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Atlas of

rock-forming minerals
in thin sections
W. S. MacKenzie and C. Guilford
Longman Scientific & Technical
!"#
This full-colour hand$ook illustrates the a%%earance of common rock-forming minerals as
seen in thin section under the %olarizing microsco%e. &t is not intended to re%lace a mineralog'
te(t$ook - rather it is designed to $e used as a la$orator' manual alongside the standad te(ts) $' all
students of earth sciences from si(th form to honours degree le*el.
The $ook contains o*er +## %hotomicrogra%hs accom%anied $' short descri%tions and
summaries of the o%tical %ro%erties of the *arious minerals. The %hotogra%hs are taken in either
%lane-%olarized light or under crossed %olars) and are careefull' chosen to sho, the features $'
,ich the minerals can most easil' recognized.
W. S. MacKenzie) -h.) /0S1) /GS) is -rofessor of -etrolog' at the 2ni*ersit' of Manchester.
C. Guilford) /GS) is the Su%erintendent of the .e%artment of
Geolog' at the 2ni*ersit' of Manchester
CONTENTS
Preface i* Musco*ite 34
Introduction * 5iotite 33
Birefringence chart *i Stil%nomelane 36
7li*ine -'ro%h'llite 3"
Monticellite 8 Talc 3!
Chondrodite 4 Chlorite 9#
:ircon 9 Ser%entine 9+
S%hene 6 -rehnite 98
Garnet " Microcline 94
;esu*ianite ! -erthite & Micro%erthite 93
Sillimanite # Sanidine 99
Mullite + Anorthoclase 96
Andalusite 8 -lagioclase 9"
Andalusite & Sillimanite 4 <uartz 6#
intergro,th 3 M'rmekite 6+
K'anite 9 Grano%h'ric te(ture 68
To%az 6 Trid'mite 64
Staurolite " Cristo$alite 63
Chloritoid ! =e%heline 69
Sa%%hirine +# Sanidine & =e%heline 6"
1udial'te + Leucite 6!
:oisite ++ =osean "#
1%idote +8 Cancrinite "
-iemontite +4 Sca%olite "+
Allanite +3 Analcite "8
L,sonite +9 Corundum "4
-um%ell'ite +6 0utile "3
Melilite +" -ero*skite "9
Cordierite 8# S%inel "6
Tourmaline 8+ 5rucite ""
A(inite 84 Calcite "!
7rtho%'ro(ene 83 .olomite !#
Augite 89 A%atite !+
Titanaugite 86 /luorite !8
Clino%'ro(ene & 7rtho%'ro(ene .eerite !4
intergro,th 8" >o,eieite !3
Aegirine-augite 8! :ussmanite !9
?adeite 4# @oderite !6
Wollastonite 4 Index !"
-ectolite 4+
Antho%h'llite - Gedrite 48
Cummingtonite - Grunerite 44
Tremolite - /erroactinolite 43
>orn$lende 49
Kaersutite 4"
Glauco%hane 4!
Arf*edsonite 3#
Aenigmatite 3
Astro%h'llite 3+
Lam%ro%h'llite 38
INDEX
Actinolite 45 Muscovite 54
Aegirine-augite 39 Myrmekite 72
Aenigmatite 51 Nepheline 76 - 7
Allanite 25 Nosean !
Analcite 3 "livine 1 - 2
An#alusite 13 - 15 "rthite 25
Anorthoclase 67 "rthopyro$ene 35
Anthophyllite 43 %ectolite 42
Apatite 92 %erovskite 6
Ar&ve#sonite 5! %erthite 65
Astrophyllite 52 %iemontite 24
Augite 36 - 37 %lagioclase 6 - 69
A$inite 34 %rehnite 63
'iotite 55 - 57 %umpellyite 27
'rucite %yrophyllite 5
(alcite 9 )uart* 7! - 71
(ancrinite 1 +utile 5
(hlorite 6! - 61 ,ani#ine 66 - 7
(hloritoi# 19 ,apphirine 2!
(hon#ro#ite 4 - 5 ,capolite 2
(or#ierite 3! - 31 ,erpentine 62
(orun#um 4 ,illimanite 1! - 11- 15
(risto.alite 75 ,phene 7
(ummingtonite 44 ,pinel 7
/eerite 94 ,taurolite 1
/olomite 9! - 91 ,tilpnomelane 57
0pi#ote 23 1alc 59
0u#ialyte 21 1opa* 17
2ayalite 1 - 2 1ourmaline 32 - 33
2erroactinolite 45 1remolite 45
2luorite 93 1ri#ymite 74
2orsterite 1 - 2 3esuvianite 9
4arnet 5ollastonite 41
4e#rite 43 6o#erite 97
4laucophane 49 7ircon 6
4ranophyric te$ture 73 7oisite 22
4runerite 44 7ussmanite 96
8orn.len#e 46-47
8o9ieite 95
:#ocrase 9
;a#eite 4!
<aersutite 4
<yanite 16
=amprophyllite 53
=a9sonite 26
=eucite 79
Melilite 2 - 29
Microcline 64
Monticellite 3
Mullite 12
PREFACE
The %ur%ose of this $ook is to illustrate the a%%earance of man' of the common rock-
forming minerals in thin section under the microsco%e. &t is not our intention that it should $e used
as a su$stitute for a mineralog' te(t$ook $ut rather as a la$orator' hand$ook for use in %ractical
classes together ,ith one of the standard te(t$ooks on mineralog'.
The idea of %roducing a series of %hotogra%hs of minerals in thin section came from t,o
sources. The son of one of the authors) &. 0. MacKenzie) then in his second 'ear as a student of
geolog') suggested that these ,ould $e a useful aid in recognizing minerals under the microsco%e.
7n Auestioning undergraduates in second-'ear Geolog' classes in Manchester 2ni*ersit') ,h' the'
%referred certain te(t$ooks to others) the ans,er ,as in*aria$l' that the' found those $ooks ,hich
contained illustrations accom%an'ing the te(t %articularl' useful) es%eciall' ,hen the' could
recognize under the microsco%e features ,hich could $e seen in the %hotogra%hs.
Some of the te(t$ooks ,hich) in our o%inion) contain the $est %hotomicrogra%hs or dra,ings
of minerals are rather old and are not readil' a*aila$le to the student of toda'. 0osen$uschBs
Mikroskopische Petrographie der Mineralien und Gesteine) %u$lished in !#3) has some e(cellent
%hotomicrogra%hs %rinted in $lack and ,hite) ,hile TeallBs British Petrography) %u$lished in """)
has $eautiful dra,ings ,hich a%%ear to ha*e $een hand-coloured $efore re%roduction $' %rinting.
>. G. SmithBs Minerals and the Microscope) first %rinted in !4) has $een found useful $'
generations of students of elementar' mineralog' $ecause of the high Aualit' of the illustrations. &t
seemed to us that if ,e could re%roduce faithfull') $' colour %hotogra%h') the a%%earance of
minerals under the microsco%e $oth in %lane-%olarized light and under crossed %olars) the
usefulness of %hotomicrogra%hs as a teaching aid ,ould $e increased enormousl'.
The maCorit' of the %hotogra%hs ,ere made from thin sections of rocks in the teaching
collections of the Geolog' .e%artment in Manchester 2ni*ersit' and ,e are grateful of our
colleagues in Manchester for %ro*iding us ,ith thin sections.
iv
INTRODUCTION
The minerals re%resented here are arranged in the same order in ,hich the' a%%ear in .eer)
>o,ie and :ussmanBs Introduction to Rock Forming Minerals Drele*ant %age num$ers gi*en at the
end of each entr' in sAuare $racketsE) e(ce%t for a fe, minerals ,hich are not descri$ed $' these
authors) *iz. deerite) zussmanite) 'oderite and lam%ro%h'llite. The decision as to ,hich minerals to
include has $een $ased mainl' on t,o considerations) firstl') ho, freAuentl' the' occur and
secondl' ,hether a %hotogra%h can $e a useful aid in identification.
&n the headings for each mineral ,e ha*e listed the chemical formula Dsim%lified in some
casesE) cr'stal s'stem) o%tic sign) the *alues of the F refracti*e inde( for $ia(ial minerals and the G
and H ra' refracti*e indices for unia(ial minerals together ,ith the $irefringence. These figures ha*e
$een Auoted from .eer) >o,ie and :ussmanBs $ook ,ith their %ermision. The rock t'%e and localit'
of the s%ecimens are Auoted) ,here these are kno,n) and the magnifications used in taking the
%hotogra%hs are gi*en. 1ach %ohotogra%h is accom%anied $' a $rief descri%tion of the field of *ie,
illustrated $ut) in general) onl' %ro%erties ,hich can $e seen in the %hotogra%hs are discussed. Thus
,e ha*e omitted reference to o%tic a(ial angle) sign of elongation and dis%ersion. &n most cases at
least t,o %hotogra%hs ha*e $een made of each mineral) one in %lane-%arallel light ,ith the %olarizer
in t,o orthogonal %ositions. &n the case of isotro%ic minerals ,e ha*e tended to omit the *ie, taken
under crossed %olars.
With fe, e(ce%tions the %olarizer has $een set %arallel to the edges of the %hotogra%h $ut
,e ha*e not made much use of this fact since discussion of e(tinction angles is omitted e(ce%t in
the case of the %lagioclase felds%ars) $ecause this ,ould necesitate re%roducing a num$er of
%hotogra%hs taken under crossed %olars. &n order to sho, %leochroism) ,e ha*e used rotation of the
%olarizer rather than rotation of the stage of the microsco%e for t,o reasons. /irstl') this makes it
easier to com%are the %hotogra%hs and o$ser*e the change in colour sho,n $' an' one cr'stal and
secondl' it has $een done to encourage the use of this method for detecting ,eak %leochroism.
Although ,e ha*e ado%ted the %rocedure of retaining the thin section in the same orientation
for all three %hotogra%hs) this has one disad*antage. &f there are onl' a fe, cr'stal in the field of
*ie,) or the cr'stals ha*e a strong %referred orientation in the rock section used) ,e ha*e $een
una$le to sho, the ma(imum change in a$sor%tion colour on rotation of the %olarizer through !#I
since the e(treme a$sor%tion colours are sho,n $' a cr'stal ,hen its *i$ration directions are
%arallel to and %er%endicular to the %olarizer. &n these %ositions the cr'stal ,ould $e at e(tinction
,hen *ie,ed under crossed %olars and ideall' ,e ,ish to sho, the characteristic interference colurs
near to their ma(imum intensit'. We ha*e not s%ecified in ,hich of the t,o orthogoanal %ositions
the %olarizer is set in the %hotogra%hs taken in %lane-%olarized light.
As mentioned a$o*e ,e ha*e Auoted the numerical *alue of the $irefringence for each
mineral) $ut in the descri%tion of the %hotogra%h ,e ha*e generall' referred to the order of the
interference colour. To ena$le the reader to translate $irefringence to a %articular colour ,e ha*e
included a %hotogra%h of a Auartz ,edge ,ith a $irefringence scale along its length. This should not
$e used as a Michel-LJ*' chart since the thickness of the section is not taken into account) it $eing
assumed that the section is of standard thickness) *iz. #.#8 mm. Thus the mineral names are
re%roduced against the highest-order colour ,hich the' sho, in a thin section of standard thickness
rather than o%%osite radial lines ,hich sho, the *ariation in colour ,ith thickness and $irefringence
of the mineral as in a Michel-LJ*' chart.
The faithful re%roduction of the interference colours of minerals in thin section or in a Auartz
,edge as seen under crossed %olars) de%ends to a large e(tent on the t'%e of film used and also on
the %rinting %rocess. Some of the Michel-LJ*' charts that ha*e $een %u$lished de%art slightl' from
the true colours and one fault ,hich is fairl' common concerns the middle of the second-order
colours ,here a $road $and of $right green is sometimes sho,n $et,een $lue and 'ello,.
7$ser*ation of a Auartz ,edge under crossed %olars re*eals that the second-order colour $et,een
$lue and 'ello, is a rather %ale green in contrast to the fairl' dee% green in the third order. 7nl' in
minerals ,hich are colourless and ha*e negligi$le dis%ersion) is it %ossi$le to distinguish these t,o
greens and e*en onl' after considera$le e(%erience. &n some of the %hotogra%hs of minerals of
moderate $irefringence the edge of the cr'stals can $e seen to $e ,edge-sha%ed and thus the order
of the interference colour can $e determined fairl' readil'.
Some of the common minerals ,hich are usuall' considered difficult to identif' De.g.
cordieriteE are re%resented $' more than one rock section if ,e considered that additional
%hotogra%hs ,ould gi*e a $etter idea of the *ariations in a%%earance ,hich ma' $e e(%ected in
different rocks or if it ,as im%ossi$le) in one field of *ie,) to illustrate the diferent %or%erties ,hich
,e ,ished to sho,.
&n a fe, cases the %hotogra%hs taken in %lane-%olarized light sho, %ale %ink and green
colours due to stra' %olarization %roduced in the %hotogra%hic eAui%mentK ,hen such colours are
%resent ,e ha*e noted this in the descri%tion of the %hotogra%h.
OLIVINE
Mg2,i"4 - 2e2,i"4
,ymetry - "rthorhom.ic >?@ >-@
+: A - 1B651 - 1B69
'ire&ringence - !B!35 - !B!52
1he olivines &orm a complete
soli# solution .et9een the
magnesian en#-mem.er- forsterite-
an# the iron en#-mem.er fayaliteB
1hese photographs sho9 t9o
olivine phenocrysts in a &ine-
graine# groun#mass o& plagioclase
feldspar- pyroxene an# iron oreB
1he upper photograph- taken in
plane-polari*e# >%%@ light- sho9s the
typical shape o& olivine crystalsC the
irregular cracks an# slight alteration
along the cracks are characteristic o&
this mineralD there are signs o&
cleavage along the length o& one o&
the crystalsB
:n the lo9er photograph- taken
un#er crosse# polars >E%@- one o&
the crystals is cut very nearly
perpen#icular to an optic a$is an# so
sho9s a very lo9 inter&erence
colourC it is an anomalous .ro9n
cause# .y #ispersion o& the optic
a$esB 1he other crystal sho9s a
secon#-or#er .lue on the rim
9hereas the main part o& the crystal
sho9s a slightly lo9er colourB 1he
higher .irre&ringence on the rim o&
the crystal is an in#ication o& a
higher iron contentB 1he reverse
e&&ect- vi*B lo9ering o& the
.ire&ringence colour #ue to the
9e#ge shape o& the crystal
.oun#ary- can .e seen on the
.ottom e#ge o& one o& the olivine
crystals an# also on a clinopyro$ene
phenocryst part o& 9hich Fust
appears at the .ottom o& the &iel#B G1H
Specimen from ankaramite, Mauna
Kea, Hawaii, 43X
1
OLIVINE
Mg2,i"4 - 2e2,i"4
,ymetry - "rthorhom.ic >?@ >-@
+: A - 1B651 - 1B69
'ire&ringence - !B!35 - !B!52
1he olivines &orm a complete soli#
solution .et9een the magnesian en#-
mem.er- forsterite- an# the iron
en#-mem.er fayaliteB
1hese upper photograph- taken in
%% light- sho9s olivine >.ro9nish-
green colour- occupying most o& the
&iel#@ intergro9n 9ith a calcic
plagioclaseB 1he high relie& o& the
olivine against the &el#spar is
noticea.leB A pale colour in olivine
seen in %% light is common .ut it
#oes not sho9 pleochroism - the
more 2e-rich mem.ers o& the series
sho9 a yello9ish-.ro9n colourB 1he
cracks in the crystals are Iuite
characteristic as is the slight
alteration o& the mineral along the
cracksB
:n the lo9er photograph- taken
un#er E%- the inter&erence colours
are mostly secon# or#erC the highest
colour sho9ing in this vie9 is the
yello9 in the small crystal Fust a.ove
the centre o& the &iel# - these colours
in#icate a Mg-rich olivine since
.ire&ringence colours 9ell into the
thir# or#er are only seen in olivines
9ith high iron contentsB G1H

