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ACADEMIC PREPARATION KIT

for delegates



European Youth Parliament Romania
National Selection Session 2014
23
rd
-26
th
May
Oradea, Bihor County








INTRODUCTION TO THE ACADEMIC PREPARATION KIT

Dear delegates of the 2014 spring National Selection Session of EYP Romania,

It is my utmost pleasure, as session president, to welcome you all on board and congratulate you for reaching this stage! The countdown to
the session has begun and we, the chairs team, together with the organisers, are in a preparation frenzy that seeks its equal.

Though this will not be the first EYP experience for any of you and everyone has already had the chance to get familiar with the concept of a
session, the chairs team has put together a preparation kit or overview booklet, as we like to call it in order to assist and help you with your
academic preparation, as well as provide you with a bit of inspiration and a starting point for individual research. Keep in mind that you should not
feel in any way limited by the information in this booklet your chairs are counting on you to further research and find interesting information, in
order to enhance the quality of the debates and the credibility of your Resolution. Besides this, we kindly encourage you to read through all of the
topic overviews, so as to have a clear image on what will be discussed by other committees during the session, and debated by all participants during
the General Assembly the more involved all committees are in the discussions, the more challenging, dynamic and interesting the debates are.

The topic overviews are written by the committee chairpersons and serve as background material. They aim to identify the key issues at
stake, while synthesising the topic area. They are written with the intention of providing stimulating, yet neutral, objective introductions
keep in mind that they do not reflect the personal opinion of the chairperson, nor the general opinion of the European Youth Parliament
towards the issue. At the end of each overview, we have attached a few items which are aimed at making the transition between the
introduction provided to you by the chairperson and your individual research on the topic: key words for when you search information
through different types of search engines, news websites or encyclopaedias; relevant questions food for the thought; a non-exhaustive list of
useful links.

With all these in mind, you are now free to enjoy the rest of the booklet. Should you have any questions, inquiries, remarks or suggestions
regarding the preparation, feel free to contact me or your committee chairperson anytime; for organisational issues, our beloved head-
organiser, Alexandra Popa, is available for you.

Good luck with your preparation and see you soon!
Oana Cotoar, President of the 2014 spring National Selection Session
IMCO
ECON
FEMM
ENVI
AFET
COMMITTEE TOPICS


While 3D printing is growing fast in popularity, this new technology also raises the governments' concerns about
the trade taxes and sales taxes. Bearing in mind the 3D printed handguns case in Japan, what strategy should the EU
adopt in order to assure product safety and consumer protection, whilst preventing trademark infringement and
any security issues that may come along?

Only if and when the situation is improving on the ground, in the real economy, especially on
the labour markets, can we say that the crisis is over. Werner Hoyer, President of the European Investment Bank
Europe's economy might be showing signs of improvement, but many Romanian citizens have yet to feel the benefits
as both unemployment and the cost of living remain high. How can the EU aid the Romanian government in boosting
its economy and standard of living?

Almost half of European women has experienced violence at one point. Antonyia Parvanova, Member of the
Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (ALDE)
Violence touches the lives of 1 out of 3 women in Romania and half of all women in Europe. Not only does this
damage people and their families, but it also has a significant economic cost of 228 billion a year in Europe. How
can the EU support its Member States in coming up with a strategy and a legislative act on preventing violence
against women?

42% of the LGBT patients are not open with their healthcare professionals about their sexual orientation, 18% of
the Romani population have experienced discrimination and 75% of the mentally ill remain without treatment.
While the right to healthcare is recognised as a fundamental right by many international and European
instruments, discrimination cases are frequent all over the continent. What measures should the Eurpean Union
take in order to tackle the aforementioned situation?
Given the recent implication of the US navy in the conflict between Russia and Ukraine, which brought Turkey's
attention to a potential violation of the Montreux Convention, what should Romania's position be towards tackling
this issue, considering its territorial position, energetic dependency on Russia and its membership in both EU and
NATO?

I. IMCO Committee on Internal Market and Consumer Protection

While 3D printing is growing fast in popularity, this new technology also raises the governments' concerns about the trade taxes
and sales taxes. Bearing in mind the 3D printed handguns case in Japan, what strategy should the EU adopt in order to assure
product safety and consumer protection, whilst preventing trademark infringement and any security issues that may come along?

