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# Book Title

## LOREM IPSUM DOLOR

Suspendisse Potenti
CHAPTER 1
1
Fluid Properties
Learning Objectives
Dene a uid and describe how it differs from a solid.
Describe the differences between liquids and gases and explain
the origin of these differences.
Dene the various properties of uids, such as density, pres-
sure, temperature, viscosity, and vapor pressure as well as their
units.
Distinguish between Newtonian and Non-Newtonian uids.
Identify, formulate, and solve problems involving viscosity.
1.1 Basic Properties of Solids
To better understand the behavior of uids we compare their mo-
lecular structure with that of solids, which have the following prop-
erties:
Molecules have denite spacing and this spacing is dense. That
is why solids feel hard.
Molecules are arranged in a specic lattice formation and their
movement is restricted (Figure 1.1).
Figure 1.1 - Schematic of the molecular structure in solids
Molecules are attracted to each other with large intermolecular
cohesive forces.
Molecules are in random vibration; the temperature is a measure
of their average kinetic energy in these vibrations.
The most important difference, however, between solids and u-
ids, is how they respond to shear forces. Solids:
Resist a shear force as long as it does not exceed the elastic limit
of the material. That is why they are not easily deformed.
Obey Hooke's Law
= G
which shows that shear stress (+) applied +o the surface of a solid
element (Figure 1.2) is proportional to the resulting shear strain (y).
Figure 1.2 - Schematic of shearing deformation in solids
The proportionality constant G is the shear modulus of elasticity
(modulus of rigidity) of the substance.
2
Cease to deform when equilibrium is reached (i.e., there is resis-
tance to shear in static conditions).
Shearing resistance depends on the normal force between the
two bodies.
1.2 Basic Properties of Fluids
Molecules are spaced further apart.
Molecules are attracted to each other with smaller intermolecu-
lar cohesive forces.
Continuously deform (i.e., ow) under the action of shearing
forces, no matter how small the shearing force may be.
When at rest, they are in a state of zero shear stress (+ = 0, hydro-
static stress condition; Mohr's circle for stress reduces to a point).
Although these properties are generic to all uids, liquids and
gases are drastically different, as described below.
1.2.1 Basic Properties of Liquids
Figure 1.2 - Schematic of the molecular structure in liquids
Have essentially const. spacing (slightly changing with T and p)
so that a given mass occupies a denite volume of space.
Can move w.r.t. each other when a shearing force is applied.
That is why they can be poured into containers or forced
through a tube.
Exceptions (rheology): tooth paste, tar, putty, and other similar sub-
stances: behave like solids when the applied shear stress is small
but ow when the applied shear stress exceeds a certain value (Fig-
ure 1.5).
1.2.2 Basic Properties of Gases
Have much larger molecular spacing than that of either solids or
liquids.
Figure 1.3 - Schematic of the molecular structure in gases
The molecular spacing is variable (negligible cohesive intermo-
lecular forces) and that is why gases are easily deformed and
compressed.
3
Molecules move randomly in all directions (Figure 1.3). They
travel in straight lines until they either bounce off the walls of
the container or are deected by interaction with other mole-
cules.
Completely ll the container in which they are placed.
1.3 Density, Specic Volume, Specic Weight &
Specic Gravity
Density is mass per unit volume.
Mathematical Denition: = lim
d0
dm
d
(1)
For uniform density within a volume or if we just want an average
value of the density in a volume we can write:
=
m

(2)
NB: Density is a function of temperature (gases and liquids) and
pressure (gases). Density values for the two most commonly
found uids:
Water:
water
= 1, 000kg/m
3
@10
0
C
Air:
air
= 1.2kg/m
3
@20
0
C and standard pressure.
So
water
/
air
1, 000
Specic volume is volume per unit mass.
Mathematical Denition: =
1

(3)
Specic weight is weight per unit volume.
= g (4)
We typically use the specic weight for liquids only but for com-
parison purposes the values for both water and air are:
Water:
water
= 9, 790N/m
3
@20
0
C
Air:
air
= 11.8N/m
3
@20
0
C and standard pressure.
So
water
/
air
1, 000
Specic gravity
Denition for Liquids: SG
liquid
=

liquid

water@4
0
C
(5)
where
water
= 9, 810N/m
3
#@4
0
C
Denition for Gases: SG
gas
=

gas

air
(6)
1.4 Pressure
Pressure is force per unit area resulting from molecular collisions
on a surface.
Mathematical Denition: p = lim
dA0
dF
dA
(7)
For uniform pressure on a surface or if we just want an average
value of the pressure on a surface we can write:
p =
F
A
(8)
The SI unit for pressure is the Pascal Pa = N/m
2
4
Sea level standard conditions:
p = 101, 325Pa = 101.3kPa = 1at m
1.5 Temperature
Temperature is a measure of the kinetic energy of the molecules in
their vibrational mode (liquids) / random motion (gases).
KE
mol
=
3
2
kT (9)
The SI unit for temperature is the degree Kelvin K
Sea level standard conditions:
T = 15
0
C = 273 + 15 = 288K
The value of the Boltzman constant is k = 1.380650 10
23
J/K
1.6 Viscosity
Viscosity is a measure of the resistance to ow. It reects the
stickiness of the uid.
1.6.1 Dynamic, Molecular or Absolute Viscosity
Values for the two most commonly found uids:
Water:
water
= 10
3
Ns/m
2
@20
0
C
Air:
air
= 1.789 10
5
Ns/m
2
@15
0
C
So
water
/
air
55
Contrast the following behavior of uids, in response to a shear
force, with the behavior of solids described in section 1.1. Fluids:
Obey Newton's Law of Viscosity
=
du
dy
(9)
and their shear stress (+) is proportional to the time rate of strain,
which is equal to the velocity gradient normal to the ow.
Deform continuously (i.e. ow), under the action of a shear
stress, however small it may be.
Resist ow with a viscous force that is independent of the nor-
mal force (pressure).
Stick to any solid surface they come in contact with. This is
known as no slip condition, and implies that the uid velocity at
a solid surface over which it ows is always the same as the ve-
locity of this surface (Figure 1.4).
Figure 1.4 - Schematic of the ow over a at surface. The arrows repre-
sent local ow velocities and the curve drawn to the tips of these arrows is
the velocity prole of the ow.
Within a very thin region of the ow (shown with thickness o in
Figure 1.4), the velocity increases rapidly from zero at the sur-
face to the free-stream value, hence the velocity gradient normal
to the surface (du/dy) is very large. This region is called bound-
5
ary layer and gives rise to very high viscous shear stresses from
eq(9).
The derivative du/dy is nite at the wall (i.e. the curve is not
tangent to the wall). A tangent curve would imply:

dy
du
y=0
0
du
dy
y=0

w

but it is not physically possible to have innite shear stress at the
wall.
As the ow velocity catches up with the free stream, the deriva-
tive du/dy decreases as we move away from the wall, hence the
maximum shear stress occurs @ the wall.
1.6.2 Newtonian and non-Newtonian Fluids
Not all uids follow Newtons Law of viscosity. Those that do are
called Newtonian and include air and water, the two most com-
monly found uids in nature (green line in Figure 1.5). Those that
do not are called non-Newtonian uids and are classied as fol-
lows:

