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Need Analysis 9-7 1

Need Analysis

Leslie Carolina Martnez Becerra
Fernando Alberto Gmez Gmez
Practicum I
Universidad Industrial de Santander

Supervisor: Fabio Rodrguez

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The present paper addresses to analyze a series of aspects concerning the
development of the English class 9-07 at Instituto Politcnico de Bucaramanga.
The purpose of this analysis is to establish a well-documented basis for making
decisions on how to enhance the classes implemented in that group. The themes
taken into account for the analysis are: Methodology, classroom management, time
management, and assessment.

The tools designed to collect the data were a series of questionnaires,
interviews, and classroom observations. The questionnaires and interviews were
applied to the permanent teacher, the practitioner teachers, and the students. The
type of analysis implemented was the one referred to as Thematic Analysis by
Gibson and Brown (2009), which consists on analyzing data according to
commonalities, relationships and differences across a data set. In the end,
according to the analysis, conclusions are presented on how the class could be
improved in regard to the different aspects examined.

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1. Analysis of the Observations

In the subsequent paragraphs, an analysis of the observations collected at
the classroom is carried out. In order to conduct a fruitful examination, two sorts of
notes were taken: descriptive and reflective. The former type was used as a
means to obtain a precise description of what was perceived during the
observations. However, as advised by Bailey (2007), no efforts at that stage were
made to explain why someone did something or to guess what they felt when they
were engaging to a particular activity. It was later, after collecting each classs
descriptive notes that the reflective ones were produced. The purpose was making
sense of all the information collected at the descriptive phase. In addition to these
two types of notes, a color coding strategy was applied to classify data according
to four themes: Methodology, assessment, classroom management, and time

These categories did not emerge from an analysis of the data; rather, they
were previously established, since setting particular themes to study beforehand,
allows the examination of specific aspects of interest (Cabtree &. Miller, 1999). The
next step then, was to analyze the data collected and classified. So, following
Drnyeis (2007) assertion that as a result of revisiting the data a number of times,
some salient content categories emerge, linked to various data segments, this
analysis was carried out by means of reviewing the data several times until finding
commonalities within the same categories, which at the same time led to certain
conclusions about the classroom state in regard to the four themes proposed.
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1.1 Time management

Punctuality is a noticeable problem in the institution. Most of the days, many
students did not arrive on time for their English lessons, especially when the class
was scheduled at 5:45, the first class of the day. Classes at that time always began
from 10 to 15 minutes later than the stipulated time. Moreover, students did not
seem to be aware of the importance of punctuality, nor they looked concerned
about the consequences of not being punctual, set by the teachers. Therefore,
considering that behavioral issues like unpunctuality can be modified by means of
classroom rules and routines (Marzano, Marzano & Pickering, 2003), strategies to
encourage punctuality among students must be reformulated or improved
somehow. A worthwhile approach can be giving the students real opportunities to
reflect upon the relevance of being punctual for their lessons, since the continuing
exploration of behavior modification techniques, is shifting from teacher control
to student self-monitoring and self- control (Evertson & Harris, 1992).
On the other hand, Teachers sometimes spent too much time giving
instructions or trying to quite students up, which always held back the
accomplishment of the objectives of the class. Therefore, in order to fulfill the
lessons objectives, students had to take class activities as homework and bring it
for next class since it was part of a scored activity. The source of these sort of
interferences can be attributed to a lack of organization, since Inefficient
procedures and absence of routine for common aspects of the classroom life can
waste large amounts of time, and cause students attention and interest to wane
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(Emmer, Evertson & Worsham, 2003 as cited in Marzano, Marzano & Pickering,
2003). So, it would be a good idea to set more clear routines such as specifying a
time period per each activity for students to realize they have to be focused on the
class work and be responsible when handling time. In the words of Savage &
Savage (2010): One way to increasing engaged time is to establishing classroom
routines for predictable and recurrent events.
Finally, external problems such as teachers of the previous classes consuming
time and students changing the classroom for each subject also affected the time
factor. As McLeod, Fisher & Loover (2003) pointed out: how you spend your time
is all too often determined by state or district mandates, school policy, and rigid
daily school routines. These issues go beyond the teachers direct control, and so,
Instructional strategies must be planned to fit into time frames (McLeod, Fisher &
Loover, 2003), which means that activities must be designed taking into account
the time constraints institutional context may cause.

1.2. Classroom management

Discipline issues are perhaps the most manifest problem inside this
classroom, and their influence in the lessons pedagogical processes were
remarkably deep. Their more evident effect was the constant interruptions (along
with teachers countlessly calling their attention), which generated persistent
difficulties for the achievement of the class goals. As Marzano, Marzano &
Pickering (2003) pointed out: Effective teaching and learning cannot take place in
a poorly managed classroom. The major disruptive behaviors can be classified in
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three main categories: 1) students talking while they should be either paying
attention or working on a certain activity; 2) students being disrespectful to the
teachers and their classmates; and 3) students not paying attention to the class.
Consequently, as there were several types of problematic behaviors, several
classroom management strategies were implemented according to the situation.
As asserted by Ming-tak & Wai-shing (2008): There is no single best way to
manage classrooms; and no one model or theory can address the great variety of
circumstances and difficulties teachers encounter. So, first, the practitioner
teachers implemented a strategy that consisted of using a big well-decorated
poster arranged to classify students who had misbehaved, it was used at any
moment during the class. Second, in contrast to the poster strategy, the teachers
implemented a long term one focused on giving a reward instead. It was a
popcorn basket hanged next to the board every class, which would be filled in
with paper-made popcorn after all the lessons where students had had a good
behavior. The idea was to give them a reward in one of the last class depending on
how filled the basket happened to be for that day.
These behavioral strategies, which involved rewards and punishments, may
also imply running certain risks, since reward (and punishment) can be
understood only in terms of an individual student. A response that the teacher
intended to be rewarding may actually be punishing (Cooper, 2011), for instance,
when one student want to call everybodys attention by being punished.
Furthermore, there was a weakness common to both of these classroom
management strategies: with time, they became repetitive and, to some extent,
pointless for the students, who seemed not to care much about them after a while.
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However, those strategies were part of the so necessary daily classroom
routine that facilitates a fluid and organized lesson development (Savage and
Savage, 2010). Nonetheless, in the words of Doyle (1990): order in classrooms is
not a consequence to reactions to misbehavior but a condition established and
sustained by the way the teacher organizes and guides a complex system of
classroom activities and academic work. That means that approaching classroom
management by using engaging activities may be more effective than applying
positive or negative reinforcements, although the benefits of doing it cannot be
disregarded. Therefore, by applying those two sorts of classroom management
strategies, the class would count on a well-established and motivating set of

1.3. Methodology

Before applying any analysis on the English lessons observed, there is one
feature that must be highlighted: the activities used in the classroom followed the
principles of the Communicative Language Teaching approach (CLT), since the
teachers addressed the students ability to convey and interpret messages and to
negotiate meanings interpersonally within specific contexts (Hymes, 1969, 1972
as cited in Brown, 2000). However, considering that in reality it (CLT) consists of a
family of approaches (Nunan, 2004), it was clear the application of a more specific
division of the CLT: Project-based learning. The implementation of this particular
approach represented an advantage, as its adaptability makes it a viable option
for language educators working in a variety of instructional settings (Stoller, 2002).
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The previous considerations imply that the purposes and means of every single
one of the classes were clear: teaching the students to communicate in a certain
Having as a basis the principles of the communicative approach, there were
certain aspects related to the methodology that proved useful at different levels.
So, taking into account that from an organizational perspective, the central unit of
the classroom order is the activity (Doyle, 1990), the activities had a positive effect
on the students in terms of motivation and linguistic competence development,
since they were not directly connected to grammar and repetitive written exercises,
but to more engaging activities of different types. As highlighted by Nunan (2004):
These days it is generally accepted that language is more than a set of
grammatical rules, with attendant sets of vocabulary, to be memorized. Examples
of these activities include the ones involving images, videos, or students drawing
and coloring on worksheets. Also, letting students interact with one another and the
teacher when working on a specific exercise was a strategy that generated positive
results, as learning arises both as the result of deliberate guidance of the learner
by a more capable other and, incidentally, through participation in collective
activities with the member of the learning community (Kumpulainen & Wray,
However, these lessons or, more specifically, the activities used, also
presented certain methodological weaknesses that affected the achievement of the
set goals. To start with, from time to time, instructions for the different activities
were unclear to the students, and thus, difficult to follow. This, in more than one
occasion, caused serious complications. As Scrivener (2012) referred about
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instructions: Get them wrong, and they will cause problems that ripple through the
following activity and on into the rest of the lesson.
Also, along with this issue, there were problems connected to the materials used in
the classroom. Which is a matter of great importance, as Wepner, Strickland &
Quatroche (2013) asserted: Selecting instructional materials is a complex task that
should be viewed as a significantly important process by every
member of the educational community. An example of these situations is that
sometimes images were brought and put on the board for the entire class to work
on them. Nevertheless, they were not big enough and so, it was impossible for
some of the students to work on them. In addition to it, there were also problems in
the worksheets instructions for the activities and in the activities themselves, which
provoked confusion among students, and as a consequence they lost interest and
started misbehaving. So, both, preparing punctual instructions for the activities and
providing well-organized materials, are elements that demand time and reflexion.

1.4. Assessment

The practitioner teachers assessed students in different ways and for different
purposes. In order to do so, the four linguistic skills were taken into account.
However, due to the general competence level of the students, their spoken
performance was not specifically addressed, and as a consequence not assessed.
On the other hand, as for writing, reading, and listening refers, the teachers
implemented explicit strategies intended to collect evidence of the students level of
competence, based on the goals they were supposed to achieve during the
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classes. Parting from this evidence, the teacher assigned them a grade, which not
only was used to show a quantitative notion of their performance, but also as an
opportunity for reflection on academic and personal motivation issues. This
means, in the first place, that the different assessment tools (quizzes, tests, etc.)
did not simply consist of ways to decide on grades, they also allowed the teacher
to provide opportune feedback to students (Brown, 2000). Also, regarding students
motivation, the results and the fact of having an exam itself gave the teachers the
chance to encourage students to get engaged in the classes.
As mentioned above, assessment tools such as questionnaires and quizzes
proved useful as means of enhancing the teaching and learning processes.
Moreover, taking into account some evaluation strategies consisting on checking
and grading classwork and homework, the assessing system implemented by the
teachers attained an extra support. These other grades helped teachers to remind
students the importance of working on the classs activities. Besides, by doing this,
students were encouraged in positive ways, since by being responsible with their
assignments they obtained extra points in their exams. Nonetheless, teachers
must be careful when designing and applying them.
In the case of the classes observed, the teachers tests were suitable for the
students competence level, also considering the topics and the sort of exercises
that had been carried out in the different lessons. However, problems emerged
when trying to provide feedback to students, since whenever the teachers tried to
organize a group feedback session, the lack of interest of the best majority of the
students was evident. Consequently, Teachers should not take a step backwards
due to the fact that the benefits of feedback were wasted; in contrast, they have to
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follow the goals of assessments which includes, as suggested by Muoz, P.,
Palacio, M,. & Escobar, L. (2012), enhancing and supporting learning and teaching
by bringing a basis for reflection and, most importantly, conferencing and feedback
among people involved in the learning process. In order to change this situation a
different approach to provide feedback must be implemented.
At last, Regular classroom monitoring also operated, not only as a classroom
management tool, but also as an assessment strategy. Practitioners usually
supervised students outcomes during certain activities which assisted them on
discovering if the planning instruction was functioning as planned or if possible
changes were required to gain lessons strengths and amend students
advancement (Geneese and Upshur, 1996). In addition, folders revision was one of
the other alternative assessment instruments used to demonstrate students
collection of work, containing homework, quizzes, evaluations, and class work,
done during the first period of classes. As reported by Brown (2000), this type of
assessment as a number of potential benefits as: Promoting responsibility and
ownership and presenting tangible corroboration of students tasks.
Furthermore, the feedback provided to students when handing in the folders
was in a written form; some of them read the teachers viewpoints about their work,
whereas some others did not deliberate over their progress. (some did not even
bring the folders to be checked). Because of this, conferences can be an efficient
procedure not only to comment on students achievements, but also to interview
them in order to seek the feasible aspects that affect their folders completion or
their no consideration of hand it in (Brown, 2000).

