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# Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories

NUS/ECE EE2011
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Transmission Lines Basic Theories
1 Introduction
At high frequencies, the wavelength is much smaller than
the circuit size, resulting in different phases at different
locations in the circuit.
Quasi-static circuit theory cannot be applied. We need to
use transmission line theory.
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
NUS/ECE EE2011
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A transmission line is a two-port network connecting
a generator circuit at the sending end to a load at the
receiving end.
Unlike in circuit theory, the length of a transmission line
is of utmost importance in transmission line analysis.
z
0
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2 Common Types of Transmission Lines
(e) Waveguide
metal walls
dielectric spacing
(d) Microstrip line
We focus on studying the coaxial and the two-wire
transmission lines.
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3 AC Steady-State Analysis
3.1 Distributed parameter representation
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R = resistance per unit length, (/m)
L = inductance per unit length, (H/m)
G = conductance per unit length, (S/m)
C = capacitance per unit length, (F/m)
z = increment of length, (m)
We use the following distributed parameters to
characterize the circuit properties of a transmission line.
These parameters are related to the physical properties of
the material filling the space between the two wires.
where , , = permittivity, permeability, conductivity
of the surrounding medium.
= ' ' C L

=
'
'
C
G
(See Text Book No.3,
pp. 432-433)
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For the coaxial and two-wire transmission lines, the
distributed parameters are related to the physical
properties and geometrical dimensions as follows:
Surface
resistivity of
the conductors
(See Text
Book No.3,
pp. 445-447)
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3.2 Equations and solutions
Consider a short section z of a transmission line
(dropping the primes on R, L, G, C hereafter) :
Using KVL and KCL circuit theorems, we can
derive the following differential equations for this
section of transmission line.
Generator
Load
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( ) ( )
( , )
, ( , ) , 0
( , )
( , ) ( , ) ( , ) 0
i z t
v z t R zi z t L z v z z t
t
v z z t
i z t G zv z z t C z i z z t
t

+ =

+
+ + =

## By letting z0, these lead to coupled equations:

( , ) ( , )
( , )
( , ) ( , )
( , )
v z t i z t
Ri z t L
z t
i z t v z t
Gv z t C
z t

= +

= +

General Transmission Line Equations Coupled!
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For sinusoidal varying voltages and currents, we can use
phasor forms.
( ) ( ) { }
t j
e z V t z v

Re , =
( ) ( ) { }
t j
e z I t z i

Re , =
V(z) and I(z) are called phasors of v(z,t) and i(z,t). In
terms of phasors, the coupled equations can be written as:
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
dV z
R j L I z
dz
dI z
G j C V z
dz

= +
= +
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After decoupling,
( )
( )
2
2
2
2
2
2
( )
( )
d V z
V z
dz
d I z
I z
dz

=
=
( )( )
j R j L G j C = + = + +
is the complex propagation constant whose real part is
the attenuation constant (Np/m) and whose imaginary
part is the phase constant (rad/m). Generally, these
quantities are functions of .
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Solutions to transmission line equations:
0 0
0 0
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
z z
z z
V z V z V z
V e V e
I z I z I z
I e I e

+
+
+
+
= +
= +
= +
= +
Forward
travelling
wave.
Backward
travelling
wave.
0 0 0 0
, , , V V I I
+ +
= wave amplitudes in the forward and
backward directions at z = 0. (They
are complex numbers in general.)
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4 Transmission Line Parameters
From the solutions to the transmission line equations, it
can be shown (using the coupled transmission line
equations) that:
0 0
0 0
V V R j L
I I

+
+
+
= =
This ratio is called characteristic impedance Z
0
.
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Z
0
and are the two most important parameters of
a transmission line. They depend on the
distributed parameters (RLGC) of the line itself
and but not the length of the line.
C j G
L j R
C j G
L j R
Z

+
+
=
+
=
+
=
0
( )( ) C j G L j R j + + = + =
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For lossless transmission lines, R = G = 0.
Parameters for lossless transmission lines