Figure 1.5 - The variation of shear strain with shear stress for different
types of uids.
Dilatant or shear-thickening: uid increases resistance with in-
creasing shear stress. Example: quicksand. That is why it is dif-
cult to remove an object from quicksand by pulling fast! The
faster you pull, the greater du/dy becomes and subsequently,
the greater the resulting viscous shear force that resists the pull.
Pseudoplastic or shear-thinning: uid decreases resistance with
increasing shear stress. Example: latex paint. It does not drip
from the brush because the shear stress due to its own weight is
small and the apparent viscosity () is large. When brushing a
6
surface, on the other hand, the applied shear stress is much
greater and causes the paint to ow on the surface.
Plastic: thinning effect is too strong.
Ideal Bingham plastic: requires a nite yield stress before it be-
gins to ow. Example: toothpaste, tar.
Rheopectic: requires a gradually increasing shear stress to main-
tain constant strain.
Thixotropic: requires a gradually decreasing shear stress to main-
tain constant strain.
1.6.3 Variation of Viscosity with Temperature
Liquids: resistance to shear stress is the result of cohesive forces be-
tween molecules. As the temperature increases, the cohesive forces
decrease, so viscosity decreases (ex. motor oil becomes less viscous
as T increases). An estimate of the variation of viscosity with T for
liquids is given by
(T ) = Ce
b/T
(10)
C and b are empirical constants that require viscosity data at two
temperatures for evaluation.
Gases: resistance to shear stress is the result of molecular momen-
tum transfer through collisions. The activity (random motion) of
gas molecules increases with T so increases with T. An estimate
of the variation of with T for gases is given by the
Sutherland equation

0
=
(
T
T
0
)
3/2
T
0
+ S
T + S
(11)
where the Sutherland constant for air is S
air
111.
1.6.4 Kinematic Viscosity
Dened as =

(12)
For air:
air
= 15.11
m
2
s
@20
0
C
7
8
CHAPTER 2
9
Aerodynamic &
Hydrodynamic Forces
Learning Objectives
Explain the nature of aerodynamic and hydrodynamic forces.
Dene the aerodynamic / hydrodynamic center (ac) and the cen-
ter of pressure (cp) for an airfoil.
Calculate aerodynamic / hydrodynamic forces and moments by
integrating surface pressure and shear stress distributions.
Calculate buoyancy forces on vehicles oating or submerged in
a uid.
Design and perform wind / water tunnel experiments to meas-
ure lift and drag, analyze the results from such experiments and
compare them with theoretical predictions, computer models,
and published data.
2.1 What are They?
Aerospace engineers typically work with (i.e. manipulate, predict)
four forces: thrust, drag, lift, and weight (Figure 2.1). Aerodynam-
ics deals with lift and drag. The buoyancy force is also a lift force,
however, a vehicle may generate buoyancy simply being in a uid,
without any relative motion between the vehicle and the uid (Fig-
ure 2.2). On the other hand, to create aerodynamic or hydrody-
namic lift, the uid must move past the vehicle or vice versa.
Aero and hydrodynamics deal with lift and drag. The buoyancy
force is a form of static lift, which means that a vehicle may gener-
ate buoyancy simply by being immersed in a uid, without the
benet of relative motion between the vehicle and the uid. To cre-
ate aero or hydrodynamic lift on the other hand, the vehicle must
move through the uid or vice versa.
Figure 2.1 - Airplane in equilibrium in level ight: L = W and T = D
sailing boats: 2.3 x wind speed downwind, 1.5 x wind speed up-
wind!
10
2.2 Where do They Come From?
Pressure and viscosity create aerodynamic forces and buoyancy.
(Figure 2.2).
Figure 2.2 - Pressure and viscous forces on an airfoil in ight. Both
can be expressed as functions of the curvilinear coordinate s, meas-
ured from the leading edge along the upper and lower surfaces.
Pressure forces act normal to the surface and are indicated as ar-
rows pointing towards the surface. Viscous forces act parallel to
the surface. Note that pressure
(
p
)
and viscous shear stress () are
not forces. As their units indicate
(
N/m
2
)
, they are forces per unit
area. Furthermore, pressure is a scalar quantity whereas shear
stress is a vector quantity.
2.3 Calculation of Aerodynamic Forces
One way to describe the variation of pressure and shear stresses on
the surface of a body is as functions of the curvilinear coordinate s,
measured from some convenient point, such as the leading edge of
the airfoil in Figure 2.2
Pressure forces and viscous forces (shear stresses) when integrated
around the surface of the body in general produce an aerodynamic
force and an aerodynamic pitching moment (Figure 2.3).
Figure 2.3 - Aerodynamic force and pitching moment on an airfoil
in ight.
The total aerodynamic force R can be analyzed in two coordinate
systems as shown in Figure 2.4.
In body coordinates: R = N + A (2.1)
where the axial force A is // to the chord line and the normal force
N is to the chord line of the airfoil.
In free stream coordinates: R = L + D (2.2)
11
where the lift force is to the free stream and the drag force is //
to the free stream.
Figure 2.4 - Lift, drag, normal, and axial forces on an airfoil in
ight at an angle-of-attack o.
The relationship between the two sets of forces is given by:

L = Ncos Asin
D = Nsin + Acos
(2.3)
Note that when = 0, L = N and D = A.
Figure 2.5 shows the geometry of the local forces at two randomly
selected points, A on the upper surface and B on the lower surface
of the airfoil. The angle 0, which denes the local slope of the sur-
face, is known from the airfoil geometry. The contributions of the
local pressure and local shear stress at point A to the normal and
axial forces on the airfoil (per unit span) are given by:

dN
u
= p
u
ds
u
cos
u
ds
u
sin
dA
u
= p
u
ds
u
sin +
u
ds
u
cos
(2.4)
The prime indicates that the forces are calculated per unit span.
Similarly, the contributions of the local pressure and local shear
stress at point B to the normal and axial forces on the airfoil are
given by:

dN
l
= p
l
ds
l
cos
l
ds
l
sin
dA
l
= p
l
ds
l
sin +
l
ds
l
cos
(2.5)
Figure 2.5 - Local pressure and viscous shear stresses on the upper
and lower surfaces of an airfoil.
The normal and axial forces per unit span on the airfoil can be cal-
culated by integrating these contributions on the upper and lower
surfaces from the leading edge to the trailing edge:
N =
TE

