Web Application Security Threats and Counter Measures | Http Cookie | Web Application

Web Application Security Threats and Counter Measures

Sang Shin sang.shin@sun.com www.javapassion.com
Java Technology Evangelist Sun Microsystems, Inc.
Exact File Name 11/11/07 Page 1

Today's Presentation is available from http://www.javapassion.com Demo is available from http://www.javapassion.com/handsonlabs/ 4010_webappsecurity.zip

Exact File Name

11/11/07

Page 2

Agenda
• How real is the Web application threat? • 10 most common Web application threats and counter measures • Security principles • Tools

.

3

Exact File Name

11/11/07

Page 3

95% of Web Apps Have Vulnerabilities
• • • • • • • Cross-site scripting (80 percent) SQL injection (62 percent) Parameter tampering (60 percent) Cookie poisoning (37 percent) Database server (33 percent) Web server (23 percent) Buffer overflow (19 percent)
.

4

Source: http://www.vnunet.com/news/1152521
Exact File Name 11/11/07 Page 4

OWASP Top 10 Web Security Threats
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Unvalidated input Broken access control Broken authentication Cross-site scripting (XSS) Buffer overflows Injection flaws Improper error handling Insecure storage Application denial-of-service Insecure configuration management 5

Source: www.owasp.org
.

Exact File Name

11/11/07

Page 5

#1: Unvalidated Input: Mother of All Web-tier Security Threats

Exact File Name

11/11/07

Page 6

#1: Unvalidated Input (Description)
• Attacker can easily tamper any part of the HTTP request before submitting
> > > > >

URL Cookies Form fields Hidden fields Headers

• Common names for common input tampering attacks
> forced browsing, command insertion, cross site scripting, buffer

overflows, format string attacks, SQL injection, cookie poisoning, and hidden field manipulation

.

7

.Web applications use input from HTTP requests (and occasionally files) to determine how to respond. Attackers can tamper with any part of an HTTP request, including the url, querystring, headers, cookies, form fields, and hidden Exact File Name 11/11/07 Page 7 fields, to try to bypass the site’s security mechanisms. Common names for common input tampering attacks include: forced browsing, command insertion, cross site scripting, buffer overflows, format string attacks, SQL injection, cookie poisoning, and hidden field manipulation. Each of these attack types is described in more detail later in this paper. * A4 – Cross Site Scripting Flaws discusses input that contains scripts to be executed on other user ’s browsers * A5 – Buffer Overflows discusses input that has been designed to overwrite program execution space * A6 – Injection Flaws discusses input that is modified to contain executable commands

#1: Unvalidated Input (Solutions)
• Do rigorous input data validation
> All parameters should be validated before use

• Do server-side validation
> Client side validation could be bypassed by the

attacker easily > Client side validation is to be used mainly for quick user responsiveness

• Do canonicalization of input data
> The process of simplifying the encoding
.

8

.Web applications use input from HTTP requests (and occasionally files) to determine how to respond. Attackers can tamper with any part of an HTTP request, including the Exact File Name 11/11/07 Page 8 url, querystring, headers, cookies, form fields, and hidden fields, to try to bypass the site’s security mechanisms. Common names for common input tampering attacks include: forced browsing, command insertion, cross site scripting, buffer overflows, format string attacks, SQL injection, cookie poisoning, and hidden field manipulation. Each of these attack types is described in more detail later in this paper. * A4 – Cross Site Scripting Flaws discusses input that contains scripts to be executed on other user ’s browsers * A5 – Buffer Overflows discusses input that has been designed to overwrite program execution space * A6 – Injection Flaws discusses input that is modified to contain executable commands

#1: Unvalidated Input (Solutions)
• Use centralized code for input validation
> Scattered code is hard to maintain

• Each parameter should be checked against a strict format that specifies exactly what input will be allowed
> This is called “positive” input validation > “Negative” approaches that involve filtering out certain

bad input or approaches that rely on signatures are not likely to be effective and may be difficult to maintain
9

.

.
Exact File Name 11/11/07 Page 9

#1: Unvalidated Input (Solutions)
• Validation Criteria
> > > > > > > > >

Data type (string, integer, real, etc…) Allowed character set Minimum and maximum length Whether null is allowed Whether the parameter is required or not Whether duplicates are allowed Numeric range Specific legal values (enumeration) Specific patterns (regular expressions)
.

10

.
Exact File Name 11/11/07 Page 10

What’s Wrong With This Picture?

.

