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School of Engineering

COURSEWORK SUBMISSION SHEET


All sections except the LATE DATE section must be completed and the declaration signed, for the
submission to be accepted.
Any request for a coursework extension must be submitted on the appropriate form (please refer to
http://www.rgu.ac.uk/academicaffairs/quality_assurance/page.cfm?pge=44250), prior to the due
date.

Due Date
13TH APRIL 2014
MATRIC No.:

Date Submitted
13th APRIL 2014

For official use only


LATE DATE

1312484

SURNAME: ABBEY HART


FIRST NAME(S): TUMINI TAMONUA REGINALD
COURSE & STAGE

MSc OIL AND GAS INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

MODULE NUMBER & TITLE

ENM 501: OIL AND GAS ENGINEERING COURSE

ASSIGNMENT TITLE

GENERAL FIELD DEVELOPMENT COURSE WORK

LECTURER ISSUING COURSEWORK

MR MIKE ROBINSON

I confirm: (a) That the work undertaken for this assignment is entirely my own and that I have
not made use of any unauthorised assistance.
(b) That the sources of all reference material have been properly acknowledged.
[NB: For information on Academic Misconduct, refer to
http://www.rgu.ac.uk/academicaffairs/assessment/page.cfm?pge=7088]

Signed

ABBEY-HART
10TH APRIL 2014
..................................... Date ......................................................

Markers Comments

Marker

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Page 1

A REPORT ON THE FIELD


DEVELOPMENT PLAN TAKEN FOR
THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE
CASABLANCA FIELD

PREPARED BY

NAME.
ABBEY-HART
TUMINI

REVIEWED BY

(1312484)
MR MIKE
ROBINSON

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

SIGNATURE
ABBEY-HART

DATE
13 APRIL 2014
th

Casablanca oilfield is a virgin field, about to start undergoing


development, in order to commence production of oil and gas for high
return on investment values on money spent during development. During
exploration stage of this field, data and facts about the oilfield were taken
by geoscientist, and passed on to engineers in order to help support and
influence decisions taken, and choose certified equipments fit for use
during the field development phase. The data details are shown below:
Field Location
Field Water Depth
Number of wells planned
Rate Predicted for Production
Field life Duration expected
Depth of reservoir
Initial Pressure
Pressure of oil bubble point
Quality of Crude

60 kilometres away from nearest land fall;


300 feet deep;
5 wells;
30,000 bbls oil quantity per day;
10 years;
12,000 feet;
6,000 psia
3,500 psia
Sour 40 Degrees API

From the data taken by geologist, seismic survey information were


acquired with the most important and a little bit disturbing one being the
presence of sour crude as the quality of crude to be produced during
development. Sour crude simply means that the crude contains high
amount of hydrogen sulphide and other sulphuric compounds, which
gives it a sour smell. Presence of this have tendencies of causing
problems and therefore treatment would have to be undertaken on all
produce

(Oil,

Gas,

Water)

to

prevent

future

problems

with

the

government.
Also occurring flow assurance issues like Asphaltene Precipitation,
Wax formation etc. are expected during development so prevention
methods would be placed to prevent this from occurring and causing
obstruction of fluids flow from well heads to their final point of export or
sales point.
Lastly, a preferred option is recommended for the progress of this project
and all of this would be discussed as development planning is carried out.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY......................................................................3
INTRODUCTION..............................................................................5
1.1 Aims of this report..................................................................5
1.2 Objectives of this report...........................................................6
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1.3 Assumptions taking during Development....................................6


