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in the Armed Forces.
African-American legends possess provided a tremendous foundation for an array of career
possibilities inside the U.S, Army, Navy, Air Force, Marines, and Coast Guard. These opportunities
with regard to those who now sit on the doorsteps in the modern day use a particular historical link
in order to an organization involving special people.
This group, comprising Rev. Adam Clayton Power, Dr. Channing H. Tobias, Lester Granger, Watter
White, John Sengstacke, T. Arnold Hill, A. Philip Randolph, Judge William H. Hastie, and many
notably, pertaining to this article, Dr. Mary Mcleod Bethune, has been the particular leadership
force that set the stage regarding opportunities in the military. through their own dynamic work
during an era of racism the half-century ago, these African-American legends place in to location the
enormous achievements in the military in which the truth is today.
Dr. Mary Mcleod Bethune, founder of Bethune-Cookman University and also special Assistant to
both the actual Secretary involving War as well as President Franklin D. Roosevelt, would become a
main advocate regarding opening military occupations to become able to African-Americans. Your Ex
near friendship using Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt provided prominent approaches in creating armed
forces advancements throughout the 1940s. Dr. Bethunes' tireless work pertaining to military officer
possibilities continues in order to be most historically rooted in your ex own statement, "Our
individuals won't ever always be satisfied until we view black faces inside higher places."
While growing up in Elizabeth City, NC, home regarding significant Naval along with Coast Aviation
Installations, my father told me any wonderful story about meeting Dr. Bethune inside 1939. He
achieved the woman's at the Mount Lebanon A.M.E. Zion Church, during founders day celebrations
for the National Council associated with Negro Ladies (NCNW). The Woman's presentation was a
glorious beacon of light throughout providing directions as well as remedies for your rectification of
profession problems facing African Americans.
Further meetings along with NCNW chapters all through the particular country, and the woman's
leadership situation with almost all the National Youth Administration, placed Bethune in a strategic
situation with regard to opening military task doors as Globe War II began.
Bethune would become a sociopolitical catalyst with the proper connections, as America entered in
to WWII. Along With your conflict widening round the world, the woman's wisdom, genius, and also
inspirational guidance had been sought to enhance task circumstances along with human remedy for
African Americans. The Girl work caused thousands of African-American soldiers, sailors, along with
marines to refer to the girl as "Mother Bethune." The Woman's immense achievement in the art of
compromise and political power provided many career milestones regarding African-American
This article will offer some selected historical milestones which were the results associated with
Bethune as well as other distinguished African-American legends. These particular historical
moments, within your U.S, Army, Navy, Air Force, Marines, along with Coast Guard, would become
the bedrock involving today's unrestricted profession choices for African Americans.
The U.S. Army
Protecting the protection of America is the role in the U.S. Army. The Particular current day Army
requirements about 90,000 new enlistees each year. These kinds of men and women find an variety
of opportunities in the enlisted ranks, including managerial positions in order to extremely complex
operational roles in transportation, aviation, weaponry, electronics, personal computer systems, as
well as logistics. the officer ranks are also challenging with their huge assortment regarding
Opportunities with regard to African-American women in the U.S. Army with the 1990's are
generally tremendous, nevertheless there was the time, just before WWII, when they were extremely
few. on 14 Could 1942, President Roosevelt signed public law 554, which in turn created the
Women's Army Corps. The Particular director was Lt. Colonel Oveta Culp Hobby coming from Texas.
Even then there is major concern about the plight associated with African-American women. the
NCNW requested which Bethune be appointed to always be able to a higher level policy place to
supply guidance along with direction. the Secretary associated with War accepted this request, as
well as named Bethune special Assistant for the Secretary involving War.
This position was obviously a godsend regarding policy and decision making in the matter of how
African Americans will be utilized within the military. Bethune has been capable of perform with Lt.
Colonel Hobby to become able to set happens for giant quantities involving African-American
females to become detailed on the particular U.S. Army. Though your military regarding WWII
ended up being segregated, Bethunes' wisdom, knowledge, and drive, permitted her to communicate
up, as well as deal with many problems due to unequal treatment.
Bethune produced an atmosphere that will resulted inside the commissioning of African-American
female officers in the Army Nurse Corps, and the establishment of the 6888th Postal Battalion,
which usually solved the problems regarding mail delivery inside England and also Europe. The Girl
exemplary efforts, throughout WWII, helped develop an' Army framework from which African-
American female Generals Hazel Winifred Johnson would be commissioned in September 1979,
along with later Sherian G. Cadoria.