3D printing is a process of making a
three-dimensional solid object of virtually any
shape from a digital model. Although 3D
printing is not a new concept, being in use since
the 1980s, it was not until recently that it
became widely commercialized. Nowadays, the
term of 3D printing comprises not only its
industrial part, also known as additive
manufacturing, but also the world of hobbyst
3D printing which was developed grace to
commercial distributors that made it accessible
to the public.
Some claim that 3D printing has the
potential to enhance lives in many ways and recall several advantages
and benefits of this process, such as: it increases and encourages
innovation; complete 3D models can be manufactured including those
with hollow parts that could not possibly be made by hand in one piece,
even by the most skilled engineer or craftsperson; it reduces the costs
and time of manufacturing; it cuts traditional prototyping and tooling
costs and helps identify design errors earlier and reduce travel costs to
and from production facilities; it increases product availability, while
decreasing the amount of waste. Also, the process is widely applicable
in a great variety of fields, from art, architecture and construction, to
space exploration, fire arms and even medicine.
On the other hand, others argue that the dangers and challenges
3D printing poses with the current legislation outbalance the benefits
and the process should either be banned, or significant regulation
changes should be made in order to ensure a safe and profitable use.
Governments are concerned about the potential implications of
the process being implemented, as this could lead to the disruption of
traditional manufacturing processes. In what trade is concerned, the
rates of import and export duties of every developed country would
drop, affecting the economy worldwide. Apart from this, the wide use of
the 3D printing process would significantly impact the labour force and
labour market, as it is based on technology rather than on human force.
Intellectual property law and brand protection are also incident in the
matter, especially in the branch of hobbyst or home 3D printing, where
common people could easily design and print items for their personal
use, instead of purchasing them. In addition, there is the danger of
people designing and printing items which otherwise they would not be
entitled to purchase and/or posses (see the case of printed handguns in
Japan), which calls for an adjustment in the
way these categories of products are
currently regulated.
In what consumer protection is
concerned, generally, when a defective
product causes damage to a consumer, he
has the right to sue the manufacturer for
injuries. Under current law, product
liability applies to commercial sellers, as it
is stated in Product Liability Directive
Oana Cotoar
President
Alexandru Paata
Chairperson
85/374/EEC. If the product is home-printed, the strict liability law will become difficult to apply, as the injured has to demonstrate who was
careless : the manufacturer, the distributor or the seller of the good (in this case, the designer of the 3D model, the provider of
the raw materials or the person using the printer).
As the topic is gaining more and more popularity, it becomes clear that it is high time the European Union, in cooperation with its Member
States, took a stance and adopted legislation in this matter specifically. But the questions stand what direction should they adopt? What changes
in the current legislation should be made? What should each actors contribution be and how far should the European Union involve into the
national position of the Member States?
Key words:
3D printing, product liability, consumer safety, brand protection, intellectual property rights, collection of trade and sales taxes, illegal products.

Relevant questions:
What is 3D printing and how does it work? What are its advantages and disadvantages?
What is the current relevant legislation in the matter? What challenges and threats does 3D printing pose to current laws? Take into
consideration: criminal law, consumer law, tax law, intellectual property law, trade law.
What choices of regulation are there and which of them would be the most appropriate in todays social and economic context? In other
words, should there be regulation focusing on 3D printing expressly? Should the regulation ban the process completely, fully permit it, or
should a middle solution be found?
What implications would a possible regulation have on society in general, and especially on economy?
To what extent should there be a unified European approach to the issue and how much freedom of choice in national legislation should
Member States have?
What actors (institutions, bodies and agencies of both the European Union and Members States, as well as external actors) should and could
be involved in dealing with the issue?

Useful links:
Essay: 3D Printing and product liability: Identifying the obstacles
Council Directive concerning the liability for defective products
European Comission General Product Safety Directive
Article: What is 3D printing?
Article: How does 3D printing work?
Article: Benefits of 3D printing
Article: Advantages of 3D printing
Article: 3D printing will change the world
News articles on 3D printing: The Guardian
II. ENVI Committee on Environment, Public Health and Food Safety

42% of the LGBT patients are not open with their healthcare professionals about their sexual orientation, 18% of the Romani
population have experienced discrimination and 75% of the mentally ill remain without treatment.
While the right to healthcare is recognised as a fundamental right by many international and European instruments, discrimination
cases are frequent all over the continent. What measures should the European Union take in order to tackle the aforementioned
situation?