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2. Analysis of the Practitioner Teachers Interview

The following lines present the analysis of an interview with one of the
practitioner teachers in charge of the class. A structured interview type was
applied, since by adopting a standardized format it is hoped that nothing will be
left to chance (Drnyei, 2007). Then, considering King & Horrocks (2010)
assertion that in most qualitative research traditions it is strongly preferable, if not
essential to have a full record of each interview, the practitioner teachers answers
were recorded. Besides, the interview was fully transcribed, as it enables to
generate empirical findings and share analytic observations (Jenks, 2011). The
aspects examined in this interview were: classroom management, time
management, methodology, and assessment. The data collected was compared to
the one obtained in the students interviews. The purpose was finding common
patterns among them, thus, providing validity to the inferences made upon these
two tools.

2.1. Methodology

In the interview, the teacher highlighted the importance of preparing activities
appealing to students; also she made it clear that it was one of their priorities.
Likewise, students expressed their interest in being involved in more dynamic
activities. So, it becomes evident the need for designing and applying engaging
activities, since by including the students motivation element they may be
integratively, instrumentally, or even cognitively oriented towards language
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learning (Drnyei & Schmidt, 2001). Also, the practitioner teacher referred to
giving instructions and providing materials, about how these two factors were
fundamental when having students involved in the class. In addition to it, students
pointed out how instructions affected their attention, they specifically referred to the
difficulty at following the ones given in English. Hence, considering the groups
particularities when reflecting on how to provide suitable instruction is essential, as
Price & Nelson (2014) stated: when students understand the directions they are
given, teachers can avoid the confusion that leads to wasted time as students
figure out what they are to do next.
Another point to review in regard to instructions, as well as to the methodology
and development of the class in general, was the use of the target language. Both
the practitioner teachers and students expressed their yearning to use English for
different purposes during the classes, as, in their opinion, it would make the class
more motivating. Students appeared to be especially interested in spoken tasks.
Nevertheless, as Thornbury (2005) asserted when considering all what is
requested for oral language production: speaking represents a real challenge to
most language learners. Thus, taking into account the students proficiency level,
both parts (teachers and students) also referred to the fact the students were
unprepared to work on activities involving a more active participation on their part
in terms of production of the language.
Finally, the practitioner also mentioned her and her partners willing to
implement collaborative work in the lessons. However, they also pointed out that
students were not used to this type of activities. In connection to it, students
admitted that one of the main obstacles for the lessons proper development was
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their own behavior. So, as explained by McLeod, Fisher & Hoover (2003): If a
teacher is having problems with classroom management, it is wise to avoid group
work until the problems are solved. Thus, practitioner teachers reluctance to use
cooperative activities can be attributed, as they themselves referred, to students
attitudes, and a possible solution could be found in classroom management

2.2. Classroom and Time Management

The practitioner teacher, as well as the students themselves, put the students
behavior as the central hindrance for the lessons success. She classified the
discipline in the classroom as very serious issue, and disrespect as the main
problem. Furthermore, she also attributed this lack of proper behavior as a result of
students not having had a specific set of rules to follow. So, at the moment, the
students were in a stage of becoming aware of the relevance and the reasoning
underlying the new classroom rules, since, only until then, the newly-established
rules and procedures had started to play a role within the classroom. Thus, despite
the classroom management strategies implemented, students behavior was still a
critical aspect in the group, as Savage & Savage (2010) asserted: There are some
routines that need to be taught at the beginning of the year

Regarding the classroom management strategies described above, the
practitioner commented that they could notice certain degree of success. In her
opinion, the usefulness of the type of management measures they took was due to
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the punishment and reward system they consisted of. These principles were also
applied to a specific type of undesirable conduct: being late for classes. A behavior
that besides being part of the students personality, was also facilitate by the
schools system of having students go to a different classroom for each class. In
those cases, there were certain consequences that students already knew.
However, according to the teacher, students never gave much importance to them
since they did not consider the consequences to significantly affect them. In the
end, among controlling disruptive behaviors and waiting for the majority of the
students to arrive, the actual time working in class was significantly reduced.
Nonetheless, the practitioner teachers were aware of the fact that these transitions
and interruptions can cause chaos without relevant rules and procedures(Marzano
& Pickering, 2003).

2.3. Assessment
Regarding the assessment tools implemented by the practitioners, the
interview questions emphasized on two eminent facets that complemented the
classroom observations. First, it was taken into account if the teacher found
assessment practices motivating for the learners as well as helpful for their
learning processes. At that stage, she believed that her assessment strategies
were motivating for the students since she used formal and informal assessment
as well as she congratulated and cheered students up when they did something
positive or they had made progress by following her directions. Hence, it is
noticeable from the observations that the practitioner teachers utilized formal
assessment when administering evaluation and quizzes, and informal assessment
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when monitoring and remarking good grades.
Secondly, to confront the challenges the teacher faced when assessing a large
classroom and the approaches employed in this particular case, she mentioned the
impossibility to give students precise individual feedback, due to time constraints
and the amount of pupils in the classroom.

3. Analysis of Practitioners Teachers Questionnaire

In this section, the analysis of the practitioner teachers questionnaire is going
be presented. The purpose of applying it was to have a view on their academic
background and their goals as future professionals. It also addressed their
perceptions and feelings towards the Practicum and the classes they had
implemented. This tool was selected in order to do so, because it is suitable for the
purpose of finding answers to questions in a systematic and disciplined manner
(Drnyei, 2007). For the sake of eliciting accurate answers, the questionnaire was
designed in Spanish, as it is the respondents L1.
Both of the practitioners had their C1 proficiency level certificated by a
standard test (English Michigan Test and CECAM). Also, they both affirmed they
were able to have a fluid conversation with an English native speaker. Besides,
one of them said she had travelled to the USA where, according to her, she
significantly improved her linguistic competence. Finally, both of them declared
they attended to national and international conferences and congresses; they also
constantly visit webpages, as well as read books and journals related to
Languages teaching in order to keep enhancing their competence level. So, taking
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into account the aspects reviewed above, the two practitioner teachers were apt to
be in charge of the group, as Llurda (2006) asserted: teachers with a high
language proficiency level will be far better prepared to teach in an ESL context
than NNS (non-native speakers) with so-called weak or problematic skills.
Another aspect to review about the practitioners is their motivation, since the
burden of responsibility has fallen repeatedly on the teacher to provide the
atmosphere that allows self-determination and encourages intrinsically motivated
learning (Deci & Ryan 1985). So, teachers aims and willing to carry out their work
as professionals is an element that plays a strong role in their performance as
educators, especially in the context of public schools. Thus, the answers of the
practitioners evidenced a real inner motivation. They both affirmed they were
interested in doing post-graduate studies, they also confirmed they were aiming at
working at public schools. Besides, both of them said that helping other people
through education was their chief incentive. So, these sorts of attitudes are the
ones requested for teaching, since teachers are always dealing with the types of
pressures that make it difficult for them to maintain their own enthusiasm and
interest in classroom affairs (Deci & Ryan 1985).
Regarding how the academy prepared them for the practicum and the
experience of teaching at a public school, they both said the practicum was
meaningful practice as future teachers, they also felt the courses they have taken
at the university. Besides, they also affirmed to be free to design the lessons as
they think is better. On the other hand, according to what they had experience at
the classroom, they mentioned that the first thing to consider at the moment of
planning the lessons were the needs analysis and the students likes. Also, they
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added that challenging activities and engaging them in the tasks helped to motivate
the students. In addition to it, they pointed out they controlled the discipline by
using rewards and punishments, which were established in the first class along
with other general classroom routines. Finally, they claimed that the lessons
objectives were usually achieved, and that it was assessed by several means
(exams, quizzes, portfolios, etc.).

4. Students interviews analysis

In the following lines, the interviews applied to seven different students from
the class will be analyzed. A structured interview was designed and implemented
since this type of tool ensures that the interviewee focuses on the target topic area
and that the interview covers a well-defined domain, which makes the answers
comparable across different respondents (Drnyei, 2007). The specific purposes
of the interviews were prior-established, because as Cabtree & Miller (1999)
advised: researchers wishing to explore a limited facet of the data may
construct an analysis process that begins with more structure, such as that
provided by a template organizing style that uses code manuals. So,
predetermined codes were used in order to get data explicitly relevant to our
projects goals. The purpose of the interviews was to seek the students views on:
1) their own attitudes towards the class in general (behavior, interpersonal
relationships, and teachers performance); 2) the methodology of the lessons; and
3) the English language itself.

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So, having specified the themes under which data was collected, it is shown the
analysis of it. Thus, the emerging commonalities or patterns among the different
answers regarding same issues are going to be examined, along with the possible
implications of these answers and their patterns to the educational processes
involved in the lessons. In order to do so, an Intuitional analysis approach was
adopted, since it incorporates the inherent importance attached to the subjective
and reflexive involvement of the researcher in the analysis and the need to
maintain a fluid and creative analytical position that is not constrained by
procedural traditions and that allows new theories to emerge freely (Drnyei,

4.1. Attitudes towards the class

According to the majority of the interviewed students, the factor that affected
the most the lessons proper development was their own discipline. They affirmed
that it was their behavior during the classes what kept the particular educative
process of their classroom from real success. Although, as a couple students
pointed out, not all them misbehave in class. So, despite the willingness certain
students may have to get engaged on the activities, the way their classmates act
directly affects not only the classrooms environment, but also their attention. On
the other hand, there are also some other aspects that in the opinion of certain
students adversely influence the class, these include: the teachers talking more
than they should in English and students simply not being focused on the class.
The latter fact evidences weaknesses in the engaging element of the classroom
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activities. Finally, it must be mentioned that a couple students claimed there was
nothing to change in the classes.
As explained above, some students complained that their classmates can be a
distracting factor during class time, which kept them from properly focus on the
activities being carried out. Nevertheless, other than that, none of them said they
had a bad relationship with any of their classmates. This implies that internal
conflicts among students are not a particular problem in this classroom. Moreover,
it is possible then to affirm that issues related to physical or psychological
aggression are not usual problems between these students. In a similar vein, when
ask about what their relationship with the titular and the practitioner teachers, all of
the students answered they it was good. So, none of the interviewed students
seemed to have personal problem with any of the teachers. However, their
answers dont disregard the possibility that, in fact, one or some of them think
differently, since it is a very personal issue.

4.2. Methodology

When asked about which aspects of the methodology implemented in the
lessons should be changed or improved, most of the students said everything was
fine the way it was. However, their answers may also imply a lack of interest on
their part towards the class. Furthermore, although teenagers at that age are not
expected to have deep thoughts regarding such abstract issues as education,
saying there is nothing wrong may be also the result of not having a critical
viewpoint on their own educative process, as fundamental as it can be.
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On the other hand, however, there were criticisms towards the class dynamics.
One student for instance, compared the kind of classes carried out at languages
institutes and concluded that having fun through classroom activities was the best
way to learn, opposite to what classes in public schools tend to be. Likewise, other
student said it would be a good idea to have classes outside the classroom, an
opinion that corresponds to what another student said about implementing more
dynamic activities. Finally, a couple of the students interviewed referred to a
different issue: addressing to other linguistic skills different from writing. They
affirmed they wanted to read and speak more, and learn more vocabulary as well.
Although at the same time, one of them admitted they were not ready for spoken
exercises since they lack of the requested competence level.