= =
=
LC
0

1 1
velocity phase = = = =
LC
u
p
jk j f j j j = = = = =
=

2
2
constant n propagatio complex
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LC f
f
f
f
u
p
1 2 1

line ion transmiss the along wavelength
= = = = =
=

C
L
C j G
L j R
Z
=
+
+
=
=

impedance stic characteri
0

## Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories

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Voltage and current along the line:
( )
( )
jkz jkz
jkz jkz
e I e I z I
e V e V z V
+
+
+ =
+ =
0 0
0 0
L
j
L
jk
jk
L
e
V
V
e V
e V
z
z

= = =
=
=
=
+

+

0
0
0
0
0
0

0 at voltage incident
0 at voltage reflected
Define a reflection coefficient at z = 0 as
L
:
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In terms of the reflection coefficient
L
, the total
voltage and current can be written as:
( )
( )
jkz
L
jkz
jkz jkz
jkz jkz
e e V
e
V
V
e V
e V e V z V
2
0
2
0
0
0
0 0
1
1
+ =

+ =
+ =
+
+

+
+
( )
( )
jkz
L
jkz
jkz jkz
jkz jkz
e e I
e
V
V
e
Z
V
e
Z
V
e
Z
V
z I
2
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
=

=
=
+
+

+
In subsequent analyses, we will consider only lossless
transmission lines.
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5 Infinitely Long Transmission Line
For an infinitely long transmission line, there can be no
reflected wave (backward travelling wave). So for an
infinite long transmission line, there is only a forward
travelling wave.
( )
( )
( )
( )
0
0
0
) ( Z
z I
z V
z I
z V
z Z = = =
+
+
0 =
L

( ) ( )
( ) ( )
jkz
jkz
e I z I z I
e V z V z V
+ +
+ +
= =
= =
0
0
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6 Terminated Transmission Line
Note the two coordinate systems and their relation:
z = measuring from the left to the right
= measuring from the right to the left
load source
= -z

L
()
Z()
z = -d
= d
z = 0
= 0
z

## Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories

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In the z coordinate system,
( )

V e V e V
jk jk
= +
+
0 0
( ) z I e I e I
jkz jkz
= +
+
0 0
In the ( = -z) coordinate system,
( )

I e I e I
jk jk
= +
+
0 0
( ) z V e V e V
jkz jkz
= +
+
0 0
We will use the coordinate system in subsequent
analyses.
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( )
L
jk
jk
e V
e V
= = =
+

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Z
I
V
=
+
+
The characteristic impedance in the coordinate system is:
The reflection coefficient at = 0 in the coordinate
system is:
As
L
is obtained at = 0 (the load position), it is
called the reflection coefficient at the load.
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
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L
V V V = +
+
0 0
L
I
Z
V
Z
V
=
+
0
0
0
0
At the position of the load ( = 0), the voltage is V
L
and
the current is I
L
. Then we have:
L
L
L
Z
I
V
=
Solve these two equations, we have:
( )
( )
0 0
0 0
2
1
2
1
Z Z I V
Z Z I V
L L
L L
=
+ =

+
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
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Putting the expressions for V
0
+
and V
0
-
into the equations
for the voltage and current, we have:
( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]
( ) ( ) [ ]

k jZ k Z I
e e Z e e Z I V
L L
jk jk jk jk
L L
sin cos
2
1
0
0
+ =
+ + =

( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]
( ) ( ) [ ]

k jZ k Z
Z
I
e e Z e e Z
Z
I
I
L
L
jk jk jk jk
L
L
sin cos
2
1
0
0
0
0
+ =
+ + =

Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
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Using V() and I(), we can obtain the impedance Z() at
an arbitrary point on the transmission line as:
( )
( )
( )
( )

k jZ Z
k jZ Z
Z
I
V
Z
L
L
tan
tan
) (
0
0
0
+
+
= =
The reflection coefficient at the load
L
can be expressed
as:
( )
( )
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
1
2
1
Z Z
Z Z
Z Z I
Z Z I
V
V
L
L
L L
L L
L
+

=
+

= =
+

## Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories

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In fact, we can further define a reflection coefficient ()
at any point on the transmission line by:
( )

k j
L
k j
jk
jk
e e
V
V
e V
e V
2 2
0
0
0
0

point at voltage incident
point at voltage reflected

+

+

= = =
=

( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
0 0
0 0
2
1
2
1
Z Z I e V
Z Z I e V
jk
jk
=
+ =