11

Exact File Name

11/11/07

Page 11

#1: Unvalidated Input (Example)
public void doPost(HttpServletRequest req,…) { String customerId = req.getParameter(“customerId”); String sku = req.getParameter(“sku”); String stringPrice = req.getParameter(“price”); Integer price = Integer.valueOf(stringPrice); // Store in the database without input validation // What happens if a hacker provides his own // price as a value of “price” form field? orderManager.submitOrder(sku,customerId,price); } // end doPost
.

12

The problem here is that the price is being grabbed directly from the request input (req.getParameter(“price”)). Exact File Name 11/11/07 Page 12

#1: Unvalidated Input (Corrected)
public void doPost(HttpServletRequest req,…) { // Get customer data String customerId = req.getParameter(“customerId”); String sku = req.getParameter(“sku”); // Get price from database Integer price = skuManager.getPrice(sku); // Store in the database orderManager.submitOrder(sku,customerId,price); } // end doPost
.

13

Rather than getting the price from the request, the solution is to get the price from the database, flagging an error if it does not match what’s on the page. This is accomplished with the call “skuManager.getPrice(sku)” Exact File Name 11/11/07 Page 13

#1: Unvalidated Input (Tools)
• OWASP’s WebScarab
> By submitting unexpected values in HTTP requests

and viewing the web application’s responses, you can identify places where tainted parameters are used

• Stinger HTTP request validation engine (stinger.sourceforge.net)
> Developed by OWASP for J2EE environments

.

14

.
Exact File Name 11/11/07 Page 14

#2: Broken Access Control

Exact File Name

11/11/07

Page 15

#2: Broken Access Control (Examples)
• • • • Insecure ID's Forced browsing pass access control checking Path traversal File permissions

.

16

* Insecure Id’s – Most web sites use some form of id, key, or index as a way to reference users, roles, content, objects, or functions. If an attacker can guess these id’s, and the supplied values are not validated Exact the are 11/11/07 Page to ensure File Name authorized for the current user, the attacker can 16 exercise the access control scheme freely to see what they can access. Web applications should not rely on the secrecy of any id’s for protection. * Forced Browsing Past Access Control Checks – many sites require users to pass certain checks before being granted access to certain URLs that are typically ‘deeper’ down in the site. These checks must not be bypassable by a user that simply skips over the page with the security check. * Path Traversal – This attack involves providing relative path information (e.g., “../../target_dir/target_file”) as part of a request for information. Such attacks try to access files that are normally not directly accessible by anyone, or would otherwise be denied if requested directly. Such attacks can be submitted in URLs as well as any other input that ultimately accesses a file (i.e., system calls and shell commands). * File Permissions – Many web and application servers rely on access control lists provided by the file system of the underlying platform. Even if almost all data is stored on backend servers, there are always files stored locally on the web and application server that should not be publicly accessible, particularly configuration files, default files, and scripts that are installed on most web and application servers. Only files that are specifically intended to be presented to web users should be marked as readable using the OS’s permissions mechanism, most directories should not be readable, and very few files, if any, should be marked executable. * Client Side Caching – Many users access web applications from shared computers located in libraries, schools, airports, and other public access points. Browsers frequently cache web pages that can be accessed by attackers to gain access to otherwise inaccessible parts of

.

17

Exact File Name

11/11/07

Page 17

#3: Broken Authentication & Session Management

Exact File Name

11/11/07

Page 18

#3: Broken Authentication & Session Management
• Includes all aspects of handling user authentication and managing active sessions • Session hi-jacking
> If the session tokens (Cookies) are not properly

protected, an attacker can hijack an active session and assume the identity of a user

.

19

.
Exact File Name 11/11/07 Page 19

#3: Broken Account/Session Management (Client Example—SSO)
public void doGet(HttpServletRequest req,…) { // Get user name String userId = req.getRemoteUser(); // Generate cookie with no encryption Cookie ssoCookie = new Cookie(“userid”,userId); ssoCookie.setPath(“/”); ssoCookie.setDomain(“cisco.com”); response.addCookie(ssoCookie); … }
.

20

Notice that the Cookie is stored with the plain-text userid of the logged in user. In this example, the application that expects to share a cookie with this system (shown on the next slide), will Exact File Name 11/11/07 find the cookie stored in plain text.

Page 20

#3: Broken Account/Session Management (Server Example—SSO)
public void doGet(HttpServletRequest req,…) { // Get user name Cookie[] cookies = req.Cookies(); for (i=0; i < cookies.length; i++) { Cookie cookie = cookies[i]; if (cookie.getName().equals(“ssoCookie”)) { String userId = cookie.getValue(); HttpSession session = req.getSession(); session.setAttribute(“userId”,userId); } // end if } // end for } // end doGet
.

