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Glossary

The Glossary contains 37 terms.



A C E F H I L O P R S T
A
Term Definition
Active Reading
Interacting with and thinking about the text, maintaining a dialogue with the author as you question, judge, and respond to
the information and claims
Annotation
jotting down notes in the margin of the text as you read actively--noting important terms/definitions, names/places/dates,
summary of main ideas, questions, arguments, etc.
Argument
a form of persuasion, based on logic and reason, in which certain reasons (evidence) are offered to support a conclusion
(claim)
Argumentative
Thesis
the primary claim made in an argument; what you're trying to prove
Audience
the people to whom you are writing; the group you're targeting with your information or argument (Your primary audience is
NOT your instructor or classmates)
C
Term Definition
Claims statements saying something is true or should be done; what you're trying to convince others to believe
clarity clear, simple, precise
Coherence understandable
cohesion focused, everything sticks together
Concise Writing brief and to the point; uses no more words than are necessary for clarity and good style
Conclusion ties everything together and brings the essay to a satisfying close
continuity logically organized, everything flows smoothly together
Counterclaims rebuttal; statements made against a particular position
Creative thinking
an active, purposeful, cognitive process we use to develop ideas that are interesting, unique, useful, and worthy of further
elaboration
credible truthful, authoritative, believable
Critical thinking
an active, purposeful, organized cognitive process we use to carefully examine our thinking and the thinking of others, in
order to clarify and improve our understanding
E
Term Definition
Ethos the ethical appeal; appeals to and establishes a writer's credibility and ethics
Evidence proof; demonstrates the reasonableness of a claim
F
Term Definition
Facts verifiable information
Free writing
a heuristic device using spontaneous writing, in informal paragraph form, to generate ideas; the writer does not worry about
grammar, organization, spelling, etc. while writing; should take about 10 minutes in a relaxed setting
H
Term Definition
Heuristic devices
invention strategies used to generate ideas for your paper; they include methods such as brainstorming, free-writing, and
mapping
I
Term Definition
Introduction grabs the readers' attention; sets of the context of the essay and establishes the focus; ends with a thesis statement
Issue topic; something that can be argued or debated
L
Term Definition
Logic fallacies
faulty or unsound logic that weakens one's argument (e.g., slippery slope, overgeneralization, begging the question, illogical
cause and effect, non sequiter, etc.)
Logos the logical appeal; appeals to the audience's sense of reason and logic
O
Term Definition
Objective writing a neutral, unbiased reporting of information about a topic
P
Term Definition
Pathos
the emotional appeal; appeals to the audience's emotions (sympathy, empathy, guilt, anger, etc.) and shared values
(patriotism, faith, sex appeal, the pocketbook, etc.)
Persuasion the purpose of argument--convincing others to agree with you
Plagiarism academic theft; using someone else's words, ideas, judgments, conclusions without giving credit to the original source
Position the stand taken on a subject
Problem-Solving
procress
1. What is the problem? 2. What are the alternatives? 3. What are the advantages and disadvantages of each alternative? 4.
What is the solution? 5. How well is the solution working?
R
Term Definition
Reporting stating verifiable, factual truth about a topic in a neutral, unbiased way
Rhetoric the effective use of language to convey your ideas to an audience
Rogerian argument
non-confrontational; non-adversarial; works well with highly emotional issues because the arguer seeks to diffuse the
tension, open lines of communication between parties, and reach consensus to solve a problem; solving the problem is more
important than winning the argument
S
Term Definition
Subjective writing writing based on the author's feelings and opinions about a topic
T
Term Definition
Thesis statement
a one-sentence, formal statement of the essay's main idea or claim; usually found at the end of the Introduction in academic
writing
Topic sentencre a sentence stating the paragraph's main idea; usually found at the beginning of the paragraph in academic writing