+

## As we know (by solving the two equations on page 22

with 0):
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( )
( ) ( ) [ ]
( ) ( ) [ ]
( )
( )
0
0
0
0
2
1
2
1
Z Z
Z Z
Z Z I
Z Z I
+

=
+

Therefore, alternatively we can write,
( )
( )
( )

+
=
1
1
0
Z Z
Then,
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
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At the position of the generator ( = d),
( )
( ) kd jZ Z
kd jZ Z
Z d Z Z
L
L
i
tan
tan
) (
0
0
0
+
+
= = =
( )
kd j
L
i
i
i
e
Z Z
Z Z
d
2
0
0

=
+

= = =

i
V
g
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
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Example 1
A 100- transmission line is connected to a load consisted
of a 50- resistor in series with a 10-pF capacitor.
(a) Find the reflection coefficient
L
at the load for a 100-
MHz signal.
(b) Find the impedance Z
in
at the input end of the
transmission line if its length is 0.125.
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
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Solutions
The following information is given
The load impedance is
(a) Voltage reflection coefficient is
Hz 10 MHz 100 , 100 F, 10 , 50
8
0
11
L L
= = = = =

f Z C R
( )
L L L
8 11
1
50 50 159
2 10 10
Z R j C
j j

=
= =

L 0
L 0
/ 1 0.5 1.59 1
0.76 60.70
/ 1 0.5 1.59 1
L
Z Z j
Z Z j

= = =
+ +
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(b) d =0.125
( )
( )
( )
( )
0
0
0
0
0
0
( 0.125 )
tan 4

tan 4

14 3717 25 5544
29.32 60.65
in
L
L
L
L
Z Z
Z jZ
Z
Z jZ
Z jZ
Z
Z jZ
. - j .

= =
+
=
+
+
=
+
=
=

## See animation Transmission Line Impedance Calculation

Normalized z
in
= 0.1437-j 0.2555
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6.1 Voltage/current maxima and minima
( )
( )

k j
L
jk
k j jk
jk jk
e e V
e
V
V
e V
e V e V V
2
0
2
0
0
0
0 0
1
1
+

+
+
+ =

+ =
+ =

( )
( )
2
0
2
0
0
1
1
1
L
j k
L
j k
L
V V e
V e
V

+
+
= +
= +
= +

|
L
|1
( ) 2

a complex number
L
j k
L
e

=
=

L
j
L L
e

=
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=
L
-2k

1 +
1
0
Complex plane of (1+ )
Re
Im
( ) 2 '
L
j kz
L
e

= 1
L

1
L
+
0 =
m

( ) V
See animation Transmission Line Voltage Maxima and Minima
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( )
( )
( )
[ )
max
is maximum when 1 1
2 2
, 0,1, 2,
4 2
Note: has to be specified in the range , .
L
L
L
M
L
V
V k n
n
n

+ = +
= =
= + =

( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
[ )
min
is minimum when 1 1
2 2 1
2 1
, 0,1, 2,
4 4
Note: has to be specified in the range , .
L
L
L
m
L
V
V k n
n
n

=
= = +
+
= + =

Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
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( )
2
0
0
0
1
1
j k
L
I I e
V
Z

+
+
=
=

As current is
Current is maximum when voltage is minimum and
minimum when voltage is maximum.
( )
( )

=
+
+ =
L
L
M
n
n
I with , , 2 , 1 , 0 ,
4
1 2
4
at
max

( )

= + =
L
L
m
n
n
I with , , 2 , 1 , 0 ,
2 4
at
min

Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
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( )
( )
( )
( )
0
max
0
min
voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR)
1
1
(dimensionless)
1
1
L
L
L
L
S
V V
V V

