and
Auy. Lvangellne Lozano-Lndrlano, recelved by Lhe Cmbudsman on SepLember 8, 2009, Cmbudsman
8ecords, pp. 1089-1189,1090.
[14] Secuon 3. CorrupL pracuces of publlc omcers.-ln addluon Lo acLs or omlsslons of publlc omcers
already penallzed by exlsung law, Lhe followlng shall consuLuLe corrupL pracuces of any publlc omcer
and are hereby declared Lo be unlawful:
x x x x
(e) Causlng any undue ln[ury Lo any parLy, lncludlng Lhe
CovernmenL, or glvlng any prlvaLe parLy any unwarranLed
beneLs, advanLage or preference ln Lhe dlscharge of hls omclal
admlnlsLrauve or [udlclal funcuons Lhrough manlfesL paruallLy,
evldenL bad falLh or gross lnexcusable negllgence. 1hls provlslon
shall apply Lo omcers and employees of Lhe omces or
governmenL corporauons charged wlLh Lhe granL of llcenses or
permlLs or oLher concesslons.
x x x x
[13] U*8,%.) @" 3,+-=B,+',;,+, 492 hll 669, 677 (2003).
[16] L*8, !A=., @" 3,+-=B,+',;,+, 462 hll 712, 721 (2003), and S*+-)?,I26.* @" 1D.* )C /A*
10'&-%0,+, 430 hll 101, 113 (2002).
[17] L*8, !A=., @" 3,+-=B,+',;,+, 462 hll 712, 722 (2003).