United in diversity. All different, but yet
so much alike. Freedom of choice, of opinions,
of speech. Freedom in general. Rights and
liberties. Peace. Equality. We all aim for this
abstract notions which in fact, carry more
power than we could even imagine. Just like a
complicated puzzle, they define the twisted
world in which we live, and placing them in the
right position is the only solution of solving
this tangled mess in which we swamp deeper
and deeper, day by day. But how can one talk
about all of those when there are people,
within the boundaries of the EU that are
subject of discrimination each day? Especially
when such injustice occurs in the medical field, action is needed, and
its needed now!
Poor mental health can have a substantial adverse impact on the
life of European citizens. Social perceptions of mental health problems
are dominated by negative stereotypes. People with mental health
problems are often thought to look strange and behave in a bizarre
fashion. But should this limit their access to healthcare?
One in four of us can expect to experience a mental health
problem during our lifetimes. There are a number of barriers for people
affected by mental illness when accessing physical health care and
monitoring. When people do access health services, their physical
health needs are often ignored or seen as a manifestation of
their mental health condition, rather than a separate health
issue. This leads to physical conditions being undiagnosed and
untreated, which can prove fatal. Concerns raised by carers
can also be ignored. This lethal discrimination helps explain why
people with severe and enduring mental illness appear to
access significantly lower quantities of several common medications for
physical health conditions.
People with serious mental illness need comprehensive
physical health monitoring at least once a year to help with risk
factors, such as weight gain associated with antipsychotic medication.
However, the recent National Audit of Schizophrenia (NAS) revealed
that, on average, only 29% of people had received a full check of
Body Mass Index (BMI), smoking, blood pressure, blood glucose and
lipids in the previous 12 months.
In addition to barriers created by exclusion of certain groups
from health insurance, Roma in socially vulnerable situations find it
difficult to pay various users taxes and the costs for medication. For
example, Bulgarian Health Insurance Act requires payment of a user fee
for each visit to the General Practitioner, for dental care, and for each
day spent in hospital. Furthermore, medication is unaffordable and a
number of types of medicines are not covered by health insurance.
Anamaria Olaru
Vice-president
Protection against discrimination, including discrimination in the sector of health, is also enshrined in international conventions, e.g. the
United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities which the EU ratified in 2010. The ratification of this Convention
entails that EU institutions and the Member States must consider and comply with the provisions of the Convention whilst developing and
implementing laws and policies.
Poor mental health has substantial personal and economic impacts across the European Union. Stigma and discrimination associated with
poor mental health exacerbate these impacts. Interventions need to be able to reduce the social distance that leads to the stigmatisation, prejudice
and social exclusion of many of our fellow Europeans.

Key actors:
European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA)
The Mental Health Economic European Network
Council of the European Union
European Parliament
European Commission
Key words:
human rights, discrimination, health care, Romani, LGBT, mental illness, professionals.

Relevant questions:
To what extent should the EU interfere with the medical professionals who often discriminate as well the before mentioned categories?
Where should the EU search for help in order to assure a fair level of equality?
How can the EU assure that access to health care is possible for those groups of people?
On what areas should the EU concentrate to make sure that the rights are totally respected?
Is there any need for a change in the rights of the citizens regarding the access to health care?
Useful links:
Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (articles 21 and 35)
European Roma Rights Centre: Ambulance not on the way (pages: 15,16,17/ 31,32/38,39)
Speech: Improving access and combating discrimination in healthcare with a focus on vulnerable groups: FRA facts
Inequalities and multiple discrimination in access to and quality of healthcare (chapter 1.3: pages 22,23,24)
Article: To achieve Roma Equality, Europe Must Address Health Disparities
Video: Roma deprived of EU healthcare services
Video: EU LGBT survey
III. FEMM Committee on Womens Rights and Gender Equality

Almost half of European women has experienced violence at one point
Antonyia Parvanova, Member of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (ALDE)

Violence touches the lives of 1 out of 3 women in Romania and half of all women in Europe. Not only does this damage people and
their families, but it also has a significant economic cost of 228 billion a year in Europe. How can the EU support its Member
States in coming up with a strategy and a legislative act on preventing violence against women?