Specimen from gabro picrite, Border
Group, Skaergaard intrusion, East
Greenland, 3X
2
MONTICELLITE
(aMg,i"4
,ymetry - "rthorhom.ic >-@
+: A - 1B646 - 1B664
'ire&ringence - !B!12 - !B!2!
:n the upper photograph- taken in
%% light- the #ominant mineral is
monticellite 9ith su.or#inate calciteB
:n %% light the calcite can .e
recogni*e# .y its goo# cleavage an#
t9in lamellaeB 1he high relie& o& the
monticellite against the mounting
material can .e seen at a small hole
near the top e#ge o& the sli#eB
:n the lo9er photograph- taken
un#er E%- the inter&erence colours
are seen to .e lo9 &irst or#erC the
highest colour seen here is the
orange-yello9 colourB :t shoul# .e
remem.ere# that in rocks 9ithout
Iuart* or &el#spar present it is
sometimes #i&&icult to Fu#ge the
correct thickness o& a section an# this
section may .e slightly thinB G1!H

Specimen from monticellite!spinel!
p"logopite rock# Barna$a$e,
%arlingford, Eire# 3X
3
COND!ODITE
Mg>"8-2@2 B 2Mg,i"4
,ymetry - Monoclinic >?@
+: A - 1B6!2 - 1B627
'ire&ringence - !B!2 - !B!34
Although mem.ers o& the humite
group- o& 9hich chon#ro#ite is one-
are &reIuently yello9ish in colour- in
this case the chondrodite is nearly
colourless in thin sectionB :n the upper
photograph- taken in %% light- the high
relie& is #istinctive- as also is the
calcite >.ro9nish colour@ an# t9o
crystals o& m"scoviteB
:n the lo9er photograph- taken
un#er E%- the muscovite-crystals
sho9 a .luish-yello9 inter&erence
colour- 9hile the calcite is grey or #ark
greyB Multiple t9inning is sho9n in t9o
o& the crystals o& chon#ro#ite an# this
is a characteristic o& the monoclinic
mem.ers o& the humite groupB
:t may .e that this section in
slightly thin .ecause the highest
inter&erence colour in this &iel# is the
&irst-or#er re# sho9n in the crystal in
the top right part o& the &iel#- an# &rom
the .ire&ringence 9e shoul# e$pect to
see colours up to secon#-or#er re#
>see photographs on pB5@B
G11H

Specimen from marble, &ew 'erse(,
)S*# +X
4
COND!ODITE
Mg>"8-2@2 B 2Mg,i"4
,ymetry - Monoclinic >?@
+: A - 1B6!2 - 1B627
'ire&ringence - !B!2 - !B!34
:n this section a concentration o&
chondrodite almost colourless %%
light >upper photograph@- is sho9n
intergro9n 9ith a garnet >.ro9n@B
1he yello9ish colour 9hich
characteri*es the mem.ers o& the
humite group is very pale here so that
a separate photograph to sho9 the
pleochroism has not .een inclu#e#B
,ome o& the crystals sho9 signs o&
poor cleavageB
:n the vie9 un#er E% >lo9er
photograph@- the t9inning 9hich
characteri*es the monoclinic mem.er
o& this series is 9ell illustrate# an# the
inter&erence colours e$ten# up to
mi##le secon#-or#erB 1he garnet in
this rock is a gross"lar an# it is very
slightly .irre&ringentB
:n a##ition to chon#ro#ite this rock
also contains clinohimite .ut- since
its .ire&ringence is in the same range
as that o& chon#ro#ite- they can only
.e #istinguishe# .y the &act that the
clinohumite has a higher re&ractive
in#e$B G13H

Specimen from marble, Kilc"rist,
Sk(e, Scotland# ,X
5
#I!CON
7r,i"4
,ymetry - 1etragonal >?@
+: J - 1B923 - 1B96!
K - 1B96 - 2B!15
'ire&ringence - !B!42 - !B!65
7ircon commonly occurs in rather
small crystals .ut is easily notice#
.ecause o& its very high relie&B 1he
upper photograph- taken in %% light-
sho9s rather large $ircon crystals
associate# 9ith sphene in a &ine-
graine# groun#mass mainly o&
feldsparB ,phene also has a very high
relie& an# in this photograph is very
#i&&icult to #istinguish &rom the *irconB
1he goo# cleavages in *ircon are 9ell
#isplaye# in some o& the crystalsB
:n the lo9er photograps- taken
un#er E%- most o& the *ircon crystals
sho9 high inter&erence colours e$cept
&or the crystal to the le&t o& centre
9hich sho9s t9o cleavages at right
anglesB 1his crystal is cut almost at
right angles to the optic a$is an#
hence the lo9 inter&erence coloursB
1he sphene crystals can perhaps .e
more easily i#enti&ie# in this
photograph .ecause o& their much
higher .ire&ringence an# .y the
presence o& t9inning >top o& &iel# o&
vie9 in centre an# to the right o& *ircon
sho9ing lo9 .ire&ringence@B G13H

Specimen from segregation in s(enite!
pegmatite, Kola peninsula, )SS-#
,X
6
%&ENE
(a1i,i"4 >"8-2@
,ymetry - Monoclinic >?@
+: A - 1B7! - 2B!34
'ire&ringence - !B1!! - !B192
%phene is a relatively easy mineral to i#enti&y
.ecause it commonly &orms #iamon#-shape#
crystals o& very high relie& having a .ro9n or re#-
.ro9n colourB 1hese &eatures are 9ell sho9n in
the upper an# mi##le photographs taken in %%
lightB 1hese crystals are pelochroic an# simple
t9inning is commonB 1he mineral intergro9n 9ith
sphene in this section is al'ali feldsparB
1he lo9er photograph- taken un#er E%- sho9s
a num.er o& crystals near the e$tinction position
.ut those 9hich sho9 #ou.le re&raction have a
colour very similar to the a.sorption colour seen
un#er %% lightB 1his is #ue to the e$treme
.ire&ringence o& sphene such that the inter&erence
colours avre very high or#er- iBeB almost 9hite
lightB :n crystals 9ithout the characteristic shape
this &act is use&ul &or i#enti&icationB G17H

Specimen from sp"ene!ric" rock, Kola
peninsula, )SS-# +X
7
()!NET
>Mg- 2e- Mn@3Al2,i3"12 alman#ine group
(a3>Al- 2e- 1i- (r@2 ,i3"12 an#ra#ite group
,ymetry - (u.ic
+: L - 1B714 - 1B7
A consi#era.le range o& compositions is
possi.le in garnets an# hence the range o&
re&ractive in#ices Iuote#B 1hey are very
commonly euhe#ral or su.he#ral in shapeB
1he upper photograph sho9s a num.er o&
su.he#ral garnet crystals- o& the alman#ine
series- intergro9n 9ith *"art$ an# mica in a
metamorphic rockB 1he garnet stan#s out Iuite
clearly &rom the other minerals .ecause o& its high
relie& an# .ro9nish colourB :t sho9s inclusions o&
the groun#mass minerals an# this is a very
common &eatureB
1he mi##le photograph sho9s the same vie9
un#er E% an# the garnets are seen to .e isotropic
>some garnets are .ire&ringent an# may sho9
*oning an# t9inning reveale# in the lo9
.ire&ringence colours- see lo9er photograp- pB 5@B
1he lo9er photograph- taken in %% light-
sho9s a melanite garnet >1i-rich an#ra#ite@ in an
alkaline igneous rockB :ts #eep .ro9n colour is
rather unevenly #istri.ute# .ut it sho9s *oning at
the e#ges o& the crystalsD the euhe#ral shape is
very characteristicB 1he other mineral in this
section is altere# al'ali feldsparB G21H

)pper and middle specimen frm garnet!mica
sc"ist, .itloc"r(, Scotland, //X#
Bottom specimen from segregation in nep"eline
s(enite, *ss(nt, Scotland, +X

VE%+VI)NITE ,IDOC!)%E-
(a1! >Mg-2e@2 Al4,i9"34 >"8-2@4
,ymetry - 1etragonal >-@
+: K - 1B7!! - 1B746
J - 1B7!3 - 1752
'ire&ringence - !B!!1 - !B!!
:n the upper photograph- taken in
%% light- one crystal o& idocrase
occupies most o& the &iel# o& vie9B :ts
slight yello9ish-.ro9n colour can .e
seen in contrast to a &e9 holes in the
sectionB :ts very high relie& can also .e
seen against the mounting me#iumB
1he lo9er photograph un#er E%
sho9s the characteristic lo9
anomalous inter&erence colours an#
the vague signs o& .an#s in the
inter&erence colours is also a &airly
common &eature o& large crystals an#
is an in#ication o& *oningB 1here is no
sign o& the poor cleavage in this
crystalB 1he anomalous inter&erence
colour is #ue to strong #ispersion an#
is the most use&ul property &or
i#enti&ying this mineralD it commonly
occurs 9ith gross"lar garnet 9hich
may also sho9 lo9 .ire&ringence
colours an# sometimes the t9o
minerals are #i&&icult to #istinguishB
1he green crystals at the lo9er
e#ge o& the &iel# o& vie9 an# the small
green inclusions in the vesuvianite are
al'aline amphi.oleB G32H

Specimen from unknown localit(# 0X
9
%ILLIM)NITE
Al2,i"5
,ymetry - "rthorhom.ic >?@
+: A - 1B65 - 1B662
'ire&ringence - !B!2! - !B!22
:n the upper photograph- taken in
plane-polari*e# light- all the crystals
9hich stan# out in relie& are
sillimanite 9hich sho9s clearly
against the cordierite 9ith 9hich it is
intergro9nD at the top le&t-han# corner
o& the photograph a yello9 halo can
.e seen in the cor#ieriteB :n this
section the sillimanite has a strong
pre&erre# orientation such that most o&
the crystals are cut at right-angles to
their length an# sho9 #iamon#-
shape# cross-section #ue to the &aces
o& the M11!N &ormC the >!1!@ cleavage
is 9ell #isplaye# in some o& the
crystalsB
1he inter&erence colours sho9n in
the lo9er photograph are generally
lo9 since the highest collours are
sho9n in crystals cut along the length
o& the prismatic crystals >see pB 11@B
(rystals cut so that the >!1!@
cleavage is sharp an# 9ell #e&ine#
shoul# .e in e$tinction 9hen parallel
to the e#ges o& the photographB A &e9
crystals cut parallel to their lenght
sho9 secon#-or#er coloursB G34H

Specimen from garnet!cordierite!
sillimanite gneiss, 1"os(, Madagascar#
4+X
1!
%ILLIM)NITE
Al2,i"5
,ymetry - "rthorhom.ic >?@
+: A - 1B65 - 1B662
'ire&ringence - !B!2! - !B!22
1hese photographs sho9 lath-like
crystals o& sillimanite 9hich stan# out
in high relie& against the cordierite
9ith 9hich is intergro9nB 5ithin the
cor#ierite are numerous small nee#le-
like crystals 9hich are also o&
sillimaniteD .unches o& very long
narro9 crystals o& sillimanite are
terme# fi.rolite .ut the concentration
o& nee#les is insu&&icient to Fusti&y the
use o& this term hereB
:n the lo9er photograph- taken
un#er E%- the secon#-or#er purplish-
.lue inter&erence colour is near to the
ma$imum colour sho9n .y sillimaniteB
,illimanite is #i&&icult to #istinguish
&rom m"llite- .ut mullite #oes not
o&ten occur in crystals as large as
those illustrate# here an# is restricte#
to very high temperature contact
metamorphic rocksB G34H

