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Rev.S08
MAC 1114
Module 1
Trigonometric Functions
2 Rev.S08
Learning Objectives
Upon completing this module, you should be able to:
1. Use basic terms associated with angles.
2. Find measures of complementary and supplementary angles.
3. Calculate with degrees, minutes, and seconds.
4. Convert between decimal degrees and degrees, minutes, and
seconds.
5. Identify the characteristics of an angle in standard position.
6. Find measures of coterminal angles.
7. Find angle measures by using geometric properties.
8. Apply the angle sum of a triangle property.
http://faculty.valenciacc.edu/ashaw/
3 Rev.S08
Learning Objectives (Cont.)
9. Find angle measures and side lengths in similar triangles.
10. Solve applications involving similar triangles.
11. Learn basic concepts about trigonometric functions.
12. Find function values of an angle or quadrantal angles.
13. Decide whether a value is in the range of a trigonometric
function
14. Use the reciprocal, Pythagorean and quotient identities.
15. Identify the quadrant of an angle.
16. Find other function values given one value and the quadrant.
http://faculty.valenciacc.edu/ashaw/
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4 Rev.S08
Trigonometric Functions
http://faculty.valenciacc.edu/ashaw/
- Angles - Angles
- Angle Relationships and Similar Triangles - Angle Relationships and Similar Triangles
- Trigonometric Functions - Trigonometric Functions
- Using the Definitions of the Trigonometric - Using the Definitions of the Trigonometric
Functions Functions
There are four major topics in this module:
5 Rev.S08
What are the basic terms?
http://faculty.valenciacc.edu/ashaw/
! Two distinct points determine a line called
line AB.
! Line segment ABa portion of the line
between A and B, including points A and B.
! Ray ABportion of line AB that starts at A
and continues through B, and on past B.
A B
A B
A B
6 Rev.S08
What are the basic terms? (cont.)
http://faculty.valenciacc.edu/ashaw/
! Angle-formed by rotating a
ray around its endpoint.
! The ray in its initial
position is called the initial
side of the angle.
! The ray in its location after
the rotation is the terminal
side of the angle.
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7 Rev.S08
How to Identify a Positive Angle and a
Negative Angle?
http://faculty.valenciacc.edu/ashaw/
! Positive angle: The
rotation of the terminal
side of an angle
counterclockwise.
! Negative angle: The
rotation of the terminal
side is clockwise.
8 Rev.S08
Most Common unit and Types of Angles
http://faculty.valenciacc.edu/ashaw/
! The most common unit for measuring angles is
the degree.
! The major types of angles are acute angle, right
angle, obtuse angle and straight angle.
9 Rev.S08
What are Complementary Angles?
http://faculty.valenciacc.edu/ashaw/
! When the two angles form a right
angle, they are complementary
angles. Thus, we can find the
measure of each angle in this
case.
k ! 16
k +20
The two angles have measures of
43 + 20 = 63 and 43 ! 16 = 27
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10 Rev.S08
What are Supplementary Angles?
http://faculty.valenciacc.edu/ashaw/
! When the two angles form a straight
angle, they are supplementary
angles. Thus, we can find the measure of
each angle in this case too.
6x + 7 3x + 2
These angle measures are
6(19) + 7 = 121 and 3(19) + 2 = 59
11 Rev.S08
How to Convert a Degree
to Minute or Second?
http://faculty.valenciacc.edu/ashaw/
! One minute is 1/60 of a degree.
! One second is 1/60 of a minute.
12 Rev.S08
Example
http://faculty.valenciacc.edu/ashaw/
! Perform the calculation.
! Since 86 = 60 + 26, the
sum is written
! Perform the calculation.
! Write
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13 Rev.S08
Example
http://faculty.valenciacc.edu/ashaw/
! Convert ! Convert 36.624
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How to Determine an Angle is
in Standard Position?
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! An angle is in standard position if its vertex is
at the origin and its initial side is along the
positive x-axis.
15 Rev.S08
What are Quadrantal Angles?
http://faculty.valenciacc.edu/ashaw/
! Angles in standard position having their terminal
sides along the x-axis or y-axis, such as angles
with measures 90, 180, 270, and so on, are
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16 Rev.S08
What are Coterminal Angles?
http://faculty.valenciacc.edu/ashaw/
! A complete rotation of a ray results in an angle
measuring 360. By continuing the rotation,
angles of measure larger than 360 can be
produced. Such angles are called coterminal
angles.
