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buildings in Hong Kong.
As among probably the most densely populated locations in the world, Hong Kong includes a well
developed property market. The Actual property industry comprises four sectors, which includes
residential, office, commercial and also industrial room (private flatted factories, industrial/office,
specialised factories along with storage). While a new consequence of industrial restructuring
throughout the 1980s as well as 1990s, financial services, trading along with logistics, tourism, as
well as producer and skilled services became emerging industries for that Hong Kong economy.
most manufacturing plants had been moved to mainland China and also there was little requirement
for significant manufacturing factories within Hong Kong. Your new completions pertaining to
industrial buildings in recent a lengthy time are generally zero, as shown throughout Fig. 1. Several
buildings became obsolete. Inside 2009, the vacancy of non-public flatted factories exceeded 1.3
million square metres, or even 8% in the total stock (Rating and also Valuation Department 2010).
Furthermore, the built environment is actually responsible for 40% associated with world supplies
usage, the third of your energy consumed simply by the planet economy and 40% of greenhouse gas
emissions (Worldwatch Institute 1995). New construction adds lower than 2% per annum to the built
environment stock within Hong Kong (Langston et al. 2008). Greenhouse gas emissions (GGE) in
Hong Kong are usually nearing 50 million tonnes (C[O.sub.2] equivalent) per annum
(http://www.epd.gov. hk/) along with Hong Kong is considered being your largest producer involving
GGE per square metre in the globe (Yung 2007). Adaptive reuse associated with industrial buildings
can easily lower new creating construction using faster project delivery some period and make
corresponding contributions for you to GGE reduction, and the need for building adaptation will be
growing together with relevant policy drivers, such since the '1200 creating program' developed by
the city associated with Melbourne (Wilkinson, Reed 2011), as well as 'Wholesale Conversion
involving Industrial Buildings' scheme in Hong Kong (HKSAR, 2009). Therefore, it really is an
opportunity for stakeholders for you to take into consideration how to reuse their own buildings to
satisfy economical, environmental and social needs. Your paper aims to: (1) take a look at the
adaptive reuse potential associated with industrial buildings inside Hong Kong; (2) develop a new
fuzzy decision making method with regard to adaptive reuse regarding industrial buildings, and also
(3) demonstrate its application in practice by means of a hypothetical case study.
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
2. LITERATURE REVIEW OF ADAPTIVE REUSE
With economic and also social development, current buildings might be obsolete or even rapidly
approach disuse as well as potential demolition. These kinds of buildings can be viewed as as raw
supplies for new projects, any concept described through Chusid (1993) as 'urban ore'. A New more
efficient way is to depart the basic construction and also fabric of the building intact, and also alter
its use, as opposed to extracting these raw supplies throughout demolition or deconstruction. This
approach is actually referred to as 'adaptive reuse'. Adaptive reuse is a unique form of
refurbishment that will poses very tough challenges pertaining to designers. Changing the actual
useful classification of a constructing will introduce new regulatory conditions along with possibly
require zoning consent. In some cases, increases inside floor space ratios can be obtained along with
concessions received with regard to pursuing government policy directions through regenerating
derelict public assets. Generally there are clear economic, environmental as well as social benefits in
which could make this option appealing to developers (Langston et al. 2008). Within latest years,
redundant area office buildings have been converted in to higher high quality residential
apartments, bringing folks back again for you to cities and also in the procedure revitalizing them.
Inside Hong Kong, the actual Urban Renewal Authority plays an essential role in overseeing such
Adaptive reuse may be successfully applied throughout many kinds of facilities, including defence
estates (e.g. Doak 1999; van Driesche, Lane 2002), airfields (e.g. Gallent et al. 2000), government
buildings (e.g. Abbotts et al. 2003), as well as industrial buildings (e.g. Ball 1999; Cantell 2005;
Sustainability Victoria 2006; Wilson 2010). Adaptive reuse involving buildings is seen as
fundamental for you to audio government policy along with sustainable development, e.g. in Atlanta,
USA (Newman 2001), Canada (Brandt 2006), Hong Kong (Poon 2001), along with Australia
(McLaren 1996; Maggs 1999).