4.3. Perceptions on the English language

As for the English language itself refers, all of the students said they liked it,
some of them seemed even more enthusiastic when saying they had always liked
the language. In their answers, certain students added the reasons why they were
keen on it, these are two: because it was easy for them to learn it and also,
because they liked the idea of learning a different language. Furthermore, one
student affirmed he was keen on it even though he found it difficult to learn. So, the
answers given by the students evinced that, independently from their view on the
classes, there were general interest in learning English. In addition to it, the
students mentioned three reasons for which they considered it was worthy to
acquire this particular language: 1) Speaking English provides better job
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opportunities; 2) they wanted to visit other countries; and 3) they wanted to study
abroad. This proves that students are aware of the relevance the language has in
the context of todays globalized world. Besides, students seemed to have
personal interest in the benefits of speaking English.

5. Students Questionnaire analysis.

An online questionnaire was applied to students not only to canvas their
perceptions about the English class and learning style, but also to take part on the
teachers methodology and strategies carried out in the class. Each section and
item is unwrapped with its corresponding analysis.

5.1. Sociodemographic information
1. What is your name?
2. Select your age
Diagram 1

Regarding their ages, 61% of the students are 14 years old, 29% of them
are 15 years old, 8% corresponding to 8 students are 16 years old and an only
student, 3%, is 17. Around 90% of the students, corresponding to 14 and 15, are in
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the adequate age for ninth grade (Ministerio de Educacin nacional, 2009).
3. Place I was born
The predominant place, where the students were born, was Bucaramanga,
followed by nearby towns and cities as Girn, San Gil, Aguachica, Mesa de los
Santos, Chimitarra and Ccuta. Among distant places, a small amount of students
were born in Barranquilla, Valledupar, Paipa, Bogot y San Andrs islas.
4. My neighborhood is
Based on the students answers about the neighborhoods where they live,
it can be said that most of students come from the social strata 1,2 and 3.
5. Select your gender
Diagram 2

As it can be observed in the chart, 58% of the students are females, while the
42% are males.

5.2. Family and home
6. People I live with
Diagram 3
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This chart shows students answers regarding the people they live with. As it
is observed, the most prominent answer is the one expressing they live with their
mothers with a 29% of the results. The next ones, being they live with their father
and their brothers, have a 28% and 25% respectively. The less prominent options
are living with their grandparents with an 8%, living with their uncles with a 4% and
living with others with a total of 6%.
7. I live in an own or rented house.
Diagram 4

When it comes to the place they live, a big amount of students live in a
house. 18 students (69%) live in a familys own house whereas 31%,
corresponding to 8 of them, live in a rented one.
8. I live in an own or rented apartment.
Diagram 5
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Only 14 students out of 38 live in an apartment. 79% of the students live in a
rented one, and 21% of them live in his/her familys own apartment.
9. In your house, you have (you can select more than one option)
Diagram 6

Regarding technology supplies, it is found that 26% of the students have a
TV, 22% say they have a computer, 22% reported that they have internet
connection at home, 14% claim to have a tablet and smartphone, and the
remaining 3% say they have other supplies.
5.3. Likes and Interests
This section was designed with the intention to find out students interest
with reference to their favorite sport, the kind of music they listen to, their favorite
TV programs, their most common free time activities, their favorite subjects at
school and favorite kind of books.
10. My favorite sports
Need Analysis 9-7 26
Diagram 7

In this pie chart students answers concerning their favorite sports are
visible. 28% of the students exclaim that their favorite sport is soccer, 20% say that
it is basketball, 14% chose other sports, 10% and 11% of them claim it to be
volleyball and swimming respectively, 7% of them choose cycling, Track has a 4%
and the remaining 6% say they do not practice any sport.
11. My favorite music
Diagram 8

As shown in the diagram, around more than a half of the students (22%) like
Need Analysis 9-7 27
Vallenato, followed by other type of music with 20% and reggaetn with a 19%,
13% and 12% of them prefer rock and pop respectively, Metal and Cumbia had 6%
and 7% and the lowest percentage of 1%, corresponding to 1 student, do not pick
any type.
12. My favorite TV programs
Diagram 9

This item shows the kinds of T.V. programs students prefer. It is noticed that
students prefer movies over other kinds of programs with a 37% of them saying so.
Other options with an average percentage are: soap operas with a 19% and
documentaries with a 17%. Cartoons have a 12% of the answers; you tube
tutorials have 10% and the remaining 6% of the students opt for other types of TV
13. My free time activities
Diagram 10
Need Analysis 9-7 28

This graph shows the seven options that were taken into account in this
section and the answers that students had about them. A 23% of students say that
they prefer to surf the Internet in their free time. A 22% exclaim they like to listen to
music, a 20% of them are inclined towards hanging out with friends and a 18% of
the population watches T.V. in their spare time. Drawing, reading and the option
other have 8%, 5% and 3% respectively.
14. My favorite subjects
Diagram 11

As noticed in the chart, it is not surprising the fact that they like P.E. classes
the most, with a percentage of 29% of the results. Biology and English classes are
Need Analysis 9-7 29
students next favorite subjects with a total of 18% and 17% respectively.
Additionally, Math and Spanish have a total of 12% and 9% claiming to like those
classes. The least predominant results embrace the options none of the subjects
with 4% and other subjects with 10%.
15. My favorite books
Diagram 12

Regarding the type of books students like to read the most, 26% of them
show their favoritism towards Mystery books followed by Horror with 21%. Science
Fiction, History and Comics share the same result with 13% each and another 13%
of the students claim not to like any of the types exposed.

5.4. Learning styles
Kolb (1976) stated that people learn through a certain different learning
style, which is influenced by several factors. Hence, this category was designed to
discover the different styles used by the students when learning a language, whose
information helped us to comprehend how students learn better when they are
given instructions, when memorizing information, and when relating the things that
they like with the topics to be studied in the English class.
Need Analysis 9-7 30
On the other hand, Gardner (1983) suggests a simple grid diagram with seven
multiple intelligences, which serves us as a guidance to develop future strategies
and so, deal successfully with our students weaknesses and capitalize their
strengths. We take into consideration visual, auditory and kinesthetic learners.
16. Visual learning
Diagram 13

Taking the chart into account, it is seen that a great majority of students pick
two of the options most. First, they select that it was easy for them to follow the
instructions written on the board with a 20% ,and that they remember better when
writing the ideas several times, drawing or making diagrams with a 17%.
Consequently, a 12% of the students feel that the best way to remember something
is by visualizing it in their minds, 10% of them prefer the written instructions over the
oral ones, 9% exam in the facial gestures and body language of the people they talk
Need Analysis 9-7 31
to and 8% of them are in favor of visual aid instructions. Being good at making
diagrams, charts and other visual sources, and being able to understand directions
through maps had 6% each. A low percentage of 6 students (5%) prefer reading a
story over listening to it and they consider themselves lost when given oral
instructions. Lastly, 2% of the students express their preference when reading
concepts from a book over the teachers explanation of it.
17. Auditory learning
Diagram 14

This diagram displays that students responses vary in this learning style. A
considerable amount of students, corresponding to 17%, enjoy talking to others
whereas 13% of them prefer to listen to the teacher instead of reading a book
Need Analysis 9-7 32
material. I understand better when reading aloud and I preferred to listen to the
radio over reading the newspaper have an 11% each while I follow auditory
instructions better than visual aid instructions and I prefer to listen to music while
staring at an image have 9% of the results. Followed, an 8% is designated to three
items separately: I often sing, hum or whistle for myself, when I hear two similar
sounds I immediately distinguish If they are the same or different and I use
musical sound to learn something. Finally, 4% and 3% of the students talk to
themselves and required explanation from diagrams charts or maps, respectively.
18. Kinesthetic learning
Diagram 15

In respect to Kinesthetic learning, the majority of the students, corresponding to
17%, are good at sports. 14% of them enjoy making artwork by hand and 12% feel
Need Analysis 9-7 33
comfortable with physical contact with other classmates, as a sign of friendship (for
example hugging). I am constantly restless (for example, I hit the desk with a pen or
play with my keys in the pocket) and I am good at disassembling and assembling
things, are the options of 12 students, corresponding to 9% of the results. 8% is
given to I often sing, hum or whistle for myself, when I hear to similar sounds, I
distinguish if they are similar or different, and I use musical sounds when I learn.
The remaining 4% and 3% is provided to the option I talk to myself and I demand
explanations through diagrams, graphics and maps, respectively.
5.5. Learning strategies
Wenden (1985) stated the following old proverb: Give a man a fish and he eats
for a day. Teach him how to fish and he eats for a lifetime. According to this
statement, giving the answers for all the questions students ask, provide them with a
solution. However, giving students the tools on how to handle the processes to
grasp those answers, enable them to conduct their own learning. At this stage, it is
significant to recognize how students develop and use different activities or
techniques, to enhance their own English language learning.
18. Which strategy do you use to learn English vocabulary?
Diagram 16
Need Analysis 9-7 34

The chart displays that 24 students, corresponding to 35% finds repetition as
the best option to learn vocabulary and 21% consider mentioning words as another
alternative. Making connections and drawing have an 18% each where 6% and 3%
of them do not select any strategy or pick other respectively.

20. If you have any doubt related to English, what do you do ?
Diagram 17

On the subject of students choices to solve their doubts about English, five
alternatives are exposed. Accordingly, there is a high tendency towards searching
on the internet with 47%, the next result refers to a 35% for those students who
would rather ask the teacher. The following answers are asking an acquaintance
and looking up in books with 15% and 2% respectively. Nobody answers other.
Need Analysis 9-7 35

21. What do you do to practice and learn English?
Diagram 18

We can appreciate in the chart, students predilection towards doing class
work and homework from the class with 44%, while others choose to practice on
the internet with 35%. 11% of the students expresses that they attend an English
course whereas others pick the use of books and other practices; both showing

5.6. Experience with the English language
This section consists of four open ended questions to be familiar with the
experience students have, when dealing with the English Language. On that
account, we dig deeply on the time they have been studying English, the English
course they have probably taken outside the academic field, the places where they
have taken that course and the time they have been taking the course.
22. How long have you been studying English?
Need Analysis 9-7 36
The majority of the students in this school, around 80%, have been studying
English since kindergarten or primary school for around 9 to 11 years. Hardly any of
them have been studying from 1 month to 8 years. 3 students submitt to have
studied for 1 month, 3 months and 1 year and another 3 of them for 4 years, 8 years
and since third grade.
23. Have you taken an English course outside the school?
Most students have not taken any English course outside the regular school
English lessons. Almost no one in the class, with around a 10%, has taken an
English course in a language institute.
24. Where have you taken an English course?
As mentioned before, the majority of the students have not taken any course.
However, the small amount of students who answered yes to the previous question,
affirm to have studied in an English course in the same school, but it does not
correspond to the academic English classes. Some of the students mention the
following institutes, with one student corresponding to each place: Coandes,
Agustiniano, Colombo Americano and Cecam. The rest of them estimate to have
studied at the church, by internet or with a private English tutor.
25. How long have you been taking that English course?
Need Analysis 9-7 37
Out of the 7 students that respond to this question, not a single one has the
same answer. In other words, they answered differently, evidencing the subsequent
results: each student has been studying for 1 month, 2 months, 5 months, 6 months,
10 months, 1 year and 2 years.
5.7. Emotional Bond towards the English classes
The aim of this category is to identify the students approach during the English
lessons, and the activities and materials they would like to employ while learning
English. All of that in order to support our concern when deciding the topic for the
English project and so, to develop it in an appealing and productive manner for the
26. When participating in the English class, Am I self-confident ?
Diagram 19

Half of the students sometimes consider themselves confident when
participating in the English class, it conforms 50%. A little bit below half of the
students are always self -confident and a small percentage of 3 students (8%) feel
Need Analysis 9-7 38
almost never self-confident when they are participants. No one selects the option
27. Do you like to participate in the English class?
Diagram 20

Regarding this range, the pie chart indicates that a big amount of the students
(58%) sometimes participate in the English class, while 29% of them are always
engaged to the class. The alternative Almost never is picked by a 13% and no one
opts for the option never.
28. Am I quite interested in learning more during my English class?
Diagram 21

