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Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture &

Technology
Institute Of Energy & Environmental Technology
Telephone: 134 ECU (134 3!" Email: healthengineering a n # sc ie n ce $ ec u% e # u%au
Research proposal an example
The follo&ing is a suggeste# format for a research proposal%
Cover Page
The cover page shoul# sho&:
the title;
the students name and student number;
the name of the University;
the name of the degree sought;
the name of the principal supervisor; and
the date of submission.
Abstract
The a'stract shoul# 'e self containe#( concise( rea#a'le( an# one page or less% It shoul# outline &hat you
inten# to #o( &hy you 'elieve it nee#s to 'e #one an# &hat the results &ill mean in theory an# in practise%
Introduction
The Background to the Study
This section sets the scene for a naive rea#er &ho )no&s nothing a'out your research%
The Significance of the Study
This section states &hy it is important to #o the research%
The Purpose of the Study or a Statement of the Problem
This section states( in a'out a paragraph( &hat you e*pect to achieve 'y #oing this research or &hat
pro'lem gave rise to the research% This pro'lem statement may 'e presente# in 'roa# terms in +ualitative
stu#ies%
Research Questions
These are unam'iguous +uestions that the research is #esigne# to ans&er%
Hypotheses
These are clear statements that the research is #esigne# to test%
Definitions of Terms or Operational Definitions
,efine any important terms use# in the research +uestions or else&here in the thesis%
Revie of the literature
The first phase of the literature revie& shoul# 'e 'rief 'ut give the rea#er enough information to un#erstan#
the conte*t of the propose# research% It may inclu#e references to previous fin#ings an# specific stu#ies
similar to the current stu#y( an# to relevant metho#ology%
- goo# literature revie&:
1. includes all literature that is relevant to justifying the proposed research;
2. does not include literature that is irrelevant to justifying the proposed research;
3. supports undertaking the proposed research;
4. avoids speculation and unsubstantiated statements;
. is critical !a critical revie" does not merely accept previous authors conclusions# but "eighs
them carefully# e$amining them on the basis of the "eaknesses and strengths in the
methodologies of the studies being revie"ed%;
&. is organised under subheadings;
Telephone: 134 ECU (134 3!" Email: healthengineering a n # sc ie n ce $ ec u% e # u%au
Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture &
Technology
Institute Of Energy & Environmental Technology
'. forms a connected argument; and
(. has a summary at the end.
Theoretical framework
The theoretical or conceptual frame&or) i#entifies varia'les impacting on the research +uestions an# their
inter. relationships an#/or i#entifies theoretical an# philosophical assumptions un#erpinning the stu#y% The
theoretical frame&or) is often summarise# as a flo&.chart #iagram( &hich sho&s relationships 'et&een
theories( concepts an# varia'le of the stu#y%
Materials and methods
This section #escri'es ho& you &ill ans&er the research +uestions% It must 'e sufficiently #etaile# so that
another researcher &oul# )no& from the &ritten instructions ho& to collect the #ata%
!nstruments or materials or apparatus or e"uipment
The name of this section &ill #epen# on the type of research you are #oing% It shoul# inclu#e any e+uipment
that you &ill nee# for the research an#/or tests( +uestionnaires or intervie& sche#ules% Information regar#ing the
relia'ility an# vali#ity of instruments to 'e use# in the research shoul# also 'e inclu#e# in this section%
Procedure
This section #escri'es( step 'y step( ho& you &ill collect the #ata%
Data #nalysis
This section #escri'es ho& you &ill use the #ata you collect% It is often useful to organise this section accor#ing
to the research +uestions( e*plaining ho& you &ill analyse the #ata to ans&er each +uestion% This section must
'e planne# 'efore any #ata is collecte#( other&ise it may 'e impossi'le to analyse the #ata in such a &ay as to
ans&er the +uestions%
$imitations
0ou are e*pecte# to 'e a&are of any &ea)nesses in your research an# sho& evi#ence of attempts to
overcome them%
References
1tu#ents shoul# consult their 1upervisor regar#ing the choice of the most appropriate referencing style for
their #iscipline% It is recommen#e# that stu#ents use the En#2ote or other 'i'liographical soft&are so that the
reference list is generate# automatically 'y the soft&are%
#ppendices
-ppen#ices may inclu#e a time lime( a 'u#get or #raft instruments%