The U.S. Navy
The U.S. Navy defends America's right to travel along with trade around the oceans around the
world. career opportunities are generally abundant for African Americans within both the particular
enlisted and additionally the officer communities. Based on Marcia Chalmers, special Assistant
pertaining to Minority Affairs at the U. S. Navy Recruiting Command, today's fleet is a "highly
diverse organization, requiring a minimum of 55,000 individuals to end up being able to fill enlisted
job openings yearly. "The officer neighborhood provides critical needs regarding leadership
personnel regarding ships, submarines, aviation, nuclear power, and medicine. a very qualified
African-American school or even university or college graduate is at higher demand."
But Navy job opportunities with regard to African Americans through the early times of WWII were
pathetic. Dark sailors were limited for the messman rating, plus an enforced system regarding
segregation. This policy led to many major ironic situations, among which usually led for the 1st
hero of WWII, Mess Attendent 3rd Class Dorie Doris Miller, USN. In The Actual Program Of the
actual mass confusion on board the U.S.S. West Virginia, whilst being attacked through the Japanese
with Pearl Harbor, 7 December 1941, Messman Miller shot down 6 enemy aircraft and also saved
living associated with his captain. His actions set the particular course for other African-American
sailors to serve the Navy within front-line positions. He was awarded the particular Navy Cross in 7
may 1942, "For distinguished devotion to duty, extraordinary courage, as well as disregard
pertaining to his as well as your ex own private safety."
During these historical moments, a naval secret weapon has been at the actual office seeking higher
possibilities pertaining to African-American sailors. Bethune was operating closely along with Mrs.
Roosevelt and the Secretary regarding War to start up the job ranks. First, by means of her policy
network, the lady urged President Roosevelt to start up the overall enlistment ranks to African
He did go, as well as on 2 June 1942, William Baldwin regarding Washington, DC, became the initial
Black to join the typical support branch with the U.S. Navy. Gradually, this decision led towards the
organization regarding 2 ships, in 1943, the particular U.S.S. Mason (DE-529) as well as Patrol Craft
1264, every manned with an African-American enlisted crew. The Actual officers up for you to speed
these ships had been White. However, an agenda to be able to commission African-American Naval
Officers was already set.
In 1944, sixteen enlisted African-American petty officers gathered at Fantastic Lakes, IL. This kind
of group, now known because the "Golden Thirteen," arrived to teach in the very first Officer
Candidate Institution setup regarding African-American Naval personnel. Regarding this group,
Jesse W. Arbor, Samuel Barnes, Philip Barnes, Dalton Baugh, George C. Cooper, Reginald Goodwin,
James E. Hair, Graham E. Martin, Dennis Nelson, John W. Reagan, Frank E. Sublett Jr., and also
William S. White had been commissioned as Ensigns inside the U. S. Navy, and Charles Lear was
commissioned like a warrant officer. Since involving politics, Lewis Williams, J. B. Pinkney, and A.
Alves, whom most completed your officer coaching course, by absolutely no means received their
own commissions as Naval Ensigns.
A priority of Navy recruiting had been doctors during the early events of WWII, which priority
triggered the "stroke involving luck" to possess an African-American health-related student. Though
your Navy wasn't commissioning African Americans as Officers at Harvard College on 18 June 1942,
the particular Navy awarded the naval reserve commission for you to Bernard Whitfield Robinson.
Robinson was obviously a healthcare student, and the recruiting officer which signed him up,
believed he ended up being white. Realizing what had happened, the actual Naval Workplace
involving Personnel tried to "get rid associated with Mr. Robinson," yet has been struggling to
rescind the actual commission. So, the particular historical significance is that Robinson had been
the really first african American for you to get the direct commission as getting a naval officer. He
ended up being positioned on active duty following your "Golden Thirteen" had received their
Later the actual Navy come up with V-12 program, as well as permitted American Americans to
enter inside the standard "pipeline" for officer assortment along with training. This specific plan
created our first African-American Admiral, Samuel L. Gravely, Jr. Carl Rowan, newspaper journalist
and former director with the united States Info Agency, has been also any graduate with the U.S.
Navy V-12 program.