LE
(
p
u
cos +
u
sin
)
ds
u
+
TE

LE
(
p
l
cos
l
sin
)
ds
l
(2.6)
12
A = +
LE

TE
(
p
u
sin +
u
cos
)
ds
u
+
LE

TE
(
p
l
sin +
l
cos
)
ds
l
(2.7)
M
LE
=
TE

LE
[
(
p
u
cos +
u
sin
)
x
(
p
u
sin
u
cos
)
y
]
ds
u
+
+
TE

LE
[
(
p
l
cos +
l
sin
)
x +
(
p
l
sin +
l
cos
)
y
]
ds
l
(2.8)
Typically, the distributions p
u
(s), p
l
(s),
u
(s),
l
(s) are known from ex-
periments. When = 0:
D = A =
TE

LE
p
u
sinds
u
+
TE

LE
p
l
sinds
l
PressureDrag
+
TE

LE

u
cosds
u
+
TE

LE

l
cosds
l
SkinFrictionDrag

(2.9)
Streamlined bodies (airfoils, wings, submarines, etc.) at small
angles-of-attack: most of the drag is skin friction; rst two terms
in equation (2.9) are negligible compared to the last two.
Bluff bodies (cylinders, spheres, reentry vehicles, etc.) but also
streamlined bodies at high angles-of-attack: most of the drag is pres-
sure drag and the last two terms are negligible compared to the
rst two.
As in many engineering applications, it is easier to work with di-
mensionless parameters, especially when we need to compare the
aerodynamic performance of small wind tunnel models to that of
the actual prototypes. The denition of the various aerodynamic
coefcients is shown in Table 2.1.
Table 2.1 - Aerodynamic coefcients
2 DCoef f icients3 DCoef f icients
Air foilWing
c
l

L
q

c
C
L

L
q

S
q

1
2

V
2

c
d

D
q

c
C
D

D
q

S
c
n

N
q

c
C
N

N
q

S
c
a

A
q

c
C
A

A
q

S
c
m

M
q

c
2
C
M

M
q

Sc
c
f

q

In general C
D
= f (M, Re), however, for low speeds C
D
= f (Re)
Using the dimensionless coefcients dened in Table 2.1 we can re-
write equations 2.6, 2.7, and 2.8 as follows:
c
n
=
1
c
0

c
(
c
pl
c
pu
)
dx +
0

c
(
c
fu
dy
u
dx
+ c
f l
dy
l
dx
)
dx (2.9)
c
a
=
1
c
0

c
(
c
pu
dy
u
dx
c
pl
dy
l
dx
)
dx +
0

c
(
c
fu
+ c
f l
)
dx (2.10)
13
c
m
LE
=
1
c
2
c

0
(
c
pu
c
pl
)
xdx +
c

0
(
c
fu
dy
u
dx
+ c
f l
dy
l
dx )
xdx+
+
c

0
(
c
pu
dy
u
dx
+ c
fu
)
y
u
dx +
c

0
(
c
pl
dy
l
dx
+ c
f l
)
y
l
dx
(2.11)
In a similar fashion, equations (2.3) can be non-dimensionalized as:

c
l
= c
n
cos c
a
sin
c
d
= c
n
sin + c
a
cos
(2.12)
Again, note that when = 0, c
l
= c
n
and c
d
= c
a
.
Example Problem 1
Drag and drag coefcient of a wedge in supersonic ow
Dene
A wedge with a 5-degree half-angle and a 2 m chord is ying at
seal level at M = 2 and = 5
0
. The pressure on the lower surface
is p
l
= 1.5 10
5
Pa and the shear stress distribution is = 300s
0.25

on both surfaces. Calculate the following:
(a) Drag force per unit span
(b) Drag coefcient
Explore
Schematic of the ow over the wedge.
Assumptions
Since the ow is separated on the back-side of the wedge, the
pressure there is approximately equal to ambient atmospheric pres-
sure.
Negligible contribution of the backside to the skin friction drag.

Pressure and shear stress distributions on the wedge.
14

Free-body diagram
Plan / Implement
The atmospheric conditions @ sea level are p

= 1.01 10
5
Pa and

= 1.23kg/m
3
, so:
V

= M

= 2(340) = 680m/s
q

=
1
2

V
2

=
1
2
(1.23)680
2
= 284, 376Pa
The drag per unit span is given by:
D =
LE

TE
(
p
u
sin
u
+
u
cos
u)
ds
u
+
LE

TE
(
p
l
sin
l
+
l
cos
l)
ds
l
On the upper surface
u
= 0
0
, so
TE

LE
p
u
sin
u
ds
u
=
2

(
1.01 10
5
)
sin0
0
ds
u
= 0
On the lower surface
l
= 10
0
, so
TE

LE
p
l
sin
l
ds
l
=
4

1
(
1.5 10
5
)
sin10
0
ds
l
+
2

4
(
1.01 10
5
)
sin
(
90
0
)
ds
l
=
= 0.26 10
5
s
14
1.01 10
5
s
43
= 0.26 10
5
c
cos5
0
1.01 10
5
2ctan5
0
=
= 0.52 10
5
0.36 10
5
= 0.16 10
5
N

In other words, only the lower surface and the backside contribute
to the pressure drag. The contribution of the upper surface to the
skin friction drag is:
TE

LE

u
cos
u
ds
u
=
2

1
300s
0.25
ds
u
= 300
(
c
cos5
0 )
0.75
1
0.75
= 674.6N
The contribution of the lower surface to the skin friction drag is:
TE

LE

l
cos
l
ds
l
=
4

1
300s
0.25
cos
(
10
0
)
ds
l
= 295.44
(
c
cos5
0 )
0.75
1
0.75
= 448.9N
The total drag per unit span is:
D = 0.16 10
5
+ 674.6 + 448.9 D = 1.7 10
4
The drag coefcient is:
c
d
=
D
q

c
=
1.7 10
4
(
284, 376
)
2
c
d
= 0.03
Example Problem 2
Drag coefcient of a cylinder in hypersonic ow
Dene
15
Calculate the drag coefcient of a cylinder in hypersonic ow. The
cylinder has its axis perpendicular to the ow and the pressure dis-
tribution on its surface is given by:
c
p
= 2cos
2
for0 /2and3/2 2
c
p
= 0for/2 3/2
where the angle is dened in the gure below.
Explore
The drag coefcient is dened as: c
D
=
D
q

S
For bluff bodies the reference area is usually the cross-sectional
area of the body perpendicular to the free stream, hence:
c
D
=
D
q
(
b2R
)
c
d
=
D
q

