Baha’i Internet Agency

lrom Source\atch
1he Bahá’í Internet Agency states on its website that it "assists the global Baha’í community in its use oí the
Internet, pro·iding technical support to Baha’í institutions and supporting promising initiati·es oí indi·iduals.
Lstablished in 2004 by the Uni·ersal louse oí Justice, the Baha’í Internet Agency operates under the guidance
oí the International 1eaching Centre."
1he decision to establish the Agency was communicated to the ·arious Baha'i "National Spiritual Assemblies"
in the íollowing correspondence, dated June 2005:
"Uni·ersal louse oí Justice, Department oí the Secretariat
16 June 2005
Internet Agency
1ransmitted by email
1o all National Spiritual Assemblies
Dear Baha'í lriends,
Opportunities to spread the teachings oí Baha'u'llah and to make known to society at large the acti·ities
oí the Baha'í community ha·e grown markedly in recent years, especially with the rise in use oí computer
technology. lollowing consultations with the International 1eaching Centre, the Uni·ersal louse oí
Justice has decided to create an international Baha'í Internet Agency to assist the :Counsellors and
National Spiritual Assemblies in addressing certain issues associated with the propagation and protection
oí the laith as they pertain to the Internet. Operating under the direct super·ision oí the 1eaching
Centre, the agency is based in the United States, where it has established an oííice with a íull-time
In the months ahead, aíter preliminary preparations ha·e been made, the Baha'í Internet Agency will
contact National Assemblies and pro·ide iníormation about the ser·ices it can oííer. 1he Baha'í
Computer and Communications Association ,BCCA, and the Security Ad·isory Group, which ha·e o·er
the years extended technical and Internet-related support to national communities worldwide,
will :continue to make a ·aluable contribution to this area oí endea·our, íunctioning now under the
direction oí the agency.
\ith lo·ing Baha'í greetings,
Department oí the Secretariat
cc: International 1eaching Centre
Boards oí Counsellors
Baha'í Internet Agency"
1 Baha’i Internet Agency \hitepapers
2 Monitoring use oí the social networking site lacebook
3 Monitoring oí schismatic Baha'i groups and "Co·enant Breaker" websites
4 Prior communication írom the International 1eaching Centre to Baha'i academics regarding Internet
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5 Implications oí in·ol·ement in libel and deíamation oí critics on public íorums
6 "Protection oí the Cause: Opposition Sites are known to the Institutions, and action is taken where
¯ Members
8 Resources and articles
9 Contact
9.1 Related Sourcewatch articles
9.2 Reíerences
Baha’i Internet Agency Whitepapers
"1he Baha’i Internet Agency has made a·ailable a number oí new position papers on the theme oí the Baha'i
laith and engagement with the Internet. Social networking, blogosphere and íolksonomies all get a look in. \e
ha·e linked the papers here on our domain."
Indi·idual Initiati·e on the Internet
Participation and the Internet
Blogging and the Baha'i laith
Guidelines íor Internet Communication
Understanding Online Social Networks
Responding to Criticism and Opposition on the Internet
Basics oí Search Lngine Optimization
Building Internet Communities
1hese documents ,accessible in the resources section, claim to lay out a code oí beha·ior encouraged by the
oííicial Baha'i bodies regarding online acti·ities. Oí particular note is the Baha'i Internet Agency's stated
position on dealing with online criticism and discussion, gi·en the acti·ities oí the Baha'i organization
documented by Proíessor Juan Cole and lrederick Glaysher
1he document Responding to Criticism and Opposition on the Internet states, "As you well appreciate, the
extent to which such technology ad·ances the work oí the laith depends, oí course, on the manner in which it
is used. As a medium íor Baha'ís to exchange ·iews, it imposes on participants the same requirements oí
moderation, candour, and courtesy as would be the case in any other discussion. Likewise, those in·ol·ed
should a·oid belittling the ·iews oí one another. In this regard, the louse oí Justice has noted your
understandable repugnance at an apparent temptation to use misleading and in·idious labels like
"traditionalists" and "liberals", which di·ide the Baha'í community. 1o the extent that this di·isi·e habit oí mind
may persist in the Baha'í community, it is ob·iously a carry-o·er írom non-Baha'í society and a maniíestation oí
an immature conception oí liíe. Ií Baha'ís were to persist in this mode oí thinking, it would bring to naught
e·en the most worthwhile intellectual endea·our, as has so conspicuously been the case with societies oí the
