NUS/ECE EE2011
1
Transmission Lines Basic Theories
1 Introduction
At high frequencies, the wavelength is much smaller than
the circuit size, resulting in different phases at different
locations in the circuit.
Quasistatic circuit theory cannot be applied. We need to
use transmission line theory.
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
NUS/ECE EE2011
2
A transmission line is a twoport network connecting
a generator circuit at the sending end to a load at the
receiving end.
Unlike in circuit theory, the length of a transmission line
is of utmost importance in transmission line analysis.
z
0
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
NUS/ECE EE2011
3
2 Common Types of Transmission Lines
(e) Waveguide
metal walls
dielectric spacing
(d) Microstrip line
We focus on studying the coaxial and the twowire
transmission lines.
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
NUS/ECE EE2011
4
3 AC SteadyState Analysis
3.1 Distributed parameter representation
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
NUS/ECE EE2011
5
R = resistance per unit length, (/m)
L = inductance per unit length, (H/m)
G = conductance per unit length, (S/m)
C = capacitance per unit length, (F/m)
z = increment of length, (m)
We use the following distributed parameters to
characterize the circuit properties of a transmission line.
These parameters are related to the physical properties of
the material filling the space between the two wires.
where , , = permittivity, permeability, conductivity
of the surrounding medium.
= ' ' C L
=
'
'
C
G
(See Text Book No.3,
pp. 432433)
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
NUS/ECE EE2011
6
For the coaxial and twowire transmission lines, the
distributed parameters are related to the physical
properties and geometrical dimensions as follows:
Surface
resistivity of
the conductors
(See Text
Book No.3,
pp. 445447)
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
NUS/ECE EE2011
7
3.2 Equations and solutions
Consider a short section z of a transmission line
(dropping the primes on R, L, G, C hereafter) :
Using KVL and KCL circuit theorems, we can
derive the following differential equations for this
section of transmission line.
Generator
Load
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
NUS/ECE EE2011
8
( ) ( )
( , )
, ( , ) , 0
( , )
( , ) ( , ) ( , ) 0
i z t
v z t R zi z t L z v z z t
t
v z z t
i z t G zv z z t C z i z z t
t
+ =
+
+ + =
= +
= +
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
NUS/ECE EE2011
10
After decoupling,
( )
( )
2
2
2
2
2
2
( )
( )
d V z
V z
dz
d I z
I z
dz
=
=
( )( )
j R j L G j C = + = + +
is the complex propagation constant whose real part is
the attenuation constant (Np/m) and whose imaginary
part is the phase constant (rad/m). Generally, these
quantities are functions of .
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
NUS/ECE EE2011
11
Solutions to transmission line equations:
0 0
0 0
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
z z
z z
V z V z V z
V e V e
I z I z I z
I e I e
+
+
+
+
= +
= +
= +
= +
Forward
travelling
wave.
Backward
travelling
wave.
0 0 0 0
, , , V V I I
+ +
= wave amplitudes in the forward and
backward directions at z = 0. (They
are complex numbers in general.)
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
NUS/ECE EE2011
12
4 Transmission Line Parameters
From the solutions to the transmission line equations, it
can be shown (using the coupled transmission line
equations) that:
0 0
0 0
V V R j L
I I
+
+
+
= =
This ratio is called characteristic impedance Z
0
.
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
NUS/ECE EE2011
13
Z
0
and are the two most important parameters of
a transmission line. They depend on the
distributed parameters (RLGC) of the line itself
and but not the length of the line.
C j G
L j R
C j G
L j R
Z
+
+
=
+
=
+
=
0
( )( ) C j G L j R j + + = + =
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
NUS/ECE EE2011
14
For lossless transmission lines, R = G = 0.
Parameters for lossless transmission lines
= =
=
LC
0
1 1
velocity phase = = = =
LC
u
p
jk j f j j j = = = = =
=
2
2
constant n propagatio complex
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
NUS/ECE EE2011
15
LC f
f
f
f
u
p
1 2 1
line ion transmiss the along wavelength
= = = = =
=
C
L
C j G
L j R
Z
=
+
+
=
=
impedance stic characteri
0
= = =
=
=
=
+
+
0
0
0
0
0
0
0 at voltage incident
0 at voltage reflected
Define a reflection coefficient at z = 0 as
L
:
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
NUS/ECE EE2011
17
In terms of the reflection coefficient
L
, the total
voltage and current can be written as:
( )
( )
jkz
L
jkz
jkz jkz
jkz jkz
e e V
e
V
V
e V
e V e V z V
2
0
2
0
0
0
0 0
1
1
+ =
+ =
+ =
+
+
+
+
( )
( )
jkz
L
jkz
jkz jkz
jkz jkz
e e I
e
V
V
e
Z
V
e
Z
V
e
Z
V
z I
2
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
=
=
=
+
+
+
In subsequent analyses, we will consider only lossless
transmission lines.