SECTION A:....................................................................................7
2.0 Analysis for Field Development..................................................7
2.1 Well Head:.............................................................................8
2.2 Manifold.................................................................................8
2.3 Separator:.............................................................................8
2.4 Gas Scrubber:........................................................................9
2.5 Compressor:..........................................................................9
2.6 Gas Conditioning Unit:.............................................................9
2.7 Meters:................................................................................10
2.8 Pumps:................................................................................10
2.9 Hydrocyclones:.....................................................................11
2.10 Water De-gassing Drum:......................................................11
2.11 Heater Treater:...................................................................12
2.12 Storage Tank:.....................................................................12
2.13 SBM:.................................................................................12
2.14 Shuttle Tankers:..................................................................12
SECTION A Part 2:.........................................................................13
3.0 Tie Back Development............................................................13
3.1 Subsea Production Template:..................................................13
3.2 Subsea Tree:........................................................................13
3.3 Underwater Manifold..............................................................13
3.4 Multi-Phase Meters:...............................................................13
3.5 Risers:.................................................................................14
3.6 Flow Lines:...........................................................................14
3.7 Umbilical Cables:...................................................................14
SECTION B...................................................................................14
4.0 Flow assurance issues faced by Casablanca and Morella facility... .14
4.1 Hydrates Formation:..............................................................14
4.2 Corrosion:............................................................................15
4.3 Paraffin Waxes:.....................................................................15
4.4 Asphaltene Precipitation:........................................................15
4.5 Technical Advantages of Casablanca and Morella Platform...........16
4.6 Technical Disadvantages of Casablanca and Morella Platform.......16
4.7 Commercial Advantages of Casablanca and Morella Platform.......17
4.8 Commercial Disadvantages of Casablanca and Morella Platform.. .17
Section C:....................................................................................18
5.1 Recommendation of Preferred option........................................18

INTRODUCTION
As a field consultant, I am commencing the development of a new oil
field that I have been assigned to, create a flow diagram for superiors to
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propose on structures to be followed and carried out ensuring that


equipments installed are fit of use and operation working conditions. Also
perform a tieback operation to a pre-existing facility located nearby called
Morella with distance of approximately 10km choosing most appropriate
means with less production risk.
1.1 Aims of this report
1) To prepare a plan, for the successful development of the
Casablanca oil field.
2) To show Mr Mike Robinson, I do understand all concepts up to an
adequate level of all the information he has been passing in class
sections.
3) To further students knowledge from that of the course notes by
means of web and publication searches.
1.2 Objectives of this report
1) To learn how to prepare a flow diagram so as to help give some
structure of development for Casablanca oil field.
2) To know the functions of how various Equipments utilised in
development stage work e.g. the roles played by a separator.
3) To know how water treatment is carried out before being
discharged into the environment.
4) To give recommendation, and discuss a preferred option with
reasons why it was selected from both development concepts.
1.3 Assumptions taking during Development
1) Minimal amount of sand present, due to lack of high water cuts so
sand cyclones are not installed in development.
2) High viscosity crudes present so heater treater would be needed in
development.
3) Fluid coming in from the wellhead comes in at very high pressure
and therefore a three stage (multi) separator is needed to step
down fluid pressure.

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4) Morella platform is producing above, 45,000 stock tank barrel oil


per day and this is going to take some years to decline to 45,000
stock tank barrel oil.
5) Presence of acidic gases (Hydrogen sulphide and Carbon dioxide)
in crude, so gas sweetening is carried out.
6) No presence of Nitrogen in acidic gases so gas sweeting would not
be carried out on it using Cryogenic removal process.
7) Minimal and acceptable amount salt present when oil is been
separated so electrostatic de-salters are not installed.
8) Health and Safety requirement of oil in water before disposal is
40ppm maximum, for the region where oilfield is located.

SECTION A:
2.0 Analysis for Field Development

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As the field development consultant working for RG E&P, in charge of


developing the Casablanca oil field a flow diagram has been prepared
shown in Figure 1.0 below to help give structure on the processes and
steps that would be taken for successful development of this new oil field.

Figure 1.0: A process flow schematic diagram describing the


process steps required for the development of Casablanca field.

2.1 Well Head: During production, fluids from reservoir flow to the top
of the earth surface, and are being produced at the wellhead. The
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wellhead helps provide a pressure containment interface for production