(2R)
Assumption
Neglect skin friction drag: As indicated by the given pressure distri-
bution, the ow is separated on the back side of the cylinder, as is
to be expected. Hence, most of the drag is pressure drag, resulting
from the very high pressure on the front side and the very low pres-
sure on the back side.
Plan / Implement
c
d
= c
n
sin + c
a
cos
But for a circular cylinder: = 0 sin = 0andcos = 1
Hence,
c
d
= c
a
=
1
c
c

0
(
c
p
u
dy
u
dx
c
p
l
dy
l
dx
)
dx +
c

0
(
c
f
u
+ c
f
l)
dx
ignoring the 2nd term in the bracket (skin friction drag):
c
a
=
1
c
c

0
(
c
p
u
c
p
l)
dy
But the pressure distribution is given in terms of , so to carry out
the integration we need to convert dy into d. Converting carte-
sian into body coordinates:
dy = dssin
16
It seems that we have just made things worse, as we now have 3
variables in our integral: , s, and 0. Referring to the gure we ob-
serve that for > 0 we have 0 < 0, hence:
=

2
sin() = sin
(

2

)
sin = cos
Also: ds = Rdandc = 2R
where R is the radius of the cylinder, hence we can write the inte-
grals in the equation for the drag coefcient in terms of only one
variable, :
c
d

1
2R
c

0
(
c
p
u
c
p
l)
cosRd =
1
2

0
c
p
u
cosd
1
2

0
c
p
l
cosd
where
c
p
u
= 2cos
2
for0 /2
c
p
u
= 0for/2
c
p
l
= 2cos
2
for3/2 2
c
p
l
= 0for 3/2
substituting these relations into the integrals above gives:
c
d

/2

0
cos
3
d
3/2

2
cos
3
d
where

cos
3
d =
1
3
sin
(
cos
2
+ 2
)
so
c
d
=
[
1
3
sin
(
cos
2
+ 2
)
]
/2
0

[
1
3
sin
(
cos
2
+ 2
)
]
3/2
2
=
1
3
(1)2
1
3
(1)2
c
d
=
4
3
= 1.33
Reect
It is interesting to compare the value of the drag coefcient for a
cylinder in hypersonic ow to the drag coefcient in subsonic ow.
As the following gures show, there are two distinct cases in sub-
sonic ow:
A. Subcritical: the boundary layer on the surface of the cylinder is
laminar, resulting in early separation and a large wake (Figure
2.3). For 100 Re 2 10
5
the drag coefcient from Figure 2.2
is c
d
1.2 .
B. Supercritical: the boundary layer on the surface of the cylinder
transitions to turbulent before the onset of the adverse pressure
gradient, resulting in delayed separation and smaller wake (Fig-
ure 2.4). For 6 10
5
Re the drag coefcient from Figure 2.2 is
c
d
0.6.
17

Figure 2.2 - Drag coefcient of a circular cylinder as a function of
Reynolds number.

Figure 2.3 - Flow on the lee side of a circular cylinder (von Karman
vortex street) at a subcritical Re. Notice that the ow separates
very close to 0 = 90-deg. and 0 = 270-deg. and the resulting wake
is very large.

Figure 2.4 - Schematic of the ow on the lee side of a circular cylin-
der at supercritical Re. The resulting wake is smaller and corre-
sponds to the dip in the drag coefcient shown in Figure 2.2

2.4 Buoyancy
Archimedes principle states that the buoyancy force on a body is
equal to the weight of the uid it displaces:
B = W
displacedf luid
=
displacedf luid

displacedf luid
g (2.13)
Example Problem 3
Buoyancy and lift force calculation
Dene
18
Figure 2.5 - The German dirigible Graf Zeppelin
Calculate the weight of the Graf Zeppelin given the following:
Volume = 105, 000m
3
Maximum diameter d 30m
Cruise speed V

125km/hr
Cruise altitude 200 m
The Zeppelin is own at a small angle of attack, which produces
a lift coefcient of 0.04 (based on its maximum cross-sectional
area).
Explore
Assumptions
The air density at 200 m is approximately equal to the density at
standard sea level conditions.
The Zeppelin is assumed to be in steady, unaccelerated ight.
Plan / Implement

Figure 2.6 - The free-body diagram for the Graf Zeppelin
From the free-body diagram in Figure 2.6 the weight of the vehicle
is equal to the sum of the buoyancy and the lift forces, so:
W = B + L
From Archimedes principle:
B =
displacedair

air
g = 105, 000
(
1.225
)
9.81 = 1.26 10
6
N
The lift can be found from the lift equation:
L = C
L
q

S
19
where q

= 0.5
air
V
2
= 0.5
(
1.225
)
(
125
3.6
)
2
= 738.45Pa, so
L = C
L
q

S = 0.04
(
738.45
)
30
2
4
= 20.88 10
3
N, and
W = B + L = 1.26 10
6
+ 20.88 10
3
W = 1.28 10
6
N
20
CHAPTER 3
21
Flow Similarity
Learning Objectives
1. Determine if two ows are similar or not.
2. Determine the actual forces on aerospace vehicles through water
/ wind tunnel testing.
3. Use ow similarity concepts to design water / wind tunnel tests.
2.1 Why bother?
Aircraft manufacturers perform several ight tests with prototypes
before committing a new airplane into production. However, by
the time they build a prototype the cost of the airplane has been
locked in for the most part. Hence, they want to do everything pos-
sible to ensure that the prototype will work, as major changes after
the ight tests will be either impossible or very costly. For exam-
ple, they dont want to build an expensive wing and put it on an
airplane only to nd out that it...doesnt y. Aerodynamicists typi-
cally build a model of the wing (3-D) or the airfoil (2-D) and test it
in a water or a wind tunnel. If the test performance is satisfactory,
then they proceed to build the actual wing; if not, they make correc-
tions as necessary, and re-test until the results are satisfactory.
However, we need to make sure that whatever we measure in a
wind tunnel around our model can be extrapolated accurately to
the actual ight vehicle, which is typically much larger. This is
where ow similarity or similitude comes in.
2.1 When are two ows similar?
First of all, there are different kinds of similarity:
2.1.1 Geometric Similarity
For external ows, geometric similarity begins with the shape of
the aerodynamic bodies involved. For example, if we want to com-
pare the ow around a wing model in a wind tunnel with the ow
around the actual airplane wing, the two wings must be exact geo-
metric replicas of each other (i.e., must use the same airfoil and
have the exact same planform shape as determined by sweep an-
gle, taper ratio, dihedral, twist, etc.). For internal ows, geometric
similarity refers to the shape of the channels, through which we
want to direct our uid. If two ows are geometrically similar,
then their streamline patterns will be geometrically similar.
2.1.2 Dynamic Similarity
Dynamic similarity implies that the distributions of any ow pa-
rameter, nondimensionalized by its free stream value and plotted
against appropriate nondimensional coordinates, will be identical
for the ows involved. For example, for the high-speed ow over
a wing, if we plot for the actual wing and its wind tunnel model
V
V