past. Most important oí all, as with any exploration by Baha'ís oí the belieís and practices oí their laith,
electronic discussion will ser·e the interests oí the Cause and its members only as it is conducted within the
íramework oí the Baha'í 1eachings and the truths they enshrine. 1o attempt to discuss the Cause oí God apart
írom or with disdain íor the authoritati·e guidance inherent in these 1eachings would clearly be a logical
contradiction. ,Dec 10, 1992 to an indi·idual, \e ha·e been asked to ad·ise that there is no objection to the
conduct oí a chat room.which appears to be similar to a íireside meeting except that it takes place o·er the
Internet. In general, Baha'í institutions should not interíere with it. lowe·er, you may emphasize that, in their
eííorts to teach the laith, the íriends should reírain írom engaging in argumentation and disputes,
concentrating more on introducing the laith to participants. ,January 26, 2003 to a National Spiritual Assembly,
1he louse oí Justice íeels that, when Baha'ís are teaching in an online chat room` and Co·enant-breakers
intrude upon the discussion, the íriends should not íeel obliged to sign oíí simply because Co·enant-breakers
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are present in this ·irtual space. 1hey should, howe·er, reírain írom knowingly engaging the Co·enant-breakers
in discussions and, in any case, should a·oid being drawn into contentious or disputatious situations. ,October
2¯, 199¯ to an indi·idual,
"In general, the louse oí Justice has no objection to Baha'ís' participating in public, unmoderated discussions
about the laith, whether those discussions take place in person or through some íorm oí electronic
communication. 1he wisdom oí participating in particular discussions, must, oí necessity, depend upon
circumstances pre·ailing at the time. \hen, through such discussions, the laith is attacked or erroneous
iníormation about it is disseminated, it may become necessary íor indi·idual Baha'ís to acti·ely deíend it. In
some circumstances, howe·er, to a·oid participating in argumentati·e exchanges, attracting attention to enemies
oí the laith, or engaging Co·enant-breakers, it will be more appropriate to withdraw írom the discussion. \hile
the institutions oí the laith may, on occasion, íind it necessary to oííer the íriends guidance related to
theirparticipation in particular discussions, generally this, too, is a matter leít to the indi·idual. ,October 2¯,
199¯ to an indi·idual, 1hus, ií any participant in an email discussion íeels that a ·iew put íorward appears to
contradict or undermine the pro·isions oí the Co·enant, he should be íree to say so, explaining candidly and
courteously why he íeels as he does. 1he person who made the initial statement will then be able to re-e·aluate
his opinion and, ií he still belie·es it to be ·alid, he should be able to explain why it is not contrary to either the
letter or the spirit oí the Co·enant. 1he participants in such a discussion should a·oid disputation and, ií they
are unable to resol·e an issue, they should reíer the point to the Uni·ersal louse oí Justice since, in accordance
with the \ill and 1estament oí Abdu’l-Baha, By this body all the diííicult problems are to be resol·ed.` and
it has the authority to decide upon all problems which ha·e caused diííerence, questions that are obscure, and
matters that are not expressly recorded in the Book.` In this way the Co·enant can illuminate and temper the
discourse and make it íruitíul." ,lebruary 16, 1996 to an indi·idual,"
Current guidelines are also gi·en íor conduct in discussion íorums:
"Discussion Forums
1. Lach íorum has a slightly diííerent culture and usually some sort oí terms oí use. Learn the standards
oí expected beha·ior beíore posting.
2. Do not íeed negati·e discussion threads. Not only is this a waste oí time, but also it has the unintended
consequence oí making the thread appear more interesting to ·isitors because oí all the postings. Let
negati·e postings die on the ·ine-do not water them.
3. See ií your question or topic oí interest has already been addressed. Long-term members can become
írustrated with numerous postings on topics that ha·e been co·ered multiple times.
4. A·oid quoting extensi·ely írom pre·ious postings when there is no reason to do so.
5. A·oid posting statements such as me too` or I agree.` 1hese postings simply clutter the discussion
6. Using ALL CAPs is considered yelling in the on-line medium. \ou should ne·er íind yourselí in need
oí yelling. New people oíten turn on the caps lock button to add emphasis-don't.
¯. la·ing multiple screen names and identities is allowed in discussion íorums. \hile obscuring one’s
identity is acceptable, lying about oneselí is not.