Morrissey et al. (2012) argued which decision-makers inside the built environment were increasingly
considering environmental as well as social problems alongside functional along with economic
areas of development projects. Infrastructure tasks particularly represent major investment and
construction initiatives together with attendant environmental, economic and also societal impacts
across multiple scales. With Regard To this reason, unmasking expenses can easily supply strong
incentives for a transition to a lot more sustainable energy practices, much less profligate use of
latest materials, along with greater utilization of active constructing stock. Refurbishment is also a
better employment generator when compared with new construction due to the labour intensive
naturel regarding adaptation (Kincaid 2002). Further, Urge-Vorsatz et al. (2010) seen in Hungary
that, provided exactly your same investment, the actual direct employment impacts regarding
renovations in buildings are generally higher compared to those in transport infrastructural
Much analysis has been carried out upon how existing buildings may be adapted through different
stakeholder perspectives, such as developer, designer, planner, and also government. Government
plays an active role within constructing adaptive reuse, not merely in regulation, but additionally
throughout expanding knowledge of the sustainable development of cities (Kincaid 2000). Adaptive
reuse regarding existing buildings, especially older buildings, attracts individuals inventive and risk-
taking investors which will make higher returns through innovative constructing renovation (Shipley
et al. 2006). Pertaining To developers, adaptive reuse regarding redundant structures additionally
provides a quick remedy once they are usually searching room for a project (Henehan et al. 2004).
the concept regarding sustainability should be integrated into the adaptive reuse involving buildings
along with innovative green designs (Fournier, Zimnicki 2004). Furthermore, an adaptive reuse
possible (ARP) model continues for you to be developed through Langston et al. (2008). Through
using this model, current buildings may be ranked according towards the prospective these people
offer for adaptive reuse. where your current creating age is close to as well as less than the
particular helpful life, the particular model identifies in which planning must commence.
The choice of adaptive reuse opportunities can be a tough job with regard to decision-makers, which
includes government, owners, investors, developers or perhaps consultants, because they have
different objectives. With Regard To an optimal selection, multiple criteria should be employed as
well as decision-makers must appear into distinct interest groups. Wang as well as Zeng (2010)
proposed the approach pertaining to reuse selection of historic buildings using two steps: first
screening as well as final variety by an ANP-based approach. Pair-wise comparison is used inside the
ANP model, which can easily be typically moment consuming. Moreover, it may end up being
confusing pertaining to even experts to check the value of various criteria. Highest and greatest use
method can additionally be frequently useful for property appraisal. However, this way is normally
used to increase the actual productive use for generating your highest profit. Pertaining To adaptive
reuse, the economical element is possibly not your first. In certain cases, the particular
environmental as well as social elements will be more important. Presently there is truly a must de
velop a brand new method to incorporate stakeholders' opinion simply by considering multiple
3. ADAPTIVE REUSE POTENTIAL OF INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS IN HONG KONG
With your relocation of classic manufacturing actions towards the Mainland, a sum of industrial
floorboards space throughout Hong Kong may be converted to workplace and storage uses.
However, there are nonetheless many private flatted industrial buildings under-utilised. With the
conclusion of 2010, your total stock of private flatted factories within Hong Kong ended up being
about 17.2 million square metres having a vacancy charge involving 6.7%. Furthermore, 70%
regarding present industrial buildings are actually situated in non-industrial zones, mainly in
the"Other Specified Utilizes (Business)" zone (Development Bureau 2011). most in the vacant
industrial buildings are usually relatively young, positioned in urban places along with great along
with improving access and also connectivity, as well as furnished using huge flooring plates, higher
ceilings, strong ground loadings, wide corridors as well as huge lifts (Legislative Council 2011). the
feasible uses permitted in industrial buildings prior to as well as after redevelopment or wholesale
conversion in OU(B) zones are generally demonstrated within Table 1 (Development Bureau 2011).
However, the actual conversion associated with current industrial buildings for additional utilizes
remains slow. Right now there had been just 37 cases within OU(B) zone that completed lease
modifications with regard to adjust of usage involving industrial buildings between 2001 and 2009,
and just 3 cases concerned wholesale conversion, consequently detailed case studies in Hong Kong
are generally rare. Non-compliant uses of industrial buildings are generally widespread
(Development Bureau 2011) with mixed use involving buildings because of in order to increased
rental and obtain office and residential property prices. the conversion associated with current
industrial buildings is definitely an immediate solution to the problem, and there are lots of
successful cases overseas which usually could possibly be good references pertaining to Hong Kong.