Need Analysis 9-7 39
The fact that the students are always interested in learning more during the
English class is highlighted with 55%, and 37% of them point out that they are
sometimes keen on it. Some other students (8%) contemplate that they are almost
never into learning more in the class and no percentage is approved in the choice
28. Do you find interesting the activities promoted during the English class?
Diagram 22

More than half of the students (55%) declare that the English activities
promoted in class are always interesting, and 34% of them assert that the
activities are sometimes appealing. Quite a few responses (8%) are assigned to
almost never and an only student, corresponding to 3%, reveal that no a single
activity done during the class attracts his or her attention.
29. Are my teachers interested in my understanding of the topics?
Diagram 23

Need Analysis 9-7 40
Taking into account the responses for this question, it is illustrated that a vast
majority of the students, corresponding to 86%, believe that teachers are always
interested in their progress when understanding a topic. A little percentage is
distributed to sometimes and never with 11% and 3% respectively. Almost
never is not discussed by any of them.
30. Do your teachers treat all the students, including you, equally ?
Diagram 24

According to these questions, Teachers always treat students equally during
classes had 76%, whereas teachers almost never and sometimes attend
students under the same circumstances, share a result of 11% each. The remaining
3%, chose by a single student, propose that teachers never treat them equally.
31. Do teachers take me into account during classes.?
Diagram 25

Need Analysis 9-7 41
As the graph shows, a considerable amount of students, 58%, determine that
teachers always take themselves into account when participating in class, in
contrast to 32%, given to teachers sometimes make them part of the class
activities. Only 8% of the results conclude that teachers almost never pay
attention to them and a few percentage of 3%, 1 student, estimates that teachers
never take him or her into consideration.
32. Do my classmates respect me when I participate in my English class.
Diagram 26

The diagram displays that less than half of the students, corresponding to 43%,
feel sometimes respected by their classmates when they participate, 30% of them
consider their classmates always respectful with them, being almost never
respected has 19% and 8% is given to classmates never respected them.
33. I feel intimidated by my classmates when I participate in class.
Diagram 27

Regarding this, we can notice that I sometimes feel intimidated and I never
Need Analysis 9-7 42
feel intimidated attain 39% each. I always lack of confidence when participating
acquires 19% and the option almost never comes across with 3%, corresponding
to 1 student.
34. I feel intimidated by my teachers when I participate in class.
Diagram 28

The bar graphs represent students feeling of intimidation by the teachers,
when joining class activities. A noticeable amount of students, 69%, never, feel
intimidated by teachers in classes, in comparison to 17%, notifying that they
sometimes feel appalled when being engaged in the classes. Hardly any of them
choose always and almost never with 8% and 6% respectively.
35. I like the activities proposed in my English class.
Diagram 29

The results are quite similar in two of the aspects exposed. First, I always like
the activities proposed in the English class brings 46% and I sometimes enjoy the
tasks proposed by the English teachers obtains 43%. Almost never is considered
Need Analysis 9-7 43
with 8% and never with 3%.

36. I comply with my class schedule
Diagram 30

Surprisingly, an extensive amount of the students, corresponding to 82%, claim
to always comply with the English class schedule, 11% and 8% accord with
almost always and sometimes complying with the schedule, respectively; and
never complying with the schedule is not chosen by any of them.
37. My punctuality is impeccable.
Diagram 31

As regards punctuality for the English class, about half of the students (50%)
affirm to be always on time, 26% of them are almost always punctual, 24% are
Need Analysis 9-7 44
sometimes late and 0% answers never.
38. I foster the disorder and the indiscipline in the classroom.
Diagram 32

At this stage, about half of the students, corresponding to 53%, never foster
disorder and indiscipline and 39% sometimes do it. Quite a few students almost
always promote that disorganization in the class, whereas no one announces
always as a possible option.
39. I do not foster the indiscipline but I take part of the disorder.
Diagram 33

More than half of the students (57%) state to have sometimes participated in
the disorder caused by other students, 41% of them assert that they are never
part of such a thing, and 3%, corresponding to 1 student, declare to have almost
always entered into the disorganization. Always is nobodys option.
40. I recognize my English teacher as an authority figure in my classroom.
Need Analysis 9-7 45
Diagram 34

The vast majority of the students recognize the English teacher as an authority
figure in the class. 81% always recognizes her with such as authority, 14%
almost always identifies her with that role, and 5% sometimes accepts her as an
authority. Nobody agrees with never.
41. I recognize the student-teachers as authority figures in the classroom.
Diagram 35

Regarding the student-teachers role in the class, a considerable amount of
the students (73%) always recognize them as authority figures. 14% is given to
almost always, sometimes has 8% and the remaining 5% is obtain by never.
42. I recognize some of my classmates as authority figures in the classroom.
Diagram 36
Need Analysis 9-7 46

In the chart, we can appreciate students disagreement when giving an
authority role to other students. Then, More than half of them, corresponding to
55%, admitt that other students are never an authority for them, 29% perceive
other classmates to be sometimes authoritarian, 11% of them always recognize
authoritarian roles among other students and 5% elect almost never.
43. I recognize my school bylaw guidelines and follow their rules
Diagram 37

I sometimes follow the rules of the school bylaw guidelines has 42%,
whereas I always recognize the rules and follow them has 32%. 18% and 8% are
administered to almost always and never respectively.
44. I recognize the rules and the consequences in my English class.
Diagram 38
Need Analysis 9-7 47

It is evidenced that the majority of the students (76%) always discern the
rules and consequences given in the English class, 19% almost always recognize
them and 9% sometimes identify them. Nobody lacks of knowledge about
recognizing the rules and consequences in the English class.
45. I do things wrong in my English class as: listening to music, sleeping,
eating in the classroom, putting makeup on, etc.
Diagram 39

61% of the students claim to never do anything different from the class
activities, 29% of them consider to have sometimes done that, 8% comes out with
almost always and 1 student, corresponding to 3%, answers he or she always
does inappropriate activities during the class.
46. I very often use my cellphone in class.
Diagram 40
Need Analysis 9-7 48

Nowadays, teachers have to deal with the students use of cellphones in the
classroom. According to these particular students, never using cellphones is the
predominant election among them, with 61%, sometimes using them has 24%,
and 13% and 3% are the results for almost always and always respectively.
47. What do you think should be improved in the English class?
The most selected responses are related to nothing to be improved in the
class, answered by 10 students; and improving their attention and discipline during
classes, is given by 6 students. The following most provided results, given by them,
mention improving vocabulary, avoiding the use of cellphones, and using musical
videos of their like (around 2 students per each item). Quite a few of them reflect
on improving pronunciation, speaking and writing skills, letting classmates talk
during the class ,and improving grades. Finally, hardly any of them do not know
what to answer or do not write anything.

6. Analysis of the Teacher Questionnaire

In the following lines, the analysis of the questionnaire answered by the
permanent teacher is going to be presented. The purpose of applying it was to
Need Analysis 9-7 49
examine her professional background and her views on the particular needs of this
groups students. So, regarding her professional background, the teacher claimed
she was able to fluently speak in English and that she considered her strengths
were writing and reading. Also, she took from one to two training courses per year.
On the other hand, as for the methodology she applies in class, she affirmed to
use her communicative skills. However, in contrast to the communicative features
she put into practice, the teacher also stated she uses translation as a means to
approach and understand written texts. Finally, the teacher expressed she viewed
reading not only as an opportunity to enhance content comprehension, but also as
a way to acquire more vocabulary.

According to all the data collected and analyzed, certain conclusions related
to how to improve the classes implemented at the group 9-07 from Instituto
Tecnolgico de Bucaramanga were drawn. Some aspects were highlighted and
some were modified, thus, keeping what is convenient and enhancing the
weaknesses. Since the data is linked to Methodology, Classroom management,
time management and assessment, the following considerations also address
these issues.
In the first place, regarding the methodological procedures involved in the
class, it was noticed that the main feature all the activities and sequence of
activities must include is motivation. This means that in order to keep students
focused on the lesson, thus, providing opportunities to learn, it is necessary to
motivate them by including dynamic and engaging activities. In addition to it,
Need Analysis 9-7 50
materials and directions for the different activities must be clear to avoid confusion
among students, hence, preventing students not doing the tasks they have to do.
Furthermore, it was also concluded that keeping students engaged does not
only aid them in their learning process, but also it helps to facilitate an organized
environment in the class, since students do exactly what they are supposed to.
However, in case of any disruptive behavior, establishing from the first class a set
of routines and rules for the rest of the lessons is important, because if students
are aware of what they are not allowed to do, they gradually shape their own
behavior in favour of the classs requirements.
In a similar vein, these routines and procedures must address another of the
most problematic characteristics of the group, unpunctuality. Along with
disrespectful manners, students arriving late to the class is an element that affects
the proper development of the lessons. However, different from the measures
taken to control disruptive behaviors, the consequences for unpunctuality seemed
not to be effective. Therefore, promoting the value of being on time has to be a
priority, also, it is necessary to implement or modify the strategies currently being
Finally, as for assessment refers, it was concluded that using different
approaches represents an advantage, since by doing so, a variety of aspects are
met. So, in the case of formal assessment types such as exams and quizzes, the
opportunity is created to have students review everything that has been studied.
Thus, these sort of tests allows the class to reinforce topics before them, and to
provide feedback after them. However, special attention must be given to the way
feedback sessions are implemented, since students seem not to be aware of the
Need Analysis 9-7 51
value of it, and therefore, they do not pay attention to these sessions. On the other
hand, more informal ways of assessment are easy to conduct and are not
stressing, then, they should be continuously be used.

Need Analysis 9-7 52

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Need Analysis 9-7 55

Classroom Observation Formats

A series of six observations was carried out in the ninth grade, intending to find out the features of the English
classes progress, as well as the characteristics of the students and the teachers. They were mainly focused on four
aspects such as: Classroom management, time management, methodology and assessment. The analysis was
accentuated by a color coding technique, in order to highlight each category. For this, the following conventions were used:

Meaning of the colors

Time management
Classroom management

Need Analysis 9-7 56
Universidad Industrial De Santander
Escuela de Idiomas
Licenciatura en Ingls
Prctica Pedaggica I
Tutor: Fabio Rodriguez


Observers: Leslie Martnez Becerra. Fernando Gmez Gmez
Time: 6:45 - 8:30
Place: Instituto Politcnico de Bucaramanga
Grade: 9-05
Date: Thursday, March 6

There are not any objectives set.

Teacher checks homework by playing Tingo-Tingo-Tango.
Students translate past continuous sentences on the board and on their notebooks.


- Students enter the classroom chatting and playing. The teacher is organizing her
materials. Teacher tells students to be quiet in order to start praying (it takes a

- Some students are walking around the classroom, talking aloud. At the same time
that the teachers does. The teacher tells them to go to their spots but some of them
continue talking.

It would be good to
remind students
about the classroom

Need Analysis 9-7 57




- Teacher asks them to stand up and pray. Students say it chorally. Some students
do not pray and keep playing.

- Class starts by checking attendance, students are talking.

- One student is asked to go to coordinations. The teacher allows her to go with no

- Three students arrive late. However the teacher does not tell them anything, they
just sit down and their attendance is not registered.

- Teacher starts checking the homework with the game tingo tingo tango: teacher
asks a student to lead the game, when he says tango one of his classmates have to
go to the board and translate one sentence in present continuous. Students never
behave well during the game and the teacher keeps trying to quiet them up.

- The teacher tells some students to sit somewhere else in order to conduct the
activity. A couple of them go back to their spots; the activity is interrupted because
the teacher has to tell them off.

- Several students talk about other subjects homework and show to each other what
they have done. Some of them seem worried for not having done it and the
conversation about it gets longer, they are not paying attention to the class. The
teacher tells them to focus on the class and put their homework back in their bags.

- Students whose behavior is especially problematic had their names written on the

Activities that
involved one student
on the board writing
sentences and the
others paying
attention do not

Writing students on
the board do not help
if it does not have
any consequences.