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
NUS/ECE EE2011
18
5 Infinitely Long Transmission Line
For an infinitely long transmission line, there can be no
reflected wave (backward travelling wave). So for an
infinite long transmission line, there is only a forward
travelling wave.
( )
( )
( )
( )
0
0
0
) ( Z
z I
z V
z I
z V
z Z = = =
+
+
0 =
L
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
jkz
jkz
e I z I z I
e V z V z V
+ +
+ +
= =
= =
0
0
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
NUS/ECE EE2011
19
6 Terminated Transmission Line
Note the two coordinate systems and their relation:
z = measuring from the left to the right
= measuring from the right to the left
load source
= z
L
()
Z()
z = d
= d
z = 0
= 0
z
+
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
NUS/ECE EE2011
23
Putting the expressions for V
0
+
and V
0

into the equations
for the voltage and current, we have:
( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]
( ) ( ) [ ]
k jZ k Z I
e e Z e e Z I V
L L
jk jk jk jk
L L
sin cos
2
1
0
0
+ =
+ + =
( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]
( ) ( ) [ ]
k jZ k Z
Z
I
e e Z e e Z
Z
I
I
L
L
jk jk jk jk
L
L
sin cos
2
1
0
0
0
0
+ =
+ + =
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
NUS/ECE EE2011
24
Using V() and I(), we can obtain the impedance Z() at
an arbitrary point on the transmission line as:
( )
( )
( )
( )
k jZ Z
k jZ Z
Z
I
V
Z
L
L
tan
tan
) (
0
0
0
+
+
= =
The reflection coefficient at the load
L
can be expressed
as:
( )
( )
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
1
2
1
Z Z
Z Z
Z Z I
Z Z I
V
V
L
L
L L
L L
L
+
=
+
= =
+
k j
L
k j
jk
jk
e e
V
V
e V
e V
2 2
0
0
0
0
point at voltage incident
point at voltage reflected
+
+
= = =
=
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
0 0
0 0
2
1
2
1
Z Z I e V
Z Z I e V
jk
jk
=
+ =
+
=
+
Therefore, alternatively we can write,
( )
( )
( )
+
=
1
1
0
Z Z
Then,
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
NUS/ECE EE2011
27
At the position of the generator ( = d),
( )
( ) kd jZ Z
kd jZ Z
Z d Z Z
L
L
i
tan
tan
) (
0
0
0
+
+
= = =
( )
kd j
L
i
i
i
e
Z Z
Z Z
d
2
0
0
=
+
= = =
i
V
g
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
NUS/ECE EE2011
28
Example 1
A 100 transmission line is connected to a load consisted
of a 50 resistor in series with a 10pF capacitor.
(a) Find the reflection coefficient
L
at the load for a 100
MHz signal.
(b) Find the impedance Z
in
at the input end of the
transmission line if its length is 0.125.
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
NUS/ECE EE2011
29
Solutions
The following information is given
The load impedance is
(a) Voltage reflection coefficient is
Hz 10 MHz 100 , 100 F, 10 , 50
8
0
11
L L
= = = = =
f Z C R
( )
L L L
8 11
1
50 50 159
2 10 10
Z R j C
j j
=
= =
L 0
L 0
/ 1 0.5 1.59 1
0.76 60.70
/ 1 0.5 1.59 1
L
Z Z j
Z Z j
= = =
+ +
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
NUS/ECE EE2011
30
(b) d =0.125
( )
( )
( )
( )
0
0
0
0
0
0
( 0.125 )
tan 4
tan 4
14 3717 25 5544
29.32 60.65
in
L
L
L
L
Z Z
Z jZ
Z
Z jZ
Z jZ
Z
Z jZ
.  j .