Specimen from cordierite!sillimanite
gneiss, 1"os(, Madagascar# 2,X
11
M+LLITE
Al6,i2"13
,ymetry - "rthorhom.ic >?@
+: A - 1B642 - 1B675
'ire&ringence - !B!12 - !B!2
Mullite usually occurs in very small
nee#le-like crystalsB 1he upper
photograph- taken in %% light- sho9s
m"llite crystals 9ithin a large crystal
o& anorthite >notice the high
magni&ication use# &or this
photograph@B 1hese crystals have a
very pale pink colour in this section
.ut the pale pink in the .ackgroun# is
pro.a.ly #ue to stray polari*ationB 1he
rocks is a .uchite an# the t9o very
#ark .ro9n patches in the &iel# o& vie9
are o& glassB
:n the lo9er photograph- taken
un#er E%- the .lack lines parallel to
the vertical e#ge o& the photograph
are plagioclase t9in lamellae in the
e$tinction position an# in this
photograph these coul# easily .e
con&use# 9ith mullite nee#lesB 1he
inter&erence colours sho9n .y these
crystals o& mullite are not as high as
e$pecte# an# this is cause# .y the
&act that the crystals are thinner than
the total thickness o& the sectionB 1he
inter&erence colours o& mullite in a
section !B!3 mm thick shoul# .e a.out
the same as those o& sillimaniteB G37H

Specimen from buc"ite#
-ud"3a3%"romain sill, -oss of Mull,
Scotland# /24X
12
)ND)L+%ITE
Al2,i!5
,ymetry - "rthorhom.ic >-@
+: A - 1B633 - 1B653
'ire&ringence - !B!!9 - !B!11
1he upper photograph- taken in %%
light- sho9s one rectangular
porphyro.last o& an#alusite in a &ine-
graine# groun#massB 1he t9o
cleavages appro$imately at right-
angles to one another can .e seenB :n
the centre o& the crystal there is a
rectangular area &ull o& inclusions an#
ra#iating to9ar#s the corners o& the
crystal there are concentrations o&
inclusionsB 1his variety o& andal"site
is kno9n as chiastolite .ecause o&
the cruci&orm pattern &orme# .y the
inclusions an# it is &airly common in
lo9-gra#e metamorphic rocksB
:n the lo9er photograph- taken
un#er E%- the cruci&orm pattern is still
visi.le an# the characteristic lo9-or#er
inter&erence colour is seenB G3H


Specimen from c"iastolite slate, 4ake
5istrict, England# 44X
13
)ND)L+%ITE
Al2,i!5
,ymetry - "rthorhom.ic >-@
+: A - 1B633 - 1B653
'ire&ringence - !B!!9 - !B!11
:n thin section an#alusite
sometimes sho9s a pale pink
pleochroism an# i& seen is &airly
#iagnosticB A pale .ro9nish-pink
colour can .e seen in the upper
photograph- taken in %% light- an# its
uneven #istri.ution is characteristicB
1he high relie& against *"art$ is
noticea.leB 1here is a large area in the
sli#e to the right o& centre o& the
photograph 9here the relie& o& the
andal"site is also o.vious - this is a
hole in the thin sectionB
1he a.sorption colour a&&ects the
lo9 &irst-or#er inter&erence colour so
that the same patchy #istri.ution is
visi.le un#er E% >lo9er photograph@B
An#alusite has t9o goo# cleavages-
>11!@ an# >11!@- an# so most sections
sho9 at least one goo# cleavageB 1he
.right inter&erence colours in this
photograph are #ue to small crystals o&
m"scoviteB G3H


Specimen from contact rock, *rdara
pluton, 5onegal, 1reland# +X
14
)ND)L+%ITE / %ILLIM)NITE INTE!(!O0T
:n the upper photograph- taken in
%% light- most o& the &iel# is occupie#
.y one crystal o& andal"site 9ith a
&e9 inclusions o& .iotite an# o&
*"art$B 1he M11!N cleavages o& the
an#alusite can .e seen appro$imately
at right-angles to each other an#
parallel to the e#ges o& the
photographB :ntergro9n 9ith the
an#lusite are numerous #iamon#-
sghape# crystals o& sillimanite 9ith
the >!1!@ cleavage .isecting the angle
.et9een the an#alusite cleavagesB
1he t9o minerals 9ere pro.a.ly
&orme# at the same time an# the
coinci#ence o& the * a$es o& the
crystals re&lects the similarity o& their
structuresB 1he #i&&erence in re&ractive
in#ices o& the t9o minerals is not
su&&iciently great to sho9 much
#i&&erence in relie& in this photographB
On#er E% >lo9er photograph@ .oth
the an#alusite an# sillimanite sho9
lo9 inter&erence colours .ut the colour
o& the sillimanite is lo9er than that o&
an#alusite #espite the &act that
sillimanite has a greater .ire&ringence
than an#alusite >the vi.ration
#irections o& .oth minerals are at 45P
to the e#ges o& the photograph@B :n
this orientation .oth minerals sho9
centre# acute .ise$tri$ inter&erence
&iguresB G34H G3H

Specimen from contact rock,
Bendoran %ottage, -oss of Mull,
Scotland# 0X
15
12)NITE
Al2,i!5
,ymetry - 1riclinic >-@
+: A - 1B721 - 1B723
'ire&ringence - !B!12 - !B!16
:n these photographs 'yanite
occurs along 9ith *"art$ an# .iotiteB
:n the upper photograph taken in %%
light- kyanite is easily recogni*e# .y
its high relie& compare# 9ith Iuart*
an# .y the &act that the 9ell #evelope#
cleavage appears very #arkB :t has
.een suggeste# that the appearance
o& kyanite resem.les a steel ruler 9ith
.lack engraving marks- since the
prominent parting parallel to >!!1@ is
&reIuently visi.le almost at right-
angles to the length o& the crystalsB
:n the lo9er photograph- taken
un#er E%- the .right inter&erence
colours o& the .iotite contrast 9ith
those o& kyaniteB On&ortunately this
section is very slightly thick so that
Iuart* is sho9ing a yello9ish tinge
hence all the other grains are sho9ing
slightly higher inter&erence colours
than e$pecte#D one hal& o& a t9inne#
kyanite crystal sho9s a colour close to
teh sensitive tint re#B G41H

Specimen from k(anite gneiss, Glen
)r6u"art, 1n$erness!s"ire, Scotland#
/2X
16
TO&)#
Al2,i!4 >"8- 2@2
,ymetry - "rthorrom.ic >?@
+: A - 1B6!9 - 1B631
'ire&ringence - !B!! - !B!11
1he upper photograph- taken in %%
light- is o& a topa*-Iuart* rockB 1he
*"art$ is &ull o& many tiny inclusions
9hereas the topa$- 9hich stan#s out
in relie& aginst the Iuart*- is relatively
&ree &rom inclusionsB 1he per&ect >!!1@
cleavage o& topa* is visi.le in one o&
the crystalsB
:n the lo9er photograph- taken
un#er E%- it is #i&&icult to #istinguish
the topa* &rom the Iuart* since their
.ire&ringence is almost i#enticalB 1he
narro9 9hite veins on the .or#ers o&
the topa* crystals are m"scovite an#
this coul# .e an in#ication o& the
presence o& topa* since topa* is
&reIuently accompanie# .y muscoviteB
G45H

Specimen from topa7!tourmaline!
6uart7 rock, Blackpool %la( .it,
%ornwall, England# 3X
17
CLO!ITOID
>2e-Mg@2Al4,i2"1!>"8@4
,ymetry - Monoclinic or triclinic >?@ or >-@
+: A - 1B719 - 1B734
'ire&ringence - !B!!6 - !B!22
1he upper an# mi##le photographs- taken in
%% light- sho9 a num.er o& olive-green crystals
o& chloritoid in 9hich the strong pleochroism to
a pale yello9 colour can .e seen .y comparing
the t9o vie9s 9ith the polari*er in orthogonal
positionsB :n this rock chloritoi# is intergro9n 9ith
m"scovite an# *"art$C a &e9 garnet crystals
are also visi.leB 1he high relie& o& the chloritoi#
sho9s up against the mica .ut it has lo9er relie&
than the garnetB 1hese sections have a pre&erre#
orientation an# are cut nearly at right-angles to
the per&ect .asal cleavage an# hence the strong
pleochroismB ,ections cut parallel to >!!1@ have
only 9eak pleochroismB
:n the lo9er photograph- taken un#er E%- the
inter&erence colours are slightly anomalous &or
t9o reasons- vi*B the a.sorption colours an#
&airly strong #ispersionB No t9inning is visi.le in
any o& these crystals although chloritoi# is
commonly multiply-t9inne#B G52H
Specimen from sc"ist, 8le de Grois, Brittan(,
9rance# 43X
19
%)&&I!INE
>2e-Mg@2Al4,i"1!
,ymetry - Monoclinic >?@ or >-@
+: A - 1B7!3 - 1B72
'ire&ringence - !B!!5 - !B!!7
:n the upper an# mi##le photographs- the
sapphirine crystals are recogni*e# .y their
colour- 9hich is this case is pleochroic &rom an
in#igo-.lue to a .ro9nish-yello9 colourB :n this
rock its high relie& sho9s up Iuite 9ell .ut there
are other high relie& minerals in the &iel#- vi*B
garnet >large crystal at top le&t-han# corner o&
the &iel#@ an# orthopyro$ene >pinkish crystals at
.ottom right@B 1he central part o& the &iel# o& vie9
is a symplectite intergro9th o& cordierite an#
orthopyroxeneB 3iotite an# *"art$ are the other
minerals presentB
On#er E% >lo9er photograph@ the inter&erence
colours seen in the sapphirine are in&luence# .y
the a.sorption colours an# the lo9 .ire&ringence
pro#uces anomalous .luesB
(are&ul stu#y o& the clear areas reveals yello9
pleochroic haloes in the cor#ierite an# the
sapphirine crystal in the lo9er le&t part o& the &iel#
o& vie9 is suroun#e# .y multiply-t9inne#
cor#ieriteB G57H
Specimen from sc"ist, :al %odera, 1tal(# ;X
2!
E+DI)L2TE
>Na-2e-(a@67r,i6"1>"8-(l@
,ymetry - 1rigonal >?@ or >-@
+: J - 1B593 - 1B643
K - 1B597 - 1B634
'ire&ringence - !B!!! - !B!1!
:n the upper photograph- taken in
%% light- a num.er o& euhe#ral
crystals o& e"dialyte sho9 up in relie&
against analcite 9ith 9hich it is
surroun#e#B :n this photograph the
su.stage #iaphragm has .een le&t
&airly 9i#e open - i& it ha# .een more
&ully close# the relie& o& eu#ialyte
9oul# sho9 more strongly against the
analciteB
1he lo9er photograph- taken
un#er E%- sho9s t9o characteristic
&eatures o& eu#ialyte 9hich are >a@ the
uneven #istri.ution o& lo9-inter&erence
colours- a #istri.ution 9hich is not
al9ays clearly relate# to a gro9th
structure an# >.@ the #ark veins o& an
alteration pro#uctB 0u#ialyte is easily
notice# in han# specimen .ecause it
is almost al9ays re# or .ro9n in
colour .ut in thin section the colour- i&
present- is generally paleB 1he crystal
at the top le&t-han# corner o& the &iel#
is alkali &el#spar 9hich here sho9s a
patchy e$tinction not #issimilar to that
o& the eu#ialyteD the three greenish
crystals in the &iel# o& vie9 are o& an
al'ali amphi.oleB G59H

Specimen from red kakortokite,
1limaussa6 intrusion, <est
Greenland# 4=
21
#OI%ITE
(a2Al3,i3"12 >"8@
,ymetry - "rthorrom.ic >?@
+: A - 1B6 - 1B71!
'ire&ringence - !B!!4 - !B!!
1he upper photograph- taken in %%
light- sho9s a num.er o& short
prismatic crystals o& $oisite intregro9n
9ith *"art$ an# a small amout o&
feldsparB 1he high relie& o& the *oisite
against the Iuart* is o.viousB 1here is
a suggestion o& a cleavage parallel to
the length o& one crystal at the .ottom
le&tB
On#er E% >lo9er photograph@ the
*oisite crystals sho9 an anomalous
.lue inter&erence colour some9hat
unevenly #istri.ute# an# this is
characteristic o& .oth *oisite an# the
monoclinic mineral clino$oisiteD they
are #istinguishe# .y the &act that
*oisite sho9s straight e$tinction in all
sectionsB 1his sample is *oisite
although none o& the crystals sho9n
here is e$actly parallel to the e#ges o&
the photographB G61H

Specimen from 7oisite sc"ist, Glen
-o(, 1n$erness!s"ire, Scotland# 2+X
22
E&IDOTE
(a22e Al2,i3"12 >"8@
,ymetry - Monoclinic >-@
+: A - 1B725 - 1B74
'ire&ringence - !B!15 - !B!49
1he colour o& epidote in thin section >yello9
o& greenish-yello9@ is a &eature 9hich ena.les it
to .e i#enti&ie# &airly rea#ily since the num.er o&
common minerals 9hich are yello9 in thin section
is not greatB 1he pleochroism is sho9n .y
comparision o& the upper an# mi##le
photographs taken in %% light in 9hich some
crystals change &rom pale .ro9n to yello9B 1he
presence o& a goo# cleavage can .e seen in a
&e9 crystalsB 1he relie& o& epi#ote sho9s against
the *"art$ near the top o& the &iel#B
1he lo9er photograph sho9s the same vie9
taken un#er E% an# the .right inter&erence
colours sho9 comple$ *oningB G63H

Specimen from epidoti7ed basalt, Mic"igan,
)S*, 3X
23
E&IDOTE
(a22e Al2,i3"12 >"8@
,ymetry - Monoclinic >-@
+: A - 1B725 - 1B74
'ire&ringence - !B!15 - !B!49
1he colour o& epidote in thin section >yello9
o& greenish-yello9@ is a &eature 9hich ena.les it
to .e i#enti&ie# &airly rea#ily since the num.er o&
common minerals 9hich are yello9 in thin section
is not greatB 1he pleochroism is sho9n .y
comparision o& the upper an# mi##le
photographs taken in %% light in 9hich some
crystals change &rom pale .ro9n to yello9B 1he
presence o& a goo# cleavage can .e seen in a
&e9 crystalsB 1he relie& o& epi#ote sho9s against
the *"art$ near the top o& the &iel#B
1he lo9er photograph sho9s the same vie9
taken un#er E% an# the .right inter&erence
colours sho9 comple$ *oningB G63H