21

Here, the user is set from a plain-text cookie that was passed by the client. Obviously, that cookie could have been spoofed.
Exact File Name 11/11/07 Page 21

#3: Safe Account/Session Management (Client Solution—SSO)
public void doGet(HttpServletRequest req,…) { // Get user name String userId = req.getRemoteUser(); // Encrypt the User ID before passing it // to the client as part of a cookie. encryptedUserId = Encrypter.encrypt(userId); Cookie ssoCookie = new Cookie(“userid”,encrypteduserId); ssoCookie.setPath(“/”); ssoCookie.setDomain(“cisco.com”); response.addCookie(ssoCookie); …
.

22

Now, the cookie is encrypted with a standard encryption library to protect the contents from spoofing.
Exact File Name 11/11/07 Page 22

#3: Safe Account/Session Management (Server Solution—SSO)
public void doGet(HttpServletRequest req,…) { // Get user name Cookie[] cookies = req.Cookies(); for (i=0; i < cookies.length; i++) { Cookie cookie = cookies[i]; if (cookie.getName().equals(“ssoCookie”)) { String encryptedUserId = cookie.getValue(); String userId = Encrypter.decrypt(encryptedUserId); if (isValid(userId)) { HttpSession session = req.getSession(); session.setAttribute(“userId”,userId); } // end if isValid… } // end if cookie = ssoCookie… } // end for } // end doGet
.

23

Here, the user is first decrypted before being accepted as the user’s identity. Obviously, if the cookie doesn’t decrypt to a valid value (checked by the “isValid” method), it won’t allow the user’s cookie to be set properly, which is a good security check. Exact File Name 11/11/07 Page 23

#4 Cross Site Scripting (XSS)

Exact File Name

11/11/07

Page 24

#4: Cross Site Scripting (Description)
• An attacker can use cross site scripting technique to implement malicious script (into a server), which is then sent to unsuspecting users accessing the same server
> Example: Chat server

• The attacked user’s (victim's) browser has no way to know that the script should not be trusted, and will execute the script
> Because it thinks the script came from a trusted source, the

malicious script can access any cookies, session tokens, or other sensitive information retained by your browser and used with that site > These scripts can even rewrite the content of the HTML page
.

25

.
Exact File Name 11/11/07 Page 25

#4: Cross Site Scripting (Description)
• XSS attacks usually come in the form of embedded JavaScript
> However, any embedded active content is a potential source of

danger, including: ActiveX (OLE), VBscript, Shockwave, Flash and more

.

26

.
Exact File Name 11/11/07 Page 26

#4: Consequences of Cross Site Scripting (Examples)
• Disclosure of the user’s session cookie – session high-jacking • Disclosure of end user files • Installation of Trojan horse programs • Redirecting the user to some other page or site • Modifying presentation of content
27

.

.
Exact File Name 11/11/07 Page 27

#4: Cross Site Scripting (How to Find them)
• Search for all places where input from an HTTP request could possibly make its way into the HTML output

.

28

.
Exact File Name 11/11/07 Page 28

#4: Cross Site Scripting (Counter Measures)
• Validate all inputs, especially those inputs that will later be used as parameters to OS commands, scripts, and database queries • It is particularly important for content that will be permanently stored somewhere • Users should not be able to create message content that could cause another user to load an undesireable page or undesireable content when the user's message is retrieved
.

29

.
Exact File Name 11/11/07 Page 29

#4: Cross Site Scripting (Counter Measures)
• Validate input against a rigorous positive specification of what is expected
> Validation of all headers, cookies, query strings, form

fields, and hidden fields (i.e., all parameters) against a rigorous specification of what should be allowed > ‘Negative’ or attack signature based policies are difficult to maintain and are likely to be incomplete > White-listing: a-z, A-Z, 0-9, etc. > Truncate input fields to reasonable length

.

30

.
Exact File Name 11/11/07 Page 30

#4: Cross Site Scripting (Counter Measures)
• Encode user supplied output
> Preventing inserted scripts from being transmitted to users in

an executable form

• Applications can gain significant protection from javascript based attacks by converting the following characters in all generated output to the appropriate HTML entity encoding:
> > > > > >

from “<” to “&lt;” from “>” to “&gt;” from “(” to “&#40;” from “)” to “&#41;” from “#” to “&#35;” from “&” to “&#38;”

.