Need Analysis 9-7 58






- During the activity, some students talk rudely to the teacher, especially when she
tells them to be quiet. Some of them ask the teacher things they do not understand
about the sentences.

- One student asks the difference between home and house. The teacher explains
that to him. Students talk during the explanation.

- After checking homework, the teacher tells the students to put their notebooks away
to administer a pop quiz. She dictates the instructions for the only exercise they
have to do: translating a series of sentences in present continuous. Due to
indiscipline problems, it is difficult for the teacher to start with it (students do not
behave especially before the quiz and a little bit during it).

- Teacher starts with a new topic, past continuous. She begins by explaining the
grammatical structure of it. Meanwhile, some students complain that they are tired
and want to do nothing. The teacher tells them not to complain and keep working.

- A number of students go to the board and translate some sentences as a part of the
explanation. The other students are talking and do not pay attention.

- Having reviewed the grammatical structure of past continuous, the teacher makes
students write several sentences to translate. The students misbehave all the time
and complain about the amount of sentences. The teacher constantly argues with
them while telling them to be quite.

procedures are
meant to measure
and keep record of
the students

The pedagogical
strategies do not
provide a warm up
and context. Warm
ups prepare students
for the topic and give
them an idea on how
and when to use the
topic explained

Providing assistance
to all of the students
while working on
their spots is difficult
for one single
teacher in little time.
Need Analysis 9-7 59


- The teacher walks around the classroom helping the students with the activity, some
of them show interest and ask questions. The teacher is not able to assist
everybody. Some of the students that ask the teacher to go to their spots are never

- After dictating the sentences and working with the students on the translations, she
collects the students notebooks.

- At the end of the class, the teacher lets the students go out of the classroom in
order (line by line) and make the students in charge of cleaning do their jobs.

- According to the teacher the group had serious indiscipline problems. She suggested us to work with other


Observers: Leslie Martnez Becerra. Fernando Gmez Gmez
Time: 5:45 to 7:45
Place: Instituto Politcnico de Bucaramanga
Grade: 9-07
Date: Thursday, March 13
Need Analysis 9-7 60

- Students will be able to ask and answer Wh- questions.

- Students take a test
- Students ask and answer Wh-questions





6: 30



The permanent teacher opens the door; around 17 students arrive on time. Teacher starts cleaning the
room. Students are waiting quietly for the class to start.

The practitioner teacher arrives. She apologizes to students because she is late. There are 22 students at
that time.

Class starts: The practitioner teacher writes the date and the agenda. She tells students to have everything
ready for the test, pen and pencil.

Test begins. The practitioner explains each exercise. Some students keep concentrated, some try to copy by
asking their classmates or looking at others tests. Practitioner monitors by walking around.

The Practitioner tells one student, who looked sleepy, not to talk to one of her classmates. This student
spends some minutes resting in her spot without doing anything before starting to work.

The majority of the students are focused on the test. The practitioner constantly reminds them to read the
instructions carefully.

The practitioner talks to one student who is not doing anything. She explains to her what to do. The student
immediately starts to work.

The practitioner asks students for their attention in order to give instructions on the next part of the test
(reading). She does it in both English and Spanish.

The practitioner reminds several students that they are taking an exam and they must not speak during it.

One student calls the practitioner but she tells him that she cannot help him with the exam.

Punctuality is important
for both teacher and
students. Students may
notice the importance of
punctuality by starting the
class or tests on time or
by having some

It is difficult to monitor big
groups of students,
teacher cannot stop
walking around, staring at
them, especially when
administering a test.

It is very useful to
explain, even test parts,
in English and then,
repeat the same in
Spanish. Hence, students
get used to listen to
English as well as the
teacher can check they
understand the
Need Analysis 9-7 61







7: 15


The practitioner tells one student to watch his behavior during the exam. The student answers impolitely, so
she tells him that he should not talk to her like that.

The practitioner suggests the students who have finished reviewing their answers in the meantime.

The practitioner tells the students they are going to have the listening part and that they can continue with
the rest of the test after it. Then she gives instructions on how to answer it in English and Spanish.

The practitioner continuously asks the students to be quite during the test.

After the listening, practitioner allows the students to continue with the other parts of the test, she also asks
them to raise their hands once they finish. Some students stand up to hand in the exam despite what the
practitioner has told them.

Some students start talking to each other. The practitioner asks them to be quite, but some of them keep

One student asks the practitioner to come to his spot. She said it is not the correct way to ask for something,
so the student says please.

Some students keep standing up to hand in their exams, even though the practitioners remind them to raise
their hands and wait in their sits.

The time for the exam finishes. The practitioner asks the students at the back of the lines to pass their
exams to the students in front and so on. She talks to the permanent teacher meanwhile. The students stand
up and start talking.

After collecting the exams, the practitioner wants to continue with the class. Some students complain that
they are tired and want to have a rest, some of them complain in a rude way.

Several students start discussing about the homework they have for other subjects. The classroom gets

After a couple of minutes of mess, the practitioner continues with the new topic: Wh-questions.

The practitioner asks them if they know which the WH words are. Different students provide the answers as
she writes them on the board.
instructions clearly.

The teacher keeps
reminding students about
being quite during the
exam. It is important to
let students know, since
the beginning, the rules
on how to behave when
taking a test and the
consequences they can

Some students do not
understand teacher
instructions or they
simply do not pay
attention to her. Trying a
higher speech voice
could be useful for
attracting their attention.

Some dynamic activities
can help after an exam.
Stretching muscles or
moving for a while would
be a good idea.

The handwriting is not
bigger and visible
enough. The students at
the back have problems
when writing the
questions on their

Need Analysis 9-7 62

7: 20


7: 28


Then she asks for the translation of the words. She gives a brief explanation of the usage of the question
marks in Spanish. After that she starts walking around the classroom to check if the students are writing.

The practitioner starts erasing the board, but students ask for some more time and so she gives them some
minutes. Then she erases the board and put three cartoons onto it. Several students claim they cannot see
clearly the cartoons. One student arrives; he talks to the permanent teacher.

The practitioner tries to discuss the cartoons. However, the other practitioner takes one minute to tell the
students they are going to be photographed three times for a mini-project. Students are distracted since the
photography session is mentioned. Students keep talking and looking back.

Students are called one by one, to the back of the classroom, by the other practitioner. All of that, in order to
take the photos (one smiling, another with a serious face and a last one with a sad face). This distracts
several students.

The practitioner, who is in charge of the class, decides to finish with the class and proceed to help her
partner to take the photos. The classroom gets disorganized.

Class ends. When the practitioners finish the photographic session, students leave line by line. Some
students are assigned to clean the classroom.

Materials as cartoons
and pictures are very
appealing for students.
However, choosing the
right size for such a big
classroom is quite
important to keep
students attention and
make them understand.

Doing extra activities like
taking photos in the
classroom distracts the
students a lot; they are
constantly looking at the
ones that are being
photographed. That
activity can be done
outside, at the corridor, to
avoid distraction and
finish the class as

According to the practitioner teachers, the objective of the class was not achieve
due to the inconveniences at the moment of the photographs.

Universidad Industrial De Santander
Escuela de Idiomas
Licenciatura en Ingls
Prctica Pedaggica I
Tutor: Fabio

Need Analysis 9-7 63

Observers: Leslie Martnez Becerra. Fernando Gmez Gmez.
Time: 11.05 12:05
Place: Instituto Politcnico de Bucaramanga
Grade: 9-07
Date: Tuesday, March 18

Students will be able to ask and answer Wh-questions

Students Discuss some cartoon strips.
Students complete the first exercise of a worksheet.


Students arrive. The practitioner teacher, in charge of the class, writes the agenda,
the date and the tittle of the classs topic.

Students are misbehaving; the teacher tries to quiet them up. She tells them to write
the agenda. The practitioner realizes that most of students have not brought
homework, so she gives them the opportunity to bring it the following class.

Some students are walking around the classroom.

The practitioner walks around the classroom to see if they have brought their
notebooks and written the agenda.

Checking if all of the
students write the
agenda is time-
Need Analysis 9-7 64



The practitioner asks the students about the first things they have to do when the
class starts (which includes writing the agenda), then she explains the importance of
writing the agenda.

The practitioner starts working on the topic of the class. She places some cartoon
strips on the board. Students complain that they cannot see well the content of the

The Practitioner begins by discussing the content of the cartoons. She asks wh-
questions and students try to answer, they answer in Spanish. She uses Spanish to
correct and clarifies. Students seem to be focused.

The practitioner goes to the back of the classroom and asks one student if she is
paying attention, then she tells her to sit in a spot, nearer the board. The student
does it without complaining.

The practitioner gives the students a worksheet. After that, she reviews the meaning
of some wh-words and the contexts in which they are used. Then, using the
cartoons on the board, the practitioner asks questions using where, what and who.
She also asks about the physical appearance of the cartoons. She never writes the
answers of the questions on the board.

Most of the students seem focused. The practitioner continuously walks around the
consuming. Teacher
could not check all of

When having a big
class, it is necessary
to use appropriate
visual aids to catch
students attention.
Considering this, the
teacher brought a
very interesting
cartoon strip, but it
was not big enough
to be seen by all the

Writing the answers
for the questions
explained on the
board can lead to a
better understanding
of the topic.

Students notice the
Need Analysis 9-7 65




classroom checking if they are working.

The practitioner tells students to have a look at the first part of the worksheet and
assigns two students (a boy and a girl) to read the first part. The instructions are not
clear to the students, so this activity is not carried out.

The practitioner asks the students if they feel lost, they say they do. So, she
explains once again the instructions.

Some students claim they are tired. The practitioner seems not having to listen to

As students do not seem able to solve the first exercise, The practitioner shows
them an example to do it.

Students are not paying attention and start to talk a lot. The practitioner calls their
attention by reminding them that their behavior influence their final grades, she
does it in Spanish. Students seem to be focused again.

Students continue working on the first exercise of the worksheet. The practitioner
tells them to finish it at home. Then, she goes spot by spot checking if they have
teachers interest in
them when she
walks around,
checking they
understand the topic.
This is beneficial to
enhance students
language learning

Giving clear
instructions is vital
for students to
accomplish the
objective of the
class. Writing the
instructions on the
board, repeating
them or checking
understanding of
them, can be a good

Need Analysis 9-7 66


done something.

The practitioner explains again the grading system of the class (the one that was
explained at the beginning of the year) in order to encourage them to do homework
and keep folders organized. Then, she checks the list and lets students go out line
by line if it is organized.

Teacher said it was not possible to achieve the objectives of the class because the students could not understand at the
beginning, so she took a while explaining the topic.


Observers: Leslie Martnez Becerra. Fernando Gmez Gmez
Time: 5:45 8:45
Place: Instituto Politcnico de Bucaramanga
Grade: 9-07
Date: Thursday, March 20

Students will be able to ask and answer wh-questions

Discussing some cartoon strips.
Students completed the first exercise of a worksheet.

Students arrive. The practitioner in charge of the class writes the agenda and

Need Analysis 9-7 67




prepares materials. Then, she checks if students write the agenda.

Practitioner checks students homework by asking them the answers to the first
exercise of the worksheet she has given to them the previous class. She has to
constantly ask them to take out the worksheet.

The practitioner continues working on the worksheet. She proceeds to review the
meaning of the WHO, WHERE and WHEN with its corresponding translation.

Some students are misbehaving so the practitioner constantly has to interrupt the
class to call their attention. One student arrives late and starts talking on his way to
his sit. The practitioner tells him to go to his spot, and he obeys, but at the same
time he is rude to her. She ignores that.

The practitioner continues working on the first exercise of the worksheet (cartoon
strips). Some students seem distracted.

While the practitioner is checking the cartoon strips of the first exercise, some
students want to participate and try to answer the practitioners questions. However,
she tells them to raise their hand before speaking. They do it.