Furthermore, the concept associated with sustainability could be extended in order to innovative
adaption involving industrial buildings along with imaginative remedies throughout series with
current constructing legislation (RICS 2009). Your key concerns pertaining to adaptive reuse
regarding industrial buildings include well being & safety, multi-ownership, deeds involving mutual
covenant, fire safety, environmental challenges, planning interface, sustainability, financial viability,
creating regulations, parking, district-wide implications, as well as enforcement (RICS 2009).
Above all, there is excellent possible regarding adaptive reuse regarding current industrial buildings
throughout Hong Kong. An Additional problem raised is actually 'how to reuse?' as you can find
many aspects affecting decision-making, where there are potential complaints in the public relating
to commercial adaptive reuses without correct thought of environmental along with social impacts.
For adaptive reuse decision-making with regard to buildings, multiple criteria are generally required
for your assessment, which includes economic, social as well as environmental attributes.
Obsolescence of existing buildings could be assessed utilizing seven aspects, which includes
physical, economic, functional, technological, social, legal and political (Langston 2008). Murtagh
(2006) suggested the particular following aspects pertaining to adaptive reuse selection: potential
market, location, physical analysis, architectural and historical evaluation. the Architectural Institute
associated with Japan (2007) proposed five values as criteria pertaining to creating assessment,
preservation and utilization, which includes historic value, cultural as well as artistic value,
technological value, scenic/contextual worth and the environmental effect, social value. Wang along
with Zeng (2010) identified 6 criteria regarding reuse collection of historic buildings depending on
fuzzy Delphi method, which includes cultural, economic, architectural, environmental, social aspect
and continuity. Wang and Jiang (2007) analyzed the adaptive reuse involving historical industrial
buildings in China via different perspectives, which includes architecture, sources along with
economy, social development, environment, landmark as well as landscape. Wilson (2010) developed
evaluating criteria with regard to adaptive reuse selection of industrial buildings within Toronto
together with five adaptive reuse characteristics, including environmental, location, legislative,
economic as well as marketplace characteristics. Wilkinson and Reed (2011) identified 3 principle
components regarding commercial creating adaptations, that is physical as well as size, land and
also social, and found in which the partnership between constructing adaptations and building
attributes can be complex. Langston along with Smith (2012) developed a decision-making cube
called iconCUR pertaining to making decisions regarding present buildings, including applicability
and also prioritization regarding adaptive reuse.
Based around the above along with associated literature, multiple variety criteria with regard to
industrial creating adaptive reuse are summarized within Table 2. Changes could be made to the
criteria regarding certain building types.
Fuzzy set theory
Generally, decision-making troubles are created under uncertainty, vagueness, fuzziness, risk,
moment pressure, and the few facts are both incomplete as well as missing. Selection makers favor
to explain their feeling in the fuzzy regards to "good", "fair", "poor", etc. With Regard To attribute
weighting, decision-makers can use fuzzy terms like "very important", important", "moderate", "low"
along with "very low" to express their particular opinions. These kind of fuzzy terms can be
expressed by fuzzy sets as well as fuzzy numbers. The fuzzy set will be seen as an its membership
perform (Zadeh 1965). The Actual typical definitions of fuzzy theory tend to be as follows:
Definition 1 (Zimmermann 2001). Any triangular fuzzy quantity [??]([a.sub.l], [a.sub.m], [a.sub.u])
could be defined as follows:
[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], (1)
where: [a.sub.l], [a.sub.m], [a.sub.u] stand for that left bound value, mean value, along with proper
bound value respectively within the distribution of a triangular fuzzy number, as proven within Fig.
[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
Definition 2 (van Laarhoven, Pedrycz 1983). Permit [??] = [[a.sub.l], [a.sub.m], [a.sub.u]] and [??] =
[[b.sub.l], [b.sub.m], ]b.sub.u]] be two triangular fuzzy numbers, then:
[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. (2)
The approximation is utilized with regard to multiplication along with division regarding triangular
fuzzy numbers. This specific approximation can be used in many studies (e.g. Chen, Hwang 1992;
Cheng, Lin 2002; Li et al. 2007).