31

.
Exact File Name 11/11/07 Page 31

#4: Cross-Site Scripting (Flawed)
protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse res) { String title = req.getParameter(“TITLE”); String message = req.getParameter(“MESSAGE”); try { connection = DatabaseUtilities.makeConnection(s); PreparedStatement statement = connection.prepareStatement(“INSERT INTO messages VALUES(?,?)”); // The “title” and “message” are saved into // the database. These “title” and “message” // might contain ill-intended JavaScript. statement.setString(1,title); statement.setString(2,message); statement.executeUpdate(); } catch (Exception e) { … } // end catch } // end doPost . 32

The flaw here is that the values are taken directly from the request and placed into the database, with no input validation or sanitizing.
Exact File Name 11/11/07

Page 32

#4: Cross-Site Scripting (Solution)
private static String stripEvilChars(String evilInput) { Pattern evilChars = Pattern.compile(“[^a-zA-Z0-9]”); return evilChars.matcher(evilInput).replaceAll(“”); } protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse res) { // Do vigorous input validation String title = stripEvilChars(req.getParameter(“TITLE”)); String message = stripEvilChars(req.getParameter(“MESSAGE”)); try { connection = DatabaseUtilities.makeConnection(s); PreparedStatement statement = connection.prepareStatement (“INSERT INTO messages VALUES(?,?)”); statement.setString(1,title); statement.setString(2,message); statement.executeUpdate(); } catch (Exception e) { … } // end catch } // end doPost
.

33

To fix this, add the “stripEvilChars” method that uses JDK 1.4’s pattern matching with regular expressions.
Exact File Name 11/11/07 Page 33

Cross Site Scripting Demo

Exact File Name

11/11/07

Page 34

Demo Scenario (Stored XSS)
• The server is a chat server • The chat server displays whatever message that is typed in by a particular user to all other users • An attacker (user A) implements JavaScript as part of a message (message A) • The chat server saves the message (into the database or whatever storage) without input validation • When unsuspecting user (user B) reads the message A, the JavaScript will be executed
.

35

J.

Exact File Name

11/11/07

Page 35

Demo Scenario (Reflected XSS)
• Whatever typed in by a user is reflected back to a browser • A mal-intended JavaScript will be reflected back to a browser

.

36

J.

Exact File Name

11/11/07

Page 36

#5 Buffer Overflow

Exact File Name

11/11/07

Page 37

#5: Buffer Overflow Errors (Description)
• Attackers use buffer overflows to corrupt the execution stack of a web application
> By sending carefully crafted input to a web application, an

attacker can cause the web application to execute arbitrary code

• Buffer overflow flaws can be present in both the web server or application server products or the web application itself • Not generally an issue with Java apps
> Java type checking
.

38

.

Exact File Name

11/11/07

Page 38

#6 Injection Flaws

Exact File Name

11/11/07

Page 39

#6: Injection Flaws (Description)
• Injection flaws allow attackers to relay malicious code through a web application to another system
> Calls to the operating system via system calls > The use of external programs via shell commands > Calls to backend databases via SQL (i.e., SQL injection)

• Any time a web application uses an interpreter of any type, there is a danger of an injection attack

.

40

J.

Exact File Name

11/11/07

Page 40

#6: Injection Flaws (Description)
• Many web applications use operating system features and external programs to perform their functions
> Runtime.exec() to external programs (like sendmail)

• When a web application passes information from an HTTP request through as part of an external request, the attacker can inject special (meta) characters, malicious commands, or command modifiers into the information
.

41

.

Exact File Name

11/11/07

Page 41

#6: Injection Flaws (Example)
• SQL injection is a particularly widespread and dangerous form of injection
> To exploit a SQL injection flaw, the attacker must find a

parameter that the web application passes through to a database > By carefully embedding malicious SQL commands into the content of the parameter, the attacker can trick the web application into forwarding a malicious query to the database

.

42

.

Exact File Name

11/11/07

Page 42

#6: Injection Flaws (Examples)
• Path traversal
> “../” characters as part of a filename request

• Additional commands could be tacked on to the end of a parameter that is passed to a shell script to execute an additional shell command • SQL queries could be modified by adding additional ‘constraints’ to a where clause
> “OR 1=1”
.

> “; rm –r *”

43

.