activities carried out. The quality and quantity of reservoir fluids
produced are dependent on three main factors, which are composition of
hydrocarbon present, characteristics of the reservoir produced from and
lastly the field development scheme set in place. The earlier first two,
aforementioned factors are controlled by Mother Nature itself and the last
mentioned are manipulated within the constraints of technological and
market value. (Frank Jahn, et.al; pg 236, 2013).Chemical Injection is
provided at the wellhead to prevent issues occurring due to flow
assurance.
2.2 Manifold: Productions gotten from wellheads are connected through
flow lines to a tubular steel structure called manifold. This manifold acts
as a focal point and gathering centre for all flow lines attached to various
wellheads, in which the stream of fluids from each wellhead are
commingled together and fluid production now starts here for all
wellheads. This process saves time and unnecessary expenses of
producing from each wellhead independently. Injection of demulsifiers
occurs here to prevent an emulsion from occurring between the oil and
water interphase. This makes the oil soluble in water so there would just
be a single flow phase and not multiple flows because oil floats on water
due to its density difference. Fluids then flow from the manifold into a
separator, passing through a choke valve installed on the flow line, which
causes the first pressure drop of fluid during production.
2.3 Separator: Normally referred to as the heart of processing facilities
during production. It separates the fluids into phases gas, oil, and water,
and help to support accurate metering of it during production. When fluid
flows from the manifold through the choke valve into the separator
system, it comes in at a high-pressure rate and then a pressure drop
occurs as it goes through each of the various phases of separation
installed. As fluids enter the separator, it hits an inlet diverter, which
causes a change in flow direction and velocity of the fluid. Initial gross
separation in the separator, occurs at this point first with water going to
bottom, oil in the middle and gas at the top. In the separator, gravity
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forces cause the heavier liquid droplets to fall out of the gas stream to
the bottom where the liquid is collected. The liquid phase holds the liquid
until an appropriate residence time required to allow the entrained gas
break out of the oil and rise to the gas phase, and they do so under
buoyancy forces. In addition, how easy the gases breaks out of the liquid
is determined by the viscosity of the liquid present, as liquid with high
viscosities imply longer residence times.
2.4 Gas Scrubber: As the gas, flows out of the separator it passes a
mist extractor, which acts as a barrier and causes small drops of liquid
that were difficult to be separated by gravity to fall back into the liquid
phase. The gas then flows into a gas scrubber, whose function is to
restrict and trap condensed liquids (i.e. water and hydrocarbons) from
the gases as it leaves the separators. This function of the gas scrubber
helps prevent liquids from getting into the suction of the compressor
thereby disrupting functionality and causing erode on compressor
rotating blades.
2.5 Compressor: As gas moves through the processing stages, a drop in
pressure accompanies it and energy would need to be imparted into it to
cause an increase in pressure, before it can be transported to the next
processing stage. In this scenario, three separators are used in stepping
down the pressure, so the gas pressure escaping the first separator is not
same with the gas pressure escaping the second and the third separator,
so in such a compressor is used to increase the gas pressure of the
second and third separator to be in range with the first separator.
2.6 Gas Conditioning Unit: Before the gas is made use of as fuel or
flared, it goes through the condition unit, which ensures water vapour is
absent in gases, as this can lead to hydrate formation and cause
corrosion in the presence of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide. It
also ensures that contaminants like carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide
are removed, as hydrogen sulphide is toxic.
To prevent such hindrances, two processes are undertaken which are:
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i.

Gas Dehydration: This simply means removal of water vapour


present in gases.

ii.

Gas Sweetening: This means the removal of hydrogen sulphide


and carbon dioxide (acid gases) that are present.

These two processes are performed together using absorption technique


in

contact

tower

or

absorber.

Chemical

solvents

such

as

Monoethanolamine and Tri-ethylene glycol are combined together in the


contact tower, then the gases are bubbled as heat is being applied
slightly above atmospheric pressure. In the contact tower, the glycol
reduces the water contents sufficient to prevent water dropout from the
gases, and allows for efficient removal of the hydrogen sulphide and
carbon dioxide by the Monoethanolamine in the gases. This help remove
possibilities of hydrate formation, which causes corrosion and blockages.
2.7 Meters: When produce such as oil and gas, are ready for export
from the production installation, it goes through meters, which are used
to manage and monitor the volume and quantity of produce (oil and gas)
transported out of the production installation from one party to another.
Specialised meters are used to perform this process, to measure the gas
Ultrasonic meters are used and for the oil turbine meters are used.
From the diagram in Figure 1.0, the water at the bottom leaves the
separator through water dump valves installed below, which are
controlled accordingly by the water level controller at the side of the
separator as water changes are sensed. Water flows out of the separators
and heater treater as shown in figure 1.0, to the hydrocyclones and due
to pressure drops already occurred, pumps are used for the second and
third separator independently to boost its flow to the hydrocyclones.
2.8 Pumps: This are devices which work similar to gas compressors,
with the major difference being that they are used to impart pressure on
the fluids and not gases, in order to increase flow rate, and prevent
occurrence of slippage during production.