,
p
p

,
T
T

against
x
mac
,
y
b
,
z
t
max
, where mac is the mean
aerodynamic chord of the wing, b is the wingspan, and t
max
is the
maximum wing thickness, we will get exactly the same plots, if the
two ows are dynamically similar.
When two ows are dynamically similar, the corresponding force
coefcients will be identical, i.e.
22

C
L
m
= C
L
p
C
D
m
= C
D
p
C
M
LE,m
= C
M
LE, p
C
p
m
= C
p
p
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

where m refers to the model and p refers to the prototype. These
equations show that if two ows are dynamically similar, we can
calculate the forces on a prototype if we can measure the forces on
a much smaller, and cheaper the make, model.
2.1.3 Conditions for Dynamic Similarity
The obvious question at this point is how can I make sure that the
ow in a water / wind tunnel will be dynamically similar to the ac-
tual ow around an airplane in ight? The condition is that the im-
portant dimensionless numbers (Table 2.1), must be identical for
the two ows.
Incompressible ows: (i.e. all liquid ows and gas ows with M <
0.3), only Re needs to be the same in the ows under considera-
tion.
Compressible ows: (i.e. gas ows with M > 0.3), the Re as well as
M must be the same in the ows under consideration.
Note 1: In many tests, it is not possible to match both M and Re. In
these cases we must always make sure that M is the same, other-
wise the two ows will end up being drastically different and the
test results will have little to do with the actual ow characteristics
of the prototype.
Note 2: To match both M and Re for model and prototype, we may
do one or both of the following:
Cryogenic Wind Tunnels: Decrease the gas temperature in the
tunnel. This accomplishes two things:
(a) it decreases the speed of sound in the tunnel since
a
m
=
m
R
m
T
m
, making it easier to raise M in the test section.
(b) it increases the gas density and decreases the molecular vis-
cosity of the gas in the tunnel since
m
=
p
m
R
m
T
m
and
m
T
m
.
The net effect is an increase in Re as well.
Pressurized Wind Tunnels: Increase the gas pressure in the tun-
nel. This increases the gas density in the tunnel and hence the
Re in the tunnel, as we saw earlier.
Example Problem 1
Design a wind tunnel experiment
Establish ow similarity
Dene
23
Re =
!VL

M =
V
a
Table 2.1 - Dimensionless Numbers in Aerodynamics Table 2.1 - Dimensionless Numbers in Aerodynamics Table 2.1 - Dimensionless Numbers in Aerodynamics
Reynolds
number
Inertial Forces / Viscous Forces
Mach
number
Inertial Forces / Pressure Forces
KE due to uid motion / KE due to
thermal motion
You are designing a wind tunnel test for the Airbus A380-800. The
following information is known about the A380 and the wind tun-
nel:
A380: wingarea: S = 845m
2
wingspan: b = 79.75m
cruisespeed: V = 945km/hr
cruisealt it ude: 10km
WindTunnel: test sect ionairtemperat ure: T
m
= 20
0
C
modelmgc: c
m
= 0.13m
What velocity and pressure would you need in the test section?
Explore
The airspeed of the A380 is high enough for the ow to be consid-
ered compressible. Hence, we need to make sure that both M and
Re similarity is enforced.
Assumptions
The A380 ies at standard atmospheric conditions.
y and Re are the same at altitude and in the wind tunnel.
Air behaves like an ideal gas
Plan
Find air properties at the cruise altitude of 10 km:
T
p
= 49.9
0
C = 223.1K

p
= 0.4135kg/m
3
For M similarity:
M
m
= M
p

V
m
a
m
=
V
p
a
p

V
m
RT
m
=
V
p
RT
p

V
m
T
m
=
V
p
T
p
V
m
= V
p
T
m
T
p
for air: = 1.4 and R = 287J/kg K
For Re similarity:
Re
m
= Re
p

m
V
m
c
m

m
=

p
V
p
c
p

m
V
m
c
m
T
m
=

p
V
p
c
p
T
p

m
=
p
V
p
V
m
c
p
c
m
T
m
T
p
24
taking into consideration that T
To nd the pressure in the test section we use p
m
=
m
RT
m

The mgc may be taken as the characteristic length of the wing:
mgc = c = S/b
Implement
From M similarity:
V
m
= V
p
T
m
T
p
= 945
273 + 20
273 49.9

V
m
= 1, 083km/hr = 300.83m/s
The mgc of the prototype is:
c
p
= S
p
/b
p
= 845/79.75 = 10.6m
From Re similarity:

m
=
p
V
p
V
m
c
p
c
m
T
m
T
p
= 0.4135
945
1, 083

10.6
0.13
293
223.1
= 33.72kg/m
3
and the pressure in the test section needs to be:
p
m
=
m
RT
m
= 33.72(287)293 = 2.835MPa = 27.98at m
Check
Check the Mach numbers for both prototype and model to make
sure the ow is subsonic for both:
M
p
=
V
p
a
p
=
V
p
RT
p
=
262.5
1.4(287)223.1
= 0.877
M
m
=
V
m
a
m
=
V
m
RT
m
=
300.83
1.4(287)293
= 0.877
Reect
Note that the pressure required in the test section is quite high.
However, if we do not pressurize the test section, then Re is going
to be quite a bit lower. The only way to achieve Re similarity will
then be to speed up the ow in the test section. But this would
make the test ow supersonic, while the actual ow around the
A380 is subsonic!
Example Problem 2
Design a wind tunnel experiment
Calculate the forces on the prototype / model
Dene
The following information is known for a water tunnel test of a
model hydrofoil:
V
m
= 20m/sT
H
2
O
m
= 15
0
CL
m
= 10kN

25
The prototype hydrofoil is twice the size of the model and operates
in water of the same temperature as in the water tunnel. What lift
per unit span should be expected on the prototype for dynamically
similar conditions?
Explore
Since we are dealing with water the ow will be considered incom-
pressible. Hence, we only need to establish Re similarity.
Assumptions
Same kind of water (i.e. salt or fresh) in both ows.
The molecular viscosity of the water depends only on the tem-
perature T .
Plan / Implement
A. Establish ow similarity in model and prototype ows:
Re
m
= Re
p

m
V
m
c
m

m
=

p
V
p
c
p

p
since the temperature is the same for model and prototype:

m
=
p
and
m
=
p

Hence, the Re similarity equation reduces to:
V
m
c
m
= V
p
c
p
V
p
= V
m
c
m
c
p
= 20
1
2
V
p
= 10m/s
B. Calculate the force on the prototype:
Now that ow similarity has been established:
C
L
m
= C
L
p