Definition 3 (Heilpern 1997). Allow [??] = [[a.sub.l], [a.sub.m], [a.sub.u]] and also [??] = [[b.sub.l],
[b.sub.m], [b.sub.u]] end up being a couple of triangular fuzzy numbers, the particular length
between a new and also b is defined as:
[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. (3)
When p = 2, system (3) is similar towards the Euclidean length measurement also it can be most
commonly used, reasonable and also practicable for distance measurement involving fuzzy
An proper linguistic variable set will help decision-makers create right judgments with regards to
options. the linguistic terms and also corresponding membership capabilities may be elicited via
expert assessment and also past data, and may be modified to be able to integrate individual
situations. Your triangular fuzzy number is the simplest fuzzy range and is actually also utilized most
frequently for expressing the linguistic terms within analysis (Chen 2000; Deng 2006). Throughout
this study, the linguistic terms are defined to find a demonstration depending on prior studies (Chen
2000; Lin, Chen 2004; Li et al. 2007), as proven throughout Tables three as well as 4. With Regard
To example, if 1 decision-maker offers his/her opinion around the weighting of attribute 'Economic'
as 'High', his/her judgment could be expressed like a fuzzy quantity (0.7, 0.9, 1.0).
5. FUZZY ADAPTIVE REUSE SELECTION MODEL
There tend to be a variety of choices for adaptive reuse involving industrial buildings, and also these
could be denoted as X = [x.sub.1], [x.sub.2], ..., [x.sub.n]. Each and Every alternative could be
assessed by the identified selection criterion G = [G.sub.1], [G.sub.2], ..., [G.sub.s]. Then any
decision-making committee will be formed, denoted as D = [d.sub.1], [d.sub.2], ..., [d.sub.t]. The
Actual committee usually ought to comprise important project stakeholders which includes proper
community representation. Based on Tables 3 and also 4, the importance of the particular criteria
along with ranking of alternatives along with respect to each and every and also every attribute are
usually assessed through committee members. [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT
REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is a fuzzy choice matrix describing the actual ranking involving
alternatives exactly where [([[??].sup.k.sub.ij]).sub.sxn] = [[a.sup.k.sub.lij], [a.sup.k.sub.mij],
[a.sup.k.sub.uij]] is definitely an attribute value given simply by decision maker [d.sub.k] [member
of] D, regarding alternative [x.sub.j] [member of] X together with respect to attribute [G.sub.i]
[member of] G, and w = [([w.sub.1], [w.sub.2, ...,[w.sub.s]).sup.T] will become the weight vector
associated with attributes, where [w.sub.i] [greater compared to or perhaps equal to] 0,i = 1,2, ..., s.
Then, your decision makers' assessments may be aggregated simply by an operator and furthermore
the fuzzy adaptive reuse worth (FARV) of every alternative could be denoted as:
[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], (4)
where: [[??].sub.ij] is the normalized fuzzy score regarding alternative [x.sub.j] [member of] X with
respect in order to attribute [G.sub.i] [member of] G.
The calculation regarding [[??].sub.ij] will most likely be released in the next section. Then, the
FARV of each alternative could be ranked.
6. APPLICATION OF FUZZY ADAPTIVE REUSE SELECTION MODEL
Adaptive reuse decision-making is much more complex when compared with expected by simply
contemplating multi-criteria. The Particular fuzzy approach supplies a treatment for integrate
opinions through various parties. Here is surely an instance with regard to demonstrating the use of
the particular fuzzy adaptive reuse choice model. The private 15-storey industrial building,
completed in the 1980s and also situated within the waterfront Yau Tong Bay of Industrial Real
Estate Au Park DC Hong Kong, is selected as a hypothetical case study (1) in order to illustrate the
proposed model. the building can be a reinforced concrete frame construction with windows on only
a couple of opposite faces, one facing the bay. the total flooring region with the building can be
50,000 square metres, and the ceiling height of the typical ground will be 3095 mm. You will find 2
passenger lifts and also 5 support lifts, and a central air cooling system. This creating is used for tiny
offices as well as storage locations (mainly timber and other construction materials). The Particular
vacancy of the building is 70% with present. Your creating is actually representative as you could
find many comparable buildings within Hong Kong. Within order to lessen the particular
environmental along with social impact, the owner is actually contemplating adaptive reuse in the
building as opposed to demolishing it regarding a new building. Your selection method can always
be as follows:
Step 1: Forming selection generating committee and original screening
In this case, the committee was formed comprising six members, such as owner of the building,
investor, government department, architect, surveyor and structural engineer. Committee members
are usually to be concerned in the whole decision-making process. Normally, the actual decision-
making procedure requires numerous weeks. Based on Legislative Council (2011) Brief, the
permitted non-industrial utilizes within buildings within the actual "Commercial" Zone include office,
commercial makes use of (including hotel, shop and also services), recreation along with leisure
uses, educational along with religious uses, Government, Institution or even Neighborhood (GI/C)
uses, along with residential uses (subject for you to planning permission coming from city planning
boards). Using original screening through the committee, the actual possible alternatives for that
adaptive reuse regarding this industrial building are generally defined, such as fashion design
industrial centre (A1), luxury serviced apartment (A2), a new 4-star resort and also retail centre
(retail centre on lower floors) (A3), prestige workplace along with purchasing centre (shops about
lower floors) (A4), or perhaps vocational education and learning as well as coaching centre (A5).