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2.9 Hydrocyclones: When water enters the hydrocyclones, it removes


the oil contents from the water before sent out to sea. This process is
known as De-oiling.
i.

De-Oiling: This simply means the removal of oil concentration


from water. There are many de-oiling techniques e.g. skimming
tank,

corrugated

interceptor,

gas

floatation

unit

etc...

But

hydrocyclones are used, due to its the most common technique


used offshore, and is capable of producing oil in water disposal
standards of less than 40ppm or 40ppm which falls in line with
regulatory health and safety requirements of region, before it is
allowed to be discharged to sea.
The way hydrocyclones works is it relies on centrifugal forces to separate
the light oil particles left in the water phase as it passed through
processing stages, leaving the water to rest at the bottom and oil on top
of the water in the equipment. Water then gets collected in the water degassing drum.
2.10 Water De-gassing Drum: As the water is collected here, it
performs another effective process, by removing the gases still present
even as fluid has gone through various processing stages, before the
water is discharged to sea. This process is known as De-gassing.
i.

De-Gassing: This simply means the removal of gas concentration


from water. A de-gassing drum is used in this development for that
purpose.

The way the de-gassing drum works is, as water enters the de-gassing
drum dispersed gases slowly rise out of it and by floatation, the gases
pull along with it remaining droplets of oil to the surface that were not
separated by the hydrocyclones. The surface oil film is drained out and
channelled back to the heater treater for dehydration, and produced now
treated water is now discharged to sea through a skim pipe. Hydrogen
sulphide and Carbon dioxide are also treated here as explained earlier by
making use of the Monoethanolamine solvent to remove its presence.
In Figure 1.0, you would have a view of the process through which the oil
flows in the separator. The oil seats in the middle between the gas phase
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and water phase then it leaves the separator through oil dump valves
installed below, which are controlled accordingly by the oil level controller
at the side of the separator as oil changes are sensed from the weir
located in the separator. The oil then flows out into a heater treater.
2.11 Heater Treater: With the assumption of high viscosity crudes,
heater treater is installed in order to promote separation and fast break
out of the gas from the liquid phase. As high viscosity, fluids have
tendencies of taking longer retention time to break out the liquid phase.
This gives stabilization and dehydration of the oil before it goes to the
storage tank and then later transport. As it is necessary for fluids to be
stabilized during transport, and gas to be dehydrated to its dew point to
prevent liquid drop out during transportation.
2.12 Storage Tank: When the oil comes into the storage tank, it does
so with the support of a pump to impart pressure into the liquid to
prevent occurrence of slippage due to the pressure dropped already
occurred in process. This device simply stores oil produced from the fluid
after it has gone through all processing stages available and is now
awaiting exportation. RVP is carried out on the oil using Reid bomb
apparatus before transportation to ensure true vapour pressure is within
range of 10-12 psia required for transport by shuttle tankers. This
process ensures vapour is not too high, as it is flammable and gives rise
to explosion hazards if escaped to atmosphere.
2.13 SBM: When the oil stored in the storage is now ready to be
transported, this provides the tankers with support during extraction as
the tanker is tied up to the SBM and through it, the tankers have the
ability to rotate around and accommodate the weather conditions present
at time of export.
2.14 Shuttle Tankers: They simply are the boats, which come and take
the oil away to the storage facility when it is ready for export.

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SECTION A Part 2:
3.0 Tie Back Development
For tieback in this development, it can be performed by either introducing
a new jacket, and making use of a linking bridge to link both facilities, Or
by making use of subsea equipments for the development of the tie back.
This I believe to be a better option as the distance of 10km between both
facilities is quite much for use of a linking bridge though it cost less, the
risk involved if problems were to occur are very high. Subsea tiebacks
equipments utilised are:
3.1 Subsea Production Template: This support production activities to
be carried out, acting as the base foundation for other subsea structures
to be installed upon. Construction is carried out nearby, and taken to
seabed location when constructed, in which it is gently lowered unto the
seabed using a crane barge, and pile drivers installed on it are loosened,
and piled into the bottom of the seabed to hold template in place and
promote stability of the equipment.
3.2 Subsea Tree: This equipment is placed at the bottom of the sea to
seat on the template that seats on the seabed. It is required as the final
step taken for completion of a well to make it viable for production startup. It helps control and support the fluid flow from the Casablanca field
providing safe conduit through it and the flow lines into the manifold.
3.3 Underwater Manifold: As described earlier this has the same
function, acts as a gathering centre and focal point for production of
fluids. It connects all series of wells together through flow lines, while
also seating on the subsea template.
3.4 Multi-Phase Meters: Also described earlier, as meters are used for
many reasons e.g. government, personal files, court cases etc. it is used
to know the quantity and volume of produce been sent out from one
party to another party.