Human dignity, freedom, democracy,
equality, the rule of law and respect for
human rights these values have been
embedded in the European Union right from
the start. In 1948, when The Universal
Declaration of Human Rights was adopted, it
acknowledged "the equal rights of men and
women" and addressed both the equality and
equity issues. In 1979, the United Nations
General Assembly adopted the Convention on
the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination against Women (CEDAW).
Described as an international bill of rights for women, it came into force
on 3rd of September 1981.
Violence against women, which encompasses crimes that
disproportionately impact on women such as sexual assault, rape and
domestic violence, is a violation of womens fundamental rights with
respect to dignity, equality and access to justice. Its impact stretches
beyond those women who are themselves victims of violence, since it
affects families, friends and society as a whole. They call for a critical look
at how society and the state respond to this abuse.
Civil society actors and inter-governmental organisations, including
the United Nations (UN) Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination
against Women and the Council of Europe, have sought in recent decades
to highlight the extent and nature of violence against women.
The issue of costs frequently arises when devising policies or
action plans to combat violence against women and domestic violence.
Awareness of the financial impact of violence against women is helpful
when trying to understand the magnitude of the problem and how it
affects society as a whole. Although human dignity has no price, it is
sometimes useful to refer to concrete budget lines to show the savings
governments would make if they decided to invest in measures likely to
reduce gender-based violence.
Even though the annual costs of EU regarding this issue are
impressive, studies show that they cover a
large variety of areas such as: judiciary costs
(civil, criminal and administrative), legal
costs incurred by an individual party, health
care costs, housing and shelters, lost wages
and/or decrease in taxes paid to the state due
to reduced employment and productivity,
social services for women and their children,
income support and other support services.
In addition, many studies distinguish
between direct and indirect costs of violence
against women.
Carla Sabu
Vice-president
Horia Benga
Chairperson
Unfortunately, we are not fully aware of the situation we find ourselves into, situation which needs more support from both ordinary people and
the European Unions Institutions. Furthermore, we need to highlight the fact that women are an important part of our society which stands for all
humans rights and privileges and even a petty neglect of it would mean to offence them.

Key words:
womens rights, gender-based violence, gender equality, discrimination against women, social and economic impact

Relevant questions
Why is this topic relevant?
Who are the key actors and what are their positions?
How can we try to eliminate or at least decrease the rate of women who are experiencing violence?
Why do you think this problem has such an impact at an economic level?
What is your opinion about the measures which are taken now? Are they effective?

Useful links:
European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights
Gender equality (European Commission)
WAVE Network
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW)
The Economic Costs of Violence Against Women


IV. AFET Committee on Foreign Affairs

Given the recent implication of the US navy in the conflict between Russia and Ukraine, which brought Turkey's attention to a
potential violation of the Montreux Convention, what should Romania's position be towards tackling this issue, considering its
territorial position, energetic dependency on Russia and its membership in both EU and NATO?

Since its independence in 1991, Ukraine has been a point of
ongoing concern for the EU with regard to its foreign policy in Eastern
Europe. The country is an important trading partner, and the EU has
put effort into supporting Ukraines transition
towards becoming a modern European democracy,
which is why many Ukrainians wished to finally join
the European Union. However, due to pressures from
Russia, the government turned down EUs offer, as
President Yanukovich chose a bailout which would
save the Ukrainian budget and tie the country even
closer to Russia. That was the moment which
triggered the first protests in Kyiv. The following
events worsened the situation. Crimeas secession
from Ukraine and it becoming part of Russias
territory provoked civil wars in the eastern and
southern parts of the country.
The US navys implication in the conflict can
cut both ways. Firstly, the American military support
can assure security for the Eastern Europe, and it
also represents a sign that EU does not stand alone.
On the other hand, the presence of US forces may be
seen as too much of a threat for Russia, whose
reaction may damage its European neighbours, including Romania. The
USAs vice-president Joe Biden expresses his appreciation towards
Romania, as strategic partner in these moments of instability. It cannot
be denied that Romania may become a key player in case any action is
demanded, which is why NATO promised to protect its member.
The Montreux Convention (1936) states that Turkey has
absolute control over Bosfor and Dardanele straits, meaning that the US
military forces do not have access to the Black Sea, unless Turkey
allows it. At the moment Turkey is a neutral power to the
Russian conflict, so if the conditions settled by the
Convention are not respected, the US army cannot pass
through.
Key factors in diminishing the pressure in Ukraine
are the elections which will take place on 25
th
May. Thus,
the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
(OSCE) has arranged a presence of 900 observers who will
ensure the fairness of the presidential election. The Office
for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR)
has nominated 7 Romanians to take part in this procedure.
OSCE sees this mission as one of the most important and
essential missions since its foundation, given the large
number of observers.
The Ukrainian people are demanding recognition
and protection of their human rights, while the Ukrainian
government is sending a clear indication that the EUs
involvement in the Non- Member States affairs is not
wanted. The EU is an actor that holds economic interests
in the region, yet also one that proudly declares its commitment to
uphold democratic values and human rights as key values. However,
the EU dependency on Russia, especially on gas is one reason which
demands a careful strategy from the European Union. Romania is
practically caught in the middle. Each decision taken at an EU-level
affects it directly, being the border between Russia and Europe.