Exact File Name

11/11/07

Page 43

#6: Injection Flaws (How to find them)
• Search the source code for all calls to external resources
> e.g., system, exec, fork, Runtime.exec, SQL queries, or

whatever the syntax is for making requests to interpreters in your environment

.

44

.

Exact File Name

11/11/07

Page 44

#6: Injection Flaws (Counter Measures)
• Avoid accessing external interpreters wherever possible
> Use library API's instead

• Structure many requests in a manner that ensures that all supplied parameters are treated as data, rather than potentially executable content
> For SQL, use PreparedStatement or Stored procedures

• Ensure that the web application runs with only the privileges it absolutely needs to perform its function
.

45

The simplest way to protect against injection is to avoid accessing external interpreters wherever possible. For many shell commands and some system calls, there are language specific libraries that perform the Exact File Name 11/11/07 Page same functions. Using such libraries does not involve the operating45 system shell interpreter, and therefore avoids a large number of problems with shell commands. For those calls that you must still employ, such as calls to backend databases, you must carefully validate the data provided to ensure that it does not contain any malicious content. You can also structure many requests in a manner that ensures that all supplied parameters are treated as data, rather than potentially executable content. The use of stored procedures or prepared statements will provide significant protection, ensuring that supplied input is treated as data. These measures will reduce, but not completely eliminate the risk involved in these external calls. You still must always validate such input to make sure it meets the expectations of the application in question. Another strong protection against command injection is to ensure that the web application runs with only the privileges it absolutely needs to perform its function. So you should not run the webserver as root or access a database as DBADMIN, otherwise an attacker can abuse these administrative privileges granted to the web application. Some of the J2EE environments allow the use of the Java sandbox, which can prevent the execution of system commands.

#6: SQL Injection (Counter Measures)
• When making calls to backend databases, carefully validate the data provided to ensure that it does not contain any malicious content • Use PreparedStatement or Stored procedures

.

46

To exploit a SQL injection flaw, the attacker must find a parameter that the web application passes through to a database. File Name By carefully embedding11/11/07 malicious SQL commands Exact Page 46 into the content of the parameter, the attacker can trick the web application into forwarding a malicious query to the database.

SQL Injection Demo

Exact File Name

11/11/07

Page 47

Demo Scenario
• A user access database through a web server to view his creditcard number by giving a userid • A web server builds an SQL query to the database server using the user-entered userid without performing an input validation • An attacker sends “.. OR 1=1” as part of userid • The database server displays all users

.

48

J.

Exact File Name

11/11/07

Page 48

#7: Improper Error Handling

Exact File Name

11/11/07

Page 49

#7: Improper Error Handling (Description)
• The most common problem is when detailed internal error messages such as stack traces, database dumps, and error codes are displayed to a potential hacker
> These messages reveal implementation details that should never be

revealed

• Other errors can cause the system to crash or consume significant resources, effectively denying or reducing service to legitimate users • Left-over during debugging process • Inconsistent errors may reveal internal info.
> “File not found” vs. “Access denied”
.

50

To exploit a SQL injection flaw, the attacker must find a parameter that the web application passes through to a database. File Name By carefully embedding11/11/07 malicious SQL commands Exact Page 50 into the content of the parameter, the attacker can trick the web application into forwarding a malicious query to the database.

#7: Improper Error Handling (Counter Measures)
• The errors must be handled according to a well thought out scheme that will
> provide a meaningful error message to the user > provide diagnostic information to the site maintainers > provide no useful information to an attacker

• All security mechanisms should deny access until specifically granted, not grant access until denied

.

51

To exploit a SQL injection flaw, the attacker must find a parameter that the web application passes through to a database. File Name By carefully embedding11/11/07 malicious SQL commands Exact Page 51 into the content of the parameter, the attacker can trick the web application into forwarding a malicious query to the database.

#7: Improper Error Handling (Counter Measures)
• Good error handling mechanisms should be able to handle any feasible set of inputs, while enforcing proper security • Error handling should not focus solely on input provided by the user, but should also include any errors that can be generated by internal components such as system calls, database queries, or any other internal functions

.

52

To exploit a SQL injection flaw, the attacker must find a parameter that the web application passes through to a database. File Name By carefully embedding11/11/07 malicious SQL commands Exact Page 52 into the content of the parameter, the attacker can trick the web application into forwarding a malicious query to the database.

#7: Improper Error Handling (Counter Measures)
• A specific policy for how to handle errors should be documented, including
> The types of errors to be handled > For each, what information is going to be reported back to

the user > What information is going to be logged

• All developers need to understand the policy and ensure that their code follows it
> An architect should play a role of coming up and

enforcing a company-wide policy
.