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3.5 Risers: This is a large steel pipe diameters installed, and the
function it plays is, it serves as a drill string conduit raising and collecting
fluids gathered at the seabed manifold installed below and then sends it
upwards for processing through the subsea flow lines installed.
3.6 Flow Lines: This plays the part of conveying and transportation of
oil, gas, and all other constituents around installations, and also from the
Casablanca facility to the pre-existing Morella facility.
3.7 Umbilical Cables: These are offshore underwater cables installed
and deployed into the seabed to ensure safe transfer of electrical or
hydraulic energy to equipments used subsea.
SECTION B
4.0 Flow assurance issues faced by Casablanca and Morella
facility.
Both platforms face few common flow assurance issues likely to occur,
though they may occur at different areas, they do still occur. Moreover,
some have low tendencies of occurring due to presence of Mediterranean
climate. Foreseen issues on both platforms are:
4.1 Hydrates Formation: Occurs due to physical bonding of lighter
constituents and water present in gases, and is visible to human eyes in
the form of iceberg structures. They are formed in conditions of high
pressure and low temperature, and the risk of it occurring here are low
due to Mediterranean climate but they can still occur. If it were to occur,
on the Casablanca field it would occur on wellheads and flow lines. Then
on Morella, it would also occur on flow lines and available equipments.
These plug equipments and pipelines there by obstructing flow and
causing blockage to flow of fluids.
Control Measures: If it occurred, its controlled with use of Tri-Ethylene
glycol solvent in which performs water dehydration present in gases.

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4.2 Corrosion: Occurs from the hydrates formed, but in the presence of
acid gases (Hydrogen sulphide and Carbon dioxide). Corrosion leads to
many problems such as contamination of fluids, structural failure, rusting,
and operation shutdown. On both fields they can occur on flow lines and
equipments used in the presence of hydrates.
Control Measures: Can be controlled by making use of corrosion
resistant pipes, and through chemicals solvents such as corrosion
inhibitors like Monoethanolamine and Imodazolines
4.3 Paraffin Waxes: These are crystalline in nature, and are formed at
temperatures below cloud point. Also it has low tendency of occurring
due to Mediterranean climate. If waxes were to occur, they would cause
production choking. On both platforms, if it occurred it would occur in
flow lines.
Control Measures: If it occurred, its controlled by injection of paraffin
inhibitors such as, Ethylene vinyl acetate or Alkyl phenols or Vinyl
Polymers or through insulation of flow lines.
4.4 Asphaltene Precipitation: Formed through oxidation, in the
presence of impurities along with resins and aromatics in the crude oil,
giving rise to metallic looking molecular substances (Asphaltene). In both
platforms they can occur in flow lines, and cause the flow lines to have
depositional tendencies. Also causes reduction in diffusion rate.
Control

Measures:

Can

also

be

controlled

through

injection

of

Asphaltene inhibitors such as Aromatic solvents or Dodecyl benzene


Sulphuric Acid.

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4.5 Technical Advantages of Casablanca and Morella Platform.

Casablanca Platform (FPSO)

Morella Platform (Tieback)

Decommissioning of the well once

Installation of the tieback from

depletion has occurred in reserves

Casablanca

is easily done, as FPSO are floating

reservoir reserves from depleting

structures

in

that

can

be

easily

would

coming

stop

years

Morella

and

give

moved from Casablanca field to a

maximization and extension of the

new location.
They have capacities to handle

reservoir life span.

more variable and large production


streams due to the availability of
storage and offloading equipments
installed on-board vessels.
4.6 Technical Disadvantages of Casablanca and Morella Platform.