In 1949, Wesly Brown, the very first African-American to become able to graduate in the United
States Involving America Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland, became Ensign Wesley Brown. in
1945, Lt. Ida Wells and also Ensign Frances Wills were commissioned as the first African-American
female Naval Officers. Along With the very first African-American for you to wear the actual Navy
"Wings of Gold" had been Ensign Jesse Brown, that flew your FAU-4 in Corsair throughout the
Opportunities with regard to African-Americans within the U.S. Navy have become tremendous,
using men and ladies serving in several enlisted and also officer ranks. Deputy Assistant Secretary in
the Navy, Charles L. Tompkins, a new retired African-American Naval Captain, along with graduate
of Virginia State University, stresses that will the value of Naval opportunities develop on the "core
values involving Honor, Courage, along with Commitment."
LCDR Cheri D. Waterford, USN, Executive Officer, Naval Recrufting District Buffalo greatest typifies
the African-American military officer of today. a graduate involving san Francisco State University,
B.S., and also san Diego State University, M.S., states that will "It has been a great honor to serve
my nation as becoming a Naval Officer. The Actual Navy has been a tremendous and many satisfying
experience. I will be permanently grateful for your training, education, and lots of possibilities that I
get received all through my Naval career."
The U.S. Air Force
The U.S. Air Force controls as well as exploits air and also space. Today, 40,000 individuals are
recruited annually for support in the Air Force. career possibilities within this highly technological
service range from flying roles inside aircraft, helicopters, supersonic fighters, lengthy range
bombers, as well as the room shuttle. support roles for you to maintain each along with every
aspects of the actual flying mission offer other career opportunities.
African-American successes within the U.S. Air Force are generally historically attached to Bethune.
Your Ex influence resulted in public law 18, originally the bill sponsored by simply Senator Harry
Swartz involving Wyoming, and Senator Styles Bridges of New Hampshire. This particular bill,
approved in three April 1939, provided for that progression of an all African-American aviation
coaching facility. This particular facility, in Tuskegee Institute, has been set up 16 January 1941.
Through the actual runways regarding this Alabama higher education campus, the particular 99th
Pursuit Squadron, the Lonely Eagles, faced racism as well as resentment, however they became the
very best P-51 fighter pilots involving WWII. during the countless bomber escort missions more than
the skies involving Europe, the pilots of the "Fighting 99th" never lost a B- 17, a new B-24 bomber,
or possibly a mission.
Many achievement stories developed in the ranks in the "Tuskegee Airmen," most notably, the next
African-American in the good reputation for the united States associated with America to become
promoted to flag rank, General Benjamin O. Davis, Jr., USAF, 1936 graduate of West Point. His
father, Benjamin O. Davis, St., has been the first African-American General, serving his nation within
the U.S. Army. Yet Another member ended up being General Daniel "Chappie" James, USAF, that
became the extremely first 4 star General. "Chappie" received his commission like a 2Lt. within July
1943. a great African-American quarterback, whom played football with Syracuse University, Lt.
Wilmeth Sidat-Singh had been in addition any person in the actual Tuskegee Airmen, along with
joined the machine after graduating from Syracuse College throughout 1939. These types of
pioneers created a legacy which now permits African Americans to demonstrate his or her capability
in any productive along with satisfying occupation your Air Force offers.
The U.S. Marine Corps
The U.S. Marine Corps will be Historic Houses For Sale Annapolis MD most unique throughout its
mission, role, scope, as well as history. Overall, members of the Marine Corps serve upon U.S. Navy
ships, guard U.S. embassies, protect Naval bases, along with serve as a quick strike mobile force. In
Order To handle its mission, the actual Marine Corps recruits about 50,000 people yearly to do many
duties needed associated with officers as well as enlisted personnel. These kind of members will
assistance and also run Landbase, Shipborne, Aviation, and Amphibious operational units and also
The Marine Corps nowadays contains many successful African-American members, whom trace his
or her lineage for the "Chosen Few," or even the team identified as the "Montford Pointers."
However the early times of WWII were tough and also darkish regarding African Americans seeking
to grow to become able to be detailed on the particular Marine Corps. Mrs. Roosevelt and also
Bethune understood the problems, these sorts of his or her persistent political work, President
Roosevelt signed executive order 8802, setting up the particular Fair Employment Practice
Commission. This kind of order set in motion the particular opportunity with regard to African
Americans to join the particular Marine Corps. Shortly thereafter, the Navy announced which 900
African-American recruits would turn out to always be able to be members in the 51st Composite
The training had been "tough along with inhuman, however fair," based on Capt. Thomas H.
McPhatter, CHC, USNR (Ret.), the past Montford Pointer to serve upon active duty inside the Naval
services. However these Marines persevered, and opened doors which produced 2Lt. Frederick
Branch, USMC, the initial Black Marine Corps officer, and also second, 2Lt. John E. Rudder, USMC.
Then throughout June of 1950, Frank E. Petersen, Jr., joined your U.S. Navy, and, within 1952, had
been commissioned a 2Lt. in the U.S. Marine Corps. He became Lt. General Frank E. Petersen, Jr.,
your Marine Corps' first African-American General and also Aviator.
Major General Jerome Gary Cooper, USMC (Ret.) has been the 2nd African-American General inside
the Marine Corps. A New Notre Dame graduate, tremendous leader, and brilliant businessman, he
has been the very first Black officer to end up being able to lead any Marine Corps business in to
combat. Later, this incredible tradition would carry on with almost all the collection of North
Carolina Central School graduate, Brig. General George H. Walls, Jr. USMC (Ret.), as well as Brig.
General Cliff Stanley towards the ranks associated with flag officers.
The Marine Corps has additionally lived up for the goals regarding Bethune by simply getting female
Marine Officers for example Lt. Colonel Doris Daniels, USMC, through Mississippi serving proudly.
As the actual Marine Corps projects the image in the "Proud and in addition the Few," the girl and
others reveal outstanding possibilities regarding African Americans.
The U.S. Coast Guard
African-American participation inside the Usa Coast Guard may be traced for the life Saving service
in the 1880s. The Particular Outer Banks regarding North Carolina provided the positioning for your
Pea Island Coast Guard Station. Thirty miles north involving Cape Hatteras, "The Graveyard in the
Atlantic," this Coast Guard lifeboat station has been an almost all African-American manned unit,
carrying out the actual mission of saving lives as well as property in American waters. The Actual
Berry, Gray, Mickens, Mackey, Case, Bowser, Pruden, Etheridge, Samuels, Westcott, and also Irving
families maintained any proud tradition for the U.S. Coast Guard in Pea Island, NC.
The smallest with the Armed Forces, your Coast Guard is responsible for many maritime operations.
activities such as enforcing customs, fighting pollution, trying in order to keep delivery lanes open,
keeping lighthouse along with navigational aids, conducting the International Ice Patrol, along with
drug interdiction patrols produce an variety of leading flight work along with positions.
Three hundred officer billets in several areas regarding ship along with aviation operations are
usually obtainable yearly, and in addition the enlisted ranks have got a variety of job openings,
depending on the requirements of the service.
The reputation African-American accomplishments in the Coast Guard continues to be noteworthy.
Whenever WWII started, the Coast Guard was a part of the particular U.S. Navy. Therefore, policy
concerning African Americans who planned to be able to enlist ended up being restricted to the
Messman Branch. Yet inside 1942, Navy policy permitted African Americans to participate the
overall support ranks. In Order To train the actual influx involving African-American Coast
Guardsmen, your support developed your Manhattan Beach training Station. In this base, the
training had been tough, however productive, and also within its structure, 3 African-American
instructors became legends. These pioneers were Lt. Clarence Samuels, USCG; Quartermaster
Benjamin Jones, USCG; and also Boatswain Mate Paul P. Perkins, USCG.
In April 1943, Ensign Joseph C. Jenkins, USCG, graduated through OCS, and became the first
African-American Coast Guard officer. Chief Clarence Samuels, USCG, the veteran associated with
Pea Island, Photographers' Mate, climbed via your ranks, as well as became Lt.(jg) Clarence
Samuels, USCG in October 1943. Throughout 1944, your Navy commissioned its 1st African-
American Collection Officer, Ensign Harvey C. Russell, USCG, the graduate through OCS at the
united States Coast Guard Academy.
Experimentation along with integration aboard Naval ships ended up being pioneered within the
U.S. Coast Guard. the U.S.S. Sea Cloud, the private yacht involving Marjorie Post, had been
transformed to become able to Coast Guard Cutter IX-99 in the particular program of WWII. This
ship is distinguished as the initial Naval vessel to possess an integrated crew in virtually any way
ranks. The Actual Coast Guard had wished to solve the successful manpower use Victorian Homes
For Sale Annapolis MD of African Americans inside its ranks, and they employed the U.S.S. Sea
Cloud to do so.