8. Pick a screen name that gi·es a good impression oí you. On the Internet others cannot see you, so, to
some extent, your screen identities represent you and represent the laith ií you identiíy yourselí as a
9. Ií you are running and,or moderating a discussion board, make the rules oí conduct ob·ious and
clear-cut. Be speciíic about guidelines rather than simply exhorting e·eryone to be nice.` Lníorce the
rules equitably. Nothing ruins a discussion board íaster than percei·ed bias and ía·oritism."
Monitoring use of the socia net!or"ing site Face#oo"
In lebruary, 2008, Matthew \einberg, Program Director íor the Baha'i Internet Agency, released the íollowing
email letter on behalí oí the laiían Baha'i administration ,see Baha'i laith,. 1he letter reíers to the acti·ities oí
the "Co·enant-breaker Martin La·allee", a member oí the schismatic Orthodo$ Baha%is and warns members
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oí the laiían Baha'i community against possible 'exposure' to this indi·idual arising írom contact on the social
networking site, lacebook. "Co·enant breaking" is a term employed by the laiían Baha'is to reíer to groups
and indi·iduals who challenge "the authority oí the center oí the Baha'i laith", which in this context reíers to
the authority oí the Uni·ersal louse oí Justice, and is considered "the most serious spiritual oííence that a
Baha'í can commit. It's called Co·enant-Breaking and is considered to be a spiritual disease and is punished by
expulsion írom the community."
"28 lebruary 2008
1o All National Spiritual Assemblies
Dear Baha'í lriends,
\e ha·e been requested by the \orld Centre to alert you to the current acti·ities oí the Co·enant-breaker
Martin La·allee on 1his indi·idual administers the "Orthodox Baha'is" page on lacebook and
also has a personal page on the site. 1here ha·e been recent instances where Baha'í youth with accounts on
lacebook ha·e unwittingly accepted in·itations írom La·allee to be a "íriend" or to become "members" oí the
Co·enant-breaker page. lurther, as a consequence oí the lacebook networking scheme, ií an indi·idual accepts
a direct in·itation írom La·allee or any other member oí his group, the "lriends" list ,with e-mail addresses, oí
that indi·idual becomes exposed. In this way, those with insincere intentions ha·e the potential to directly
contact an increasing number oí Baha'is, interactions that could pose a threat to the spiritual well-being oí
youth and other belie·ers who are not deepened in the Co·enant.
Lach National Assembly will need to determine the necessity and most appropriate manner oí discreetly
iníorming belie·ers oí this situation in consultation and with the assistance oí the Counsellors. In doing so it
will oí course be important to a·oid creating undue anxiety or curiosity about the nature oí Co·enant-breaker
material on the Internet..
It is our intention to pro·ide more general guidance in the near íuture about how online social networks can be
constructi·ely and saíely used by Baha'ís.
\ith lo·ing greetings,
Matt \einberg Program Director Baha'í Internet Agency
cc: Members oí the Continental Boards oí Counsellors"
Monitoring of schismatic Baha%i groups and &Co'enant Brea"er&
1he Baha'i Internet Agency also monitors the online acti·ity oí schismatic Baha'i groups, and groups or
indi·iduals known as "Co·enant Breakers" ,see abo·e section,. In correspondence entitled "Good object lesson
íor a·oiding reading Co·enant-breaker sites", Susan Maneck has responded to the issue oí the a·oidance oí
schismatic group's online material as íollows:
"Dear Kathryn,
1here isn't any 'clear' guidance on this issue but ií you ha·e suspicions you can always contact the Baha'i
Internet Agency. 1hey pretty much keep up with what is on the internet. 1here are 'key words' which are oíten
used by these groups which help me to spot them right away. lor instance anyone purporting to be a Baha'i who
goes on and on about the "1hrone oí Da·id" is likely to be a Jensenite because this is something they are
obsessed with. Anyone reíerring to mainstream Baha'is as "laiían Baha'is" are likely to be hostile towards the
Uni·ersal louse oí Justice whether they are declared Co·enant breakers or not. Remeyites use terms like 'sans-
Guardian' and 'heterodox' to reíer to mainstream Baha'is. 1hen, oí course, there are people like Stephen who
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may throw these terms around without ha·ing the íoggiest idea who they imply. ,-}
I would like to add here that ií there are any questions people ha·e regarding some oí the material they read on
the internet, they should íeel íree to raise them here. \hat I ha·e discouraged is the posting oí the URLs oí
Co·enant breakers and those hostile towards the laith or the Uni·ersal louse oí Justice.