The practitioner starts checking if the students are writing the answers. She also
tells the students that are not writing to start doing it.

While the students are writing, the other practitioner starts checking the folders; she
takes notes on the students who bring it. The practitioner in charge of the class
reminds them it is important to bring the folder since it affects their final grade.

Reminding students
about the classroom
rules, at the
beginning of the
class, can be helpful
to avoid disrespectful
attitudes and
promote discipline

Punctuality is one of
the biggest problems
in the school, making
Need Analysis 9-7 68



7: 20

One student protests she does not have her folder checked. The practitioner in
charge of the class replies that it is because she was late.

The practitioner starts handing in the exams to the students. She congratulates a
student for her grade and encourages students to improve their behavior. She sets
her as an example.

The practitioner tells them to correct the exam and keeps it in their folders.

The practitioner wants to answer students questions about the exam, in front of the
whole group. She asks them to make their questions, but nobody asks anything.
She tells them to bring it for next class.

The practitioner tells students that it is time for a quiz. Students have to put
everything away and only keep a pencil or a pen. She checks everything is in order.
She tries to review the topic of the quiz before administering it. However, students
misbehave and so, she cancels the review. Students do not seem to care about

The practitioner warns the students that if they do not behave, they will get negative

The quiz lasts ten minutes. The practitioner reminds them that they have to wait in
their spots and raise their hands if they have finished. The other practitioner helps
to collect the quizzes.

students conscious
about the
consequences when
being late is a good
strategy. In this case,
the teacher did not
check the homework.

Constantly warning is
the strategy
implemented by the
teacher for discipline.
Some students can
react negatively to it.
Showing them
consequences can
lead to a better
understanding of the
Need Analysis 9-7 69

7: 45



After the quiz, the practitioner in charge stars working on the project. She calls the
leaders of the projects groups and they go to the board. It takes a while because
when the leaders are called and walk to the board, the other students start talking
and standing up as well.

Once the leaders are on the board and the other students stop misbehaving, the
teacher proceeds to explain about the use of the pictures in the project. Then, she
has the leaders pick up one piece of paper containing the topic for each group.

The practitioner tells the students to put their chairs next to the walls, in order to
have space at the center of the classroom. Then, she calls group by group to
assign them a spot to work.

After assigning them a spot, it is hard to quite them up. The practitioner warns them
that if they do not stop being noisy, that will affect the stars discipline system.

The practitioner gives them a paper containing the material to work on the second
exercise of the worksheet. She tells them to use a dictionary. A couple of students
complained she does not check which students have brought it.

The practitioner goes spot by spot giving instructions and monitoring. She tells them
to finish. They have to hand in the worksheet with the second exercise solved. The
practitioner asks them to go back to their sits. She collects the students

The co-evaluation of the period starts. The students have to give each other a
grade. The practitioner gives them some papers with the name of one student in it.
It takes few minutes. She collects the papers.

When students work
in groups, teachers
monitoring plays a
key role during the
development of any
activity. Hence, the
teacher was very
active and attentive
at doing that.

Need Analysis 9-7 70


Now, the students have to take the self-evaluation. The permanent teacher explains
to them how to do the sum up of the self-evaluation grid. While they are doing it, the
practitioner in charge of the class tells students to bring some material for the next

After the self-evaluation, the students leave. The ones in charge of cleaning the
classroom stay and reorganize the chairs with the help of the permanent teacher.


- At the end of the class, the teachers congratulated students for their good behavior, in order to motivate them in the
English class.

Universidad Industrial De Santander
Escuela de Idiomas
Licenciatura en Ingls
Prctica Pedaggica I
Tutor: Fabio


Observers: Leslie Martinez Becerra. Fernando Gomez Gomez
Time: 11:10 12:10
Place: Insituto Politcnico de Bucaramanga
Need Analysis 9-7 71
Grade: 9-07
Date: Tuesday, March 25
/ 2014

The teachers from the other class are still in the classroom, at the time of the class

Students will make a storyboard.

Students work in groups to create a storyboard mini-project

11: 15


- Practitioner starts the class late due to the previous class teacher taking some of the
time. Students arrive in a much-disorganized way.

- The practitioner has to speak really aloud to tell them to write the agenda. She does
it while they are being really noisy.

- As the students are misbehaving, the practitioner starts re-arranging the discipline
stars (practitioners designed a big chart to check discipline. There are some starts
with the name of the students written on them, so when they misbehave, the starts
can go to three different levels, depending on the fault). Practitioner tries to call their
attention but doing the class, class thing, but it does not work (the class-class thing
corresponds to a strategy the practitioners created, to quite students up. When they
say class-class, students answer yes-yes and they know they have to pay
attention). The students are disrespectful to her. So, the teacher gets serious and
tells them that they must behave; she also explains to them the importance of being

This time, when the
teacher sees that
students are
misbehaving, she
does not wait and
immediately calls
their attention, in a
very serious way. It
Need Analysis 9-7 72

11: 30


focused on the class. All of it with a very serious tone. They get quite.

- The teacher tells them that they are going to work in groups for the first part of the
project. She explains to them what they have to do, step by step on the board.

- Then, the practitioner makes students organize the chairs in a round table, so that
they can have big space in the center of the classroom. All of that in order for all the
groups to sit on the floor and work. After that, she calls group by group and assigns
them work to do, in a specific place of the classroom.

- After having organized the groups, she gives all of them the materials: their printed
photographs and some worksheets. The students are supposed to draw and
describe some scenes for a story board (the first mini-project).

- She tells them they have 20 minutes to do it.

- The students talk a lot, but most of them seem to be focused on the task. The
practitioner does not ask students to stop talking.

- During the activity, the practitioner continuously goes group by group checking
everything the students are doing and answering questions. Students from different
groups stand up and ask her questions.

- One student is sleeping. When the practitioner sees him, she calls his attention and
can be a good
strategy to try to
quite students up
before starting the

The materials
teachers provide,
were very interesting
and striking.
Students look very
keen on the class.
Although quite a few
of them are talking or
not working, the
majority like the
activity and are
concentrated. At this
point, the use of
attractive materials is
a remarkable aspect
for students to

When students work
in groups, teacher
Need Analysis 9-7 73



tells him to start working.

- The practitioner notices that in some groups, certain students are not working and
some others are working on their own. Therefore, she reminds them about the
importance of working in groups and being responsible.

- The practitioner keeps walking around the classroom monitoring the students work.

- The practitioner tells them she is going to check and take notes on which students
are working. She carries a folder where she gives a grade to each student. She
names the students who she knows are not working.

- After having walked around the classroom, she starts writing the names of the
students in charge of cleaning the classroom. These students complain that they
have done it the previous class, the permanent teacher confirms that. So, the
practitioner assigns other students.

- As not all the students finish with the activity, the practitioner tells them to do it as
homework and bring it for next class. Also, she says that as it is a group activity, all
of the scenes have to be ready for next class. She clarifies that if one of them is not
handed in; it is the whole groups fault.

- After that, she says she is going to collect all of the folders and notebooks to grade
them. Students pile them up. Then, the other practitioner puts them inside a box and
puts it near the computers, at the back of the classroom.

- Having collected the folders and notebooks, the practitioner in charge of the class,
tells the students to put the chairs back in their place. The students do it, but not in
the original order. The permanent teacher intervenes and has the students put the
supervision is
significant to help
students with tasks,
as well as to monitor
they are really doing
the activity. The
teacher never
ceases to assist
students, which is a
key element in the
students learning

Taking notes about
students who are not
working helps the
teacher to make
them aware of the
Hence, they start
working again on the
project task.

Assigning homework
in groups can lead to
Need Analysis 9-7 74

12: 10

chairs in the proper spot.

- The practitioner has the students go out of the classroom, line by line. The students
in charge of organizing the classroom start doing it.
among students, due
to some difficulties
as meeting outside
academic field.

- According to the teacher the objective of the class was only partially achieved, due
to time constraints, students could not finished the task.
- Teachers complained about the previous class consuming time that belongs to her
English class.

Universidad Industrial De Santander
Escuela de Idiomas
Licenciatura en Ingls
Prctica Pedaggica I
Need Analysis 9-7 75
Tutor: Fabio


Observers: Leslie Martnez & Fernando Gmez
Time: 5:45 7:45
Place: Instituto Politcnico de Bucaramanga
Grade: 9-07
Date: Thursday, March 27
/ 2014



- Students will be able to describe peoples physical appearance and personality.


- Translating adjectives to describe physical appearance on the board.
- Working on a worksheet about adjectives and adjectives word order (which includes
a listening exercise).
- Translating adjectives to describe peoples personality.
- Watching a video and describe its characters.




- The practitioner teacher, in charge of the class for the day, arrives. She prepares the
materials and writes the agenda.
- Only half the students have arrived. The other practitioner starts handing in the

Need Analysis 9-7 76




notebooks and folders, she goes spot by spot.
- The practitioner in charge of the class asks the students to write the agenda. Then she
asks the leaders of the sub-groups to collect their groups homework (storyboard). Not all
the leaders have arrived.
- Some students complain they have not finished their homework, so, the practitioner in
charge gives them until 6:08 am to complete it. Some students are walking around and
talking. She tells them to sit down.
- The other practitioner continues handing in the notebooks and folders. She reminds the
students that through the folders they can improve their grades. Some of them even get to
pass the exam, due to the folders. Not all, the students have handed in them.
- The practitioner in charge wants to continue with the class. Students say they are not
done with the homework. She points out she have given them enough time. So, she
demands to have the storyboards right away.
- She starts checking which students have brought their homework. She uses the
students list to do it.
- For a moment, students are noisy. Only after a while, the practitioner in charge of the
class tells them to be quite. Then she continues checking the homework.
- One of the groups does not bring several of the storyboards. The practitioner calls the
leader attention, reminding about his responsibility to make sure everybody brings

- After finishing checking the homework, the practitioner starts working on the topic of the
class. She puts some images on the board (the words bellow them cannot be seen by the
majority of the students). While she is putting the material on the board, the students talk a

Students are
motivated when they
have a chance to
improve their grades.
At this point, the
teacher shows them
that folders really
help them to pass
the period.

Assigning homework
in groups can be
problematic. Some
students complain
they cannot get
together with their
groups, or they
cannot communicate
outside academic
field. They also
complain about the
other students who
are part of the group,
not being

Using flashcards or
Need Analysis 9-7 77



- The practitioner tells the students what they are going to learn in the class. She also
points out that the words they need to learn and use are next to the images. And so, she
checks if they know the translation of those words (adjectives to describe physical
appearance of people).
- As the practitioner continues, the students seem distracted. She asks the students if they
can see well the images and words on the board. Several students complain they cannot
see anything.
- Once she checks the meaning of the new vocabulary, she starts looking for examples in
the classroom. She asks who has certain type of hair, eyes, nose, etc. Then she
continues with facial features. Students seem focused, they are joking around with the
- After that, the practitioner gives the students a worksheet. The class gets messy while
handing in the worksheets.
- The teacher reviews the title of the worksheet by asking students if they know what it
means. Then, she says that if they cannot see any of the words on the board, she is going
to write them again with the markers. She has to do it.
- The other practitioner appears and tells one student to sit somewhere else (she is talking
to another student). The practitioner in charge of the class has to carry this students
notebook to the chair she wants her to sit.
- The practitioner in charge proceeds to write the adjectives of the images on the board
(the images on the worksheets and the ones on the board are the same). It is all part of
the first exercise of the worksheet.
- She points out that few students are participating in the class. Some students are not
misbehaving; however, they do not seem to be involved.
- After reviewing the adjectives meaning, the practitioner explains that there is an
established order to use these adjectives within a sentence. She uses the students to
provide examples on how to organize the adjectives, at the moment of describing
someone. Students look focused when describing their classmates.
- After that, the students start working on the second exercise. They have to write
sentences to describe three images of people. At first, the practitioner gives students
some time to think about what to write. Then, she asks the whole class possible ways to
pictures for the
classroom requires
being visible enough
for all students in the
class. Flashcards are
always a good idea
since they attract
students attention.
However, taking into
account the size and
type of picture,
complements the use
of them.