These choices are usually based about the highest and best use for that website inside your context
regarding retaining a substantial amount of the present structure.
Step 2: Assessing each alternative
Before assessment, a new comprehensive survey should be conducted, which includes as-built
survey with the site, building context, structural and environmental components in the building,
mechanical systems, safety along with accessibility, along with power cost savings (Brownfield news
2007). The Actual committee members should undertake a web site visit. Then, the particular
committee members assess each alternative using the actual criteria defined throughout Table 2. A
New introduction to the ratings as well as weighting coming from all members Investment Real
Estate Au Park DC is actually shown in Table 5. In some cases, the importance of decision-makers
should be considered.
Step 3: Aggregating weightings and also ratings
Aggregate the actual fuzzy choice matrices [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE
IN ASCII] right straight into a complex fuzzy selection matrix [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT
REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], as well as aggregate the particular attribute weights [[??].sup.k.sub.i] =
[[w.sup.k.sub.li], [w.sup.k.sub.mi], [w.sup.k.sub.ui]] in to the complex attribute weights [[??].sub.i] =
[[w.sub.li], [w.sub.mi], [w.sub.ui]]. the mean operator can be typically employed for aggregating
decision-makers' opinion upon attribute ratings along with weightings (Chen 2000; Chu 2002). The
Particular average fuzzy ratings [[??].sub.ij] and typical fuzzy weightings [[??].sub.i] associated with
attribute [G.sub.i] can be evaluated by:
[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. (5)
The fuzzy decision matrix as well as the fuzzy weight of criteria tend to be formulated through
converting the actual linguistic terms into triangular fuzzy quantities based on Tables three along
with 4. Your complex decision matrix and weighting matrix are demonstrated within Table 6.
Step 4: Normalizing the actual complex fuzzy selection matrix
To ensure compatibility between averaged ratings, your complex fuzzy decision matrix
[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] can be normalized right directly
into a corresponding matrix [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII],
[[??].sub.ij] = ([a.sub.lij]/[a.sup.*.sub.ui], [a.sub.mij]/[a.sup.*.sub.ui], [a.sub.uij]/[a.sup.*.sub.ui]), i
[member of] B; (6)
[[??].sub.ij] = ([a.sup.-.sub.li]/[a.sub.uij], [a.sup.-.sub.li]/[a.sub.mij], [a.sup.-.sub.li]/[a.sub.lij]), i
[member of] C; (7)
[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII];
[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].
B as well as C would be the set of advantage criteria and value criteria. in the case study, all the
criteria are considered as benefit criteria. Making Use Of formulae (6) and (7), the actual normalized
fuzzy decision matrix is determined as proven inside Table 7.
Step 5: Calculate your FARV with regard to each alternative
According for you to Table 7, the FARV with regard to every alternative is actually calculated using
As with regard to alternative A:
FAR[V.sub.A1] = (0.2,0.4,0.6) [cross product] (0.68,0.88,1) [direct sum] (0.77,0.93,1) [cross product]
(0.18,0.38,0.58) [direct sum] (0.47,0.67,0.83) [cross product] (0.37,0.59,0.81) [direct sum]
(0.47,0.67, 0.83) [cross product] (0.13,0.31,0.52) [direct sum] (0.43,0.63,0.82) [cross product]
(0.59,0.81,1) = (0.76, 1.82, 3.1).
For various other 4 alternatives:
FAR[V.sub.A2] = (1.3, 2.52, 3.84),
FAR[V.sub.A3] = (1.43, 2.65, 3.88),
FAR[V.sub.A4] = (0.87, 1.92, 3.22),
FAR[V.sub.A5] = (0.84, 1.91, 3.24).