warmest, Susan"
(rior communication from the Internationa )eaching Centre to
Baha%i academics regarding Internet acti'ities
In illustrating the coerci·e measures historically employed by the Baha'i organization in dealing with internet
based criticism, Proíessor Juan Cole cites a 1996 letter to a Baha'i academic írom Stephen Birkland, Member oí
the Continental Board oí Counsellors in the Americas, written in consultation with the International 1eaching
Centre ,the body currently responsible íor the administration oí the Baha%i Internet Agency
,, stating that
"1he International 1eaching Centre has asked me--with the knowledge oí the Uni·ersal louse oí Justice--to
warn you that your promulgation oí ·iews contrary to the 1eachings was damaging to the Cause. Ií you were to
resume in any íashion this course oí action, the eííect would be to bring you into direct conílict with the
*etter of Counseor +tephen Bir"and to a Baha%i Academic, Imposing Fundamentaism as the Officia
Ideoogy of the Baha%i Faith
"Continental Board oí Counsellors íor the Protection and Propagation oí the Baha'i laith in the Americas
16 July 1996
Dear X:
\hen I telephoned last May to ask íor a second meeting to discuss in greater depth a number oí concerns
touched on in our earlier consultation, you indicated that you would preíer that I put these issues in writing.
1his letter, which has beneíited írom the comments oí the International 1eaching Center, seeks to respond to
your request. As I explained, my reason íor the proposed meeting was a desire to assist you in understanding
how a number oí your postings to the members oí . . . |an[ . . . internet íorum you created last year were in
conílict with the 1eachings oí the Baha'i laith, and how their persistent promotion by you was becoming
harmíul to its interests. As you know, a special responsibility íor the protection oí the laith is one oí the
primary íunctions assigned to the institution oí the Counsellors.
\hile I ha·e not archi·ed your . . . postings, I retained a handíul oí them which seemed to me particularly
inappropriate and disquieting in the context oí a discussion ostensibly intended as a serious study oí
Baha'u'llah's Message. Copies oí some oí these which illustrate the issues mentioned here are enclosed íor your
Lssentially, your statements con·ey an image oí the laith in which the Co·enant, although it is íundamental to
Baha'u'llah's Message, has little substance beyond a kind oí nominal legitimacy and certain ·ery narrowly
deíined íunctions assigned to its central institutions. 1he broad and unique authority explicitly coníerred on the
Guardianship and the Uni·ersal louse oí Justice in the \ritings oí the lounders oí the laith is systematically
whittled down to a point that would, ií taken seriously, paralyze the ability oí the Cause to carry out the mission
laid on it by its lounder.
1he issue is not one oí your ha·ing ·iews which may be incompatible with the 1eachings. Baha'i liíe is a
continuing endea·or to understand and implement the truths oí the Re·elation oí God to which we are
committed. Nor would expressions oí opinion during discussions among groups oí Baha'is, howe·er
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misleading or objectionable some oí these comments might seem to many members oí the community,
normally be matters that the institutions oí the laith would íeel responsible to take up. \hat has aroused the
concern oí the International 1eaching Centre with respect to your . . . inter·entions, and has disturbed many oí
your íellow belie·ers, has rather been a pattern oí comment that appears to reílect a calculated and determined
eííort on your part, in the name oí detached scholarly discussion, to impose on the presentation oí Baha'u'llah's
Message a strongly held ideological ·iew that contradicts the authoritati·e and explicit interpretation oí Baha'i
\hen I raised some oí my concerns with you during our discussions in lebruary, it became clear írom your
many--and oíten ·ehement--reactions that this understanding oí your point oí ·iew is quite accurate. Indeed,
these comments leít me with the impression that you íeel no compunction in disagreeing with Baha'u'llah and
`Abdu'l-Baha themsel·es when their statements come into conílict with your strongly held personal con·ictions.