Specimen from epidoti7ed basalt, Mic"igan,
)S*, 3X
23
&IEMONTITE
(a2 >Mn-2e-Al@2 Al,i3"12 >"8@
,ymetry - Monoclinic >?@
+: A - 1B75! - 1B!7
'ire&ringence - !B!25 - !B!
Although not a very vommon mineral it is
inclu#e# here .ecause o& its spectacular
pleochroic colours- vi*B- yello9-carmine-re# an#
violet or amethystB 1his is 9ell sho9n in the upper
an# mi##le photographs taken 9ith the polari*er in
orthogonal positions in %% lightD the per&ect
cleavage #oes not sho9 up 9ell in this sample nor
#oes the ten#ency &or the crystals to .e elongate#B
1he lo9er photograph sho9s that the
inter&erence colours are maske# .y the a.sorption
colours an# are thus #ominantly re#B 19o crystals
sho9 simple t9inning an# another sho9s one thin
t9in lamellaB 1he intergro9n mineral >sho9ing
characteristic amphi.ole cleavages@ is a pale
coloure# manganese amphi.ole 9hich although
pink in han# specimen is colourless in thin sectionB
1his #istinctive pleochroism is not an in#ication
o& a particularly high content o& manganeseD the
Mn-.earing variety o& epi#ote calle# thulite sho9s
the same colours as piemontiteB G63H

Specimen from piemontite!6uart7 rock, Mautia Hill,
>an7ania, 4X
24
)LL)NITE ,O!TITE-
>(a- (e@2 2eAl2,i3"12 >"8@
,ymetry - Monoclinic >?@ or >-@
+: A - 1B7!! - 1B15
'ire&ringence - !B!13 - !B!36
1he upper photograph- taken in %%
light- sho9s the .ro9n colour o& the
mineral 9hich is characteristic as are
the #ark cracksB 1he ra#ioactive
elements containe# in this mineral
cause a .ro9n halo in the surroun#ing
rock #ue to ra#iation #amage .ut
there is no sign o& this in the thin
sectionB )llanite is generally slightly
pleochroic in sha#es o& .ro9nB
1he lo9er photograph- taken un#er
E%- sho9s a crystal o& .iotite
enclose# in the larger allanite crystalB
1hese allanite crystals are much
larger than are commonly &oun#B 1he
other t9o minerals visi.le in this
section are microcline >tartan
t9uinning@ an# Iuart*B G6H

Specimen from granite, near
Mandala"(, Madagascar, ,X
25
L)0%ONITE
(aAl2,i2"7>"8@2 B 82"
,ymetry - "rthorhom.ic >?@
+: A - 1B674
'ire&ringence - !B!2!
1he upper an# mi##le photographs are o& the
same &iel# o& vie9- one in %% light- the other in E%B
1he &iel# is almost entirely occupie# .y la4sonite
an# the &eint pleochroism is sho9n .y the slight
#i&&erence in colour o& the crystals in #i&&erent
orientations 9ith respect to the polari*erD many o&
the crystals sho9 one o& the t9o goo# cleavagesB
1he .ire&ringence is mo#erate so the inter&erence
colours e$ten# up to secon#-or#er an# this is
sho9n in the photograph un#er E%B
1he lo9er photograph- ma#e &rom the same thin
section 9as taken un#er E% to sho9 multiple
t9inning in la9sonite >large crystal in the centre o&
the &iel#@B 1he mineral at the top right corner o& this
photograph is gla"cophane an# it is sho9n here
since the occurrence o& la9sonite is restricte# to
glaucophane-schist &acies rocksB G7!H

Specimen from glaucop"ane sc"ist, :alle( 9ord,
%alifornia, )S*# )pper and middle specimen +X#
4ower specimen ;X#
26
&+M&ELL2ITE
(a4 >Mg- 2e@ Al5,i6"23 >"8@3 B 2 82"
,ymetry - Monoclinic >?@
+: A - 1B675 - 1B715
'ire&ringence - !B!12 - !B!22
1he 9hole &iel# o& vie9 is occupie# .y
p"mpellyite e$cept &or the clear areas 9hich are
voi#s .et9een crystals an# here the high relie& o&
the mineral sho9s up clearlyB 1he upper an#
mi##le photographs- taken in %% light- sho9 that
the mineral is slightly pleochroic &rom yello9 to
pale green an# this is &airly characteristic o& this
mineral - the more 2e-rich specimens .eing more
#eeply coloure#B 1hese are signs o& cleavages in
most o& the crystals since pumpellyite has one
per&ect an# one goo# cleavageB
:n the lo9er photograph- taken un#er E%- the
inter&erence colours range up to secon#-or#er .lue
.ut the &eature 9hich is most noticea.le in this
photograph is the Qoak lea&Q shape &orme# .y the
crystals lying #iagonally across the centre o& the
&iel#B 1his ha.it is &oun# mainly in vein occurrences
o& the mineral .ut 9hen it is seen it is #iagnosticB
G71H

Specimen from glaucop"ane sc"ist, >iburon .ass,
%alifornia, )S*# 44X
27
MELILITE
(a2Al2,i"7 - (a2Mg,i2"7
,ymetry - 1etragonal >?@ or >-@
+: J - 1B669 - 1B632
K - 1B65 - 1B64!
'ire&ringence - !B!!! - !B!13
1he upper an# mi##le photographs are o&
melilite- in an uncompahgrite- a rather rare
melilite-rich rock- one photograph taken in %% light
an# the other un#er E%B :n this rock the opaIue
mineral is magnetite an# most o& the rest o& the
&iel# is occupie# .y meliliteB :n %% light there is
nothing very #istinctive a.out the mineral an# there
are signs o& at leas one cleavageB On#er E%
ho9ever the inter&erence colour is very
characteristically an anomalous .lue colour an#
9hen this can .e seen it is a use&ul #iagnostic
property taken along 9ith the unia$ial character o&
the mineralB 7oning o& the colour at the e#ges o&
the crystals is also &airly typicalB
1he lo9er photograph is taken un#er E% an# is
&rom a skarnB 8ere the *oning &rom an anomalous
.lue to an anomalous .ro9n colour is o.viousB
1he re&ractive in#ices Iuote# a.ove are &or the
t9o en#-mem.ers o& the melilite series .ut the
.ire&ingence o& *ero is &or a mem.er o& the soli#
solution containing almost eIual amounts o& the
t9o en#-mem.ersB G72H


)pper and middle specimens from uncompa"grite,
)ncompa"gre, %olorado, )S*, 43X# 4ower
specimen from melilite!p"logopite!clinop(ro=ene
rock, Grange 1ris", %arlingford, 1reland, ;X
2
MELILITE
(a2Al2,i"7 - (a2Mg,i2"7
,ymetry - 1etragonal >?@ or >-@
+: J - 1B669 - 1B632
K - 1B65 - 1B64!
'ire&ringence - !B!!! - !B!13
1he t9o photographs sho9n here
are o& melilite in an olivine-melilite-
the upper photograph taken un#er %%
lightB :n this vie9 the melilite crystals
resem.le laths o& plagioclase in the
groun#mass o& a .asalt >9ith
microphenocrysts o& olivine@ e$cept
that melilite crystals commonly have a
#ark line along the centre o& the laths
- seen only a &e9 crystals in this vie9
- #ue to inclu#e# groun#massB
On#er E% >lo9er photograph@ the
anomalous .lue colour *one# to a
9hite colour is Iuite #istinctive an# is
&aierly certain in#ication o& meliliteB
1he crystals sho9ing yello9- re# an#
a normal .lue inter&erence colour are
olivineB G72H


Specimen from oli$ine!melilite,
Katunga, )ganda, ,3X
29
CO!DIE!ITE
>Mg- 2e@2 Al4,i5"1
,ymetry - "rthorhom.ic >?@ or >-@
+: A - 1B524 - 1B574
'ire&ringence - !B!!5 - !B!1
1he upper photograph- taken un#er
%% light- sho9s cordierite intergro9n
9ith al'ali feldsparB 1he cor#ierite can
.e recogni*e# in this section .y its
#usty appearance 9hereas the
&el#spar is relatively clearB :n a##ition
there are irregular cracks veins at the
e#ges o& the cor#ierite crystals 9hich
are yello9ish in colourB 1hese are
compose# o& a mineral 9hich is
generally calle# pinite an# this
alteration is very common in cor#ierite
:n the lo9er photograph- taken
un#er E%- the .ire&ringence o& the
cor#ierite is seen to .e very similar to
that o& the alkali &el#spar .ut many o&
the cor#ierite crystals sho9 lamellar
t9inning an# this causes it to .e
con&use# 9ith plagioclase >see
photographs on pB 31@B G4H



Specimen from sillimanite!cordierite
gneiss, 9ort 5aup"in, Madagascar,
+X
3!
CO!DIE!ITE
>Mg- 2e@2 Al4,i5"1
,ymetry - "rthorhom.ic >?@ or >-@
+: A - 1B524 - 1B574
'ire&ringence - !B!!5 - !B!1
1he upper photograph- taken
un#er %% light- sho9s most o& the
&iel# occupie# .y cordierite 9ith a
num.er o& inclu#e# minerals sho9ing
up in relie& >the per&ect circles are air
.u..les an# not mineral inclusions@B
Aroun# one o& t9o o& the inclusions
are yello9 haloes an# these are
pleochroic- the mineral &orming the
halo almost in the centre o& the
photograph 9as not in the plane o&
the thin sectionB
1he lo9er photograph- taken
un#er E%- sho9s that most o& the &iel#
is taken up .y a lamellar t9inne#
cor#ieriteB 1he inclusions 9hich sho9
a secon#-or#er .lue inter&erence
colour are o& sillimanite an# these #o
not pro#uce yello9 pleochroic haloesB
1he presence o& yello9 pleochroic
haloes- &reIuently seen in cor#ierite-
is one o& the most use&ul #iagnostic
properties- .ut these may not .e
common in cor#ierites in
contaminate# igneous rocks in 9hich
cyclic t9inning is a use&ul #iagnostic
&eatureB G4H

Specimen from cordierite!sillimanite
gneiss, near 1"os(, Madagascar, ;X
31
TO+!M)LINE
Na >Mg- 2e@3 Al6'3,i6"27 >"8- 2@4
,ymetry - 1rigonal >-@
+: J - 1B635 - 1B675
K - 1B61! - 1B65!
'ire&ringence - !B!21 - !B!35
1he photographs on this page an#
the opposite page are o& thin sections
&rom the same rock specimenB
(omparision o& these t9o
photographs- taken in %% light 9ith
the polari*er in orthogonal position
sho9s the #istinct pleochroism an#
*oning o& the a.sorption colourB :n the
lo9er photograph the polari*er 9as
oriente# parallel to the short
#imension o& the photograph since
the ma$imum a.sorption colour is
sho9n 9hen the length o& the crystal
is at right-angles to the plane o&
polari*ation o& the lightB >1he crystals
9ere not oriente# to sho9 the
ma$imum variation in a.sorption
colour- other9ise in the photograph
taken un#er E% - see ne$t page -
they 9oul# .e in the e$tinction
position@B 1he other minerals present
are *"art$ an# al'ali feldspar 9ith
crystals o& m"scovite at the top le&t
an# at the right e#ge o& the &iel#B
(omparision 9ith the same vie9-
taken un#er E%- on the opposite page
is necessary to i#enti&y the
musccoviteB
To"rmaline sho9s a 9i#e range
o& colours in han# specimenC a
.ro9nish-yello9- green or .lue are
the most common colours seen in
thin sectionB :n igneous rocks it is
usually restricte# to late-stage aci#
varieties .ut is very common in minor
amounts in metamorphose#
se#imentsB 1he &act that the
ma$imum a.sorption colour is sho9n
9hen the length o& the crystals is at
right-angles to the plane o&
polari*ation o& the light is a
particularly use&ul #iagnostic &eature
9hen tourmaline is present in &airly
small crystalsB G9!H

Specimen from topa7!tourmaline!
6uart7 rock, Blackpool %la( .it,
%ornwall, England, +X
32
TO+!M)LINE
Na >Mg- 2e@3 Al6'3,i6"27 >"8- 2@4
,ymetry - 1rigonal >-@
+: J - 1B635 - 1B675
K - 1B61! - 1B65!
'ire&ringence - !B!21 - !B!35
1he upper photograph- taken
un#er E%- sho9s the same &iel# o&
vie9 as illustrate# on the previous
pageB 1his sho9s the mo#erate
.ire&ingence o& to"rmaline- iBeB- up to
mi##le secon#-or#er coloursB
,ince the crystals in this specimen
sho9s a &airly strong pre&erre#
orientation another tin section 9as cut
at right-angles to the &irst an# this is
sho9n in the lo9er protograph taken
in %% lightB 1his vie9 sho9s the
trigonal cross-sectional outline o& the
tourmaline crystals an# again sho9s
*oning o& the a.sorption coloursB
,ections cut in this orientation can .e
use# to #etermine the unia$ial
negative character o& the mineralB
G9!H