For compatibility, normalization will be used to keep your fuzzy number FARVj in the array of [0, 1]
based on system (6).
[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].
The normalized FAVRj pertaining to each alternative is calculated as follows:
NFAV[R.sub.A1] = (0.76, 1.82, 3.1)/3.88 = (0.20, 0.47, 0.80),
NFAV[R.sub.A2] = (1.3, 2.52, 3.84)/3.88 = (0.34, 0.65, 0.99),
NFAV[R.sub.A3] = (1.43, 2.65, 3.88)/3.88 = (0.37, 0.68, 1.0),
NFAV[R.sub.A4] = (0.87, 1.92, 3.22)/3.88 = (0.22, 0.49, 0.83).
NFAV[R.sub.A5] = (0.84, 1.91, 3.24)/3.88 = (0.22, 0.49, 0.84),
Step 6: Ranking NFAVRj
There will vary approaches regarding ranking fuzzy numbers. Li et al. (2007) employed 4 strategies
pertaining to ranking, including excess weight center, fuzzy range recognition, fuzzy TOPSIS, as well
as easy defuzzification method, and located the four methods possess similar results. Therefore, the
simple defuzzification approach is utilized for any demonstration purpose. The Particular
defuzzification method of the triangular fuzzy quantity is really as follows (Cheng, Lin 2002):
d = ([a.sub.1] + 2[a.sub.m] + [a.sub.u])/4. (8)
For the 5 alternatives, the defuzzification involving NFAVRj is truly as follows:
[d.sub.A1] = (0.2 + two x 0.47 + 0.80)/4 = 0.485,
[d.sub.A2] = (0.34 + two x 0.56 + 0.99)/4 = 0.6125,
[d.sub.A3] = (0.37 + two x 0.68 + 1.0)/4 = 0.6825,
[d.sub.A4] = (0.22 + 2 x 0.49 + 0.83)/4 = 0.5075,
[d.sub.A5] = (0.22 + 2 x 0.49 + 0.84)/4 = 0.51.
According to the closeness coefficient, the ranking with the five alternatives is actually A3, A2; A5;
A4 and A1. The Particular best option is A3, (i.e. adaptive reuse for any 4-star resort and retail store
centre), whilst adaptive reuse into a luxury serviced apartment can be beneath thought as its
coefficient is extremely near A1. Provided the 'Economic' criterion features a higher weighting
compared to various other assortment criteria, a 4-star hotel or a luxury serviced apartment are
more desirable together with higher economic benefits. The Actual ranking is planning to be
different if the weightings are usually changed.
7. SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION
Sensitivity analysis will be employed once the decision-makers have distinct preferences on the 5
criteria. Inside this example case, your extreme states will be analyzed simply by assuming that just
one criterion has the maximum achievable excess weight whereas the others have the minimum
feasible weights. Pertaining To every state, the particular closeness coefficient of each alternative is
actually calculated and the outcomes are usually graphically represented throughout Fig. 3. Beneath
scenario 1, when 'Architectural' is considered as the most important criterion, the conversion choice
might be manner design industrial centre (A1) or maybe a 4-star hotel (A3). Below situation 2,
'Economic', the particular greatest option is hotel (A3). Beneath situation 3, 'Environmental', it is
going to be luxury serviced apartment (A2) or perhaps hotel (A3). Below situation 4, 'Social', luxury
serviced apartment (A2) is the greatest one. Below situation 5, 'Legal', the very best option will be
the manner style industrial centre (A1). It could be viewed that will conversion into a 4-star resort
has got the greatest economic performance in which explains why the actual optimal options are
hotel inside the case study. Any time environmental as well as social criteria are thought a lot more
important, conversion for you to serviced apartment could be an improved choice. Therefore, this
model provides decision-makers multiple alternatives according to their various preferences about
the criteria. the results form a extremely important reference for your kids to create much better
There are additional multi-criteria decision-making methods, such as analytical hierarchy procedure
(AHP), compromise programming (CP), multi-attribute utility theory (MAUT). Every method has its
own very own characteristics and also applicability. With Regard To example, the actual AHP
technique can be also used for ranking alternatives as on this case. However, the particular pair-
wise comparisons with regard to weightings of criteria and alternatives consume lots of time.