Tomina Vodrici
Chairperson
Key words:
Ukraine, protests, bilateral treaties, Montreux Convention, US navy, Eastern Europe countries, NATO, Romania, strategic partner

Relevant questions:
What does the situation mean for the future of Eastern European countries and the tug of war between these states, the EU, and Russia?
How would the presence of the US army on Romanian territory affect the citizens mentality? What approach should the Romanian
government alongside the US forces take in order to avoid the Romanian territory become a battlefield?
Is being energetically dependent still an option? Should the EU start its own way to energetic sustainability?
Should Turkey choose sides or remain a neutral power? How can the Montreux Convention help Romania in tackling the conflict?
Would it be better to threaten with military force or would a political dialogue seem enough to solve the Russian-Ukrainian conflict?
What would be the consequences of Ukraine finally joining the UE?

Useful links:
The EUs relations with Ukraine
EU-Ukraine Association Agreement
What the West must do for Ukraine
Human rights violations in Ukraine
Alternatives to Russian Gas
The Ukrainian crisis from a Romanian perspective. Interview with Adrian Coroban

V. ECON Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs


Only if and when the situation is improving on the ground, in the real economy, especially on the labour markets, can we say that
the crisis is over.
Werner Hoyer, President of the European Investment Bank

Europe's economy might be showing signs of improvement, but many Romanian citizens have yet to feel the benefits as both
unemployment and the cost of living remain high. How can the EU aid the Romanian government in boosting its economy and
standard of living?

Even though Romania has one of the smallest costs of living, it
still remains high for its citizens due to the high unemployment rates
and low salaries. A concerning fact is that almost 70% of the Romanians
think it is very hard to find a job in the country. Taking into
consideration the big number of people affected by these issues, finding
solutions for solving them is crucial for improving the standard of living
for the Romanian population. According to the
Eurobarometer, 82% of the Romanians think that the
level of poverty increased in their country in the last
three years.
The fact that is hard to find a job in Romania is a
problem which mainly affects young people who have
little or no work experience. A step forward towards
solving this issue was taken by the senate of Romania
which adopted a law that made volunteering be
recognized as work experience, a good thing for the
young generation, but this was not enough. The
problem caused by low salaries and unemployment in
Romania is the fact that a lot of people end up having a low life
standard and living at risk of poverty and social exclusion.
In order to cope with such a big issue, Romania needs the help of
the EU, its institutions and its financial instruments. Even though in the
2012-2013 financial year Romania has registered a 3.5% raise in
overall economy, the highest in the European Union, it is not able to
handle these problems alone, the help of EU being
an urgent need. The fact that reducing the level of
unemployment in the EU is one of the Europe 2020
strategy targets is very important and can help
solving related problems in Romania and the
appearance of the European Cohesion Policy, made
for achieving the strategy goals, is another
encouraging fact. Also the European Social fund can
be a very important actor in this situation.

Anton Drghici
Chairperson
Key words:
Unemployment, Salaries, Europe 2020, European Cohesion Policy, European Social Fund

Relevant questions:
What other EU institutions and financial instruments could help Romania?
What changes should be made in Romania at a national level?
To what extent should the EU get involved in the situation?
What are the most important domains in which Romania and the EU should invest in order to provide more jobs?
How should the Romanian Government approach EU institutions?

Useful links:
Cohesion policy 2014-2020
Financial Programming and Budget EU Budget in Romania
Europe 2020 in a nutshell
Europe 2020 targets
Video: EU Cohesion policy 2014-2020
Video: Opportunities for young people: the European Social Fund
Video: Getting people into jobs the ESF at work
Video: EU Funding