Under the actual command involving LCDR Carlton Skinner, USCG, the particular Sea Cloud cruised
the actual North Atlantic upon convoy duty, as well as encountered combat. The Particular ship
ended up being credited with sinking the German submarine, making every patrol about schedule.
the U.S.S. Sea Cloud developed your model regarding integrated crews. This kind of approach
became the manning requirements with regard to Naval as well as Coast Guard ships. Lt. Clarence
Samuels, USCG, Ensign Joseph Jenkins, USCG, along with Ensign Harvey Russell, USCG, almost all
served within leadership positions up to end up being able to speed the particular U.S.S. Sea Cloud.
The doors opened by simply these African-American Coast Guard greats paved the means by which
regarding Commander Merle J. Smith, Jr., the initial african American to graduate from your U.S.
Coast Guard Academy from New London, CT, along with Captain Bobby C. Wilks, USCG (Ret.), to
become the first african American in order to attain the rank involving Captain, 1st Aviator, as well
as very first to command the U.S. Coast Guard Air Station from Brooklyn, NY. one of the Coast
Guard's nearly all known members had been writer, Chief Alex Haley, USCG, that wrote the actual
prize winning novel Roots. Your historical legacy, service, committment, duty, honor, as well as
courage performed simply by members with the African-American neighborhood in the Usa Army,
Navy, Air Force, Marines, as well as Coast Guard had been marvelous inside developing your
"Bridge to the 21st Century." The Particular obtainable opportunities pertaining to African
Americans in all branches with the defense force will offer career offerings that have challenged,
responsibility, leadership rank, and also outstanding benefits.
African Americans possess usually stood up along with contributed towards the protection with the
United States, however our proudest moments have arrive when the perform regarding leaders such
as Bethune provided the particular "Match that will lit your candle," when things were darkest even
as tried to accomplish our duty.
In 1945, about the stands with the parade grounds in MacDill field inside Florida, Bethune stood
prior to members in the Engineering Aviation Command Unit. That They honored Bethune tomorrow
having a parade, dinner, along together with a huge bouquet regarding flowers for your function she
had done for that U.S. Military. Since she stood before the 1000's attending which day, the girl could
genuinely say once more in which "Our Folks Will Not be satisfied Until we See Black Faces in high
That extremely day, an Dark girl had been expanding up to become the initial African-American
female General within the united States Air Force. The Lady is currently General Marcelite Harris,
USAF, person receiving the actual Legion associated with Merit, the Bronze Star, Meritorious
service Medal, as well as the Vietnam service Medal. Your Woman was the first aircraft female
maintenance officer, as well as the first female commander of the maintenance squadron inside the
Strategic Air Command in the United State Air Force. The Lady received the woman's Star along
with advertising for you to flag rank within 1985, forty many years to the date which Bethune was
honored regarding outstanding achievements for your military.
ROOSEVELT "RICK" WRIGHT, JR., Ph.D., can be a captain inside the U.S. Naval Reserves.
Captain Mary Ann Gladys Torry U.S. Army Reserve Operations Officer
Capt. Torry desires to complete the woman's perform on the girl behalf Law along with Master's
Degrees. Your Woman is actually starting to educate other people on the great things about military
service, but the woman's aspirations extend significantly further. The Lady tells us, "I enjoy residing
in Southern California along with my husband and daughter, yet I am deeply concerned in regards to
end up being able to the youth in our country; I will most likely pursue a political profession to assist
protect kids and also compose laws that may ensure our youth a fair and honest opportunity to
She cites the woman's military experience as formative, not only educational: "It offers offered me
the great deal of insight to the distinct attitudes over the nation and overseas. I have learned how to
work with others to accomplish a new mission, to compromise, to concentrate and to work, not
merely being an individual, yet as becoming a team member."
"No matter what, don't give up! You'll encounter a lot of highway blocks available to become able to
offer you the actual impression that you could never create it. While long when you keep about
going, pushing along with trying, your loved ones will enjoy it. You'll acquire there. Maintain in the
mind that you must set a goal, along with in the wedding you have, or perhaps are generally even
now pondering one, the Army being an superb place to commence out along with can become a
great stepping stone in order to achieving some of your current goals, hopes, along with dreams."