Specimen from topa7!tourmaline!
6uart7 rock, Blackpool %la( .it,
%ornwall, England, +X
33
)XINITE
>(a- 2e@3 Al2',i4"15 B "8
,ymetry - 1riclinic >-@
+: A - 1B61 - 1B7!1
'ire&ringence - !B!!9 - !B!11
1he upper photograph- taken in %%
light- sho9s almost the 9hole &iel# o&
vie9 is occupie# .y axinite 9hich has
a pale .ro9nish colour in this
specimen .ut no #etecta.le
pleochroismB Most o& the crystals sho9
one or more cleavages ant this is
characteristic since it has &our
cleavagesB 1he high relie& o& the
mineral sho9s up against a &e9 holes
in the sli#eB
:n the lo9er photograph un#er E%-
the .ire&ringence is seen to .e lo9B
1he a$e-hea# shape o& the crystals
can .e more clearly seen un#er E%
an# this shape is &airly #iagnostic
9hen taken along 9ith the high relie&-
lo9 .ire&ingence an# presence o& more
than one cleavage in most crystalsB
G97H
Specimen from a=inite!actinolite rock,
St# 1$es, %ornwall, England# 3X
34
O!TO&2!OXENE
>Mg- 2e@ ,i"3
,ymetry - "rthorhom.ic >?@ or >-@
+: A - 1B653 - 1B77!
'ire&ringence - !B!!7 - !B!2!
:n the upper an# mi##le photographs- taken in %%
light- the coloure# high-relie& mineral is an
orthorhom.ic pyro$ene an# the most &reIuently
occurring composition is hyperstheneB 1he
characteristic pleochroism &rom green to pink is a
goo# in#ication o& the presence o& orthopyroxeneB
1he change in colour may not .e very intense .ut
can .e #etecte# most easily .y rotating the polari*er
through 9!P as has .een #one hereB
1he lo9er photograph- taken un#er E%- sho9s
&airly lo9 inter&erence coloursB ,ince the Mg-rich
mem.ers o& this series have the lo9est .ire&ringence
this is a &airly Mg-rich specimenB 1he other minerals
in this section are *"art$- al'ali feldspar-
plagioclase en# one crystal o& .iotiteB
:t shoul# .e note# that 9hile the pleochroism is a
use&ul #iagnostic property it is not al9ays present in
orthopyro$enesB G1!H
Specimen from c"arnockite, near 9ort 5aup"in,
Madagascar, +X
35
)+(ITE
(a>Mg- 2e@ ,i2"6
,ymetry - Monoclinic >?@
+: A - 1B67! - 1B741
'ire&ringence - !B!1 - !B!33
1he upper photograph- taken in %%
light- sho9s a num.er o& phenocrysts
o& a"gite together 9ith some small
feldspars- an# a &e9 altere# olivines
>yello9-.ro9n crystals 9ith .lack
e#ges@ an# roun#e# pse"dole"citesB
7oning in the larger phenocrysts o&
augite is visi.le in plane-polari*e# light
.ecause o& slight #i&&erences in
a.sorption colour an# #ensity o& small
inclusionsB
On#er E% >lo9er photograph@ the
*oning is seen more clearly an# .oth
simple an# lamellar t9inning are
o.viousB 1he long crystal at the upper
le&t o& the &iel# sho9s hour-glass
*oning as 9ell as concentric *oningB
1he inter&erence colours range up to
mi##le secon#-or#er .lueB
1he .lack circular regions 9ere
pro.a.ly le"cite crystals originally .ut
are no9 mainly analciteB
1he goo# cleavage usually
associate# 9ith pyro$enes #oes not
sho9 up in these crystalsB 1his is also
true o& the pyro$enes in many o& the
lunar rocksB G12!H
Specimen from leucite!nep"eline!
dolerite, Misc"es, :ogelsberg,
German(# +X
36
TIT)N)+(ITE
Augites 9hich are rich in 1i usually have a
purplish or .ro9n colour in thin sectionB 1he upper
an# mi##le photographs sho9 crystals o&
titanaugite taken in %% lightC they have a
some9hat #arker colour than usualB 1he
pleochroism is Iuite #istinst as also is *oning o&
the a.sorption colourB 1he colourless minerals in
this rock are sanidine- nepheline an# le"citeB
On#er E% >lo9er photograph@ the
interpherence colours are- to some e$tent-
maske# .y the a.sorption colour .ut the crystals
at the .ottom o& the &iel# o& vie9 sho9 a thir#-
or#er green colour an# this is a higher colour than
e$pecte# &rom a norml augite since it represents a
.ire&ringence o& a.out !B!4 i& the section is o&
stan#ar# thicknessB :n this vie9 the 9hite area is
almost entirely sani#ine .ut the #ark region to the
top le&t o& the photograph is part o& a leucite
crystalB G12!H
Specimen from leucite!nep"eline!dolerite,
Misc"es, :ogelsberg, German(# +X
37
CLINO&2!OXENE / O!TO&2!OXENE INTE!(!O0T
1he upper photograph- taken in %%
light- the #ark crystals are pyroxenes
an# the light crystals plagioclase
feldsparsB :n some o& the pyro$ene
crystals a lamellar structure can .e
seen .ut this is more clearly visi.le in
the lo9er photograph- taken un#er
crosse# polarsB
1he large crystal Fust a.ove the
centre o& the &iel# o& vie9 9as
originally a pigeonite an# inverte# to
an orthopyro$ene >#ark-.ro9n
inter&erence colour@ containing
lamellae o& clinopyro$ene >green@
parallel to >!!1@ o& the original
pigeoniteD &ine lamellae o&
clinopyro$ene >9hite@ are oriente#
parallel to >1!!@ o& the original
pigeoniteB 1he crystal at the top le&t-
han# corner o& the photograph is a
similar inverte# pigeonite - the coarse
clinopyro$ene lamellae are .lue .ut
the &ine lamellae are only Fust visi.leB
1he simply-t9inne# crustal in the
lo9er part o& the &iel# o& vie9 >violet
an# re##ish-yello9 inter&erence
colours@ is a clinopyro$ene t9inne#
>1!!@ an# sho9ing e$solution lamellae
o& orthopyro$ene or pigeoniteB G11!H
G124H