53

To exploit a SQL injection flaw, the attacker must find a parameter that the web application passes through to a database. File Name By carefully embedding11/11/07 malicious SQL commands Exact Page 53 into the content of the parameter, the attacker can trick the web application into forwarding a malicious query to the database.

#7: Improper Error Handling (Counter Measures)
• In the implementation, ensure that the site is built to gracefully handle all possible errors.
> When errors occur, the site should respond with a

specifically designed result that is helpful to the user without revealing unnecessary internal details. > Certain classes of errors should be logged to help detect implementation flaws in the site and/or hacking attempts.

.

54

To exploit a SQL injection flaw, the attacker must find a parameter that the web application passes through to a database. File Name By carefully embedding11/11/07 malicious SQL commands Exact Page 54 into the content of the parameter, the attacker can trick the web application into forwarding a malicious query to the database.

#7: Improper Error Handling (Counter Measures)
• Very few sites have any intrusion detection capabilities in their web application, but it is certainly conceivable that a web application could track repeated failed attempts and generate alerts
> Note that the vast majority of web application attacks are

never detected because so few sites have the capability to detect them. Therefore, the prevalence of web application security attacks is likely to be seriously underestimated

.

55

To exploit a SQL injection flaw, the attacker must find a parameter that the web application passes through to a database. File Name By carefully embedding11/11/07 malicious SQL commands Exact Page 55 into the content of the parameter, the attacker can trick the web application into forwarding a malicious query to the database.

What’s Wrong With This Picture?

.

56

Exact File Name

11/11/07

Page 56

#7: Improper Error Handling (Flaw)
protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse res) { String query = "SELECT userid, name FROM user_data WHERE accountnum = '" + req.getParameter(“ACCT_NUM”) + “’”; PrintWriter out = res.getWriter(); // HTML stuff to out.println… try { connection = DatabaseUtilities.makeConnection(s); Statement statement = connection.createStatement(); ResultSet results = statement.executeQuery(query); while (results.next()) { out.println("<TR><TD>“ + rset.getString(1) + “</TD>”); out.println("<TD>“ + rset.getString(2) + “</TD>”); } // end while } catch (Exception e) { e.printStackTrace(out); } // end catch } // end doPost . 57

The flaw here is that we are showing the entire stack trace to the user, which will certainly help them in future attacks. Exact File Name 11/11/07 Page 57

#7: Improper Error Handling (Solution)
protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse res) { String query = "SELECT userid, name FROM user_data WHERE accountnum = '" + req.getParameter(“ACCT_NUM”) + “’”; PrintWriter out = res.getWriter(); // HTML stuff to out.println… try { connection = DatabaseUtilities.makeConnection(s); Statement statement = connection.createStatement(); ResultSet results = statement.executeQuery(query); while (results.next ()) { out.println("<TR><TD>“ + rset.getString(1) + “</TD>”); out.println("<TD>“ + rset.getString(2) + “</TD>”); } // end while } catch (Exception e) { Logger logger = Logger.getLogger(); logger.log(Level.SEVERE,”Error retrieving account number”,e); out.println(“Sorry, but we are unable to retrieve this account”); 58 . } // end catch

To fix this, log the stack trace to the system logs, but only show a generic error message to the user. Exact File Name 11/11/07 Page 58

#9 Application Denial Of Service (DOS)

Exact File Name

11/11/07

Page 59

#9: Application DOS (Description)
• Types of resources
> Bandwidth, database connections, disk storage, CPU, memory,

threads, or application specific resources

• Application level resources
> > > >

Heavy object allocation/reclamation Overuse of logging Unhandled exceptions Unresolved dependencies on other systems > Web services > Databases
.

60

To exploit a SQL injection flaw, the attacker must find a parameter that the web application passes through to a database. File Name By carefully embedding11/11/07 malicious SQL commands Exact Page 60 into the content of the parameter, the attacker can trick the web application into forwarding a malicious query to the database.

#9: Application DOS (How to determine you vulnerability)
• Load testing tools, such as JMeter can generate web traffic so that you can test certain aspects of how your site performs under heavy load
> Certainly one important test is how many requests per

second your application can field > Testing from a single IP address is useful as it will give you an idea of how many requests an attacker will have to generate in order to damage your site

• To determine if any resources can be used to create a denial of service, you should analyze each one to see if there is a way to exhaust it
.