+
+
=
+
+
= = =

1
1
+

=
S
S
L

|V(z)|
|V|
max
|V|
min
|I|
max
|I|
min
|I(z)|
load load
lmax lmax
Define a voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) as:
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
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Special terminations
Z
L
= Z
0
(matched) 1 0
Z
L
= (open-circuited) 1
Z
L
= 0 (short-circuited) -1
Z
L
S
L
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
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6.2 Power flow in a transmission line
Power flow at any point z on a transmission line
is given by:
( ) ( ) ( ) { } z I z V z P
av
*
Re
2
1
=
Power delivered by the source:
{ }
*
Re
2
1
i g s
I V P =
Power dissipated in the source impedance Z
g
:
{ } { } { }
g i i i g Z Z Z
Z I I I Z I V P
g g g
Re
2
1
Re
2
1
Re
2
1 2
* *
= = =
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
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Power input to the transmission line:
( ) ( ) ( ) { }
{ } { } { }

=
= = =
= =
*
2
*
*
2
* *
*
1
Re
2
1
Re
2
1

Re
2
1
Re
2
1
Re
2
1

Re
2
1
i
i
i
i
i
i i i i i i i
av i
Z
V
Z
V
V
Z I I I Z I V
d I d V d P P
( ) ( ) ( ) { }
{ } { } { }

=
= = =
= =
*
2
*
*
2
* *
*
1
Re
2
1
Re
2
1

Re
2
1
Re
2
1
Re
2
1

0 0 Re
2
1
0
L
L
L
L
L
L L L L L L L
av L
Z
V
Z
V
V
Z I I I Z I V
I V P P
Power dissipated in the terminal impedance:
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
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By the principle of conservation of power:
L i
i Z s
P P
P P P
g
=
+ =
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Example 2
A lossless transmission line with Z
0
= 50 and d =1.5 m
connects a voltage V
g
source to a terminal load of Z
L
= (50 +
j50) . If V
g
= 60 V, operating frequency f = 100 MHz, and
Z
g
= 50 , find the distance of the first voltage maximum
M
from the load. What is the power delivered to the load P
L
?
Assume the speed of the wave along the transmission line
equal to speed of light, c.
Z
0
= 50
Z
L
d
Z
g
V
g
Z
i
0
I
i
A
A
V
i

~
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
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Solutions
The following information is given:
m 3
10

Hz 10 MHz 100
, 50 50 , 50 , V 60
m, 1.5 , 50
8
8
0
= = =
= =
+ = = =
= =
c
c u
f
j Z Z V
d Z
p
L g g

1.11
0
0
50 50 50
0.2 0.4 0.45
50 50 50
j
L
L
L
Z Z j
j e
Z Z j
+
= = = + =
+ + +
The reflection coefficient at the load is:
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
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42
rad 11 . 1 , 45 . 0 Therefore, = =
L L

load) (from the m 27 . 0 09 . 0
4
11 . 1

0 when ,
2 4
Then,
= = =
= + =

n
n
L
M

( )
( ) kd jZ Z
kd jZ Z
Z Z
L
L
i
tan
tan
0
0
0
+
+
=
The input impedance Z
i
looking at the input to the
transmission line is:
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
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A 24 . 0 48 . 0
50 50 50
60

: is line ion transmiss the input to at the current The
j
j Z Z
V
I
i g
g
i
=
+ +
=
+
=
{ } W 2 . 7 50 288 . 0
2
1
Re
2
1 2
= = = =
i i i L
Z I P P
As the transmission line is lossless, power delivered to the
load P
L
is equal to the power input to the transmission line
P
i
. Hence,
( )
+ =

+ +

+ +
= 50 50
5 . 1
3
2
tan 50 50 50
5 . 1
3
2
tan 50 50 50
50 j
j j
j j
Z
i

## Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories

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The voltage and current on the transmission line can
be written as:
( ) ( )

k j
L
jk jk jk
e e V e V e V V
2
0 0 0
1
+ +
+ = + =
( ) ( )

k j
L
jk jk jk
e e
Z
V
e
Z
V
e
Z
V
I
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
1

+

+ +
= =
We still have one unknown V
0
+
in V() and I(). We
need the knowledge of voltage source V
g
to further
determine V
0
+
.
6.3 Complete solutions for voltage and current
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45
g i i g
Z I V V + =
V
i
and I
i
are related to the source voltage V
g
as:
From the expressions of V
i
, I
i
, and V
g
, we can find V
0
+
.
( )( )
kd j
L g g
jkd
g
e Z Z
e Z V
V
2
0
0
0
1

