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Atrocities Committed

Against Minorities in Their

Imante Eichelberger, Nakaiyah Watson, Jeffrey Zhang
Opium Wars Background
In the 1700-1800s, China finally removed some of their
isolationist rules and allowed limited foreign trade.
China only took silver as payment, so other countries
had to buy extra silver with gold.
Britain felt that the balance of trade was not fair.
Britain decided to use Opium as a way to balance trade.
The Opium Trade
War and Result
By the 1830s, there were far too many opium addicts in China.
The emperor sent Commissioner Lin to Canton in 1893.
After arriving in Canton, he had 20,000 crates of opium seized and
The British saw this as an act of war.
British troops were deployed from India
and easily crushed Chinas military.
China was forced into the Treaty of Nanking.
Beginning of the Second War
In the 1850s, Europe and the US hoped to renew their trade treaties with
China. Their requests were denied by the emperor.
On October 8, 1856 Chinese authorities boarded the Arrow.
The British and the French entered into an alliance and occupied Canton.
Shortly afterwards, the Chinese came up with the Treaties of Tianjin,
which gave various benefits to the British, French, Americans, and

Continued Hostilities and Resolution
British troops were forbidden from escorting ambassadors into Beijing,
which quickly sparked hostilities once again.
They were repelled by a series of well-defended ports.
The British and French sailed on China with 173 ships.
The emperor fled and the European forces sacked and burned down both
Summer Palaces.
China forced into Treaty of Peking.
Impact of the Opium Wars
Chinas forces were defeated in both wars by a numerically inferior force.
This spurred China into modernizing.
China would not be the same today if this had not happened.
By Nakiayah Watson
The Indian Problem
If there is anything that people wanted about more than anything back then was more land. The
White Americans, especially on the frontier, desired the land. (And made their selves believe
that they deserved it.) George Washington believed that the best way to deal with the Indian
Problem was to civilize the Native Americans. This process meant converting them to
Christianity, teaching them how to deal with property with the European business standard, and
to each them English.

"Cultural Assimilation of Native Americans." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 29 July 2014. Web. 30 July 2014.

The Five Civilized Tribes
For this civilization process, there were five
tribes that accepted these customs. These
civilized tribes were the Cherokees, the
Choctaws, the Seminoles, the Chickasaws,
and the Creeks.
Aggression upon the Native
The Whites in Florida, Tennessee, Georgia, Alabama, and North Carolina
could not stand the fact that Native Americans were sitting on land that
could belong to them, and they did not care whether they were civilized or
not. Their desire grew more as more people came into their regions,
making the area crowded. Eventually, they started to terrorize the Native
Americans by stealing their livestock, burning their houses and towns, and
settling on land that does not belong to them.
The Powers that be join the
Eventually, the State governments joined in to help the Whites to take
their land. They took away the Native Americans rights and slowly
devoured their territory. In the cases the Native Americas went into court
over manners like this, it was found the states do not have the power to
continue their anti-Native American treatment. Surprise, surprise, it
continued because the Supreme Court would not get involved in stopping
the states or people from mistreating the Native Americans.
Andrew Jackson, Advocate of the
Indian Removal
One important factor in this was president Andrew
Jackson. From his days as an army general, he was in
previous campaigns against Native Americans, thus he
wanted to give the land to white farmers. With his
power, he had signed the Indian Removal Act.
A broken promise
What the IRA originally said was that it the government had to peacefully
make a negotiation with the Native Americans for their land. However,
Andrew Jackson and the government scoffed at that bit and forced the
NAs off their land. The first to go from a threat of a US Army invasion
were the Choctaw in 1831.
The Trail of Tears and Death
From 1831-1837, all of the tribes were forced to move westward to what was
declared Indian Territory. (What is now Oklahoma.) Through blistering
wind, or the frozen snow, they marched. Many could not survive the brutal
conditions, which earned the tragedy, Trail of Tears. However, one tribe
did resist the US Army...
Seminoles Last Stand
There was already a conflict between the Seminole and the US Army, led by Andrew Jackson
himself back in 1814-1819. This second conflict however meant their way of life was in stake.
The conflict immediately began in 1835 due to the Dade Massacre, with the death of 108 men
out of 110 men. The Seminole were brave and valiant in their battles, but over many years, they
simply could not crush the US Army. However, they were able to deplete a reasonable amount
of resources and troops from the US Army. By 1842, there were only 95 men, 200 women &
some children. But at last, they were left in peace.
Here is a video with a few images that will help in providing background information for
the Holocaust. The Holocaust was the systematic killing of millions of Jewish, Black and
other people deemed undesirable. The symbol you see is called a Swastika and was
the symbol of the Nazis. The man with the small mustache is Adolf Hitler, leader of Nazi
Germany, a large, powerful, anti semitic army.
Final Solution

After Germany was left in shambles in World War 1, the shamed government
needed someone to blame, an easy target. A man named Adolf Hitler, founder
of the Nazis, a fascist, anti semitic party, presented the idea that the Jewish
people were to blame. His solution to the problem was to eliminate the race as
a whole. Essentially genocide; this plan was referred to as the Final Solution
by the Nazi party.


Holocaust: a mass slaughter of people; especially : genocide (Webster)

The Holocaust was the systematic killing of over 6 million European Jews that
started in 1933 and ended in 1945. This was one third of the world population
of Jews and two thirds of the European population. ("The Holocaust: An
Introductory History.")

Jews were taken to concentration camps which were factories made by Nazis for the sole purpose of killing people that didn't
match the desirable aryan image. They were called concentration camps simply because the people were concentrated into one
area. (Nazi Camps)

Justification for discrimination towards Jews could be easily found. There were many political cartoons that depicted stereotypical

("Holocaust Survivor Testimonies: Daily Life in the
Concentration Camps.")
Stereotypical Jew
Nazi Germany used images such as this as propaganda to support the falsities that would
aid them in the degradation of Jewish, in an effort to justify their horrific actions. This
picture is supposed to depict Jewish people as sneaky, untrustworthy individuals that
are up to no good.
The Holocaust was going on at the same time as World War II
Word had gotten out about what the German government was doing and the
Allies: U.S., Britain, France, USSR, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China,
Denmark, Greece, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, South Africa,
Yugoslavia, were disgusted.

The allies began attacking around 1944 and in 1945 they began taking over the
concentration camps and setting prisoners free. (
Works Cited
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Goldfinger, Shandra. "The First Opium War." Opium Wars. N.p., 2006. Web. 24July 2014.
Goldfinger, Shandra. "The Second Opium War." Opium Wars. N.p., 2006. Web. 24 July 2014.
HMS Nemesis destroying Chinese War Junks. Digital image.MITOpenCourseware. MIT, n.d. Web.
23 July 2014.
"Holocaust Survivor Testimonies: Daily Life in the Concentration Camps."YouTube. YouTube, n.d. Web. 30 July 2014.
"The Holocaust: An Introductory History." An Introductory History of the Holocaust. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 July 2014
"Nazi Camps." United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. United States Holocaust Memorial Council, 20 June 2014. Web. 30
Opium Routes between British-controlled India and China. Digital image. MITOpenCourseware.
MIT, n.d. Web. 23 July 2014.
Purdue, Peter. The First Opium War. N.p., n.d. MITOpenCourseWare. Web. 25 July 2014
Spence, Jonathon. Opium Imports to China from India. Digital image.MITOpenCourseware.
N.p., n.d. Web. 24 July 2014.
Vashem, Yad. "What Is the Holocaust Part 1/7: Introduction." YouTube, 31 Dec. 2013. Web. 23 July 2014.
Welton, Becky. "Nazism. Hitler. Concentration Camps. Propaganda. Dictatorship."
N.p., n.d. Web. 23 July 2014.

Works Cited (Cont.)