L
m
1
2

m
V
2
m
b
m
c
m
=
L
p
1
2

p
V
2
p
b
p
c
p

L
m
V
2
m
c
m
=
L
p
V
2
p
c
p
L
p
= L
m
V
2
p
V
2
m
c
p
c
m
= 10
(
10
20 )
2
2
1

L
p
= 5kN/m span
26
CHAPTER 4
27
The Governing Equations
of Fluid Mechanics
The governing equations of uid mechanics are:
Continuity (conservation of mass)
Momentum (Newtons 2nd Law of Motion)
Energy (conservation of energy or 1st Law of Thermodynamics)
These equations express mathematically three fundamental laws of
nature. Continuity expresses the fact that mass is conserved. En-
ergy expresses the fact that energy is conserved. Momentum, on
the other hand, expresses Newtons 2nd law of motion F = m a .
Mass and energy are conserved in uid mechanics. To be clear, en-
ergy is conserved as long as we account for all kinds of energy, in-
cluding viscous losses, heat transferred into or out of the uid and
work done by or on the uid. A more complicated way to state
this simple fact is that there are no source terms in Continuity
and Energy. Source terms would imply the creation or destruction
of mass or energy. Momentum, on the other hand, is only con-
served when the sum of the forces acting on the uid is zero. In
most practical cases of interest, however, the sum of the forces act-
ing on the uid is not zero and the momentum of the uid is not
conserved. A more complicated way to state this fact is that the
Momentum equation contains source terms, namely forces. A
force can create momentum out of nothing or it can destroy mo-
mentum.
But what exactly do we mean when we say forces acting on the
uid? If we consider the ow down a waterfall (Movie 3.1) or the
ow over an airplane wing in ight (Figure 3.1), which part of the
uid do we have in mind in each case?

Figure 3.1 - Airplane wing in ight
28
Movie 4.1 Waterfall
Before answering this question we need to consider an analogous
situation from solid mechanics. If we want to study the motion of
an airplane, all we need to do is track the airplane along its path
and apply Newtons 2nd law of motion and the conservation of en-
ergy. Assuming the mass of the airplane is not changing much due
to fuel burn during the time interval under consideration, we do
not need to be concerned with conservation of mass. Furthermore,
there is only one body (the airplane) that we need to keep our eyes
on.
To describe the entire ow eld for the water owing down the wa-
terfall (Movie 3.1) or the air owing over the airplane wing (Figure
3.1) using the same approach as in solid mechanics, we would
have to follow individual uid particles along streamlines and ap-
ply Newtons 2nd law of motion along with the conservation of en-
ergy principle for each and every uid particle (Lagrangian ap-
proach). Clearly, this is an impossible task:(
A different approach is to lock our eyes on an appropriate control
volume in the ow eld enclosed within a control surface and keep
track of the mass, momentum, and energy inside this volume as
well as any mass, momentum, and energy crossing the control sur-
face. In other words, instead of attempting to apply the fundamen-
tal equations for individual uid particles, we apply these equa-
tions to the entire uid within the control volume (Eulerian ap-
proach). The choice of an appropriate control volume is usually ob-
vious from the geometry of the ow. For example, for water ow
in a pipe, the control volume would be cylindrical, touching the
pipe walls. It would also include a front and back circular cross
-sections as part of the control surface through which water enters
and exits the control volume (Figure 3.2).

Figure 3.2 - Control volume (in blue color) for water ow in a pipe
section.
For the airow over the wing in Figure 3.1, a control volume could
be drawn as shown, touching the surface of the wing, extending
up from the wing a certain distance and including a front, a back,
and two side control surfaces.
Figure 3.3 - Control volume (dotted lines) for a section of the air-
ow over the wing in Figure 3.1.
Denitions:
System: a given collection of uid particles
29
Control Volume: a xed volume in space through which uid
ows
Control Surface: the surface enclosing a control volume
30
CHAPTER 5
31
Continuity
Mathematical Expression:
Dm
sys
Dt
= 0 (1)
The total derivative (also known as substantial, material or Eule-
rian derivative) is used in the mathematical expression for continu-
ity, to illustrate the fact that the time rate of change of mass must
be measured in an inertial (i.e. non-accelerating, also know as Gali-
lean) reference frame.
Consider the ow through the nozzle of a jet engine, a schematic of
which is shown in Figure 4.1, along with a control volume.
Figure 4.1 - Schematic of the ow through the nozzle of a
jet engine.
There are two possibilities as the hot gases ow through the con-
trol volume (nozzle):
A. Steady Flow:
dm
cv
dt
= 0 i.e., the mass of the gases inside the con-
trol volume remains constant. If this is the case, then m
in
= m
out

B. Unsteady Flow:
dm
cv
dt
0 i.e., the mass of the gases inside the con-
trol volume changes with time (either increasing or decreasing, de-
pending on whether there is more mass going in or coming out). If
this is the case, then m
in
m
out
Hence, we can replace the total derivative for the mass of the sys-
tem with the following mass balance for the control volume:
(
m
out
m
in)
+
dm
cv
dt
= 0
or m
in
m
out
=
dm
cv
dt
(2)
This is the most general form of Continuity written in a form
slightly more complicated than equation (1) but much easier to ap-
ply, as we show in the following sections.
4.1 Water Flow in a Pipe
Consider water ow in a pipe of constant cross-sectional area.
Imagine the valve, which controls the ow, set at a xed setting, so
that the ow rate remains constant with time. This ow may be as-
sumed steady, incompressible, and one-dimensional.
32
Physical Principle: the mass of a system is conserved.

Figure 4.2 - Schematic of water ow in a cylindrical pipe of
constant cross-sectional area A.
In this simple case, one can easily guess that the average velocity
of the water in section 1 should be exactly the same as the average
velocity of the water in section 2 . It simply wouldnt make sense
to expect otherwise.
To formalize this observation using Continuity, we need to dene a
control volume. For this problem the choice is rather obvious (blue
color from section 1 to section 2 in Figure 4.2). We want to track
water owing from point 1 to point 2 in a cylindrical pipe, hence
the control volume should be a cylinder coinciding with the pipe
walls between 1 and 2 with the circular cross-sectional areas of the
pipe at points 1 and 2 serving as the front and rear control surfaces.
Obviously, the mass of the water inside such a control volume does
not change with time, as the water inside has a xed volume and
density, so

dm
cv
dt
= 0
Hence, from equation (2)
m
1
= m
2

i.e., the mass ow rate entering the control volume through the con-
trol surface at 1 must be exactly the same as the mass ow rate leav-
ing the control volume through the control surface at 2. Using
volumetric ow rate Q, we can re-write this equation as