+
+
=

( )
kd j
L
jkd
i
e e V V
2
0
1
+
+ =
( )
kd j
L
jkd
i
e e
Z
V
I
2
0
0
1

+
=
At = d, V(d) = V
i
and I(d) = I
i
.
t coefficien reflection source
0
0
=
+

=
Z Z
Z Z
g
g
g

## Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories

NUS/ECE EE2011
46
( )
( )( )
( )
( )
( )( )
( )

k j
L
jk
kd j
L g g
jkd
g
k j
L
jk
kd j
L g g
jkd
g
e e
e Z Z
e V
I
e e
e Z Z
e Z V
V
2
2
0
2
2
0
0
1
1
1
1

+
=
+
+
=

Putting V
0
+
into the expressions of V() and I(), we have:
Now the voltage and current on the transmission line are
expressed in terms of the known parameters of the
transmission line.
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
NUS/ECE EE2011
47
Example 3
A 1.05-GHz generator circuit with a series impedance Z
g
= 10
and voltage source given by:
is connected to a load Z
L
= (100 + j50) through a 50-, 67-cm-
long lossless transmission line. The phase velocity of the line is
0.7c, where c is the velocity of light in a vacuum. Find the
instantaneous voltage and current v(,t) and i(,t) on the line and
the average power delivered to the load.
( ) ( ) ( ) V 30 sin 10
g
+ = t t v
Z
0
= 50
Z
L
d
Z
g
v
g
Z
i
0
I
i
A
A
V
i

## Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories

NUS/ECE EE2011
48
Solutions

35 . 3
2 . 0
67 . 0
cm 67
m 2 . 0
10 05 . 1
10 3 7 . 0
9
8
p
= = =
=

= =
d
f
u
3
2
50 10
50 10
t coefficien reflection source
0
0
=
+

=
+

=
Z Z
Z Z
g
g
g

46 . 0
0
0
45 . 0
50 50 100
50 50 100
t coefficien reflection load
j
L
L
L
e
j
j
Z Z
Z Z
=
+ +
+
=
+

## Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories

NUS/ECE EE2011
49
( )
( )( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )( )
( )
( ) [ ]
( )
[ ]
46 . 0 77 . 2 46 . 0
35 . 3
4
46 . 0
35 . 3
2
3 /
2
2
0
0
45 . 0 18 . 10 45 . 0
45 . 0 3 / 2 1 50 10
50 10

1
1

+ = +

+
=
+
+
=

k j jk j jk j jk
j
j
j
j
k j
L
jk
kd j
L g g
jkd
g
e e e e e e
e e
e e
e e
e Z Z
e Z V
V

( ) ( )
( ) { } ( ) V 10 Re 60 cos 10
30 sin 10
60
g
t j j
e e t
t t v

= =
+ =
Phasor form:
3 /
g
10
j
e V

=
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
NUS/ECE EE2011
50
( )
( )( )
( )
( )
[ ]
46 . 0 77 . 2
2
2
0
45 . 0 20 . 0
1
1

+
=

k j jk j
k j
L
jk
kd j
L g g
jkd
g
e e e
e e
e Z Z
e V
I

Therefore instantaneous forms are:
( ) ( ) { }
( )
[ ] { }
( ) ( ) 23 . 3 cos 58 . 4 77 . 2 cos 18 . 10
45 . 0 18 . 10 Re
Re ,
46 . 0 77 . 2
+ + + + =
+ =
=

k t k t
e e e e
e V t v
t j k j jk j
t j

( ) ( ) { }
( )
[ ] { }
( ) ( ) 23 . 3 cos 09 . 0 77 . 2 cos 20 . 0
45 . 0 20 . 0 Re
Re ,
46 . 0 77 . 2
+ + + =
=
=

k t k t
e e e e
e I t i
t j k j jk j
t j

## Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories

NUS/ECE EE2011
51
( )
( )
( )
( )
4 . 17 9 . 21
35 . 3
2
tan 50 100 50
35 . 3
2
tan 50 50 100
50
tan
tan
0
0
0
j
j j
j j
kd jZ Z
kd jZ Z
Z Z
L
L
i
+ =