Commander Tom Daniel Commanding Officer involving USS Samuel Eliot Morrison Usa Navy
As the initial African-American commanding officer with the USS Samuel Eliot Morrison (EFG-13),
Tom Daniel conducted an official ship stop by at Russia once the guided missile frigate dropped in
around the former soviet Union Naval Base associated with Baltiysk this summer.
Daniel features greater than 18 many many years of encounter with the Navy. He served aboard 5
ships, worked inside the Pentagon, and instructed the particular Navy ROTC at Louisiana State and
Southern universities inside Baton Rouge.
His advice for you to students upon how an individual can succeed: "Reach higher and perform very
best occupation an individual can. Any friendly, positive, can-do attitude will be contagious."
Major General Joseph A. McNeil Mobilization Assistant to Vice Commander Air Force Reserve
Thirty-seven a extended time ago, four younger african American men sat down in a whites-only
lunch counter, ordered a mug of coffee making history.
As a teenager becoming an adult in the sixties, Joseph McNeil had been consumed using changing
things. Along With upon Feb. 1, 1960, he and also 3 involving his college buddies took any stance
against segregation and also sparked any protest associated with sit-ins which spread throughout
your segrated South.
A native involving Wilmington, NC, major General McNeil earned a new B.S. in engineering physics
coming from North Carolina Agricultural and also Technical College in 1963. He can be mobilization
assistant for the vice commander, Headquarters Air Force Reserve, as well as manager in the new
York Flight Standards District Office.
As any reservist, General McNeil created a civilian management qualifications inside corporate
finance, investment banking and public services.
He additionally made history as the Air Force Reserve's simply African-American brigadier general.
While General McNeil features produced a few "firsts" in your program of his lifetime, he doesn't
think he's a task model for anyone reasons.
"I'm any good, regular working guy like some other african American males, with values that I
embrace. I've raised 5 children, possess five grandchildren, and have worked a pair of jobs almost all
of my life."
McNeil believes which it really is using typical working folks we ought to feel the most kinship to. "It
is actually via these men and women that people learn to understand how lifestyle moves on. The
idea makes folks persevere."
"Nothing features actually arrive easy, especially for African-Americans, yet absolutely no
generation will ever get it easy; it's often any struggle. Just keep pressing on."
Brian E. Gittens 2nd Lieutenant along with Graduate Student united States Marine Corps
Second Lieutenant Brian E. Gittens will be the initial Marine in order to attend graduate institution
beneath your Marine Enlisted Commissioning program (MECEP). The Particular program allows
outstanding enlisted Marines in order to visit undergraduate school full-time using military pay in
order to turn out for you to be commissioned officers. The Actual Marine Corps permitted Gittens to
be able to continue studying pertaining to his master's diploma since "his academics were so
Gittens' received a BA in Communication Scientific studies by having an emphasis inside Public
Relations. He is actually presently pursuing a new master's diploma inside Public Administration and
also Policy with Virginia Polytechnical Institute along with State University. His objective is often to
serve your Marine Corps inside the capacity of policy analysis and to work within the location of
Gitten's advice to students about the way to succeed: "Maintain integrity. Always Be true in order to
oneself and also others. Often strive for improvement as well as in simply no way forget people who
have got assisted a person achieved."
Captain Percy O. Norwood, Jr. Director, Coast Guard Recruiting Middle U.S. Coast Guard
As your director in the recruiting center, Captain Percy O. Norwood will be accountable for
recruiting people to staff the Coast Guard now along with within the future. His profession goals are
to affect the Coast Guard for years for you to come and to pave just how for others to reach the top
of the the USCG's corporate ladder.
Norwood received a new B.S. throughout Chemistry from Alcorn A&M School within 1968 and an
MS within Analytical Chemistry through Tuskegee School within 1970. in 1972, Norwood was
commissioned being an Ensign through your USCG OCS Program. Coming From there, he went on
in order to receive an M.S. within Recruiting Management coming from Naval Postgraduate
University in 1980.
Norwood's assistance to students upon how an individual can succeed: "Have a new group of values
for you to guide you. know that which usually you wish to accomplish in your own life ... find some
help or a mentor to help an individual figure it out. Lay out the policy for yourself. Then begin your
journey associated with accomplishing your goals."
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