1
Q
1
=
2
Q
2
But water ow is incompressible, so

1
=
2
= = const .
and Continuity reduces to:
Q
1
= Q
2
orV
1
A
1
= V
2
A
2
In other words, for incompressible ow Continuity requires that
the volumetric rate of ow entering the control volume must be
the same as the volumetric rate of ow leaving the control volume.
Since the pipe has constant cross-sectional area
A
1
= A
2
and Continuity reduces to an even simpler form:
V
1
= V
2
In conclusion, for steady, incompressible, one-dimensional ow,
the conservation of mass requires that the average velocity be the
same at every cross section of the ow.
Example 4.1
Consider the 800-mile long trans-Alaskan pipeline shown below.
33

Figure 4.3 - The trans-Alaskan pipeline.
The pipe has a constant diameter of 121.92 cm. In steady ow the
oil velocity in one section of the pipe was measured at 2.67 m/s.
What is the oil velocity in a section of the pipe located 125 m down-
stream?
Solution
For steady, incompressible ow in a constant diameter pipe Conti-
nuity requires that
V
1
= V
2
Hence the oil velocity at any pipe cross-section must be the same,
namely 2.67 m/s.
4.2 Water Flow in a Nozzle
Consider
34
35
Review 5.1 Lorem Ipsum dolor amet, consectetur
Check Answer
Question 1 of 3
Continuity says:
A. You will live forever
B. Answer 2
C. Answer 3
D. Answer 4
E. Answer 5
F. Answer 6
Aliquam turpis tellus. Id malesuada lectus. Suspendisse potenti. Etiam felis nisl, cursus bibendum
tempus nec. Aliquam at turpis tellus. Id malesuada lectus. Suspendisse potenti. Etiam felis nisl, cursus
bibendum tempus nec, aliquet ac magna. Pellentesque a tellus orci. Pellentesque tellus tortor, sagittis
ut cursus vitae, adipiscing id neque.
CHAPTER 6
36
Momentum
Aliquam turpis tellus. Id malesuada lectus. Suspendisse potenti. Etiam felis nisl, cursus bibendum
tempus nec. Aliquam at turpis tellus. Id malesuada lectus. Suspendisse potenti. Etiam felis nisl, cursus
bibendum tempus nec, aliquet ac magna. Pellentesque a tellus orci. Pellentesque tellus tortor, sagittis
ut cursus vitae, adipiscing id neque.
CHAPTER 7
37
Energy
Aliquam turpis tellus. Id malesuada lectus. Suspendisse potenti. Etiam felis nisl, cursus bibendum
tempus nec. Aliquam at turpis tellus. Id malesuada lectus. Suspendisse potenti. Etiam felis nisl, cursus
bibendum tempus nec, aliquet ac magna. Pellentesque a tellus orci. Pellentesque tellus tortor, sagittis
ut cursus vitae, adipiscing id neque.
CHAPTER 8
38
Boundary Layers
Aliquam turpis tellus. Id malesuada lectus. Suspendisse potenti. Etiam felis nisl, cursus bibendum
tempus nec. Aliquam at turpis tellus. Id malesuada lectus. Suspendisse potenti. Etiam felis nisl, cursus
bibendum tempus nec, aliquet ac magna. Pellentesque a tellus orci. Pellentesque tellus tortor, sagittis
ut cursus vitae, adipiscing id neque.
CHAPTER 9
39
Flow Modeling
SECTION 1
1. Streamlines
Figure 9.1 - Illustration of ow streamlines around an airfoil
What are they? - Lines tangent to the local velocity vector at any
point of the ow (Figure 9.1)
Why do we need them? - To visualize a ow.
Mathematical Denition
d s V = 0 (9.1)
This equation can be expanded in different coordinate systems, to
match the geometry of the problem we are trying to solve.
In Cartesian coordinates:
d s V = 0
^
i
^
j
^
k
dx dy dz
u w
= 0
(wdy dz)
^
i + (udz wdx)
^
j + (dx udy)
^
k = 0
(9.2)
In cylindrical coordinates:
1. Streamlines
2. Vorticity
3. Circulation
4. Stream Function
5. Velocity Potential
Vocabulary for Flow Modeling
40
d s V = 0
^
e
r
r
^
e

^
e
z
dr rd dz
u
r
ru

u
z
= 0
(ru
z
d ru

dz)
^
e
r
(u
z
dr u
r
dz)r
^
e

+ (ru

dr ru
r
d)
^
e
z
= 0
(9.3)
For 2-D ow elds (plane motion) we can simplify the above equa-
tions to:
dx udy = 0 udy = dx (9.2a)
ru

dr ru
r
d = 0 ru

dr = ru
r
d (9.2b)
Problem Solving Methodology (PSM)
Start with equation (9.2).
Substitute for u and in (9.2a), if the velocity components are
given in Cartesian coordinates or for u
r
and u

## in (9.2b), if the ve-

locity components are given in polar coordinates.
Separate the variables in the resulting ODE and solve by direct
integration. This will result in a function f
(
x, y
)
= 0 or g(r, ),
which describes the shape of the streamlines.
Identify the ow eld.
Example 1 - Streamlines in Cartesian coordinates
A 2-D ow eld is described by its velocity components in Carte-
sian coordinates:
u =
cx
(x
2
+ y
2
)
=
cy
(x
2
+ y
2
)
(9.4)
where c is a constant.
(a) Derive the equation of the streamlines.
(b) Plot the streamlines.
(c) What kind of ow is this?
Following the PSM:
udy = dx
cx
(x
2
+ y
2
)
dy = =
cy
(x
2
+ y
2
)
dx
xdy = ydx
dy
y
=
dx
x

dy
y
=

dx
x
lny = lnx + c
1
= ln(xc
2
)
y = c
2
x(9.5)
The streamlines are thus straight lines emanating from the origin
(source) or converging to the origin (sink) as shown in Figure 2.
Figure 2 - Streamlines for the ow of Example 1
41
Example 2 - Streamlines in polar coordinates
A 2-D ow eld is described by its velocity components in polar
coordinates:
u
r
=
c
r
and u