17 Rev.S08
Example
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! Find the angles of smallest possible positive
measure coterminal with each angle.
! a) 1115 b) !187
! Add or subtract 360 as may times as needed to
obtain an angle with measure greater than 0 but
less than 360.
! a) b) !187 + 360 = 173 1115 3(360 )
!
o
35
=
o
o
18 Rev.S08
What are Vertical Angles?
http://faculty.valenciacc.edu/ashaw/
! Vertical Angles have equal measures.
! The pair of angles NMP and RMQ are vertical
angles.
M
Q
R
P
N
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19 Rev.S08
Parallel Lines and Transversal
http://faculty.valenciacc.edu/ashaw/
! Parallel lines are lines that lie in the same
plane and do not intersect.
! When a line q intersects two parallel lines, q, is
called a transversal.
m
n
parallel lines
q
Transversal
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Important Angle Relationships
http://faculty.valenciacc.edu/ashaw/
Angle measures are equal. 2 & 6, 1 & 5,
3 & 7, 4 & 8
Corresponding angles
Angle measures add to 180. 4 and 6
3 and 5
Interior angles on the same
side of the transversal
Angle measures are equal. 1 and 8
2 and 7
Alternate exterior angles
Angles measures are equal. 4 and 5
3 and 6
Alternate interior angles
Rule Angles Name
m
n
q
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Example of Finding Angle Measures
http://faculty.valenciacc.edu/ashaw/
! Find the measure of each
marked angle, given that
lines m and n are parallel.
! The marked angles are
alternate exterior angles,
which are equal.
m
n
(10x ! 80)
(6x + 4)
!
! One angle has measure
6x + 4 = 6(21) + 4 = 130
! and the other has measure
10x ! 80 = 10(21) ! 80 = 130

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22 Rev.S08
Angle Sum of a Triangle
http://faculty.valenciacc.edu/ashaw/
! The sum of the measures of the angles of any
triangle is 180.
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Example of Applying the Angle Sum
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! The measures of two of
the angles of a triangle
are 52 and 65. Find the
measure of the third
angle, x.
! Solution
! The third angle of the
triangle measures 63.
52
65
x
24 Rev.S08
Types of Triangles: Angles
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! Note: The sum of the measures of the angles of
any triangle is 180.
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25 Rev.S08
Types of Triangles: Sides
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! Again, the sum of the measures of the angles of
any triangle is 180.
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What are the Conditions for
Similar Triangles?
http://faculty.valenciacc.edu/ashaw/
! Corresponding angles must have the same
measure.
! Corresponding sides must be proportional.
(That is, their ratios must be equal.)
27 Rev.S08
Example of Finding Angle Measures
http://faculty.valenciacc.edu/ashaw/
! Triangles ABC and DEF
are similar. Find the
measures of angles D and
E.
! Since the triangles are
similar, corresponding
angles have the same
measure.
! Angle D corresponds to
angle A which = 35
! Angle E corresponds to
angle B which = 33
A
C B
F
E
D
35
112 33
112
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28 Rev.S08
Example of Finding Side Lengths
http://faculty.valenciacc.edu/ashaw/
! Triangles ABC and DEF
are similar. Find the
lengths of the unknown
sides in triangle DEF.
A
C B
F
E
D
35
112 33
112
32
48
64
16
! To find side DE.
! To find side FE.
29 Rev.S08
Example of Application
http://faculty.valenciacc.edu/ashaw/
! The two triangles are
similar, so corresponding
sides are in proportion.
! The lighthouse is 48 m
high.
! A lighthouse casts a
shadow 64 m long. At the
same time, the shadow
cast by a mailbox 3 feet
high is 4 m long. Find the
height of the lighthouse.
64
4
3
x
30 Rev.S08
The Six Trigonometric Functions
http://faculty.valenciacc.edu/ashaw/
! Let (x, y) be a point other the origin on the terminal
side of an angle " in standard position. The
distance from the point to the origin is
The six trigonometric functions of " are defined as
follows.
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31 Rev.S08
Example of Finding Function Values
http://faculty.valenciacc.edu/ashaw/
! The terminal side of angle " in standard position
passes through the point (12, 16). Find the
values of the six trigonometric functions of
angle ".