61

To exploit a SQL injection flaw, the attacker must find a parameter that the web application passes through to a database. File Name By carefully embedding11/11/07 malicious SQL commands Exact Page 61 into the content of the parameter, the attacker can trick the web application into forwarding a malicious query to the database.

#9: Application DOS (Counter Measures)
• Limit the resources allocated to any user to a bare minimum • For authenticated users
> Establish quotas so that you can limit the amount of load a

particular user can put on your system

> Consider only handling one request per user at a time by

synchronizing on the user’s session > Consider dropping any requests that you are currently processing for a user when another request from that user arrives
.

62

To exploit a SQL injection flaw, the attacker must find a parameter that the web application passes through to a database. File Name By carefully embedding11/11/07 malicious SQL commands Exact Page 62 into the content of the parameter, the attacker can trick the web application into forwarding a malicious query to the database.

#9: Application DOS (Counter Measures)
• For un-authenticated users
> Avoid any unnecessary access to databases or other

expensive resources

> Caching the content received by un-authenticated users

instead of generating it or accessing databases to retrieve it

• Check your error handling scheme to ensure that an error cannot affect the overall operation of the application

.

63

To exploit a SQL injection flaw, the attacker must find a parameter that the web application passes through to a database. File Name By carefully embedding11/11/07 malicious SQL commands Exact Page 63 into the content of the parameter, the attacker can trick the web application into forwarding a malicious query to the database.

Other Web Applications Security Threats

Exact File Name

11/11/07

Page 64

Other Web Application Security Threats
• • • • • • Unnecessary and Malicious Code Broken Thread Safety and Concurrent Programming Unauthorized Information Gathering Accountability Problems and Weak Logging Data Corruption Broken Caching, Pooling, and Reuse

.

65

To exploit a SQL injection flaw, the attacker must find a parameter that the web application passes through to a database. File Name By carefully embedding11/11/07 malicious SQL commands Exact Page 65 into the content of the parameter, the attacker can trick the web application into forwarding a malicious query to the database.

Broken Thread Safety Demo

Exact File Name

11/11/07

Page 66

Demo Scenario
• A servlet uses static variable called currentUser to set the username and then displays the value of it • A servlet can be accessed by multiple clients • A servlet is not written to be multi-thread safe • The instance variable can be in race-condition
> Browser A sets the username to jeff > Browser B sets the username to dave > If these two browsers access the servlet almost at the

same time, both browsers display one of the two names
.

67

J.

Exact File Name

11/11/07

Page 67

Principles of Secure Programming

Exact File Name

11/11/07

Page 68

Principles of Secure Programming
1. Minimize attack surface area 2. Secure defaults 3. Principle of least privilege 4. Principle of defense in depth 5. Fail securely 6. External systems are insecure 7. Separation of duties 8. Do not trust security through obscurity 9. Simplicity 10.Fix security issues correctly
.

69

.
Exact File Name 11/11/07 Page 69

Minimize Attack Surface Area
• The aim for secure development is to reduce the overall risk by reducing the attack surface area • Every feature that is added to an application adds a certain amount of risk to the overall application
> The value of adding a feature needs to be accessed from

security risk standpoint

.

70

Every feature that is added to an application adds a certain amount of risk to the overall application. Name aim for secure development is to reduce the The Exact File 11/11/07 overall risk by reducing the attack surface area. For example, a web application implements online help with a search function. The search function may be vulnerable to SQL injection attacks. If the help feature was limited to authorized users, the attack likelihood is reduced. If the help feature’s search function was gated through centralized data validation routines, the ability to perform SQL injection is dramatically reduced. However, if the help feature was re-written to eliminate the search function (through better user interface, for example), this almost eliminates the attack surface area, even if the help feature was available to the Internet at large..

Page 70

Secure Defaults
• There are many ways to deliver an “out of the box” experience for users. However, by default, the experience should be secure, and it should be up to the user to reduce their security – if they are allowed • Example:
> By default, password aging and complexity should be

enabled

> Users might be allowed to turn off these two features to

simplify their use of the application

.

71

There are many ways to deliver an “out of the box” experience for users. However, by default, the experience should be secure, and it should be up to the user to 11/11/07 their security – if they Page 71 reduce Exact File Name are allowed. For example, by default, password aging and complexity should be enabled. Users might be allowed to turn these two features off to simplify their use of the application and increase their risk.

Principle of Least Privilege
• Accounts have the least amount of privilege required to perform their business processes.
> This encompasses user rights, resource

permissions such as CPU limits, memory, network, and file system permissions

• Example
> If a middleware server only requires access to the

network, read access to a database table, and the ability to write to a log, this describes all the permissions that should be granted

.