Decision-makers might think it is difficult to help to make use of your 9-point scale. by contrast, the
fuzzy TOPSIS approach is much simpler with regard to decision-makers simply by utilizing fuzzy
terms and also the calculation is not complex (and may be further simplified by simply creating any
computing package). Multiple assortment criteria along with decision-makers result inside the
assessment of every alternative comprehensive along with objective. Decision-makers could likewise
use sensitivity analysis with various criteria priorities.
[FIGURE three OMITTED]
With industrial transformation, you will find many private industrial buildings vacant or perhaps
under-utilised in Hong Kong. Adaptive reuse or perhaps revitalisation of those obsolete industrial
buildings not merely extends their own lifestyle but throughout addition features great economic,
social and also environmental rewards when these people are correctly assessed. The Actual
industrial buildings in Hong Kong use a higher possible regarding adaptive reuse using innovative
sustainable designs. These types of buildings might be transformed to end up being able to
residential, hotel, office, retail shops, sports centres, etc., as well as normally demolished along
together with a new development constructed in its place. the deployment of a fuzzy approach
pertaining to decision-makers so as to create far better options with regards to reusing present
buildings will must consider the particular characteristics with the creating and integrate
stakeholder opinions. The Particular results offer decision-makers with beneficial insight in in order
to the adaptive reuse choice problem.
In practice, however, adaptive reuse of existing industrial buildings may not reflect your highest and
finest use for a site. Generally there may be social and environmental arguments regarding why an
economic target might become inappropriate. where reuse is the chosen strategy, the selection
process regarding a brand name new useful purpose may be assisted from the approach outlined on
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(1) a hypothetical scenario can be used as the case study, and also although based on an real site, is
not an energetic adaptive reuse project. That is actually nevertheless representative regarding
typical industrialised building reuse opportunities throughout Hong Kong.
Received 12 April 2012; accepted 19 November 2012
Yongtao TAN (a), *, Li-yin SHEN (b), Craig LANGSTON (c)
(a) Department involving Constructing as well as Real Estate, Your Hong Kong Polytechnic
University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, China
(b) Faculty associated with Construction Management and Real Estate, Chongqing University,
Chongqing, 400044 China
(c) Institute regarding Sustainable Development and also Architecture, Bond University Or College
Robina, QLD 4229 Australia
* Corresponding author: E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Table 1. Utilizes usually permitted inside buildings within OU(B) zones
Industrial or perhaps industrial-office other buildings (including
buildings redeveloped or perhaps buildings
undergone wholesale conversion)
Office makes use of office uses
--Office (excluding individuals --Office
involving immediate provision of
cus-tomer services or goods)
Commercial uses Commercial uses
--Eating location (canteen only) --Eating place
--Shop and also solutions (motor- --Shop along with services
vehicle showroom upon ground floor --Exhibition or convention hall
and service trades only)
Recreation and leisure uses
--Place involving entertainment
--Place regarding recreation, sports or
Educational and religious uses
--School (excluding free-
building and also kindergarten)
Industrial makes use of Industrial uses
--Information technologies and also --Information technology and
telecommunications industries telecommunications industries
--Non/polluting industrial use --Non-polluting industrial use
(excluding industrial under- (excluding industrial un-
takings involving use/storage associated with dertakings involving use/storage
dangerous goods) associated with harmful goods)
--Research, design as well as --Research, design and
development centre development centre
--Warehouse (excluding dangerous
Source: Development Bureau (2011).