Specimen fromnorite, Bus"$eldt
intrusion, Sout" *frica# 4X
3
)E(I!INE5)+(ITE
>Na- (a@ >2e- Mg@ ,i2"6
,ymetry - Monoclinic >?@ or >-@
+: A - 1B71! - 1B7!
'ire&ringence - !B!3! - !B!5!
1he upper an# mi##le photographs- taken in
%% light sho9 the green to .ro9nish-yello9
colour an# pleochroism 9hich are #iagnostic o&
so#ium-.earing pyro$enesB 7oning sho9n .y
variation in the a.sorption colour is &airly
common in such pyro$enesB Most o& the crystals
sho9 only one o& the per&ect M11!N cleavages .ut
a small crystal em.e##e# in the green mass to
the right o& the &iel# sho9s .oth cleavages
clearlyB
1he lo9er photograph- taken un#er E%-
sho9s the .ire&ringence associate# 9ith this
mineralB 1he #istinction .et9een pyro$ene 9ith
some o& the aegirine molecule >Na2e,i2"6@ an#
one 9ith a high proportion o& the molecule is
ma#e on the .asis o& re&ractive in#ices- optic
a$ial angle an# e$tinction angle in an >!1!@
section so that it is not possi.le &rom these
photographs alone to #etermine 9hether this
mineral has a small or large amount o& the
aegirine moleculeB G132H
Specimen from sodalite!s(enite, 1limaussa6,
<est Greenland# 3X
39
6)DEITE
NaAl,i2"6
,ymetry - Monoclinic >?@
+: A - 1B645 - 1B663
'ire&ringence - !B!12 - !B!13
:n the upper photograph- taken in
%% light- t9o cleavages can .e seen in
some crystals- the others sho9 one
cleavageB 1here is a slight #i&&erence
in colour .et9een grains in this section
.ut this is #ue to stray polari*ation in
the photographic eIuipment an# is not
a property o& this mineralB
1he lo9er photograph- taken un#er
E%- sho9s the lo9 .ire&ringence
characteristic o& Fa#eite 9hich serves
to #istinguish it &rom other
clinopyro$enes 9hich have mo#erate
to high .ire&ringenceB 1his section is
&rom a vein in a serpentinite an# the
9hole &iel# is occupie# .y Fa#eiteB
G137H
Specimen from ?adeite!serpentinite,
San Benito @uadrange, %alifornia,
)S*# 0,X
4!
0OLL)%TONITE
(a,i"3
,ymetry - 1riclinic >-@
+: A - 1B62 - 1B65!
'ire&ringence - !B!13 - !B!14
1he upper photograph- taken in %%
light- sho9s a num.er o& 4ollastonite
crystals lying su.-parallel to the lenght
o& the photographB 1he other
colourless crystals are o& nepheline
an# a &e9 #eep green aegirine
crystals are also visi.leB 1he &e9
slightly clou#y regions >one is almost
in the centre o& the &iel#@ are #ue to
holes in the sli#eB 5ollastonite
crystals are elongate# along the y
crystallographic a$es an# have three
cleavages- all o& 9hich are parallel to
the y a$is so that most crystals sho9
at least one goo# cleavageB
:n the lo9er photograph- taken
un#er E%- the inter&erence colours
e$ten# up to &irst-or#er orange .ut not
to re#D this is a use&ul #iagnostic
property taken along 9ith the
ten#ency &or the crystals to .e
elongate#B ,imple t9inning is common
an# is sho9n in the longest crystalB
G14!H
Specimen from nep"eline!wollastonite
rock, Aldoin(o 4engai, >an7ania# /X
41
&ECTOLITE
(a2Na,i3">"8@
,ymetry - 1riclinic >?@
+: A - 1B6!5 - 1B615
'ire&ringence - !B!3! - !B!3
:n the upper photograph- taken in
%% light- colourless crystals o&
pectolite stan# out in relie& against the
other colourless mineral- vi*- a sodic
plagioclase feldspar an# microclineB
%ectolite has t9o per&ect cleavages
an# so the large crystals sho9 at least
one cleavageB
:n the lo9er photograph- taken
un#er E%- the pectolite crystals sho9
up clearly .ecause o& their .right
inter&erence colours e$ten#ing into
secon#-or#er .lueB
1he mineral 9ith a slightly green to
.ro9n colour in this rock is
ec'ermannite a &airly uncommon
amphi.oleC an# a group o& small
acicular crystals o& sodic pyroxeneB
G144H
Specimen from pectolite!
eckermannite!nep"eline!s(enite,
&orra Karr, Sweden# 03X
42
)NTO&2LLITE 5 (ED!ITE
>Mg- 2e@7 ,i"22>"8-2@2 -
>Mg- 2e@ Al4,i6"22 >"8- 2@2
,ymetry - "rthorhom.ic >?@ or >-@
+: A - 1B6!5 - 1B71!
'ire&ringence - !B!13 - !B!2
1he name anthophyllite is use# &or
the Al-poor mem.ers o& this series an#
gedrite &or the Al-rich mineralsB 1he
upper photograph- taken in %% light-
sho9s anthophyllite- .iotite an#
cordieriteB 1he anthophyllite sho9s
consi#era.le relie& against the
cor#ierite 9ith hich it is intergro9n an#
the typical amphi.ole cleavages at
12!P are seen in some crystalsB
1he the lo9er photograph- taken
un#er E%- sho9s that the .ire&ringence
is lo9 in comparision 9ith that o& most
amphi.olesB Mem.ers o& the
anthophyllite-ge#rite series are
orthorhom.ic in symmetry an# in this
respect #i&&er &rom other amphi.olesB
1he a.sence o& t9inning is an
in#ication that this may .e an
orthorhom.ic amphi.ole although o&
course this is not #iagnosticB G156H
Specimen from cordierite!ant"op"(llite
sc"ist, .ipra, -ewa State, 1ndia# 2X
43
C+MMIN(TONITE 5 (!+NE!ITE
>Mg- 2e@7 ,i"22>"8@2 -
>Mg- 2e@7 ,i"22 >"8@2
,ymetry - Monoclinic >?@ or >-@
+: A - 1B644 - 1B7!9
'ire&ringence - !B!2! - !B!45
1he name gr"nerite is use# &or the
2e-rich mem.ers o& this series
9hereas c"mmingtonite is use# &or
the interme#iate mem.ersB No pure
Mg en#-mem.er is kno9nB
1he upper photograph- taken in %%
light- sho9s cummingtonite crystals
intergro9n 9ith a plagioclase
feldspar an# a &e9 crystals o& .iotiteB
On&ortunately the characte#ristic
amphi.ole cleavage #oes not sho9 up
9ell in this thin sectionB 1he #ark
e#ges to some o& the crystals have a
#eep olive-green colour 9hich is
pleochroic an# these are pro.a.ly #ue
to a common horn.lendeB
:n the lo9er photograph- taken
un#er E%- inter&erence colours range
up to mi##le secon# or#er - the .lue-
coloure# crystals in the cenre o& the
&iel# sho9 the highest colour in this
vie9- iBeB a secon#-or#er .lue- so that
this is a &airly Mg-rich cummingtonite
since the colours sho9n .y grunerites
e$ten# 9ell into the thir# or#erB 1he
&act that the mineral has only a very
pale colour in %% light is also an
in#ication that it is not a grunerite
since they ten# to .e .ro9nish in
colourB Multiple t9inning is
characteristic o& mem.ers o& this
series an# can .e seen in some o& the
crystals near to the centre o& the &iel#
o& vie9B G16!H
Specimen from cummingtonite!norite,
4e .allet, &antes, 9rance# 02X
44
T!EMOLITE 5 7E!!O)CTINOLITE
(a2Mg5,i"22 >"8-2@2 -
(a22e5,i"22 >"8-2@2
,ymetry - Monoclinic >-@
+: A - 1B612 - 1B697
'ire&ringence - !B!17 - !B!27
1he uper an# mi##le photographs- taken in %%
light- sho9 a group o& actinolite crystals- sho9ing
pronounce# pleochroismB Most o& the crystals sho9
one goo# cleavage .ut none o& them are cut to
sho9 the angle .et9een the M11!N cleavagesB
1he lo9er photograph- taken un#er E%- sho9s
t9inning in one or t9o o& the crystals an# this is
&airly commonB 1he inter&erence colours are
#ominate# .y greens an# .ro9ns .ut this is #ue to
the a##ition o& the a.sorption coloursB
1his is actinolite rather than tremolite .ecause
o& its green colouration since tremolite is
colourlessB
,ince the common t9in la9 &or the monoclinic
amphi.oles is re&lection across >1!!@- elongate#
crystals sho9ing a sharply #e&ine# t9in Function are
the most suita.le crystals &or measuring the
e$tinction angle 6D* since these must .e nearly
>!1!@ sectionsB 1he large t9inne# crystal sho9ing
one hal& o& the crystal in the e$tinction position is
not in a suita.le orientation- since the >1!!@ plane
is Iuite o.liIue to the length o& the section an#
sho9s up aas a 9hite .an# in this photographB
G163H
Specimen from unknown localit(# +X
45
O!N3LENDE
Na(a2>Mg-2e@4Al,i6Al2"22 >"8- 2@2
,ymetry - Monoclinic >-@ or >?@
+: A - 1B61 - 1B714
'ire&ringence - !B!14 - !B!26
1he uper an# mi##le photographs- taken in %%
light- sho9 horn.lende an# .iotite together 9ith
*"art$- al'ali feldspar an# a sodi"m5rich
plagioclaseB 1he horn.len#e sho9s pleochroism
&rom green to .ro9n 9hereas the pleochroism o& the
.iotite is &rom a #ark .ro9n to a pale .ro9nB A &e9 o&
the horn.len#e crystals sho9 the characteristic
shape an# t9o cleavages at 12!PB
On#er E% >lo9er photograph@ t9inning can .e
seen in a &e9 o& the horn.len#e crystals an# the
highest inter&erence colour seen in this vie9 is a
secon#-or#er .lueB 1he #i&&erence .et9een .iotite
an# horn.len#e can .e seen in this photograph .y
the mottle# appearance o& the inter&erence colours in
the large .iotite crystal 9hich is near to its e$tinction
positionB G167H
Specimen from granite, Moor of -annoc", Scotland#
+X
46
O!N3LENDE
Na(a2>Mg-2e@4Al,i6Al2"22 >"8- 2@2
,ymetry - Monoclinic >-@ or >?@
+: A - 1B61 - 1B714
'ire&ringence - !B!14 - !B!26
1he uper an# mi##le photographs sho9
.ro9nish phenocrysts o& horn.lende along 9ith
plagioclase phenocrysts in a &ine-graine#
groun#mass mainly o& al'ali feldsparB 1he typical
amphi.ole shape an# cleavage can .e seen in a
&e9 crystals an# the pleochroism is Iuite
pronounce#B 1he opaIue rims are pro.a.ly #ue to
the &ormation o& magnetite .y o$i#ation o& iron- an#
are &airly common in horn.len#e in volcanic rocksB
1he inter&erence colours >lo9er photograph@ ten#
to .e o.scure# .y the a.sorption coloursC the
.ire&ringence o& common horn.len#e is lo9 to
mo#erateB G167H
Specimen from trac"(te, 4ac6ueille, Mt# 5ore
region, 9rance# 3X
47
1)E!%+TITE
Na(a2>Mg-2e@4>1i-2e@Al2,i6"22 >"8- 2@2
,ymetry - Monoclinic >-@
+: A - 1B69! - 1B741
'ire&ringence - !B!19 - !B!3
1he upper an# mi##le photographs- taken in %%
light- sho9 the strong pleochroism an# &o$-.ro9n
colour 9hich is characteristic o& this mineralB 1he
amphi.ole shape an# cleavages are 9ell
#isplaye# in the crystal in the centre o& the &iel#B
1he lo9er photograph taken un#er E%- sho9s
that the a.sorption colours are strong enough to
mask partly the inter&erence colours- .ut the
.ire&ringence o& this mineral has a very large range
an# is not a use&ul #iagnostic propertyB :t is #i&&icult
to #istinguish 'aers"tite &rom other .ro9n
amphi.olesB 1he amphi.ole in this rock 9as
previously kno9n as .arkevikiteB G176H
Specimen from lugarite, 4ugar Sill, *(rs"ire,
Scotland# +X
4
(L)+CO&)NE
Na2Mg3Al2,i"22>"8@2
,ymetry - Monoclinic >-@
+: A - 1B622 - 1B667
'ire&ringence - !B!! - !B!22
1he upper an# mi##le photographs- taken in
%% light- sho9 mainly gla"cophane crystals 9ith
a &e9 small Iuart* crystalsB 1he t9o prismatic
cleavages at 12!P are clearly seen an# the
striking a.sorption colours 9hich vary &rom .lue to
a laven#er-.lue are typical &or this mineralB 1he
colours are *one# near the margins o& some
crystalsB
:n the lo9er photograph- taken un#er E%- the
inter&erence colours are lo9er or#er- .ut
anomalous .ecause o& the strong a.sorption
coloursB 1he *oning is even more easily seen
un#er E%B
1he only minerals 9hich sho9 compara.le
a.sorption colours are eckermannite 9hich may
sho9 a pale laven#er colour an# yo#erite >IBvB@
.ut .oth are very rare in occurrenceB 1his sample
shoul# possi.ly .e #escri.e# more correctly as
crossite since there is generally some 2e?3
su.stituting &or Al an# the name glaucophane is
restricte# to minerals 9ith rather lo9 contents o&
2e?3B G179H
Specimen from scist, S(p"nos, Greece# +X
49
)!7VED%ONITE
Na3>Mg-&0@4Al,i"22>"8-2@2
,ymetry - Monoclinic >-@
+: A - 1B679 - 1B7!9
'ire&ringence - !B!!5 - !B!12
:n the upper an# mi##le photographs- taken in
%% light- arfvedsonite is recogni*e# .y its
a.sorption colours 9hich vary &rom a #eep %russian
.lue to .ro9nish-green colourB 1he .lue may .e so
#ark that the crystals appear opaIueB None o& these
crystals sho9 the typical amphi.ole cleavage .ut
the colour an# pleochroism are characteristicB :n this
rock the ar&ve#sonite is intergro9n 9ith al'ali
feldspar- plagioclase an# *"art$8
:n the lo9er photograph- taken un#er E%- the
ar&ve#sonite sho9s anomalous inter&erence colours-
.ecause o& the strong a.sorption coloursB 1he
.ire&ringence is lo9 so that .right colours are not to
.e e$pecte#B
:t is #i&&icult to #istinguish ar&ve#sonite &rom
rie.eckite since .oth may sho9 the #eep .lue
a.sorption colour illustrate# here- .ut rie.eckite
#oes not sho9 the .ro9nish colour seen in this
sampleB G17H
Specimen from s(enite, 1limaussa6 intrusion, <est
Greenland# 3X
5!
)ENI(M)TITE
Na22e51i,i6"2!
,ymetry - 1riclinic >?@
+: A - 1B2!
'ire&ringence - !B!!7
:n the upper an# mi##le photographs- taken in
%% light- the very #ark .ro9n crystals are
aenigmatiteB :t is sometimes so #ark as to appear
opaIue .ut the .ro9n colour can usually .e seen
at the e#ges o& the crystalsB A &e9 o& the crystals
sho9 cleavages an# one crystal at the .ottom
e#ge o& the &iel# has t9o cleavages at
appro$imatelly 12!PC in this respect it coul# .e
mistaken &or an amphi.oleB 1hat it is pleochroic
can .e seen .y comparing these t9o
photographsB
On#er E% >lo9er photograph@ the .ro9n colour
masks any inter&erence colours so that it is not
possi.le to estimate the .ire&ringenceB 1he large
rectangular crystals in this vie9 are sodi"m5rich
al'ali feldspars- one o& them .eing in the
e$tinction positionB 1he remain#er o& the &iel# is
occupie# .y a .ro9nish glassB G191H
Specimen from pantellerite, .antelleria, 1tal(#
3X
51
)%T!O&2LLITE
><-Na@32e71i2,i"24>"-"8-2@7
,ymetry - 1riclinic >?@
+: A - 1B7!3 - 1B726
'ire&ringence - !B!6
)strophyllite usually occurs in nee#le-shape#
crystals in ra#iating groups- .ut in this section it
occurs as rather shapeless crystals &ull o&
inclusions in a &ine-graine# groun#massB 1he
upper an# mi##le photographs sho9 the
pleochroism 9hich is &rom .ro9n to a yello9
colourB ,ome crystals are much more #istinctly
yello9 than those illustrate#B Most crystals sho9
one cleavageB
'ecause o& the strong a.sorption colours it is
#i&&icult to Fu#ge the or#er o& the inter&erence
colours sho9n in the lo9er photograph- taken
un#er E%- .ut the large crystal at the top o& the
&iel# sho9s a thir#-or#er green colour 9hich
in#icates a .ire&ringence o& at least !B!4 so 9e
kno9 that the .ire&ringence is &airly highB
1he groun#mass o& this rock conists o& a
sodi"m5rich plagioclase feldsparB G192H
Specimen from micros(enite, East Greenland#
+X
52
L)M&!O&2LLITE
Na3>cA-&0@t:3s:3o14>"8@
,ymetry - Monoclinic >?@
+: A - 1B747 - 1B754
'ire&ringence - !B!32 - !B!35

1his mineral is inclu#e# .ecause it occurs in
some o& the rocks &rom the %ilans.erg comple$ an#
the 'earpa9 Mountains in Montana an# these may
.e represente# in many teaching collectionsB
Lamprophyllite is the pale-.ro9n mineral
9hich sho9s slight pleochroism >compare upper
an# mi##le photographs@B A &e9 euhe#ral crystals
can .e seen an# a cleavage is visi.le in a num.er
o& crystalsB >1he greenish-coloure# minerals are
aegirine5a"gite an# arfvedsoniteD the colourless
mineral is mainly al'ali feldsparB
On#er E% >lo9er photograph@ a &e9 o& the
lamprophyllite crystals sho9 very slightly
anomalous colours an# one sho9ing .ro9n colourB
1his crystal is cut nearly perpen#icular to an optic
a$is an# the anomalous colour is #ue to #ispersion
o& the optic a$esB 19inning can .e seen in one o&
the crystalsB 1hat the .lue inter&erence colour is a
secon#-or#er .lue can .e rea#ily seen at the
9e#ge-like termination o& one o& the crystalsB
Specimen from green fo(aite, .ilansberg, Sout"
*frica# 44X
53
M+%COVITE
<Al3,i3"1!>"8-2@2
,ymetry - Monoclinic >-@
+: A - 1B52 - 1B61!
'ire&ringence - !B!36 - !B!49

A very slight greenish tint >upper
photograph@ can .e seen in this
m"scovite against the *"art$ 9ith
9hich it is intergro9nD this coul# .e
#ue to the mineral .eing a phengite
rather than muscovite .ut in this case
it is #ue to slight stray polari*ation in
the photomicroscopeB Most o& the
crystals sho9 the per&ect .asal
cleavageB
:n the lo9er photograph- taken
un#er E%- similar inter&erence colours
are sho9n .y most crystals #ue to a
pre&erre# orientation in the rockD one
crystal near the top right-han# corner
o& the photograph is cut nearly parallel
to the .asal cleavage an# so gives a
goo# inter&erence &igureB Many o& the
crystals sho9 t9inning an# crystals
9hich are near to the e$tinction
position sho9 the mottle# appearance
9hich is characteristic o& all micasB
G2!1H
Specimen from k(anite sc"ist, Hamma
of Snarra$ae, )nst, S"etland,
Scotland# 44X
54
3IOTITE
<>Mg-2e@3Al3,i3"1!>"8-2@2
,ymetry - Monoclinic >-@
+: A - 1B6!5 - 1B696
'ire&ringence - !B!4 - !B!

3iotite is invaria.ly .ro9n or green in colourB
1he upper an# mi##le photographs- taken in %%
light- sho9 a &iel# almost entirely occupie# .y .iotite
9ith numerous #ark .ro9n to .lack pleochroic
haloesB 1he per&ect cleavage can .e seen in many
o& the crystalsB 1he ma$imum a.sorption colour is
sho9n 9hen the polari*er is parallel to the cleavageB
:n the lo9er photograph- taken un#er E%- the
crystals in the centre o& the &iel# are &airly close to
the e$tinction position- an# this has .een #one to
emphasi*e the mottle# appearance 9hich is
chacarcteristic o& all micas an# is most clearly seen
9hen close to e$tinctionB
1he greenish crystal at the .ottom le&t-han#
corner o& the &iel# is tourmalineB G211H
Specimen from biotite!k(anite!gneiss, 5un nan
Geard, -oss of Mull, Scotland# 0X
55
3IOTITE
<>Mg-2e@3Al3,i3"1!>"8-2@2
,ymetry - Monoclinic >-@
+: A - 1B6!5 - 1B696
'ire&ringence - !B!4 - !B!

1hese photographs sho9 .ro9n phenocrysts
o& .iotite in a &ine-graine# groun#massB 1he
change in a.sorption colours on rotating the
polari*er >upper an# mi##le photographs@ an#
*oning o& the a.sorption colours is clearly seenB
1his *oning is pro.a.ly #ue to variation in 2e an#
1i contentsB
:n the lo9er photograph- taken un#er E%-
*oning o& the .ire&ringence colours can also .e
seenB 1he long crystal to the right o& centre sho9s
.lues an# yello9s 9hich are secon#-or#er
coloursB
1he other minerals in the rock are feldspars
an# a &e9 microphenocrysts o& pyroxene >high
relie&@B G211H
Specimen from lamprop"(re, .uffin Ba(, Herme,
%"annel 1slands# 3X
56
%TIL&NOMEL)NE
<>Mg-2e-Al@3,i4"1!>"-"8@2B382"
,ymetry - Monoclinic >-@
+: A - 1B576 - 1B745
'ire&ringence - !B!3! - !B11!