72

The principle of least privilege recommends that accounts have the least amount of privilege required to perform their11/11/07 business processes. This Exact File Name Page 72 encompasses user rights, resource permissions such as CPU limits, memory, network, and file system permissions. For example, if a middleware server only requires access to the network, read access to a database table, and the ability to write to a log, this describes all the permissions that should be granted. Under no circumstances should the middleware be granted administrative privileges.

Principle of Defense In Depth
• Controls, when used in depth, can make severe vulnerabilities extraordinarily difficult to exploit and thus unlikely to occur.
> With secure coding, this may take the form of tier-

based validation, centralized auditing controls, and requiring users to be logged on all pages

.

73

.
Exact File Name 11/11/07 Page 73

Fail Safely
• Applications regularly fail to process transactions for many reasons. How they fail can determine if an application is secure or not • Example: In the code below, if codeWhichMayFail() fails, the attacker gets an admin priviledge
isAdmin = true; try { codeWhichMayFail(); isAdmin = isUserInRole( “Administrator” ); } catch (Exception ex) { log.write(ex.toString()); }
.

74

.
Exact File Name 11/11/07 Page 74

External Systems Are Insecure
• Implicit trust of externally run systems is not warranted
> All external systems should be treated in a similar

fashion

• Example:
> A loyalty program provider provides data that is

used by Internet Banking, providing the number of reward points and a small list of potential redemption items > However, the data should be checked to ensure that it is safe to display to end users, and that the reward points are a positive number, and not improbably large
.

75

.
Exact File Name 11/11/07 Page 75

Separation of Duties
• A key fraud control is separation of duties • Certain roles have different levels of trust than normal users
> In particular, Administrators are different to normal

users. In general, administrators should not be users of the application

• Example
> An administrator should be able to turn the system on

or off, set password policy but shouldn’t be able to log on to the storefront as a super privileged user, such as being able to “buy” goods on behalf of other users. 76

.

.
Exact File Name 11/11/07 Page 76

Do Not Trust Security Through Obscurity
• Security through obscurity is a weak security control, and nearly always fails when it is the only control
> This is not to say that keeping secrets is a bad idea, it

simply means that the security of key systems should not be reliant upon keeping details hidden

• Example
> The security of an application should not rely upon only

on knowledge of the source code being kept secret > The security of an application should rely upon many other factors, including reasonable password policies, defense in depth, business transaction limits, solid network architecture, and fraud and audit controls
.

77

.
Exact File Name 11/11/07 Page 77

Simplicity
• Attack surface area and simplicity go hand in hand. Certain software engineering fads prefer overly complex approaches to what would otherwise be relatively straightforward and simple code. • Example
> Although it might be fashionable to have a slew of

singleton entity beans running on a separate middleware server, it is more secure and faster to simply use global variables with an appropriate mutex mechanism to protect against race conditions.

.

78

.
Exact File Name 11/11/07 Page 78

Fix Security Issues Correctly
• Once a security issue has been identified, it is important to develop a test for it, and to understand the root cause of the issue • Example > A user has found that they can see another user’s balance by adjusting their cookie. The fix seems to be relatively straightforward, but as the cookie handling code is shared amongst all applications, a change to just one application will trickle through to all other applications. The fix must therefore be tested on all affected applications.

.

79

.
Exact File Name 11/11/07 Page 79

Tools!

Exact File Name

11/11/07

Page 80

Tools
• WebScarab - a web application vulnerability assessment suite including proxy tools • Validation Filters – (Stinger for J2EE, filters for PHP) generic security boundary filters that developers can use in their own applications • CodeSpy – look for security issues using reflection in J2EE apps

.

81

.
Exact File Name 11/11/07 Page 81

Tools
• CodeSeeker - an commercial quality application level firewall and Intrusion Detection System that runs on Windows and Linux and supports IIS, Apache and iPlanet web servers, • WebGoat - an interactive training and benchmarking tool that users can learn about web application security in a safe and legal environment • WebSphinx – web crawler looking for security issues in web applications • OWASP Portal - our own Java based portal code designed with security as a prime concern
.

82

.
Exact File Name 11/11/07 Page 82

Web Application Security Threats and Counter Measures
Sang Shin sang.shin@sun.com www.javapassion.com
Java Technology Evangelist Sun Microsystems, Inc.
Exact File Name 11/11/07 Page 83

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful