You are on page 1of 33

Police Organization and

Presented By:
Crmngst. Dominic Guiao
What is the etymology of the word
The word police originated
from the Greek word
“politeia” which means
government of a city or civil
organization and the state
How did policing formally
 In 1829, Sir Robert Peel introduced the
Metropolitan Act, passed by the parliament of
England in the same year, which led to the
creation of Metropolitan Police Force of London,
which is viewed as the first organized
uniformed police force. This police force was
later on named as the Scotland Yard. Being
the originator and the first head of such police
organization, Sir Robert Peel has earned the
title “Father of Modern Policing System”
What are the fundamental theories of police
 Continental Theory – Police officers are considered
servants of the higher authorities and the people
have little or no share at all in their duties, nor any
direct connection with them. This theory prevail among
continental countries, like France, Italy, Spain, where the
governmental structure follows the centralized pattern.
 Home-Rule Theory – Police officers are considered as
servants of the community who depend for the
effectiveness of their functions upon the express wishes
of the people. In this theory, police officers are civil
employees whose primary duty is the preservation of
public peace and security. This is practiced in England
and in United States of America, where the
governmental structure is decentralized.
What are the fundamental concepts of
police service?
 Old Concept – police service is looked upon the
police as merely as repressive machinery. This old
philosophy means throwing more people in jail
rather than keeping them out of jail. Under this
concept, punishment is the sole instrument of
crime control. The yardstick of efficiency of
the police is more arrest.
 Modern Concept – police service considers the
police as an organ of crime prevention. Police
service today has broadened its activities to
include certain aspects of social service and has for
its objective the welfare of the individual as well as
that of the society. Under this philosophy, the
yardstick of efficiency of the police is the
absence of crime.
What is the organizational structure
of the PNP?
 Line and Staff Organization
Is a combination of the line and functional
types. It combines staff specialists such as the
criminalist, the training officer, the research and
development specialist etc. Channels of
responsibility is to “think and provide expertise”
for the line units. The line supervisor must
remember that he obtains advice from the staff
What are the different functions in
the PNP?
 Line functions – are the backbone of the police
department which include patrol, investigation and
traffic control which is performed by “line members”
including patrol officer, sergeant and the chief of police
 Staff functions – are those operations assigned to
support the line functions, staff members are
necessarily advisors who are typically assigned to
planning, research, legal advice and budgeting.
Staff members are often civilians with specialized training.
The main function is to study police policies and practices
and to offer proposals to the chief executive of the
What are the fundamental
principles of police organization?
 Unity of command
 Chain of command
 Span of control
 Delegation of authority
 Command responsibility
How did policing in the Philippines
 Spanish Regime
 The Guardrilleros – This was body of rural police
organized in each town and established by the Royal Decree
of January 8, 1836. This Act provided that 5% of the able-
bodied male inhabitants of each province were to be
enlisted in this police organization for 3 years.
 Carabineros de Seguridad Publica – This was organized
in 1712 for the purpose of carrying out the regulations of
the department of state. It was armed with carbines. In
1781, it was given the special commission of government
custodian of the tobacco monopoly. By Royal Decree on
December 20, 1842, it was organized and called CUERPO DE
become police like and more general.
 The Guardia Civil – this was created by a Royal decree
issued by the Crown on February 12, 1852 to partially
relieve the Spanish Peninsular troops of their work in
policing towns. It was composed mostly of Filipinos.
 American Occupation
 November 30, 1980 – creation of Insular Police Force
 July 18, 1901 – creation of Insular Constabulary by
Virtue of Act # 175
 July 31, 1901 – Manila Police Department was
organized by virtue of Act # 183
 October 3, 1901 – Insular Constabulary was changed to
Philippine Constabulary by virtue of Act # 255
 January 2, 1942 – first element of the Japanese
Imperial Army entered manila called KEMPETAI. It is on
this date that Manila Police department was renamed
Metropolitan Constabulary under the Bureau of
 February 7, 1945 – General Macarthur returned to the
Philippines and the Battle of Manila ended. Manila Police
Department was reconstituted.
 Related Laws
Republic Act # 4864 (Police Act of 1966) – it was enacted
on September 8, 1966 which created the Office of Police
Commission which was later called NAPOLCOM.
Presidential Decree # 765 – it was enacted on August 8,
1975 which created the Integrated National Police and
provides for the NAPOLCOM to be under the Office of
Ministry of National Defense
Republic Act #6040 (Tolentino Law) – empowering the
Police Commission to give appropriate examinations to
officers and members of police force aimed at
professionalizing police services.
Republic Act #6975 (Department of Interior and Local
Government Act of 1990) – establishing the Philippine
National Police. Enacted December 13, 1990 which
abolished the PC-INP and created agencies under the DILG
Republic Act #8551 (PNP Reform and Reorganization
Act of 1998) – created on February 25, 1998 which
provides for the reformation and professionalization of the
What is the organizational set-up of
the PNP?
 The PNP shall be headed by A Chief, with a
rank of Director General, who shall be
assisted by two Deputy Chiefs: One for
Administration, who happens to be the
second in command; and one for Operation
who is third in command with a rank of
Deputy Director General.
 The head of the Directorial Staff with the rank
of Deputy Director General is known as Chief of
the Directorial Staff of the PNP.
 The PNP organizational structure is composed
of a National Office, Regional Offices, Provincial
Offices, district Offices, and City/municipal offices.
What is the manning level in the PNP?
 On the average nationwide, the manning levels
of the PNP shall be approximately in
accordance with a police-to-population ration of
one policeman to every 500 persons. The
actual strength of the city or municipal police
stations shall depend on the state of peace and
order, population density and actual demands
of the service in the particular area. Provided,
that the minimum police-to-population
ratio shall not be less than one policeman
to every 1000 persons.
What are the different ranks in the PNP
and their equivalence in the military?
 Police Ranks
 A. Commissioned Officers (PCO)

 Director General (DG)
 Deputy Director General (DDG)
 Director (Dir)
 Chief Superintendent (CSupt)
 Senior Superintendent (SSupt)
Superintendent (Supt)
 Chief Inspector (CInsp)
 Senior Inspector (SInsp)
 Inspector (Insp)
 Non-Commissioned Officers (PNCO)
 Senior Police Officer IV (SPO IV)
 Senior Police Officer III (SPO III)
 Senior Police Officer II (SPO II)
 Senior Police Officer I (SPO I)
 Police Officer III (PO III)
 Police Officer II (PO II)
 Police Officer I (PO I)
 Cadets of the Philippine National Police Academy are
classified above the SPO4 and below Inspector
rank in the PNP
What is the age, height, weight and
educational requirement in the PNP?
 Age requirement – for new applicants, must
not be less than 21 years of age at the time of
application or more than 30 years of age
 Height requirement – 5’4” (1.62m) for male
and 5’2” (1.57m) for females or 5’2” for males
and 5’0” for females under the waiver program
 Weight requirement – must not be more or
less 5 kilograms of the standard weight
corresponding to his/her height, age and sex.
 Educational Requirement- baccalaureate
 What are the natures of appointment in the
 Temporary – if the applicant passes through
the waiver program as provided by RA 8551
 Probationary – if the applicant passes
through the regular screening procedures
 Permanent – if the applicant able to finish the
required field training program for
 How is appointment in the PNP affected?
 PO1 to SPO4 – appointed by the PNP Regional
Director for Regional personnel or by the Chief PNP
for National Headquarters’ personnel and attested by the
Civil Service Commission (CSC)
 Inspector to Superintendent – appointed by the
Chief PNP as recommended by their immediate
supervisor and attested by the CSC.
 Sr. Supt. to Dep. Dir. Gen. – Appointed by the
President upon the recommendation of the Chief PNP
with the endorsement of the CSC and with confirmation
by the Commission on Appointment (CA).
 Director General – appointed by the President from
among the most senior officers down to the rank of
Chief Superintendent in the service subject to the
confirmation of the Commission on Appointments.
 How is waiver for initial appointment affected in
the PNP?
The age, height and weight and educational requirements for initial
appointment to the PNP may be waived only when the number of qualified
applicants falls below the minimum annual quota.
The NAPOLCOM may grant waiver of age, height, weight or educational
Waiver of age may be granted provided the applicant should not be less than
20 or over 35 years of age.
Waiver of the height requirement may be granted to male applicant who is at
least 1.57m and 1.52m for female applicants; provided that the NAPOLCOM
may set a lower height requirement for applicants who belong to cultural
minorities duly certified by the Office of Muslim Affairs of the Appropriate
Government Entity. Provided, further, that the NAPOLCOM may require said
applicant to submit their membership in a certain cultural minority.
An applicant who is granted a weight requirement shall be given reasonable
time but not exceeding 6 months within which to comply with said
Waiver of educational requirements may be granted to an applicant who has
finished second year college or has earned at least 72 collegiate units
leading to a bachelor’s degree. Provided that any person who will enter the
service without a baccalaureate degree shall be given a maximum of four
years to obtain the required educational requirements.
How is lateral entry affected in the
 In general, all original appointment for
Commissioned Officers (CO) shall commenced with
the rank of Inspector, such as dentist,
optometrist, nurses, engineers, and graduates of
forensic sciences. Doctors of Medicine,
members of the Bar and Chaplains shall be
appointed to the Rank of Senior Inspector in
their particular technical services. Graduates of
the PNPA shall be automatically appointed to the
initial rank of Inspector. Licensed
Criminologist may be appointed to the rank of
Inspector to fill up any vacancy.
How is PNP performance evaluation
 Appraisal refers to the process of measuring
the performance of PNP members. It is also
known as “Performance Evaluation
System”. The Performance Evaluation in the
PNP is focused on two areas: administrative
(40%), and operational (60 %). It is
conducted once every 6 months or twice a
 Promotion by Virtue of Exhibited Acts (Special
 Promotion by Virtue of Position
 Any PNP member designated to any key position
whose rank is lower than which is required for such
position shall, after 6 months of occupying the same,
be entitled to a promotion, subject to the availability
of vacant positions. Provided, that the member shall
not be reassigned to a position calling for a higher
rank until after two years form the date of such
promotion. Provided further, that any member
designated to the position who does not possess the
established minimum qualifications thereof shall
occupy the same for not more than 6 months without
 How is PNP attrition?
Attrition by Attainment of Maximum tenure of PNP
members holding key positions as prescribed herein:
Position Maximum Tenure
PNP Chief 4 Years
PNP Dep. Director 4 Years
Director for Staff Service 4 Years
Regional Directors 6 Years
Provincial/City Director 9 Years
Attrition by Relief – A PNP uniformed personnel who has
been relieved for just cause and has not been given an
assignment within 2 years after such relief shall be retired or
 Attrition by Demotion in Position or Rank - Any PNP
personnel, civilian or uniformed, who is relieved and
assigned to a position lower than what is established for his
or her grade in the PNP Staffing Pattern and who shall not
be assigned to a position commensurate to his or her grade
within 18 months after such demotion in position shall be
retired or separated.
 Attrition by Non-promotion – Any PNP personnel
who has not been promoted for a continuous period of
10 years shall be retired or separated.
 Any personnel of the PNP who is dismissed pursuant to
attrition shall be retired if he or she has rendered at
least 20 years of service and separated if he or she has
rendered less than 20 years unless the personnel is
disqualified by law to receive such benefits.
How is the salary of PNP members?
 The uniformed members of the PNP are
considered employees of the National
Government and draw their salaries there
from. They have the same salary grade that of
a public school teacher, PNP member
assigned in Metropolitan Manila, Chartered
Cities and first class municipalities may be paid
financial incentives by the local government
unit concerned subject to the availability of
What are the PNP benefits and privileges?
Incentives and Awards – The DILG shall promulgate
standards on incentives and award system in the PNP
administered by the Board of Incentives and Awards.
Awards may be in the form of decorations, service
medals and citation badges or in monetary
 Authorized decorations are:
 Police Medal of Valor
 Police Medal of Merit
 Wounded Police Medal
 Police Efficiency Medal
 Police Service Medal
 Police Unit Citation badge
 Posthumous Award – in case an individual who
distinguish himself dies before the granting of the
 Longevity Pay and Allowances – Under RA 6975, PNP
personnel are entitled to longevity pay of 10% of their
basic monthly salaries for every five years of service but
the totality of such longevity pay does not exceed 50% of
the basic pay. However, they also continue to enjoy the:
 Subsistence allowance
 Quarter allowance
 Clothing allowance
 Cost of living allowance
 Hazard pay
 Others
 Retirement Benefits – There is a monthly retirement
pay of 50% of the base pay and longevity pay of the
retired grade in case of 20 years of active service,
increasing by 2.5% for every year of active service and
rendered beyond 20 years to maximum of 90% for 36 years
of service and over. Payment of the retirement benefit in
lump sum is made within 6 months from effectivity date of
retirement and/or completion. Retirement pay of PNP
members is subject of adjustment based on prevailing scale
of base pay of Police personnel in the active service.
 Permanent Physical Disability – A PNP member who
is permanently and totally disabled as a result of injuries
suffered or sickness contracted in the performance of
duty as certified by the NAPOLCOM, upon finding and
certification of a medical officer, that the extent of
disability or sickness render such member unfit or
unable to further perform the duties of his/her position,
is entitled to a gratuity pay equivalent to a one years
salary and to a lifetime pension equivalent to 80% of
his/her last salary, in addition to other benefits as
provided by existing laws.
 Early retirement Benefit – A PNP member at his or
her own request and with the approval of the
NAPOLCOM, retire from the police service and he paid
separation benefits corresponding to a position 2 ranks
higher than hi/her present rank, whether temporary
or permanent subject to conditions:
What are the nature of complaints
against PNP members?
 Citizen’s Complaint – Any complaint by a natural or
juridical person against any PNP member shall be
brought before the following:
 Chiefs of Police – where the offense is punishable by
withholding of privileges, restriction to specified limits,
suspension or forfeiture of salary, or any combination
thereof, for a period not exceeding 15 days;
 Mayors of cities and municipalities – where the offense
is punishable by withholding of privileges, restriction to
specified limits, suspension or forfeiture of salary, or any
combination thereof, for a period of not less than 16 days
but not exceeding 30 days;
 People’s Law Enforcement Board (PLEB) - where the
offense is punishable by withholding of privileges, restriction
to specified limits, suspension or forfeiture of salary, or any
combination thereof, for a period exceeding 30 days or
 Breach of Internal Discipline – refers to any
offense committed by a PNP member affecting
order and discipline within the police organization.
 Chiefs of Police or equivalent supervisor may
summarily impose the administrative penalties in all
cases provided that it does not exceed 15 days.
 Provincial Director or equivalent supervisor may
summarily impose the administrative penalties in all
cases provided that it does not exceed 30 days.
 The Regional Director or equivalent supervisor may
summarily impose the administrative penalties in all
cases provided that it does not exceed 60 days.
 The Chief PNP or equivalent supervisor may summarily
impose the administrative penalty of dismissal from
service. He may also impose the penalty of admonition
or reprimand, restrictive custody, withholding of
privileges, suspension or forfeiture of salary, demotion,
or any combination thereof for a period not exceeding
180 days.
 A “minor offense” shall refer to any act or omission
not involving moral turpitude, but affecting internal
discipline which include but not limited to the following
 a. Simple misconduct or negligence
 b. Insubordination
 c. Frequent absences or tardiness
 d. Habitual Drunkenness
 e. Gambling prohibited by law.
 “Forum shopping” or multiple filing complaints –
When an administrative case is filed with a police
disciplinary authority, no other case involving the
same cause of action shall be filed with any other
disciplinary authority.