(12, 16)
16
12
"
32 Rev.S08
Example of Finding Function Values (cont.)
http://faculty.valenciacc.edu/ashaw/
! Since x = 12, y = 16, and r = 20, we have
33 Rev.S08
Another Example
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! Find the six trigonometric
function values of the
angle " in standard
position, if the terminal
side of " is defined by
x + 2y = 0, x # 0.
! We can use any point on
the terminal side of " to
find the trigonometric
function values.
12
34 Rev.S08
Another Example (cont.)
http://faculty.valenciacc.edu/ashaw/
! Choose x = 2
! The point (2, !1) lies on
the terminal side, and the
corresponding value of r is
! Use the definitions:
35 Rev.S08
Example of Finding Function Values with
http://faculty.valenciacc.edu/ashaw/
! Find the values of the six trigonometric functions for an angle
of 270.
! First, we select any point on the terminal side of a 270 angle.
We choose (0, !1). Here x = 0, y = !1 and r = 1.
36 Rev.S08
Undefined Function Values
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! If the terminal side of a quadrantal angle lies
along the y-axis, then the tangent and secant
functions are undefined.
! If it lies along the x-axis, then the cotangent
and cosecant functions are undefined.
13
37 Rev.S08
What are the Commonly Used
Function Values?
http://faculty.valenciacc.edu/ashaw/
undefined 1 undefined 0 1 0
360
!1 undefined 0 undefined 0 !1
270
undefined !1 undefined 0 !1 0
180
1 undefined 0 undefined 0 1
90
undefined 1 undefined 0 1 0
0
csc " sec " cot " tan " cos " sin " "
38 Rev.S08
Reciprocal Identities
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39 Rev.S08
Example of Finding Function Values
Using Reciprocal Identities
http://faculty.valenciacc.edu/ashaw/
! Find cos " if sec " =
! Since cos " is the
reciprocal of sec "
! Find sin " if csc "
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40 Rev.S08
Signs of Function Values
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! + ! ! + !
IV
! ! + + ! !
III
+ ! ! ! ! +
II
+ + + + + +
I
csc " sec " cot " tan " cos " sin " " in
41 Rev.S08
http://faculty.valenciacc.edu/ashaw/
! Identify the quadrant (or quadrants) of any
angle " that satisfies tan " > 0 and cot " > 0.
! tan " > 0 in quadrants I and III
! cot " > 0 in quadrants I and III
! so, the answer is quadrants I and III
42 Rev.S08
Ranges of Trigonometric Functions
http://faculty.valenciacc.edu/ashaw/
! For any angle " for which the indicated functions
exist:
! 1. !1 \$ sin " \$ 1 and !1 \$ cos " \$ 1;
! 2. tan " and cot " can equal any real number;
! 3. sec " \$ !1 or sec " # 1 and
csc " \$ !1 or csc " # 1.
(Notice that sec " and csc " are never between
!1 and 1.)
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43 Rev.S08
Pythagorean Identities
http://faculty.valenciacc.edu/ashaw/
44 Rev.S08
Quotient Identities
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45 Rev.S08
Example of Other Function Values
http://faculty.valenciacc.edu/ashaw/
! Find sin " and cos " if tan " = 4/3 and " is in
! Since " is in quadrant III, sin " and cos " will both
be negative.
! sin " and cos " must be in the interval [!1, 1].
16
46 Rev.S08
Example of Other Function Values (cont.)
http://faculty.valenciacc.edu/ashaw/
! We use the identity
47 Rev.S08
What have we learned?
We have learned to
1. Use basic terms associated with angles.
2. Find measures of complementary and supplementary angles.
3. Calculate with degrees, minutes, and seconds.
4. Convert between decimal degrees and degrees, minutes, and
seconds.
5. Identify the characteristics of an angle in standard position.
6. Find measures of coterminal angles.
7. Find angle measures by using geometric properties.
8. Apply the angle sum of a triangle property.
http://faculty.valenciacc.edu/ashaw/
48 Rev.S08
What have we learned? (Cont.)
9. Find angle measures and side lengths in similar triangles.
10. Solve applications involving similar triangles.
11. Learn basic concepts about trigonometric functions.
12. Find function values of an angle or quadrantal angles.
13. Decide whether a value is in the range of a trigonometric
function
14. Use the reciprocal, Pythagorean and quotient identities.
15. Identify the quadrant of an angle.
16. Find other function values given one value and the quadrant.
http://faculty.valenciacc.edu/ashaw/