= =
+
=
+
+
=
+
=
=
k j
L
jk
k j jk
jk jk
e e V
e
V
V
e V
e V e V V
2
0
2
0
0
0
0 0
1
1
+
+
+
+ =
+ =
+ =
( )
( )
2
0
2
0
0
1
1
1
L
j k
L
j k
L
V V e
V e
V
+
+
= +
= +
= +

L
1
( ) 2
a complex number
L
j k
L
e
=
=
L
j
L L
e
=
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
NUS/ECE EE2011
32
=
L
2k
1 +
1
0
Complex plane of (1+ )
Re
Im
( ) 2 '
L
j kz
L
e
= 1
L
1
L
+
0 =
m
( ) V
See animation Transmission Line Voltage Maxima and Minima
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
NUS/ECE EE2011
33
( )
( )
( )
[ )
max
is maximum when 1 1
2 2
, 0,1, 2,
4 2
Note: has to be specified in the range , .
L
L
L
M
L
V
V k n
n
n
+ = +
= =
= + =
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
[ )
min
is minimum when 1 1
2 2 1
2 1
, 0,1, 2,
4 4
Note: has to be specified in the range , .
L
L
L
m
L
V
V k n
n
n
=
= = +
+
= + =
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
NUS/ECE EE2011
34
( )
2
0
0
0
1
1
j k
L
I I e
V
Z
+
+
=
=
As current is
Current is maximum when voltage is minimum and
minimum when voltage is maximum.
( )
( )
=
+
+ =
L
L
M
n
n
I with , , 2 , 1 , 0 ,
4
1 2
4
at
max
( )
= + =
L
L
m
n
n
I with , , 2 , 1 , 0 ,
2 4
at
min
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
NUS/ECE EE2011
35
( )
( )
( )
( )
0
max
0
min
voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR)
1
1
(dimensionless)
1
1
L
L
L
L
S
V V
V V
+
+
=
+
+
= = =
1
1
+
=
S
S
L
V(z)
V
max
V
min
I
max
I
min
I(z)
load load
lmax lmax
Define a voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) as:
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
NUS/ECE EE2011
36
Special terminations
Z
L
= Z
0
(matched) 1 0
Z
L
= (opencircuited) 1
Z
L
= 0 (shortcircuited) 1
Z
L
S
L
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
NUS/ECE EE2011
37
6.2 Power flow in a transmission line
Power flow at any point z on a transmission line
is given by:
( ) ( ) ( ) { } z I z V z P
av
*
Re
2
1
=
Power delivered by the source:
{ }
*
Re
2
1
i g s
I V P =
Power dissipated in the source impedance Z
g
:
{ } { } { }
g i i i g Z Z Z
Z I I I Z I V P
g g g
Re
2
1
Re
2
1
Re
2
1 2
* *
= = =
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
NUS/ECE EE2011
38
Power input to the transmission line:
( ) ( ) ( ) { }
{ } { } { }
=
= = =
= =
*
2
*
*
2
* *
*
1
Re
2
1
Re
2
1
Re
2
1
Re
2
1
Re
2
1
Re
2
1
i
i
i
i
i
i i i i i i i
av i
Z
V
Z
V
V
Z I I I Z I V
d I d V d P P
( ) ( ) ( ) { }
{ } { } { }
=
= = =
= =
*
2
*
*
2
* *
*
1
Re
2
1
Re
2
1
Re
2
1
Re
2
1
Re
2
1
0 0 Re
2
1
0
L
L
L
L
L
L L L L L L L
av L
Z
V
Z
V
V
Z I I I Z I V
I V P P
Power dissipated in the terminal impedance:
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
NUS/ECE EE2011
39
By the principle of conservation of power:
L i
i Z s
P P
P P P
g
=
+ =
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
NUS/ECE EE2011
40
Example 2
A lossless transmission line with Z
0
= 50 and d =1.5 m
connects a voltage V
g
source to a terminal load of Z
L
= (50 +
j50) . If V
g
= 60 V, operating frequency f = 100 MHz, and
Z
g
= 50 , find the distance of the first voltage maximum
M
from the load. What is the power delivered to the load P
L
?
Assume the speed of the wave along the transmission line
equal to speed of light, c.