Casablanca Platform (FPSO)

Morella Platform (Tieback)

During

At a combined production rate it

exportation

of

produced

fluids to the facility, it is done by

would

use of shuttle tankers, in which are

barrels per day and its more than

constrained to weather conditions

the required capacity. This means

at time of export.
During offloading of produce, there

a delay in start date of production


As subsea equipment are utilized,

is risk of spillage occurring on

it

surface when offloading from FPSO

disadvantage,

into shuttle tankers.

needed for subsea operations are

Presence of flow assurance issues

very expensive to purchase.


After the purchase of equipments,

are

likely

to

occur

Asphaltene Precipitation

such

is

produce

at

above

major
as

75,000

financial

equipments

as it is very difficult to carry out


interventions

or

equipment

maintenance processes if problems


are to occur.

4.7 Commercial Advantages of Casablanca and Morella Platform.


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Casablanca Platform (FPSO)


1

Morella Platform (Tieback)

Less extra added cost involved It cost a lot less to acquire as


during

processing

requirements
processing,

as

needed

all

FPSO are very expensive to rent,

for and also do take longer duration to

storage

and

construct one together.

transportation are installed upon


2

vessels.
It
can

be

recycled

thereby

Compared

to
a

the

lower

FPSO

reducing cost. As at the end of its

requires

life span, it can be converted to a

investment

tanker used in transportation of

development planning stage.

to

initial
be

this

capital

used

in

produce (oil and gas) to locations.


4.8

Commercial

Disadvantages

of

Casablanca

and

Morella

Platform.

Casablanca Platform (FPSO)

Morella Platform (Tieback)

Lesser allocation of sales returned

Since

back from the Morella facility after

utilized, staffs would have to be

sale of produce, since they possess

trained

sweet crude and we possess sour

competent skills in order to be able

crude so we are is contaminating

to manage subsea equipments.

the sweet crude in their facility.


Premium would still be paid to the

Reduction of produce value will

Morella facility for processing of

occur from this operation, due to

the sour crude in the Casablanca

the mixture of the sweet crude in

facility.

this facility with the sour crude in

subsea
to

equipments
achieve

are

required

the Casablanca facility, as the sour


would

contaminate

crude.
Section C:
5.1 Recommendation of Preferred option
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the

sweet

After

careful

assessment

of

all

field

development

options,

do

recommend the use of option 1 that is the wellhead jacket and FPSO
structure over option 2 for four main reasons, which are:
i.

FPSO are very flexible structures, can be used on subsequent


upcoming projects immediately after decommissioning of one, and
even can be used on tieback development as well.

ii.

In option 2, there would be a delay in cash flow, because engineers


would have to wait for a couple of years before production can
commence at its full capacity, or they can decide to start
production and later on choke wells. Nevertheless, this has effects
on the flow of cash.

iii.

From option 2, there would be a decrease in revenue when making


use of it, because measuring meters are not 100 percent accurate

iv.

Use of option 2, has technological requirements as subsea


expertise and costly subsea interventions are needed.

References

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DEVOLD H., 2013. An Introduction to Oil and Gas Production, Transport,


Refining and Petrochemical Industry Oil and Gas Production Handbook.
Edition 3.0 Oslo 2006 2013, ABB Oil and Gas. ISBN 978-82-9978863-2.
http://www04.abb.com/global/seitp/seitp202.nsf/0/f8414ee6c
6813f5548257c14001f11f2/$file/Oil+and+gas+production+hand
book.pdf [Accessed on 9 4 2014].
FMC TECHNOLOGY: Flow Assurance Competence Centre.
https://www.google.co.uk/url?
sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=9&cad=rja&uact=8&ve
d=0CHAQFjAI&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.fmctechnologies.com
%2F~%2Fmedia%2FSubsea%2FServices%2FFlow
%2520Management%2FDatasheet_FlowAssuranceCC.ashx
%3Fforce%3D1%26track%3D1&ei=oPpIUPcCcTy7AakrICgAw&usg=AFQjCNEnwQvjwKZUgKS9oGswBu4LQel
ncQ&sig2=ujJmSyK1M54b_xwDz6PsBg&bvm=bv.64542518,d.d2k
[Accessed 12 -04 - 2014].
HERMAN, G.N., 2006. Flow Assurance and Multiphase Pumping.
Petroleum Production pdf. Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies
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