You are on page 1of 8

Jibachha's Colour Atlas of Poultry Diseases

1
First Edition
Jibachhas
COLOUR ATLAS OF POULTRY DISEASES
DR. JIBACHHA SAH
B.V.Sc. & A.H., M.V.Sc. (T.U.)
Laboratory Training, NDDB, Gujarat, India
VETERINARY HOSPITAL RESEARCH & TRAINING CENTRE (P) LTD.
B.N.P. -5, Lankupul, Narayangarh, Chitwan, Nepal
Email: vhrtc@yahoo.com, Phone : 00977-56-570726
JIBACHHA PUBLISHING
(Veterinary Publisher & Distributors)
B.N.P.-5, Lankupul, Narayangarh, Chitwan, Nepal
Email: jibachha@yahoo.com, Phone : 00977-56-570726
Jibachha's Colour Atlas of Poultry Diseases
Jibachha Sah, 2012, October
EDITION: FIRST
PUBLISHER: JIBACHHA PUBLISHING (Veterinary Publisher & Distributors)
B.N.P.-5, Lankupul, Narayangarh, Chitwan, Nepal
Email: Jibachha@yahoo.com, Phone: 00977-56-570726
COPY RIGHT 2012, JIBACHHA PUBLISHING
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or
mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing
from the publisher.
ISBN: 978-9937- 8434-5- 4
Price NRs: 2850/- in Nepal and South Asian countries
Price US Dollar ($): 32/- Overseas
Coverpage Illustrate Description:
1. Ovarian follicles atresia and multifocal haemorrhage. Spleen mild splenomegaly due to Avian Infuenza
2. Oedema of eye lids due to Newcastle disease.
3. Errosion of proventriculus and gizzard due to vitamin E and selenium defciency.
4. Diffective egg shells due to Newcastle disease.
Jibachha's Colour Atlas of Poultry Diseases
Preface
This invaluable book Jibachhas Colour Atlas of Poultry Diseases (JCAPD) has been written to make it helpful for diagnosis
of poultry diseases as well as for their treatments and prevention. In Nepal, the absence of standardized clinical disease
diagnostic pattern, laboratory support and treatment guidelines at all levels of veterinary practices has resulted in irrational
use of drugs. It has become a common practice that veterinary drug importers import drugs on the basis of lowest price
quotations and consequently the practitioners use drugs that are available locally rather than prescribing effective drugs.
Others particularly midlevel animal health professionals prescribe a combination of drugs that probably have antagonistic
action and they do not even consider withdrawal period of drugs in food animals, a precaution that should be taken to protect
the public from residues of drugs. This book is accompanying description of etiology, pathogenesis, clinical signs, diagnosis,
clinical pathology and treatment with control of most prevalent poultry diseases.
Emphasis has been given on gross pathological lesions and includes recent information on clinical cases in each chapter
which will be very useful for diagnosis and treatment of poultry in feld condition. Veterinary science in Nepal is touching new
heights in terms of quality education, innovative research and increased commercial poultry production but professional
veterinary practitioners are quite insuffcient. This book is also written in such a manner which will serve that professional
need. No clinically applied book on poultry of this size can be completed without the help of many individuals.
The key source of inspiration and moral support comes from my wife, Mrs. Shila Devi Sah and sons Mr. Sujeet Kumar Sah
(Studying in Australia) and Mr. Prabhakar Kumar Sah (B.V.Sc. & A.H student). I am indebted to them for their unconditional
love, encouraging support and endless prayers which allowed me to complete this book successfully. The selected references
after each chapter include both reviews and publications in research bulletin, which will be useful for the documents. Several
steps have been taken to make this text more readable. It is hoped that this JCAPD could be updated whenever scientifc
knowledge proves a change. Comments on the general guidelines by veterinary professionals, researchers, veterinary
students and others will be highly appreciated to improve its quality.