Z
0
= 50
Z
L
d
Z
g
V
g
Z
i
0
I
i
A
A
V
i
~
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
NUS/ECE EE2011
41
Solutions
The following information is given:
m 3
10
Hz 10 MHz 100
, 50 50 , 50 , V 60
m, 1.5 , 50
8
8
0
= = =
= =
+ = = =
= =
c
c u
f
j Z Z V
d Z
p
L g g
1.11
0
0
50 50 50
0.2 0.4 0.45
50 50 50
j
L
L
L
Z Z j
j e
Z Z j
+
= = = + =
+ + +
The reflection coefficient at the load is:
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
NUS/ECE EE2011
42
rad 11 . 1 , 45 . 0 Therefore, = =
L L
load) (from the m 27 . 0 09 . 0
4
11 . 1
0 when ,
2 4
Then,
= = =
= + =
n
n
L
M
( )
( ) kd jZ Z
kd jZ Z
Z Z
L
L
i
tan
tan
0
0
0
+
+
=
The input impedance Z
i
looking at the input to the
transmission line is:
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
NUS/ECE EE2011
43
A 24 . 0 48 . 0
50 50 50
60
: is line ion transmiss the input to at the current The
j
j Z Z
V
I
i g
g
i
=
+ +
=
+
=
{ } W 2 . 7 50 288 . 0
2
1
Re
2
1 2
= = = =
i i i L
Z I P P
As the transmission line is lossless, power delivered to the
load P
L
is equal to the power input to the transmission line
P
i
. Hence,
( )
+ =
+ +
+ +
= 50 50
5 . 1
3
2
tan 50 50 50
5 . 1
3
2
tan 50 50 50
50 j
j j
j j
Z
i
k j
L
jk jk jk
e e V e V e V V
2
0 0 0
1
+ +
+ = + =
( ) ( )
k j
L
jk jk jk
e e
Z
V
e
Z
V
e
Z
V
I
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
+
+ +
= =
We still have one unknown V
0
+
in V() and I(). We
need the knowledge of voltage source V
g
to further
determine V
0
+
.
6.3 Complete solutions for voltage and current
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
NUS/ECE EE2011
45
g i i g
Z I V V + =
V
i
and I
i
are related to the source voltage V
g
as:
From the expressions of V
i
, I
i
, and V
g
, we can find V
0
+
.
( )( )
kd j
L g g
jkd
g
e Z Z
e Z V
V
2
0
0
0
1
+
+
=
( )
kd j
L
jkd
i
e e V V
2
0
1
+
+ =
( )
kd j
L
jkd
i
e e
Z
V
I
2
0
0
1
+
=
At = d, V(d) = V
i
and I(d) = I
i
.
t coefficien reflection source
0
0
=
+
=
Z Z
Z Z
g
g
g
k j
L
jk
kd j
L g g
jkd
g
k j
L
jk
kd j
L g g
jkd
g
e e
e Z Z
e V
I
e e
e Z Z
e Z V
V
2
2
0
2
2
0
0
1
1
1
1
+
=
+
+
=
Putting V
0
+
into the expressions of V() and I(), we have:
Now the voltage and current on the transmission line are
expressed in terms of the known parameters of the
transmission line.
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
NUS/ECE EE2011
47
Example 3
A 1.05GHz generator circuit with a series impedance Z
g
= 10
and voltage source given by:
is connected to a load Z
L
= (100 + j50) through a 50, 67cm
long lossless transmission line. The phase velocity of the line is
0.7c, where c is the velocity of light in a vacuum. Find the
instantaneous voltage and current v(,t) and i(,t) on the line and
the average power delivered to the load.
( ) ( ) ( ) V 30 sin 10
g
+ = t t v
Z
0
= 50
Z
L
d
Z
g
v
g
Z
i
0
I
i
A
A
V
i
35 . 3
2 . 0
67 . 0
cm 67
m 2 . 0
10 05 . 1
10 3 7 . 0
9
8
p
= = =
=
= =
d
f
u
3
2
50 10
50 10
t coefficien reflection source
0
0
=
+
=
+
=
Z Z
Z Z
g
g
g
46 . 0
0
0
45 . 0
50 50 100
50 50 100
t coefficien reflection load
j
L
L
L
e
j
j
Z Z
Z Z
=
+ +
+
=
+
+ = +
+
=
+
+
=
k j jk j jk j jk
j
j
j
j
k j
L
jk
kd j
L g g
jkd
g
e e e e e e
e e
e e
e e
e Z Z
e Z V
V
( ) ( )
( ) { } ( ) V 10 Re 60 cos 10
30 sin 10
60
g
t j j
e e t
t t v
= =
+ =
Phasor form:
3 /
g
10
j
e V
=
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
NUS/ECE EE2011
50
( )
( )( )
( )
( )
[ ]
46 . 0 77 . 2
2
2
0
45 . 0 20 . 0
1
1
+
=
k j jk j
k j
L
jk