= 0 (9.6)
where c is a constant.
(a) Derive the equation of the streamlines.
(b) Plot the streamlines.
(c) What kind of ow is this?
Following again the PSM:
ru

dr = ru
r
d
r(0)dr = r
c
r
d
0 = cd = c
1
r(9.7)
Lines of constant polar angle are straight lines passing through
the origin. Hence we have again the streamlines shown in Figure 2
for a source or a sink at the origin. Thus we see that it is possible
to describe the same ow eld in both Cartesian and polar coordi-
nates.
2. Vorticity
iop
3. Circulation
jk
4. Stream Function
uio
5. Velocity Potential
iop
42
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ut cursus vitae, adipiscing id neque.
CHAPTER 10
43
Airfoils
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bibendum tempus nec, aliquet ac magna. Pellentesque a tellus orci. Pellentesque tellus tortor, sagittis
ut cursus vitae, adipiscing id neque.
CHAPTER 11
44
Wings
CHAPTER 12
45
Rayleigh Flow
Learning Objectives
1. Dene and explain physically stagnation and sonic (critical)
conditions for ow with heat addition.
2. Use thermodynamics (e.g. equation of state, denition of en-
thalpy, ideal gas law, etc.) and conservation equations to cal-
culate ow, stagnation and critical parameters at various
points of a ow eld with heat addition.
3. Explain physically what happens to ow properties (e.g. pres-
sure, velocity, temperature, etc.) when the ow is heated or
cooled.
Example 2
Heat addition in subsonic ow
Thermal choking of a subsonic ow
Dene
Air enters a constant area duct at
M
1
= 0.25, p
1
=1atm, T
1
=15
0
C . Inside the duct heat is added
at a rate of q =1.5 !10
6
kJ / kg . Calculate the ow properties
M
2
, p
2
, T
2
, !
2
, T
02
, p
02
at the exit of the duct.
Explore
Assumptions
Air behaves like a calorically perfect gas, so:
c
p
=
! R
! !1
=
1.4
287
( )
1.4 !1
=1, 005
J
kg" K
Friction effects are negligible.
Plan / Implement
Step 1 - Calculate stagnation ow conditions at the entry of the
duct using isentropic ow tables:
M
1
= 0.25
IFCalculator
IFtables
! " !!!
T
01
T
1
=1.013#T
01
=1.013 273+15
( ) !T
01
= 291.7 K
p
01
p
1
=1.045 !T
01
=1.045 1
( ) ! p
01
=1.045 atm
Step 2 - Calculate the stagnation temperature at the exit using the
energy equation:
h
02
= h
01
+ q !c
p
T
02
= c
p
T
01
+ q !T
02
=
q
c
p
+T
01
=
1.5 "10
6
1, 005
+ 291.7 !
T
02
=1, 784.2 K
Step 3 - Calculate the ratios of the ow conditions at the entry to
those at a thermally choked point in the ow. Keep in mind that
such a point may not actually exist anywhere in the ow. How-
ever, we can still use it as a reference point, through which we will
connect with the conditions at the duct exit.
M
1
= 0.25
HAT
! " !!
T
1
T
*
= 0.30,
p
1
p
#
= 0.22,
p
01
p
0
#
=1.22,
T
01
T
0
#
= 0.22
Step 4 - Calculate the ratio of the stagnation temperature at the
duct exit to the stagnation temperature at a thermally choked
point, using ratios.
46
T
02
T
0
!
=
T
02
T
01
T
01
T
0
!
=
1, 784.2
291.7
0.22
( ) =1.346
However,
T
02
T
0
!
cannot exceed 1, its maximum value at a thermally
choked point of the ow, where M = 1. Hence, the conditions at
the exit will be sonic (thermally choked) and the conditions up-
stream will adjust accordingly.
Step 5 - Calculate the ow conditions at the duct exit.
Since the ow is choked at the exit:
M
2
=1
T
2
= T
!
=
T
1
0.3
=
288
0.3
"T
2
= T
!
= 960 K
p
2
= p
!
=
p
1
0.22
=
1
0.22
" p
2
= p
!
= 4.55 atm
p
02
= p
0
!
=
p
01
1.22
=
1.045
1.22
" p
02
= p
0
!
= 0.86 atm
T
02
= T
0
!
=
47
CHAPTER 13
48
Fanno Flow
Learning Objectives
1. Dene and explain physically stagnation and sonic (critical)
conditions for ow with friction.
2. Explain physically what happens to ow properties (e.g. pres-
sure, velocity, temperature, etc.) in a ow with friction.
3. Use thermodynamics (e.g. equation of state, denition of en-
thalpy, ideal gas law, etc.) and conservation equations to cal-
culate ow, stagnation, and critical properties at various
points of a ow eld with friction.
Example 1
Subsonic ow with friction
Dene
Air ows in a pipe with d = 0.25 m, L = 50 m, f = 0.004 . The
inlet conditions are M
1
= 0.25, p
1
=1atm, T
1
=15
0
C . Calculate
the ow properties M
2
, p
2
, T
2
, !
2
, T
02
, p
02
at the exit of the pipe.
Explore
Assumptions
Adiabatic ow
Plan / Implement
Step 1 - Calculate any missing ow parameters at the inlet using
isentropic ow tables / calculator:
M
1
= 0.25
IFCalculator
IFTables
! " !!!
p
1
p
01
= 0.957 # p
01
=
p
1
0.957
=
1
0.957
# p
01
=1.045 atm
T
1
T
01
= 0.988 #T
01
=
T
1
0.988
=
273+15
( )
0.988
!T
01
= 291.5 K
Step 2 - Calculate the ratios of the inlet conditions to those at a
friction-choked point in the ow. Keep in mind that such a point
may not actually exist anywhere in the ow. However, we can still
use it as a reference point, through which we will connect with the
conditions at the pipe exit.
M
1
= 0.25
FCalculator
FTables
! " !!!
4 fL
1
#
D
= 8.483
T
1
T
*
=1.19,
p
1
p
#
= 4.36,
p
01
p
0
#
= 2.40
Step 3 - Calculate the friction parameter at the pipe exit and from it
the ratios of the ow parameters at the exit to those at a friction-
choked point.
L = L
1
!
" L
2
!
# L
2
!
= L
1
!
" L #
4 fL
2
!
D
=
4 fL
1
!
D
"
4 fL
D
= 8.483"
4
0.004
( )50
0.25
!
4 fL
2
"
D
= 5.283
FrCalculator
FrTables
# \$ ###
M
2
= 0.3 ,
T
2
T
"
=1.18,
p
2
p
"
= 3.62,
p
02
p
0
"
= 2.03
49
Step 4 - Calculate the ow parameters at the pipe exit using appro-
priate ratios and equations from thermodynamics, as needed.

p
2
=
p
2
p
!
p
!
p
1
p
1
= 3.62
1
4.36
1
( ) ! p
2
= 0.83 atm
T
2
=
T
2
T
"
T
"
T
1
T
1
=1.18
1
1.19
273+15
( ) ! T
2
= 285.6 K
!
2
=
p
2
RT
2
=
0.83 101, 325 ( )
287
285.6
( )
! !
2
=1.026 kg / m
3
T
02
= T
01
= 291.5 K
p
02
=
p
02
p
0
!
p
0
!
p
01
p
01
= 2.03
1
2.4
1.045 " p
02
= 0.88 atm
50
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tempus nec. Aliquam at turpis tellus. Id malesuada lectus. Suspendisse potenti. Etiam felis nisl, cursus
bibendum tempus nec, aliquet ac magna. Pellentesque a tellus orci. Pellentesque tellus tortor, sagittis
ut cursus vitae, adipiscing id neque.
CHAPTER 14
51
Testing