The teacher uses
real examples from
students in the
classroom. That is a
very interesting idea.
Students enjoy it and
laugh a lot.

The worksheet given
to the students is
very attractive, clear
and useful. It
facilitates students
understanding of the

Need Analysis 9-7 78





describe them, and the order in which the adjectives should be used. Students seem to be
focused on the task and some of them are engaged.
- The practitioner continuously walks around the classroom to monitor students. After
students write one sentence, she writes it on the board.
- One student looks sleepy. He claims he does not understand the topic. The practitioner
tries to explain it again to him. She encourages all of the students to stay focused if they
want to understand. She also mentions again that she is going to collect the worksheets at
the end of the class.
- The students move to the third exercise. First, she has some students read some
descriptions written on it. The students noise does not let the student in charge of reading,
do his job. So the she gets serious and tells them to be quite.
- One student is rude to another, so the she calls his attention. Howeve,r there are no
further consequences.
- After one student reads one of the three descriptions, the entire class tries to match the
description to one of the images.
- The practitioner moves to exercise four. First she reads the instructions in English and
then, she translates them into Spanish. Students have to match the descriptions they hear
to some images, they also have to take notes on extra information,
- While the practitioner is arranging everything for the listening exercise, the students talk
a lot. But they quickly get quiet when she tells them the recording is ready.
- The practitioner plays the entire recording at first. Then, she slows it down, description by
description. She writes the adjective used in each part on the board, always asking the
students about what they have understood. Then the whole class tries to organize the
adjectives in complete sentences, taking into account the adjective order.
- The practitioner walks around the classroom, monitoring. The students use the
adjectives to play jokes to each other. The teacher let them do that as they seem to be
having a good time.
- The practitioner writes the sentences on the board, after letting students have time to
think of the answers, on their own. Then, students correct if necessary.
After finishing the last exercise of the worksheet, the practitioner tells the students to write
the homework that is at the bottom of the worksheets, on their notebooks. All of that, due

Monitoring students
not only helps the
teacher to handle the
classroom, but also
show students the
teachers interest in
their learning

Young students want
to have fun all the
time, joking is one of
the activities they like
most. However, the
teacher has to be
careful when letting
them joke, since it
can become

Need Analysis 9-7 79



to the fact that she is going to pick the worksheets up.
- Then, the practitioner explains that describing physical appearance has been the first
part of the class, and now, they are going to learn how to describe peoples personality.
- The other practitioner appears again. She goes spot by spot checking the students
worksheets, to check and grade their classwork. She carries the folder where she writes
the students grades.
The practitioner in charge of the class asks the students which words they already know to
describe personality. She writes them on the board and adds some others. She also tells
the students to write the words on their notebooks. She translates all the adjectives.
- The practitioner uses the words she writes on the board to describe students
personality. She asks students to describe the personality of some of their classmates.
- Then, she tells the students that she is going to play a video. She explains to them what
to do (they have to describe the personality of the characters).
-Students are noisy, but once the video starts, they focus on it. Some of them comment
and tell jokes about it.
- The practitioner writes the cleaning list on the board.
- Then, she starts discussing about the personality of the characters on the video, she
writes, after correcting, what students say. Some students seem distracted.
- Since there are some minutes left for the class to finish, the practitioner displays some
slides with images on the TV. The images are cartoons from popular Disney movies and
they have some adjectives next to it. Students have to choose the proper one. Students
seem focused until the end of the class.
Funny videos always
catch students
attention. The
teacher manages it
very well. She tries to
make all students
participate on the
activity. It is really
Slides are very well
prepared and
updated. The
students know the
majority of the
Disney movie
characters. That idea
surrounds them with
a realistic context.
.The teachers claimed the objectives of the class were achieved.
The teachers mentioned the students behavior during that class was good.

Need Analysis 9-7 80
Practitioner Teachers Interview Transcription.
l. Methodology
According to what you have implemented, what do you consider to be the
most successful strategies?

What really works for us is to, I mean what we have planned the classes
really like consciously we have decided activities that are interesting for
students but the most important thing is to give clear instructions I think. To
have all materials ready and to give the instruction and then, give the
materials to students so they dont get distracted. But about methodology,
we mostly since students have a very basic English level, we havent been
able to really get them to communicate so we have taught them mostly
vocabulary, we have worked with worksheets but we tried to bring them
activities that are appealing to them and that they find interesting

In terms of pedagogical strategies, what do you think should be changed or
improved in your classes? How?

One of the problems we had is group work. Unfortunately, students dont
know how to work in groups, under these circumstances we have tried to
implement collaborative learning but we havent been able to do it
successfully because students are not used to it, there is no time so yeah
thats the main problem.
ll. Time management
In your opinion, which factors affect the time distribution you plan for your

Well, the school, the activities that the school plans, that students arrive late
all the time so if we have a 50 minute class, it ends up like 30, then you do
the bell work and you take the homework and you organize the classroom
and if they are gonna work in groups
At the end you only have like 20 minutes. So thats.

Which are the most useful strategies you have implemented to control time
management issues?

2.48 Well, we, I mean we keep track of the absences and when student
come late but they dont really care and you cannot just grade them cero
Need Analysis 9-7 81
because they come late so yes, we, somehow it affects their grade but its
not a significant lost.
lll. Classroom management
Which are most problematic situations you have to face in this particular
Disrespect, yes, yes because students are very violent, they didnt have any
classroom rules, or they just, yes or they had them but they werent aware of
them or they havent accepted them and follow them so it has been really
difficult to get them to actually follow those rules and respect others.

Do you think your strategies to deal with these situations are useful? What
else could be implemented in this respect?

Yeah I think they are useful because we have that rewards and punishment
system, but thats not the only thing and we mostly try to talk to students and
explain to them why that behavior is not acceptable and you do it in a firm
way but, in a firm but respectful way and yes, explaining them that they
shouldnt do that but its not because we tell them not to do but because its
not good for them and that if they behave well we can have a better
classroom environment we can------- the classes more and its good for

lV. Assessment
Do you consider your assessment strategies motivates and help students in
their learning process?
Yes, we do quizzes and exams but we also do informal assessment in every
class, we try to cheer them up and congratulate them if they do something
positive or if they have made a progress if they have heard our suggestions.

What are the challenges of assessing a large classroom? How do you deal
with this amount of students?
You cannot do individually all the time, I mean individually but with tests and
quizzes but you cannot really spend time assessing each student because
you have forty of them so, there is no time.

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Practitioner Teachers Questionnaires

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Students Interview Transcription.
Estudiante: 1
l. Actitud frente a la clase (comportamiento, relaciones interpersonales)
Cmo es su comportamiento en la clase de ingls?
RTA: Ms o menos porque a veces molesto.
Te sientes a gusto con la profesora titular y con los practicantes?
RTA: S, bien sper bien.
Cul crees que es el mayor problema de la clase de ingls?
RTA: Que a veces molestamos por cualquier bobada.
Cmo es tu relacin con los dems?
RTA: buena.
ll. Metodologa
Qu consideras que debe mejorar en la clase de ingls?
RTA: no s.
Qu actividades consideras que se deben incluir en la clase de ingls actividades
que te gusten?
RTA: ms dramtica, actividades ldicas.
lll. Percepciones sobre el ingls
Cul es tu actitud frente al ingls frente al idioma no a la clase?
RTA: s me gusta pero me va mal en esa clase
Para qu crees que te sirve el ingls en tu vida?
RTA: el ingls me va a servir para muchas cosas en mi vida porque si yo quiero ir
a otro pas me va a servir mucho.

l. Actitud frente a la clase (comportamiento, relaciones interpersonales)
Cmo es tu comportamiento en la clase de ingls?
RTA: bien aunque a veces me hacen rer pero bien
Te sientes a gusto con la profesora titular y los practicantes?
RTA: s, con los tres
Cul crees que es el mayor problema de la clase de ingls?
RTA: ninguno trabajamos chvere la pasamos, bien.
Cmo es tu relacin con los dems?
RTA: bien
ll. Metodologa
Qu consideras que debe mejorar en la clase de ingls?
RTA: nada pues yo estoy en un curso de ingls as hacemos actividades chveres
la pasamos bien as se aprende mejor.
Qu actividades consideras que se deben incluir en la clase de ingls actividades
que te gusten?
RTA: no s, ms salidas a la cancha y ah aprender.
lll. Percepciones sobre el ingls
Cul es tu actitud frente al ingls frente al idioma no a la clase?
RTA: s, porque lo aprendo fcil
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Para qu crees que te sirve el ingls en tu vida?
RTA: el ingls es un medio de trabajo genera ms oportunidades

l. Actitud frente a la clase (comportamiento, relaciones interpersonales)
Cmo es tu comportamiento en la clase de ingls?
RTA: buena.
Te sientes a gusto con la profesora titular y los practicantes?
RTA: s
Cul crees que es el mayor problema de la clase de ingls?
RTA: no ninguna
Cmo es tu relacin con los dems?
RTA: normal, bien.
ll. Metodologa
Qu consideras que debe mejor en la clase de ingls?
RTA: no, as est bien.
Qu actividades consideras que se deben incluir en la clase de ingls,
actividades que te gusten?
RTA: no, as me gusta.
lll. Percepciones sobre el ingls
Cul es tu actitud frente al ingls frente al idioma no a la clase?
RTA: normal pues s.
Para qu crees que te sirve el ingls en tu vida?
RTA: para el trabajo.

l. Actitud frente a la clase (comportamiento, relaciones interpersonales)
Cmo es tu comportamiento en la clase de ingls?
RTA: buena
Te sientes a gusto con la profesora titular y los practicantes?
RTA: s
Cul crees que es el mayor problema de la clase de ingls?
RTA: ninguno
Cmo es tu relacin con los dems?
RTA: buena
ll. Metodologa
Qu consideras que debe mejorar en la clase de ingls?
RTA: de nosotros el comportamiento y de ellos ninguno
Qu actividades consideras que se deben incluir en la clase de ingls actividades
que te gusten?
RTA: actividades dinmicas.
lll. Percepciones sobre el ingls
Cul es tu actitud frente al ingls frente al idioma no a la clase?
RTA: me gusta bastante. No s a m siempre me ha gustado el ingls.
Para qu crees que te sirve el ingls en tu vida?
RTA: para mucho porque ms adelante me puede servir para trabajar en el
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l. Actitud frente a la clase (comportamiento, relaciones interpersonales)
Cmo es tu comportamiento en la clase de ingls?
RTA: normal, o sea que a veces molestan a veces no
Te sientes a gusto con la profesora titular y los practicantes?
RTA: s.
Cul crees que es el mayor problema de la clase de ingls?
RTA: cuando las profesoras empiezan hablar todo en ingls uno no entiende nada
Cmo es tu relacin con los dems?
RTA: bien
ll. Metodologa
Qu consideras que debe mejorar en la clase de ingls?
RTA: que la profesora hable un poquito ms espaol
Qu actividades consideras que se debe incluir en la clase de ingls actividades
que te gusten?
RTA: ninguna

lll. Percepciones sobre el ingls
Cul es tu actitud frente al ingls, frente al idioma no a la clase?
RTA: me gusta porque aprende uno un idioma diferente
Para qu crees que te sirve el ingls en tu vida?
RTA: por si voy a ir a otro pas como Estados Unidos que hablan ingls.