kd j
L g g
jkd
g
e e e
e e
e Z Z
e V
I
Therefore instantaneous forms are:
( ) ( ) { }
( )
[ ] { }
( ) ( ) 23 . 3 cos 58 . 4 77 . 2 cos 18 . 10
45 . 0 18 . 10 Re
Re ,
46 . 0 77 . 2
+ + + + =
+ =
=
k t k t
e e e e
e V t v
t j k j jk j
t j
( ) ( ) { }
( )
[ ] { }
( ) ( ) 23 . 3 cos 09 . 0 77 . 2 cos 20 . 0
45 . 0 20 . 0 Re
Re ,
46 . 0 77 . 2
+ + + =
=
=
k t k t
e e e e
e I t i
t j k j jk j
t j
+ +
+ +
=
+
+
=
55 . 1
3 /
28 . 0
4 . 17 9 . 21 10
10
j
j
i g
g
i
e
j
e
Z Z
V
I
=
+ +
=
+
=
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
NUS/ECE EE2011
52
Power delivered to the load
= power input to the transmission line at AA
{ }
{ }
{ }
{ }
Watt 86 . 0
4 . 17 9 . 21 Re 28 . 0
2
1
Re
2
1
Re
2
1
Re
2
1
2
2
*
*
=
+ =
=
=
=
j
Z I
I Z I
I V
i i
i i i
i i
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
NUS/ECE EE2011
53
7 Special Cases of Terminations in a Transmission Line
For a matched line, Z
L
= Z
0
. Then,
7.1 Matched line
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
line the of length any for
0
tan
tan
0
0
0
0 0
0 0
0
=
+
=
=
+
+
=
Z Z
Z Z
Z
k jZ Z
k jZ Z
Z Z
1
1
1
1
Normalized current magnitude
1
1
Normalized impedance (Z
in
/Z
0
)
Z
0
z
z
z
z
0
0
Note:
Normalized voltage = voltage/max. voltage
Normalized current = current/max. current
Normalized voltage magnitude
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
NUS/ECE EE2011
55
For a short circuit, Z
L
= 0. Then
7.2 Shortcircuited line
( ) ( ) kz jZ k jZ Z tan tan
0 0
sc
in
= =
Normalized impedance (=tan(kz))
Normalized voltage magnitude
Normalized current magnitude
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
NUS/ECE EE2011
56
7.3 Opencircuited line
For an open circuit, Z
L
= . Then
( ) ( ) kz jZ k jZ Z cot cot
0 0
oc
in
= =
Normalized voltage magnitude
Normalized impedance (=cot(kz))
Note that:
( ) [ ] ( ) [ ]
2
0
0 0
oc
in
sc
in
cot tan
Z
k jZ k jZ Z Z
=
=
( ) [ ] ( ) [ ]
( )
k
k jZ k jZ Z Z
2
0 0
oc
in
sc
in
tan
cot tan
=
=
k. and compute , and , , Given
0
oc
in
sc
in
Z Z Z
Normalized current magnitude
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
NUS/ECE EE2011
57
7.4 /4 transmission line terminated in Z
L
7.5 /2 transmission line terminated in Z
L
( )
( )
L L
L
in
Z
Z
jZ Z
jZ Z
Z Z Z
2
0
0
0
0
2 tan
2 tan
) 4 ( =
+
+
= = =
( )
( )
L
L
L
in
Z
jZ Z
jZ Z
Z Z Z =
+
+
= = =
tan
tan
) 2 (
0
0
0
Z
in
Z
0
Z
L
Z
in
Z
0
Z
L
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
NUS/ECE EE2011
58
Example 4
The opencircuit and shortcircuit impedances measured at
the input terminals of a lossless transmission line of length
1.5 m (which is less than a quarter wavelength) are j54.6
and j103 , respectively.
(a) Find Z
0
and k of the line.
(b) Without changing the operating frequency, find the
input impedance of a shortcircuited line that is twice
the given length.
(c) How long should the shortcircuited line be in order
for it to appear as an open circuit at the input
terminals?
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
NUS/ECE EE2011
59
Solution
The given quantities are
(a)
(b) For a line twice as long, = 3 m and k =1.884 rad,
m 5 . 1 =
m rad 628 . 0 tan
1
oc
in
sc
in
1
= =
Z Z k
232 tan
0
sc
in
j k jZ Z = =
m 10
2
= =
k
103
sc
in
j Z =
6 . 54
oc
in
j Z =
75
sc
in
oc
in 0
= = Z Z Z
Hon Tat Hui Transmission Lines Basic Theories
NUS/ECE EE2011
60
( ) k jZ Z tan
impedance input circuit Short (c)
0
sc
in
= =
, 2 , 1 , 0 , 2 , For
sc
in
= + = = n n k Z
4
1 2 2 +
=
+
=
n
k
n