+ +

+ +
=
+
+
=

55 . 1
3 /
28 . 0
4 . 17 9 . 21 10
10
j
j
i g
g
i
e
j
e
Z Z
V
I

=
+ +
=
+
=

Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
NUS/ECE EE2011
52
Power delivered to the load
= power input to the transmission line at AA
{ }
{ }
{ }
{ }
Watt 86 . 0
4 . 17 9 . 21 Re 28 . 0
2
1
Re
2
1
Re
2
1
Re
2
1
2
2
*
*
=
+ =
=
=
=
j
Z I
I Z I
I V
i i
i i i
i i
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
NUS/ECE EE2011
53
7 Special Cases of Terminations in a Transmission Line
For a matched line, Z
L
= Z
0
. Then,
7.1 Matched line
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
line the of length any for
0
tan
tan
0
0
0
0 0
0 0
0

=
+

=
=
+
+
=
Z Z
Z Z
Z
k jZ Z
k jZ Z
Z Z

## Thus, there is no reflection on a matched line. There is

only an incident voltage. It is same as the case of an
infinitely long line.
Note =-z
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
NUS/ECE EE2011
54
Z
0
Z
in

1
-1
1
-1
Normalized current magnitude
1
-1
Normalized impedance (Z
in
/Z
0
)
Z
0
z
z
z
z
0
0
Note:
Normalized voltage = voltage/max. |voltage|
Normalized current = current/max. |current|
Normalized voltage magnitude
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
NUS/ECE EE2011
55
For a short circuit, Z
L
= 0. Then
7.2 Short-circuited line
( ) ( ) kz jZ k jZ Z tan tan
0 0
sc
in
= =
Normalized impedance (=-tan(kz))
Normalized voltage magnitude
Normalized current magnitude
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
NUS/ECE EE2011
56
7.3 Open-circuited line
For an open circuit, Z
L
= . Then
( ) ( ) kz jZ k jZ Z cot cot
0 0
oc
in
= =
Normalized voltage magnitude
Normalized impedance (=cot(kz))
Note that:
( ) [ ] ( ) [ ]
2
0
0 0
oc
in
sc
in

cot tan
Z
k jZ k jZ Z Z
=
=
( ) [ ] ( ) [ ]
( )

k
k jZ k jZ Z Z
2
0 0
oc
in
sc
in
tan
cot tan
=
=
k. and compute , and , , Given
0
oc
in
sc
in
Z Z Z
Normalized current magnitude
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
NUS/ECE EE2011
57
7.4 /4 transmission line terminated in Z
L
7.5 /2 transmission line terminated in Z
L
( )
( )
L L
L
in
Z
Z
jZ Z
jZ Z
Z Z Z
2
0
0
0
0
2 tan
2 tan
) 4 ( =
+
+
= = =

( )
( )
L
L
L
in
Z
jZ Z
jZ Z
Z Z Z =
+
+
= = =

tan
tan
) 2 (
0
0
0

Z
in

Z
0
Z
L
Z
in

Z
0
Z
L
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
NUS/ECE EE2011
58
Example 4
The open-circuit and short-circuit impedances measured at
the input terminals of a lossless transmission line of length
1.5 m (which is less than a quarter wavelength) are j54.6
and j103 , respectively.
(a) Find Z
0
and k of the line.
(b) Without changing the operating frequency, find the
input impedance of a short-circuited line that is twice
the given length.
(c) How long should the short-circuited line be in order
for it to appear as an open circuit at the input
terminals?
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
NUS/ECE EE2011
59
Solution
The given quantities are
(a)
(b) For a line twice as long, = 3 m and k =1.884 rad,
m 5 . 1 =
m rad 628 . 0 tan
1
oc
in
sc
in
1
= =

Z Z k

232 tan
0
sc
in
j k jZ Z = =
m 10
2
= =
k

103
sc
in
j Z =
6 . 54
oc
in
j Z =
75
sc
in
oc
in 0
= = Z Z Z
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
NUS/ECE EE2011
60
( ) k jZ Z tan
impedance input circuit Short (c)
0
sc
in
= =
, 2 , 1 , 0 , 2 , For
sc
in
= + = = n n k Z

4
1 2 2 +
=
+
=
n
k
n