l. Actitud frente a la clase (comportamiento, relaciones interpersonales)
Cmo es tu comportamiento en la clase de ingls?
RTA: pues muy bien para m muy bien.
Te sientes a gusto con la profesora titular y los practicantes?
RTA: s.
Cul crees que es el mayor problema de la clase de ingls?
RTA: ninguno, a veces se portan muy mal.
Cmo es tu relacin con los dems?
RTA: muy buena
ll. Metodologa
Qu consideras que debe mejorar en la clase de ingls?
RTA: me gustara que hubiera ms vocabulario, que hablramos ms. Pero sin
embargo mis compaeros no saben muy bien que digamos por eso no podemos
Qu actividades consideras que se deben incluir en la clase de ingls actividades
que te gusten?
RTA: pues de hablar y eso
lll. Percepciones sobre el ingls
Cul es tu actitud frente al ingls frente al idioma no a la clase?
RTA: me gusta mucho
Para qu crees que te sirve el ingls en tu vida?
RTA: no s, me gustara viajar. Me gusta mucho viajar.
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l. Actitud frente a la clase (comportamiento, relaciones interpersonales)
Cmo es tu comportamiento en la clase de ingls?
RTA: hay momentos en los que me pierdo de la clase y me pongo hacer otra cosa
y me pongo a pensar.
Te sientes a gusto con la profesora titular y los practicantes?
RTA: s
Cul crees que es el mayor problema de la clase de ingls?
RTA: los compaeros, que hay veces se ponen hablar mucho eso interrumpe la
clase y no deja escuchar nada.
Cmo es tu relacin con los dems?
RTA: bien
ll. Metodologa
Qu consideras que debe mejorar en la clase de ingls?
RTA: por el momento no, todo est bien.
Qu actividades consideras que se deben incluir en la clase de ingls actividades
que te gusten?
RTA: ms lectura sobre el ingls.
lll. Percepciones sobre el ingls
Cul es tu actitud frente al ingls frente al idioma no a la clase?
RTA: me gusta el ingls
Para qu crees que te sirve el ingls en tu vida?
RTA: yo quisiera cuando salga del colegio estudiar en el exterior

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Students Questionnaire.
Mi nombre es:
Mi edad es:
Mi lugar de nacimiento es:
Mi barrio es:
Mi genero es:
Personas con las que vivo
Casa [Vivo en: ]
Apartamento [Vivo en: ]
Tengo acceso a:
Mis deportes
Mi msica
Mis programas
Mis pasatiempos
Mis materias
Mis libros

1. Se me facilita seguir las instrucciones que estn escritas en el tablero. 2
2. Prefiero leer una historia que escucharla. 6 5
3. Prefiero las instrucciones escritas que las orales. 1
4. Prefiero leer los conceptos de un libro a que mi profesor me los explique. 3 2
5. Me fijo en las expresiones faciales y lenguaje corporal de la persona con quien
6. Recuerdo mejor escribiendo las ideas varias veces, dibujando, o haciendo
7. Me pierdo con las direcciones verbales. 6 5
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8. Prefiero que se me presenten las instrucciones visualmente. 1
9. Soy bueno(a) haciendo grficos, cuadros y otros recursos visuales. 8 6
10. Puedo entender y seguir direcciones con mapas. 8 6
11. Siento que la mejor manera de recordar algo es visualizarlo en mi mente. 1

1. Sigo instrucciones orales mejor que las visuales. 1
2. Prefiero escuchar una clase que leer el material del libro de texto. 1
3. Entiendo mejor cuando leo en voz alta. 1
4. Prefiero escuchar la radio en lugar de leer el peridico. 1
5. A menudo canto, tarareo, o silbo para mi misma(o). 1
6. Cuando se me presentan dos sonidos similares, me doy cuenta si son iguales o
7. Disfruto hablar con otros(as) 2
8. Hablo conmigo mismo(a). 6 4
9. Uso sonidos musicales para aprender cosas. 1
10. Prefiero escuchar msica que contemplar una imagen 1
11. Requiero explicaciones de diagramas, grficos, o mapas. 4 3

1. Me gusta coleccionar objetos. 1
2. Hablo rpidamente utilizando mis manos para comunicar lo que quiero expresar. 1
3. Estoy constantemente inquieto(a) (por ejemplo, golpeo el escritorio con el lapicero o juego con las llaves en mi
4. Soy bueno(a) en los deportes. 2
5. Soy bueno para desarma y arma cosas. 1 9
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2 %
6. Soy bueno(a) para encontrar la forma de llevar a cabo algo. 1
7. Prefiero estar de pie cuando trabajo. 3 2
8. Disfruto trabajar y hacer cosas con las manos. 1
9. Aprendo por medio del movimiento y exploro el entorno. 9 7
10. Me siento cmodo(a) con el contacto fsico con otros(as) en seal de amistad (por ejemplo, abrazando). 1
11. Prefiero hacer cosas en lugar de ver una demostracin o leer sobre ella en un libro. 1
Qu es lo que ms haces para aprender vocabulario en ingls?
Si tengo alguna duda relacionada con ingls, Qu hago?
Qu haces para practicar y aprender ingls?
Cunto tiempo llevas estudiando ingls?
Has tomado algn curso de ingls por fuera del colegio?
En dnde has tomado el curso?
Por cunto tiempo?
1. Al participar en la clase de ingls siento confianza en m
mismo? [null]
2. Me gusta participar en la clase de ingls? [null]
3. Me siente interesado por querer aprender ms la clase de
ingls? [null]
4. Encuentro interesante las actividades que son desarrolladas
en la clase de ingls? [null]
5. Siento que mi profesor se interesa en que yo logre entender
el tema? [null]
6. Siente que el trato que me brinda mi profesor es el mismo
para todos? [null]
7. Siento que mi profesor me tiene en cuenta en la clase? [null]
8. Siento que mis compaeros me respetan cuando participo?
9. Me siento intimidado por mis compaeros a la hora de
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participar en clase. [null]
10. Me siento intimidado por mi profesor(a) a la hora de participar
en clase. [null]
11. Me gustan las actividades propuestas en la clase de ingles.
1. Cumplo el horario de clase. [null]
2. Mi puntualidad es intachable. [null]
3. Fomento el desorden y la indisciplina en el saln de clase [null]
4. No fomento la indisciplina, pero participo en el desorden. [null]
5. Reconozco a mi profesora de ingles como figura de autoridad
en el saln de clase. [null]
6. Reconozco a los practicantes de ingles como figura de
autoridad en el saln de clase. [null]
7. Reconozco algunos de mis compaeros como figura de
autoridad en el saln de clase. [null]
8. Conozco el manual de convivencia de mi colegio y sigo lo que
este establece. [null]
9. Conozco las reglas y las consecuencias de la clase ingles.
10. Hago cosas indebidas en clase tales como: escuchar msica,
dormir, comer en clase, maquillarme, etc. [null]
11. Con que frecuencia uso el celular en clase? [null]
Que cree usted que debe mejorar en la clase de ingles?

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Teachers questionnaire.
1. Cuntos cursos de capacitacin en ingls toma anualmente?
a. Ninguno
b. Ms de 3
c. Entre uno y dos
2. Cuntas veces al ao tiene la oportunidad de probar su ingls con un hablante nativo?
a. 0-2
b. 2-3
c. 3-5
d. Ms de5
3. Cuntos viajes ha hecho a un pas angloparlante durante sus aos de experiencia?
a. Viajo constantemente
b. He viajado una o dos veces
c. Nunca he salido del pas
4. Se encuentra inscrito a una pgina web donde reciba nuevas actualizaciones del
a. Si
b. No
5. Si su respuesta es NO, escoja una de las siguientes razones:
a. No maneja bien la tecnologa
b. Me es indiferente
c. Prefiero hacerlo presencial
d. Otras: pero s frecuento pginas o cursos de ingls
6. Dnde cree que se posiciona su nivel de lengua segn el CEFR?
a. A1
b. A2
c. B1
d. B2
7. Cul es la habilidad que mejor maneja?
a. Escritura
b. Lectura
c. Habla
d. Escucha
8. Cul habilidad se le dificulta?
a. Escritura
b. Lectura
c. Habla
d. Escucha
e. Ninguna
9. Con qu frecuencia hace uso de su competencia comunicativa en clase?
a. Nunca
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b. Casi nunca
c. Algunas veces
d. Siempre
10. Cuando habla en ingls siente que:
a. Su fluidez es buena
b. Tiene dificultad para exponer sus ideas
c. No encuentra el vocabulario adecuado
d. Se siete completamente confiado
11. Cuando escucha:
a. Reconoce y entiende los diferentes acentos
b. Tiene dificultad para comprender el mensaje
c. Entiende el mensaje fcilmente
12. Cuando escribe:
a. Recurre a la traduccin
b. Se interesa por usar nuevo vocabulario
c. Su vocabulario es limitado
d. Presenta sus ideas con fluidez
e. Ninguna de las anteriores
13. Con qu frecuencia lee en ingls?
a. Nunca
b. Casi nunca
c. Algunas veces
d. Siempre
14. Si su respuesta es siempre o algunas veces, cuando lee lo hace por:
a. Diversin
b. Necesidad
c. Descubrir nuevo vocabulario
d. Descubrir nueva informacin
15. Cuando ve pelculas las prefiere:
a. Subtituladas
b. Habladas en espaol
c. En ingls con subttulos
d. Ingls sin subttulos
16. Qu tipo de msica le gusta?
a. Msica colombiana
b. Msica popular
c. Msica en ingls
d. Me es indiferente
e. Otro: _________________
17. Qu tipo de programas prefiere ver?
a. Noticieros
b. Series
c. Novelas
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d. Magazines
e. Otros: ________________
18. Cul de estos ve en ingls?:
a. Noticieros
b. Series
c. Novelas
d. Magazines
e. Otros: _______________
19. El colegio incentiva su formacin ofreciendo capacitaciones?:
a. Nunca
b. Casi nunca
c. Algunas veces
d. Siempre
20. Invierte parte de su dinero en cursos de capacitacin?
a. Nunca
b. Casi nunca
c. Algunas veces
d. Siempre
21. A qu medios recurre para capacitarse?:
a. Discusiones y debates
b. Foros e ingls
c. Videos on-line
d. Libros
e. Ninguno
f. Otros: _______________
22. Si pudiera escoger otra vez, cambiara de profesin?
a. S
b. No
23. Si su respuesta fue s, cul es la razn?
a. Salario
b. Carga laboral
c. Falta de recursos para ejercer
d. Falta de incentivos
24. Cundo despert en usted el inters por el estudio del ingls?
a. Desde nio/a
b. Desde el bachillerato
c. Desde la universidad
d. Nunca
e. Otra: _____________
25. Cree usted que su carrera le demanda nuevos retos?
a. Nunca
b. Casi nunca
c. Algunas veces
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d. Siempre
26. Tiene la libertad para proponer sus propias ideas?:
a. Nunca
b. Casi nunca
c. Algunas veces
d. Siempre
27. Cul de estas responsabilidades personales interfiere con el desarrollo de su
a. Hijos
b. Otra responsabilidad laboral
c. Enfermedad/discapacidad
d. Deudas
28. Hace uso del ingls con sus colegas?:
a. Siempre
b. Algunas veces
c. Casi nunca
d. Nunca
29. Su clase se basa en:
a. Ejercicios comunicativos
b. Desarrollo de habilidades gramaticales
c. Dinmicas
d. Todas las anteriores
30. Cuntos cursos de actualizacin en tcnicas de enseanza toma anualmente?
a. Ninguno
b. Ms de 3
c. Entre uno y dos
31. Qu procedimientos sigue para el manejo de la disciplina en el saln de clase?
a. Castigos y recompensas
b. Trabajo extra para los estudiante
c. Polticas de la institucin
d. No tengo un procedimiento
32. En su clase, los objetivos del currculo se logran:
a. Nunca
b. Casi nunca
c. Algunas veces
d. Siempre
33. Cuando evala hace uso de:
a. Exmenes y quices
b. Portafolios
c. Evaluacin informal
d. Proyectos
e. Todas las anteriores
34. Con qu frecuencia hace uso de la tecnologa en su clase?
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a. Nunca
b. Casi nunca
c. Algunas veces
d. Siempre
35. Sus relaciones con los estudiantes se fortalecen mediante:
a. La presentacin de una figura de autoridad
b. Vnculos afectivos con los estudiantes
c. El dilogo y la comunicacin
d. Otras.