Table 2. Variety criteria involving adaptive reuse industrial building
C1: Architectural Physical condition, architectural evaluation;
structural analysis; practical changeability,
technological difficulties; material and
decoration; refurbishment feasibility; functional
C2: Economic potential market; benefit-cost ratio; life-cycle
cost; financial sources; subsidize; exemption
C3: Environmental Website layout; environmental impact; environmental
high quality involving surroundings; energy usage
C4: Social Compatibility along with existing; public interest and
support; social value; enhancing community; loss
associated with habitat
C5: Legal Outline Zoning Strategy (OZP); Development Permission
Region (DPA) Plans; new policy measures to
revitalizing industrial buildings; Wholesale
Conversion associated with Industrial Buildings
Table 3. Linguistic terms describing attribute weightings
Linguistic terms with regard to weightings Triangular fuzzy numbers
Very low (VL) (0,0,0.1)
Low (L) (0,0.1,0.3)
Medium Reduced (ML) (0.1,0.3,0.5)
Medium (M) (0.3,0.5,0.7)
Medium Substantial (MH) (0.5,0.7,0.9)
High (H) (0.7,0.9,1.0)
Very high (VH) (0.9,1.0,1.0)
Table 4. Linguistic terms describing ratings
Linguistic terms with regard to ratings Triangular fuzzy numbers
Very Poor (VP) (0,0,1)
Poor (P) (0,1,3)
Medium Poor (MP) (1,3,5)
Fair (F) (3,5,7)
Medium Great (MG) (5,7,9)
Good (G) (7,9,10)
Very Excellent (VG) (9,10,10)
Table 5. Summary associated with ratings and weighting for each alternative from
Criteria Weightings Ratings (linguistic term)
A1 A2 A3
C1 M; ML; M; ML; G; VG; G F; MG; G F; G; VG; G MG;
ML; M G; F; MG MG; MG F; G
C2 H; H; H F; MP; F MP; G; MG; G F; G; VG; G VG;
VH; VH; H P; F MG; G G; MG
C3 MH; H; M F; F; MG MG; MG; G; F; G; MG; G MG;
H; M; M F; F; F F; G F; MG
C4 H; H; M MP; P; F MG; G; G MG; G; MG; G MG;
M; MH; M MP; P; F G; G F; G
C5 H; M; MH MG; G; G MG; F; MG; F MG; F; MG; F MG;
M; M; MH MG; F F; F F; MP
Criteria Weightings Ratings (linguistic term)
C1 M; ML; M; ML; MG; G; F MG; G; F; F MG;
ML; M F; MG MG; F
C2 H; H; H F; F; F F; MG; F
VH; VH; H MG; MP; F F; F; F
C3 MH; H; M F; MG; F F; MG; F
H; M; M MG; F; F F; F; MG
C4 H; H; M G; MG; G MG; F; MG; F MG;
M; MH; M F; G F; MP
C5 H; M; MH P; MP; F MP; F; MP; F MG;
M; M; MH P; F F; F
Table 6. The Actual averaged fuzzy weightings and ratings involving three projects
Criteria Weightings Ratings
C1 (0.2,0.4,0.6) (6.3,8.2,9.3) (4.7,6.7,8.5)
C2 (0.77,0.93,1) (1.8,3.7,5.7) (5.7,7.7,9.2)
C3 (0.47,0.67,0.83) (3.3,5.3,7.3) (5,7,8.7)
C4 (0.47,0.67,0.83) (1.3,3,5) (6.3,8.3,9.7)
C5 (0.43,0.63,0.82) (5.3,7.3,9) (3.7,5.7,7.7)
A3 A4 A5
C1 (6.3,8.2,9.3) (4.7,6.7,8.5) (4.3,6.3,8.2)
C2 (7.3,9,9.8) (3,5,7) (3.3,5.3,7.3)
C3 (5.3,7.3,9) (3.7,5.7,7.7) (3.7,5.7,7.7)
C4 (5.7,7.7,9.2) (5.7,7.7,9.2) (3.3,5.3,7.3)
C5 (3.3,5.3,7.3) (1.3,3,5) (3,5,7)
Table 7. The Actual averaged fuzzy weightings as well as normalized fuzzy decision
Criteria Weightings Ratings
C1 (0.2,0.4,0.6) (0.68,0.88,1) (0.5,0.72,0.91)
C2 (0.77,0.93,1) (0.18,0.38,0.58) (0.58,0.78,0.94)
C3 (0.47,0.67,0.83) (0.37,0.59,0.81) (0.56,0.78,0.97)
C4 (0.47,0.67,0.83) (0.13,0.31,0.52) (0.65,0.86,1)
C5 (0.43,0.63,0.82) (0.59,0.81,1) (0.41,0.63,0.86)
A3 A4 A5
C1 (0.68,0.88,1) (0.5,0.72,0.91) (0.46,0.68,0.88)
C2 (0.74,0.92,1) (0.31,0.51,0.71) (0.34,0.54,0.74)
C3 (0.59,0.81,1) (0.41,0.63,0.86) (0.41,0.63,0.86)
C4 (0.59,0.79,0.95) (0.59,0.79,0.95) (0.34,0.55,0.75)
C5 (0.37,0.59,0.81) (0.14,0.33,0.56) (0.33,0.56,0.78)
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