1he nature oí the problem which your acti·ities were creating íor the Baha'i community were clariíied when
you accidentally posted to the . . . íorum a pri·ate message apparently intended íor a smaller group oí
participants, identiíied by you as "Majnun." \ou cannot be unaware oí the sense oí betrayal experienced by your
íellow Baha'is, who had belie·ed themsel·es engaged in a scholarly exploration oí Baha'u'llah's purpose, when
they read a statement which appeared to lay out a cynical "winning strategy" designed to use the . . . íorum to
spread disiníormation, attack the United States National Spiritual Assembly, and bring the administrati·e
processes oí the Cause into discredit. Nor should you be surprised at the dismay caused by your readiness, in
this same statement, to recognize a parallel between the acti·ities oí this inner group and those oí the notorious
Co·enant-breaker Ahmad Sohrab. It was keenly disappointing to all oí us who respected both your adherence to
the Cause and your proíessional credentials, that you íailed to immediately explain what seemed a disturbing
departure írom standards which participants in such a íorum had e·ery right to expect.
In a statement posted o·er a year and a halí ago--and repeated this past May when you adi·ised participants that
you were closing down the . . . íorum--you explained with great írankness the belieís that moti·ate you. Please
let me be equally candid, then, in expressing my opinion that, ií you were today to ad·ance such ·iews in
support oí an application íor enrollment in the Baha'i laith, no Baha'i Assembly would accept your application
or regard you as íulíilling the basic requirements íor Baha'i membership set out by the Guardian:
"lull recognition oí the station oí the lorerunner, the Author, and the 1ure Lxemplar oí the Baha'i Cause, as
set íorth in Abdu'l-Baha's 1estament, unreser·ed acceptance oí, and submission to, whatsoe·er has been
re·ealed by their Pen, loyal and steadíast adherence to e·ery clause oí our Belo·ed's sacred \ill, and close
association with the spirit as well as the íorm oí the present day Baha'i administration throughout the
world--these I concei·e to be the íundamental and primary considerations that must be íairly, discreetly and
thoughtíully ascertained beíore reaching such a ·ital decision." I regret the bald tone oí this necessarily brieí
and constrained presentation oí my concerns as a Counsellor. As I say, it seeemed to me greatly to be preíerred
ií we could ha·e discussed such important matters íace to íace, in an unhurried atmosphere oí respect both íor
your personal con·ictions and the integrity oí the laith's 1eachings. \ou are the only one who can know
whether in your heart you do indeed belie·e in Baha'u'llah as the Maniíestation oí God to our age. Baha'i
institutions do not ha·e the right to pry into belie·ers' innermost con·ictions, but they do ha·e the obligation to
counsel indi·iduals whose dissemination oí personal belieís is doing harm to the interests oí the laith. 1he
International 1eaching Centre has asked me--with the knowledge oí the Uni·ersal louse oí Justice--to warn
you that your promulgation oí ·iews contrary to the 1eachings was damaging to the Cause. Ií you were to
resume in any íashion this course oí action, the eííect would be to bring you into direct conílict with the
\ith sincerity and concern,
Stephen Birkland, Member Continental Board oí Counsellors in the Americas
cc: 1he International 1eaching Centre Continental Board oí Counsellors in the Americas National Spiritual
Assembly oí the United States
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lurther documents írom Proíessor Juan Cole's website relating to this and other issues can be accessed at
Baha'i Documents ,http:,,,~jrcole,bhdoc.htm,
Impications of in'o'ement in i#e and defamation of critics on
pu#ic forums
1he BIA has been alleged to engage in systematic Gang Stalking oí critics online
. lollowing a post made to
the site, Baha'i lorums ,http:,,bahaií,bahai-íorums,,, by a user named "MrBlackSunshine", which
implicated a íormer member, and long standing critic oí the organization, Nima \ahid Azal, in a deíamatory
and libelous manner
, on No·ember 13, 2011, the original author oí the thread subsequently stated that:
"It is with some regret that I must, aíter so long, cleanse my conscience by stating that what Nima says
below is true. I was indeed instructed by the Bahai Internet Agency to place material here as a deliberate
act oí slander to counter his productions. It is to my eternal shame that I ha·e committed such an act,
and I ha·e íound that I cannot, in good conscience, hide this íact any longer. So in order to íree myselí
írom the sin oí this terrible act, I ha·e placed a disclaimer here íreely stating that this act was períormed
not by Nima \ahid Azal, but was placed here on the instruction oí the Bahai Internet Agency. Likewise,
I do not doubt that someone within the agency has also been instructed to hack ,or use a Virus,1rojan,
on his computer. In light oí this íact I hope you re·iew your decision to ban him and re·iew his
comments more ía·ourably. Listen to Nima - he speaks the truth!"