1he .ro9n lath-shape# crystals in these
photograph are o& stilpnomelane an# the
pronounce# pleochroism is clearly illustrate# .y
the upper an# mi##le photographs 9ith the
polari*er rotate# through 9!PB :t may .e .ro9n- as
in the e$ample- or green an# so can .e con&use#
9ith .iotite .ut the cleavages is not nearly as 9ell
#evelope# as in .iotitesB 1his sample sho9s a
#arker .ro9n colour than is e$pecte# in a &resh
sample .ecause it is partly o$i#i*e#B
1he inter&erence colours are generally maske#
.y the .ro9n a.sorption colours as seen in the
lo9er photograph- taken un#er E%B 1here are
slight signs o& another cleavage at right-angles to
the length o& the crystals an# 9hen this is clear it
is a use&ul o.servation to #istinguish
stilpnomelane &rom .iotiteB
1he chemical &ormula given a.ove is simpli&ie#
an# #oes not sho9 the 9i#e variation in
composition 9hich this mineral may haveB G222H
Specimen frommetamorp"osed ironstone,
4a(ton$ille, %alifornia, )S*# 3X
57
&2!O&2LLITE
Al,i2"5>"8@
,ymetry - Monoclinic >-@
+: A - 1B56 - 1B59
'ire&ringence - !B!5!

1he upper photograph sho9s a
&iel# o& vie9 almost entirely occupie#
.y pyrophyllite .ut there are no
&eatures visi.le 9hich permit easy
#istinction .et9een pyrophyllite an#
muscoviteB
On#er E%- lo9er photograph- the
mottle# appearance is also similar to
that o& muscoviteB 1his section 9as
chosen .ecause it sho9s relatively
large crystals o& pyrophillite an# an
inter&erence &igure sho9s a mo#erate
optic a$ial angle in contrast to the lo9
value seen in muscovitesB Osually
pyrophillite occurs in such small
crystals that it is impossi.le to o.tain
an inter&erence &igure &rom themB
G225H
Specimen from unknown localit(# ;X
5
T)LC
Mg3,i4"1!>"8@2
,ymetry - Monoclinic >-@
+: A - 1B59 - 1B594
'ire&ringence - !B!5

Most o& the &iel# o& vie9 is occupie# .y talc in a
highly #e&orme# rockB :t is much easier to i#enti&y
talc in han# specimen than in thin section .ecause
it &eels slippery- 9hereas in thin section it can .e
con&use# 9ith a 9hite micaB 1he change in relie& o&
#i&&erent parts o& the highly contorte# .an#s o& talc
is 9ell illustrate# .y the upper an# mi##le
photographs- taken 9ith the polari*er in orthogonal
positionsB
1he lo9er photograph- taken un#er E%- sho9s
secon#-or#er inter&erence colours over almost the
9hole &iel# e$cept &or small areas o& chlorite 9hich
is intergro9n 9ith the talcB 1he chlorite sho9s a
&irst-or#er grey or 9hite colourB G227H
Specimen from Madran Mountain, Menderes
Massif, Sout" <est >urke(# ;X
59
CLO!ITE
>Mg- 2e- Al@12 >,i-Al@ "2! >"8@16
,ymetry - Monoclinic >-@ or >?@
+: A - 1B57 - 1B67
'ire&ringence - !B!! - !B!1

1he term chlorite covers a 9i#e
range o& mineral compositions .ut
most mem.ers o& this group are either
colourless or green in colour an#
9hen green mineral is o.serve#
intergro9n 9ith a .ro9n .iotite as in
the photograph a#Facent it is likely to
.e chloriteB 1he upper photograph-
taken in %% light- sho9s .iotite
.reaking #o9n to a chlorite so that
resi#ual .ro9n &lakes o& .iotite are
surroun#e# .y pale green chloriteD it is
usually pleochroicB (hlorite has a
per&ect .asal cleavage .ut it is visi.le
in only a &e9 crystals in this vie9B
On#er E% >lo9er photograph@ the
anomalous inter&erence colours 9hich
are characteristic o& some chlorites
are clearly seenB Although all chlorites
#o not have anomalous colours- their
.irre&ringence is al9ays lo9B G231H
Specimen from mica!diorite, Glen
4o(, Scotland# 0,X
6!
CLO!ITE
>Mg- 2e- Al@12 >,i-Al@ "2! >"8@16
,ymetry - Monoclinic >-@ or >?@
+: A - 1B57 - 1B67
'ire&ringence - !B!! - !B!1

"nly one photograph >upper@
taken in %% light is sho9n here
.ecause there are enough crystals in
#i&&erent orientations to sho9 the
pleochroism &rom pale yello9ish to
greenB 1he per&ect cleavage can .e
clearly seen in many o& the crystals
an# others are cut nearly parallel to
the .asal cleavage an#- o& course-
sho9 no cleavageB
:n the lo9er photograph- taken
un#er E%- the lo9 grey an#
anomalous .ro9n colours are
characteristic o& some chloritesB
1here are also signs o& t9inning in
some crystalsB
1he mineral 9ith 9hich the chlorite
is intergro9n is ad"laria- a <-rich
&el#spar &orme# in lo9-temperature
veinsB G231H
Specimen from adularia!6uart7 $ein,
St# Gottard, Swit7erland# ;X
61
%E!&ENTINE
Mg3,i2"5 >"8@4
,ymetry - Monoclinic >-@
+: A - 1B54 - 1B566
'ire&ringence - !B!!4 - !B!17

1he name serpentine covers three
polymorphs 9hich cannot easily .e
#istinguishe# optically- an# many
specimens contain more than one
polymorphic &ormB 1his specimen is
pro.a.ly a mi$ture o& li$ardine an#
chrysotileB
1he upper photograph sho9s
serpentine 9hich is pale yello9ish in
colour together 9ith an opaIue iron
oxideD this aggregate is un#ou.te#ly
the result o& .reak#o9n o& an olivine or
pyro$ene- although relict crystal
shapes are not clearly #e&ine# as in
some e$amplesB
1he lo9er photograph- taken un#er
E%- sho9s the lo9 &irst-or#er colours
characteristic o& the serpentine
minerals an# it also sho9s a mesh
te$ture 9hich is a common &eature o&
this mineral an# is &airly #iagnosticB
G242H
Specimen from serpentinete, 4i7ard,
%ornwall, England# +X
62
MIC!OCLINE
<Al,i3"
,ymetry - 1riclinic >-@
+: A - 1B51
'ire&ringence - !B!!7

Most o& the &iel# is occupie# .y
prehnite although a &e9 crystals o&
calcite can .e seen in the top part o&
the upper photograph- taken in %%
lightB 1he pale pink an# green colours
are stray polari*ation colours
pro#uce# in the photographic
eIuipmentB "ne o& the characteristic
&eatures o& this mineral is its ten#ency
to &orm ra#iating groups o& crystals
an# this is .est seen in the lo9er
photograph- taken un#er E%B
%rehnite characteristically sho9s
very .right secon# an# thir#-or#er
colours an# since the mineral in thin
section is almost 9ithout colour these
inter&erence colours are usually very
pureB G277H

Specimen frompegmatite, 5iamond
Mine, >ops"am, Maine, )S*# 43X
64
MIC!OCLINE
<Al,i3"
,ymetry - 1riclinic >-@
+: A - 1B51
'ire&ringence - !B!!7

1he t9o photographs sho9 a
perthitic microcline crystal cut
appro$imately parallel to >!!1@ 9ith
the trace o& >!1!@ parallel to the long
#imension o& the photographB
1he upper photograph 9as taken in
%% light 9ith the su.stage #iaphragm
close# to accentuate the relie& in
#i&&erent parts o& the sectionB %arallel
to the short e#ge o& the photograph
are small veinlets #i&&ering in relie&
&rom the host - these are microperthitic
al.ite lamellaeB At an angle o& a.out
25P to the same e#ge o& the
photograph there are three or &our
thick veins o& perthitic al.ite 9hich
also #i&&er in relie& &rom the
surroun#ing materialB
1he lo9er photograph- taken un#er
E%- sho9s the cross-hatche# t9inning
>al.ite an# pericline la9s@ 9hich is
very characteristic o& microclineB 1he
perthitic al.ite veins at 25P to the short
e#ge o& the photograph are rather
#ark here .ut sho9 t9inning accor#ing
to the al.ite la9 - the composition
plane >!1!@ is parallel to that o& the
al.ite t9inne# lamellae in the
microclineB
1he t9in lamellae in the microcline
are most sharply #e&ine# close to the
al.ite veins an# they are o& varia.le
9i#thB 1his mineral shoul# not .e
con&use# 9ith anorthoclaseB G25H
Specimen from pegmatite, 5iamond
Mine, >ops"am, Maine, )S*# 43X
64
&E!TITE / MIC!O&E!TITE
><-Na@ Al,i3"

&erthite is the name given to an intergro9th o&
a <-rich an# a Na-rich &el#spar 9hen the host
material is the 15rich feldsparB 5hen the host
material is a plagioclase the name antiperthite is
use# an# 9hen the Na-rich an# <-rich phases are
in eIual amounts the term mesoperthite is use#B
%erthite is use# 9hen the intergro9th can .e seen
in han# specimen an# microperthite 9hen it is
visi.le only un#er the microscopeB 1hese three
photographs 9ere taken un#er E%B
1he upper photograph sho9s most o& the &iel#
occupie# .y a mineral 9ith a very #ark grey
inter&erence colour an# small 9hite .le.s o&
microperthitic al.ite &airly uni&ormly #istri.ute#
throughoutB 19o cleavages are visi.le almost at
right-angles to one another so that this section is
cut nearly perpen#icular to the $ a$isB No t9inning
is visi.le so it is likely to have monoclinic
symmetry an# the name orthoclase-microperthite
is appropriateB A nearly centre# acute .isectri$
inter&erence &igure is o.taine# &rom this section
9ith an optic a$isal angle o& a.out 45P- a value
appropriate &or orthoclase-microperthiteB
1he mi##le photograph is a coarse perthite cut
nearly parallel to >!1!@B 1he 9hite areas are Na-
&el#spar an# the #ark areas are o& <-&el#sparB
5ithin the #ark areas are &ine light-coloure#
lamellae o& microperthitic al.ite 9hich lie an angle
o& appro$imately 75R to the trace o& the >!!1@
cleavage 9hich is parallel to the long e#ge o& the
photographB Although no t9inning can .e seen in
either the Na-rich or <-rich phases- i& al.ite
t9inning 9ere present it 9oul# not .e seen in a
section cut nearly parallel to >!1!@B :n a##ition
pericline t9inning 9ill not .e seen in a section cut
e$actly at right-angles to the t9in a$is- the y
crystallographic a$is- an# 9ill .e #i&&icult to #etect
in a section close to this orientationB 2rom this
section alone it is not possi.le to say 9hether the
<-rich phase is orthoclase or microclineB
1he lo9er photograph is also o& a
microperthitic &el#spar in the same orientation as
the mi##le photograph- .ut here only
microperthitic al.ite is visi.le- oriente# at a.out
75P to the trace o& the >!!1@ cleavageB G23H
)pper specimen from garnet!granulite, <est of
*mboasr(, Madagascar# /X
4ower specimen from pegmatite, Kodarma, Bi"ar,
1ndia# 0X
65
%)NIDINE
><-Na@ Al,i3"
,ymetry - Monoclinic >-@
+: A - 1B522 - 1B52
'ire&ringence - !B!!6 - !B!!7

1he name sanidine is use# &or
monoclinic alkali &el#spars 9hich occur
in volcanic rocksC they are usually &airly
<-richB 1he upper photograph taken in
%% light sho9s a &e9 phonocrysts o&
sani#ine in a groun#mass also
compose# mainly o& sani#ineB 1he
regular arrangement o& inclusions at
.oth en#s o& the largest crystal
outlines the shape o& the gro9ing
crystalB
,imple t9inning- as seen in the
lo9er photograph taken un#er E%- is
very common in monoclinic alkali
&el#spars an# this serves to #istinguish
them &rom plagioclases since the latter
usually sho9 lamellar t9inning as 9ell
as simple t9inningB 1he t9in la9 in this
case is the (arls.a# la9 9hich is the
most &reIuently o.serve# t9in la9 in
monoclinic &el#sparsB G25H
Specimen from p"onolite, San *ngelo,
1sc"ia, 1tal(# 4X
66
)NO!TOCL)%E
>Na- <@ Al,i3"
,ymetry - 1riclinic >-@
+: A - 1B52 - 1B532
'ire&ringence - !B!!7 - !B!!