-Dr. Jibachha Sah
Jibachha's Colour Atlas of Poultry Diseases
Jibachha's Colour Atlas of Poultry Diseases
CONTENTS
SECTION I : DISEASES CAUSED BY VIRUS 1-47
Chapter 1 : Newcastle disease(ND) 1-7
Chapter 2 : Infectious bursal disease (IBD) 7-11
Chapter 3 : Infectious bronchitis (IB) 11-15
Chapter 4 : Mareks disease (MD) 15-20
Chapter 5 : Egg drop syndrome 76 (EDS '76') 20-22
Chapter 6 : Hydropericardium syndrome (HPS) 22-24
Chapter 7 : Avian infuenza (AI) 25-31
Chapter 8 : Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) 31-34
Chapter 9 : Avian encephalomyelitis (AE) 34-35
Chapter 10 : Chicken anaemia (CA) 35-37
Chapter 11 : Fowl pox (FP) 37-38
Chapter 12 : Lymphoid leukosis complex (LLC) 39-42
Chapter 13 : Infectious Tenosynovitis 42-44
Chapter 14 : Swollen Head Syndrome(SHS) 44-45
Chapter 15 : Turkey Rhinotracheitis 45-46
Chapter 16 : Reticuloendotheliosis 46-47
SECTION II : DISEASES CAUSED BY BACTERIA 48-70
Chapter 17 : Fowl typhoid 48-50
Chapter 18 : Fowl cholera 50-53
Chapter 19 : Staphylococcosis 53-54
Chapter 20 : Infectious coryza 55-56
Chapter 21 : Pullorum disease 57-59
Chapter 22 : Necrotic enteritis 59-61
Chapter 23 : Botulism 61-62
Chapter 24 : Gangrenous cellulitis 62-63
Chapter 25 : Streptococcosis 64-65
Chapter 26 : Avian tuberculosis 65
Chapter 27 : Erysipelothrix infection 65-66
Chapter 28 : Colisepticaemia 67-70
SECTION III : DISEASES CAUSED BY MYCOPLASMA 71-75
Chapter 29 : Chronic respiratory disease (CRD) 71-74
Chapter 30 : Infectious synovitis 74-75
Chapter 31 : Mycoplasma meleagridis 75
SECTION IV : DISEASES CAUSED BY PROTOZOA 76-80
Chapter 32 : Coccidiosis 76-80
SECTION V : DISEASES CAUSED BY FUNGUS 81-85
Chapter 33 : Aspergillosis 81-82
Chapter 34 : Candidiasis 83
Chapter 35 : Favus (White comb) 83-84
Chapter 36 : Afatoxicosis 84-85
SECTION VI : METABOLIC DISEASES 86-89
Chapter 37 : Avian Urolithiasis 86-88
Chapter 38 : Ascites 88-89
Jibachha's Colour Atlas of Poultry Diseases
SECTION VII : NUTRITIONAL DISEASES 90-98
Chapter 39 : Calcium and Phosphorus Imbalances 90
Chapter 40 : Manganese defciency 90
Chapter 41 : Iodine defciency 90
Chapter 42 : Copper defciency 90
Chapter 43 : Iron defciency 90
Chapter 44 : Potassium, Sodium and Chloride defciency 91
Chapter 45 : Selenium defciency 91
Chapter 46 : Zinc defciency 91
Chapter 47 : Magnesium defciency 91
Chapter 48 : Vitamin A defciency 91-92
Chapter 49 : Vitamin D
3
defciency 92
Chapter 50 : Vitamin E defciency 93-94
Chapter 51 : Vitamin K defciency 94
Chapter 52 : Vitamin C defciency 94
Chapter 53 : Vitamin B
12
defciency 94-95
Chapter 54 : Choline defciency 95
Chapter 55 : Niacin (Nicotinic) defciency 95
Chapter 56 : Pantothenic acid defciency 95-96
Chapter 57 : Ribofavin defciency 96
Chapter 58 : Folic acid defciency 96
Chapter 59 : Biotin defciency 96-97
Chapter 60 : Pyrodoxin (Vitamin B
6
) defciency 97
Chapter 61 : Thiamine (Vitamin B
1
) defciency 97
Chapter 62 : Carbohydrate defciency 98
Chapter 63 : Protein defciency 98
Chapter 64 : Fat defciency 98
SECTION VIII : DISEASES CAUSED BY ENDOPARASITES 99-100
Chapter 65 : Ascariasis 99
Chapter 66 : Tape worm 100
Chapter 67 : Y-worm 100
SECTION IX : ECTOPARASITIC INFECTION 101
Chapter 68 : Ectoparasites of poultry 101
SECTION X : DIAGNOSIS OF POULTRY DISEASE AND NECROPSY 102-106
SECTION XI : INTERNAL BODY ORGANS OF POULTRY 107
SECTION XII : POSTMORTEM EXAMINATION OF POULTRY DISEASE 108-120
REFERENCES 121-125
ALPHABETICAL INDEX 126-127
Jibachha's Colour Atlas of Poultry Diseases
ACT Activated clotting time
AID Anaemia of infammatory disease
aPTT Activated Partial thromboplastin time
CBC Complete blood count
EDTA Ethylene-di-amine-tetraacetic acid
ESR Erythrocyte sedimentation rate
MCH Mean corpuscular haemoglobin
MCHC Mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration
MCV Mean cell volume
PCV Packed cell volume
WBC White blood cell
CRD Chronic respiratory disease
IBV Infectious bronchitis (virus)
ND Newcastle disease
AI Avian infuenza
CAV Chicken anaemia (virus)
EDS Egg drop syndrome
IBH Inclusion body hepatitis
ILT Infectious laryngotracheitis
IBD Infectious bursal disease
FP Fowl pox
LL Lymphoid leukosis
MD Marek's disease
MG Mycoplasma gallisepticum
MS Mycoplasma synoviae
SHS Swollen head syndrome
TRT Turkey rhinotracheitis
HPI Hours post infection
aMPV Avian meta pneumo virus
IC Infectious coryza
CP Clostridium perfringens
BoNT/A Botulinum neuro toxin serotype A
ABBREVIATION USED IN BOOK
Jibachha's Colour Atlas of Poultry Diseases