&(rotection of the Cause, Opposition +ites are "no!n to the
Institutions- and action is ta"en !here appropriate.&
In a 2005 presentation by Glen lullmer, Director oí Communications íor the Baha'i Community oí the United
, Mr. lullmer outlined the acti·ities, responsibilities and strategies employed by the Baha'i Internet
. During his talk, Mr.lullmer discussed the relationship between the Bahai Internet Agency and
"Protection oí the Cause" and "Propagation oí the laith", highlighting the relationship between the Agency, the
International 1eaching Center, and the ·arious National Spiritual Assemblies.
\hen explaining the topic oí
"Protection oí the laith on the Internet", Mr lullmer reíers to a slide which states that:
"Opposition Sites are known to the Institutions, and action is taken where appropriate."
"In general howe·er, the best deíense is a good oííense. Indi·iduals and institutions can create lots oí
positi·e content about the laith to counteract the negati·e eííects oí opposition sites."
"In some cases, an indi·idual response can be e·en more eííecti·e."
Matthew \einberg- Program Director
1hane 1errill - Director oí Iníormation Ser·ices at Baha'i International Community's United Nations
Pedraum Pardehpoosh Representati·e
Resources and artices
Bahai Internet Agency Whitepapers
Indi·idual Initiati·e on the Internet ,http:,,,bia,Indi·idual-Initiati·e.pdí,, accessed
September 12, 2009.
Participation and the Internet ,http:,,,bia,Participation°20and°20the°20Internet.pdí,
Blogging and the Baha'i laith ,http:,,
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,bia,Blogging°20and°20the°20Baha°2¯i°20laith.pdí,, accessed September 12, 2009.
Podcasting ,http:,,,bia,podcasting.pdí,, accessed September 12, 2009.
Understanding Online Social Networks ,http:,,
,bia,Guidelines°20íor°20Internet°20Communication.pdí,, accessed September 12, 2009.
Guidelines íor Internet Communication ,http:,,,bia,Understanding-Online-Social-
Networks_2009.pdí,, accessed September 12, 2009.
Responding to Criticism and Opposition on the Internet ,http:,,
°20°20Internet.pdí,, accessed September 12, 2009.
Basics oí Search Lngine Optimization ,http:,,
,bia,Basics°20oí°20Search°20Lngine°20Optimization.pdí,, accessed September 12, 2009.
Building Internet Communities ,http:,,,bia,Internet-Communties.pdí,, accessed
September 12, 2009.
Baha'i Blog Sur·ey - Pheonix Coníerence ,M. Naeimi, ,http:,,
,bia,BahaiBlogsPhoenix.ppt,, accessed September 12, 2009.
Culti·ating the Roots Presentation ,http:,,,bia,BCCA-bosch.ppt,, accessed September 12,
NLB\ lest Presentation ,http:,,,bia,\outhParticipation.pdí,, accessed September 12,
1he Internet Perspecti·e ,http:,,,bia,1he_Internet_Perspecti·e.ppt,, accessed September
12, 2009.
\ebsite: http:,,,bia,
Reated +ource!atch artices
Matthew \einberg
Baha'i laith
Baha'í Computer And Communication Association
¦ Baha'í Internet Agency ,http:,,,bia,,, accessed March 31, 2009. 1.
¦ Correspondence írom the Uni·ersal louse oí Justice ,http:,,
,uhj,internetagency.html,, accessed October 30, 2011.
¦ Baha'i Internet Agency, Association íor Baha’i Studies ,http:,,,blog,·p~11,, accessed
March 31, 2009.
¦ lomepage oí the Baha'í Internet Agency ,http:,,,bia,,, accessed March 31, 2009. 4.
¦ Baha'i Censorship ,http:,,www.í,bahaicensorship,,, accessed September 12, 2009. 5.
¦ Responding to Criticism and Opposition on the Internet ,http:,,
°20°20Internet.pdí,, accessed September 12, 2009.
¦ Responding to Criticism and Opposition on the Internet ,http:,,
°20°20Internet.pdí,, accessed September 12, 2009.
¦ Guidelines íor Internet Communication ,http:,,
,bia,Guidelines°20íor°20Internet°20Communication.pdí,, Baha'i Internet Agency \hitepaper,
accessed September 12, 2009.
¦ Co·enant, 1he, and Co·enant-breaker by Moojan Momen ,http:,,
,·íile~momen_encyclopedia_co·enant,[, Baha'i Library Online, accessed March 31, 2009.
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