1he name anorthoclase is use#
&or triclinic Na-rich alkali &el#spar
9hich occur in volcanic rocksB 1he
upper photograph taken in %% light
sho9s a group o& crystals o&
anorthoclase in a &ine-graine#
groun#mass o& al'ali feldspar an#
*"art$B 1here are slight signs o&
cleavages .ecause the largest crystal
is cut almost at right-angles to .oth
>!!1@ an# >!1!@ cleavagesB
1he lo9er photograpg- taken un#er
E%- sho9s al.ite an# pericline t9in
lamellae &orming a cross-hatche# or
StartanS pattern 9hich at &irst sight
resem.les the te$ture seen in
microclineB :n anortoclase ho9ever the
lamellae are seen in sections cut
nearly perpen#icular to the $
crystallographic a$is as in this case
an#- in this orientation- a nearly
centre# acute .isectri$ inter&erence
&igure can .e o.taine#B G25H
Specimen from pantellerite,
.antelleria, 1tal(# 3;X
67
&L)(IOCL)%E
NaAl,i3" - (aAl2,i2"
,ymetry - 1riclinic >-@ or >?@
+: A - 1B532 - 1B55
'ire&ringence - !B!!7 - !B!13

1hese photographs are o& a thin section o& a
la.radorite crystal cut almost e$actly at right-
angles to the $ crystallographic a$is- an# all three
e$posures 9ere ma#e un#er E%B :n the upper
photograph the >!1!@ cleavage has .een set
parallel to the long e#ge o& the photograph 9hich
is perpen#icular to the vi.ration #irection o& the
polari*erB 1he >!!1@ cleavage is not parallel to the
short e#ge o& the photograph .ut sho9s slight
changes in #irection at the .oun#aries o& the
al.ite t9in lamellae seen in the t9o lo9er
photographsB 1he mi##le an# lo9er photographs
sho9 the appearance o& the section a&ter rotation
to the e$tinction positions o& the t9o sets o& t9in
lamellaeB 1he angle o& rotation in each case is
26PD &rom a graph o& composition in the
plagioclase &e#spar series against e$tinction angle
in a section cut perpen#icular to the $ a$is- the
composition o& this crystal is a.aout A.5!An5!B
G31H
Specimen from unknown localit(# 43X
6
&L)(IOCL)%E
NaAl,i3" - (aAl2,i2"
,ymetry - 1riclinic >-@ or >?@
+: A - 1B532 - 1B55
'ire&ringence - !B!!7 - !B!13

1hese photographs sho9 a
num.er o& phenocrysts an#
microphenocrysts o& plagioclase in
the &ine-graine# groun#mass o& an
andesite >a &e9 phenocrysts o&
orthopyro$ene are also visi.le@B :n %%
light >upper photograph@ *oning can
.e seen .y the arrangement o&
incluisons in the group o& &el#spar
crystals in the centre o& the &iel#B
5ithin this aggregate the .ro9n
material is cryptocrystalline
groun#mass incorporate# in the
gro9ing crystalsB
On#er E% >lo9er photograph@
lamellar t9inning is visi.le in most o&
the crystals an# oscillatory *oning is
o.vious in the crystals 9hich are near
to their e$tinction positionsB 1he lo9
grey inter&erence colours are slightly
anomalous #ue to #ispersion- a
&eature 9hich is not uncommon in
plagioclase &rom volcanic rocksB G31H
Specimen from p(ro=ene!andesite,
Matra Hills, near Budapest, Hungar(#
2X
69
9+)!T#O
,i"2
,ymetry - 1rigonal >?@
+: J - 1B544
K - 1B553
'ire&ringence - !B!!9

)uart* is the most common o& all
minerals an# is &airly easily
#istinguishe# &rom &el#spar in thin
section .ecause it is generally
unaltere# an# lacks visi.le t9inning or
cleavageB >:t may contain &lui#
inclusions an# i& these are very small
an# numerous they make give the
Iuart* a #usty appearance@B
1he upper photograph- taken in %%
light- sho9s clear *"art$ phenocrysts
in a volcanic roc' an# sho9s clear
Iuart* phenocrysts in a volcanic rock
an# these have em.ayments against
the groun#mass o& the rockD this is not
an uncommon &eature an# although
sometimes interprete# as #ue to
resorption o& the crystals it may .e #ue
to the rapi#ly gro9ing crystal enclosing
the groun#mass materialB
:n the lo9er photograph- taken
un#er E%- some crystals sho9 the
9hite inter&erence colours
characteristic o& crystals cut nearly
parallel to the optic a$isB ,igns o& a
yello9ish inter&erence colour is an
in#ication that the thin section is
slightly too thickB G34!H
Specimen from 6uart7 porp"(r(,
5undub", 1sle of *rran, Scotland# /X
7!
9+)!T#O
,i"2
,ymetry - 1rigonal >?@
+: J - 1B544
K - 1B553
'ire&ringence - !B!!9

1hese photographs sho9 *"art$ in
a metamorphic rockB :n the upper
photograph- taken in %% light- most o&
the &iel# o& vie9 appears to .e
occupie# .y clear Iuart* crystals 9ith a
&e9 small inclusionsB 1he minerals at
the corners o& the photograph are
.iotite an# sillimaniteB
:n the lo9er photograph- taken
un#er E%- in#ivi#ual crystals o& Iuart*
can .e seen .ut- 9ithin these- the
e$tinction is not uni&orm an# this
sha#o9y e$tinction is &airly common in
#e&orme# rocksB (loser inspection o&
this vie9 reveals that- at the top o&
vie9- there are regions 9hich #i&&er in
that the crystals have #ark .or#ers an#
#ark veinlets penetrating into the
crystalD at the le&t-han# .ottom corner
there are signs o& t9in lamellae in one
o& the crystalsB 1hese are cordierite
crystals an# they have .een inclu#e#
in this &iel# o& vie9 to sho9 that the
relie& an# .ire&ringence o& cor#ierite
may- #epen#ing on its composition- .e
very similar to that o& Iuart* .ut can .e
#istinguishe# .y signs o& alteration to
pinite at the e#ges o& the cor#ierite
grainsB G34!H

Specimen from cordierite!sillimanite
gneiss, // km sout" of 1l"os(,
Madagascar# 43X
71
M2!ME1ITE

1his consists o& an intergro9th o&
plagioclase an# *"art$ 9ith a
vermicular te$ture 9hich is clearly
seen in the lo9er photograph- taken
un#er E%B 1his shoul# .e compare#
9ith granophyric te$tureB :n the upper
photograph- taken un#er %% light the
intergro9th is almost invisi.le .ecause
the plagioclase an# the intergro9n
Iuart* have almost the same +:
9hereas the remain#er o& the &iel#-
e$cept &or an apatite crystal in the
centre- is occupie# .y alkali &el#spar
9ith lo9er +:B 1he alkali &el#spar has a
microperthitic te$ture 9ith oriente#
inclusions o& plagioclaseBB
Specimen from c"arnockite, 0 km
&< of 9ort 5aup"in, Madagascar#
0X
72
(!)NO&2!IC TEXT+!E

1hese photographs sho9 an
intergro9th o& *"art$ an# al'ali
feldsparB 0ven in %% light >upper
photograph@ the intergro9th is visi.le
.ecause o& the #i&&erence in
re&ringence o& the t9o minerals an#
the &act that the alkali &el#spar is
.ro9n- #ue to alteration- 9hereas the
areas o& Iuart* are clearB On#er E%
>lo9er photograph@ 9hat appear to .e
the outlines o& in#ivi#ual crystals are
visi.leB 5hat is not kno9n is 9hat
material these shapes represent since
each ScrystalS consists o& a.out eIual
amounts o& Iuart* an# &el#spar
although it is pro.a.le that the crystal
outline is that o& &el#sparB
Specimen from granop"(re, Eastern
-ed Hills, Sk(e, Scotland# 3X
73
T!ID2MITE
,i"2
,ymetry - "rthorhom.ic >?@
+: A - 1B47! - 1B4!
'ire&ringence - !B!!2 - !B!!4

1he upper photograph- taken in %%
light- is o& a &ine-graine# rock in 9hich
there is an elongate# cavity or vein
9hich is mainly &ille# 9ith tridymiteB
1o the right o& the photograph the
tri#ymite sho9s up in relie& against the
mounting me#ium 9here there are
small holes in the sli#eB
1he lo9er photograph- taken un#er
E%- sho9s that the tri#ymite has very
lo9 .ire&ringenceD the 9e#ge-shape#
t9inne# crystals are characteristic o&
this mineralB Although the name
tri#ymite implies three-&ol# groups o&
t9ins- t9o-t9inne# in#ivi#uals are
pro.a.ly more commonB G34!H
Specimen from dacite, Hakone
:olcano, 'apan# ;X
74
C!I%TO3)LITE
,i"2
,ymetry - 1etragonal >-@
+: K - 1B44
J - 1B47
'ire&ringence - !B!!3

:n the upper photograph- taken in
%% light- cristo.alite is intergro9n
9ith pyroxene >.ro9n@- plagioclase
feldspar >colourless@ an# opaIue
crystals 9hich are pro.a.ly mainly
ilmeniteB 1he cristo.alite sho9s
mo#erate relie& against the
plagioclase &el#spars .ecause o& the
lo9 in#e$ o& the cristo.aliteB :t is
characteri*e# .y 9hat is kno9n as
QtileQ structure- iBeB- resem.lance to
curve# tiles on a roo&B On#er E%
>lo9er photograph@- the cristo.alite
sho9s very lo9 grey colours 9hich are
characteristicB 1he #i&&erent
orientations sho9n .y the #i&&erences
in .ire&ringence are partly #ue to the
tile structure .ut multiple t9inning is
also presentB G34!H
Specimen from coarse!grained basalt,
*pollo /; lunar sample# /24X
75
NE&ELINE
NaAl,i"4
,ymetry - 8e$agonal >-@
+: K - 1B526 - 1542
J - 1B529 - 1546
'ire&ringence - !B!!3 - !B!!5

1he colourless minerals in the
upper photograph- taken in %% light-
are mainly nepheline an# cancriniteB
A light #i&&erence in relie& can Fust .e
#etecte# .ut it is necessary to look at
the lo9er photograph >taken un#er
E%@ too see clearly that the areas 9ith
.right inter&erence colours consist o&
cancrinite 9hile the very #ark areas
are o& nephelineB No cleavages are
visi.le so that there is unlikely to .e
any alkali &el#spar in this &iel# o& vie9B
(ancrinite is very o&ten associate#
9ith nepheline particularly in plutonic
rocks an# this gives a clue to the
presence o& nephelineB
1he green mineral in these
photographs is aegirine5a"gite an#
the occurrence o& an alkali pyro$ene
in#icates that the rock is rich in alkalis
.ut is not necessarily nepheline-
.earingB G356H
Specimen from nep"eline s(enite,
K"abo7ero, Kole, )-SS# 34X
76
NE&ELINE
NaAl,i"4
,ymetry - 8e$agonal >-@
+: K - 1B526 - 1542
J - 1B529 - 1546
'ire&ringence - !B!!3 - !B!!5

1hese photographs sho9
nepheline phenocrysts in the &ine-
graine# groun#mass containing also
small green crystals o& aegirine5
a"gite an# a &e9 crystals o& spheneB
:t is common to &in# nepheline
phenocrysts together 9ith alkali
&el#spar phenocrysts in the same rock
an# it is sometimes #i&&icult to
#istinguish them >see photographs on
pB 7@B All colourless phenocrysts in
this &iel# o& vie9 are o& nepheline
although there are some small
sanidines in the groun#massB 1he
crystals at the top le&t o& the &iel# o&
vie9 9ith the inclusion o& aegirine-
augite sho9s a he$agonal outline .ut
is incompleteB
:n the lo9er photograph- taken
un#er E%- the t9o crystals at the
.ottom e#ge o& the &iel# o& vie9 are at
e$tinctionB A &e9 small sani#ine
crystals can .e recogni*e# in the
groun#mass .y the presence o&
simple t9inningB G356H
Specimen from p"onolite, e?ected
block, Aldoin(o 4engai, >an7ania#
+X
77
NO%E)N
6NaAl,i"4 B Na2,"4
,ymetry - (u.ic
+: L - 1B495

1hese photographs are &rom
#i&&erent rocks an# .oth are taken in
%% light onlyB
1he upper photograph sho9s t9o
nosean phenocrysts 9ith #ark- almost
.lack- rims #ue to 2e o$i#e inclusionsD
throughout the cores o& the crystals
there are numerous oriente#
inclusionsB A &e9 microphenocrysts o&
le"cite are visi.le in the &iel# an# this
is the same rock as use# to illustrate
leuciteC there are also
microphenocrysts o& nosean- #ark
.ro9n 9ith inclusions similar to the
rims o& the phenocrysts- green to
.ro9n pyroxene in a &ine groun#mass
mainly o& plagioclase 9ith some
calcite sho9s 9eak inter&erence
colours in this photographB
1he lo9er photograph sho9s
nosean crystals- &ull o& inclusions-
intergro9n 9ith sani#ine 9hich is &ree
&rom inclusionsB 1he su.-stage
aperture has .een opene# 9i#e .ut
closing it allo9s one to see the
#i&&erence in relie& .et9een the
nosean an# the sani#ine - nosean has
a much lo9er +: an# is isotropicB
)pper specimen from leucitop"(re,
-eiden, Eifel, German(# ;X
4ower specimen from nosean
sanidinite, 4aac"er See, German(#
03X
!
C)NC!INITE
6NaAl,i"4 B Na2("3
,ymetry - 8e$agonal >-@
+: K - 1B5!3
J - 1B52
'ire&ringence - !B!25

:n the upper photograph- taken
in %% light- the o.Fective 9as raise#
slightly to sho9 the 'ecke lineB 1he
minerals 9hich have the 'ecke line
9ithin their .oun#aries are nepheline
an# al'ali feldspar 9hich in this rock
have almost i#entical re&ractive in#ices
- the lo9 re&ractive in#e$ mineral is
cancriniteB
On#er E% >lo9er photograph@ the
cancrinite sho9s &irst-or#er colours-
e$cept &or the large crystal to the le&t
o& the &iel# 9hich is a lo9 secon#-
or#er .luish-re# colourB :n nepheline
syenites the appearance o& a
colourless mineral 9ith &irst- or
secon#-or#er inter&erence colours an#
a very lo9 re&ractive in#e$ is usually a
goo# in#ication o& the presence o&
cancrinite an# in turn this lea#s the
o.server to look &or the presence o&
nephelineB G31H
Specimen from nep"eline!s(enite,
unknown localit(# ;X
1
%C)&OLITE
3>NaAl,i3"@ B Na(l - 3>(aAl,i2"@ B (a("3
,ymetry - 1etragonal >-@
+: K - 1B54! - 1B564
J - 1B546 - 1B6!!
'ire&ringence - !B!!5 - !B!3

1he upper photograph- taken in
%% light- sho9s mainly scapolite
>colourless@ together 9ith a pale green
clinopyroxene an# one crystal o&
.iotite in the centre o& the &iel#B A
crystal at the lo9er le&t part o& the &iel#
sho9s t9o sets o& cleavages at right-
angles to one anotherB Most o& the
other crystals sho9 at least one
cleavageB
:n the lo9er photograph- taken
un#er E% some o& the crystals sho9
secon#-or#er colours .ut those
sho9ing t9o cleavages have lo9
inter&erence colours an# are cut nearly
at right-angles to the optic a$is since
the M1!!N cleavages are parallel to the
optic a$isB 1he composition in the
scapolite series- &rom the marialite
en#-mem.er >Na-rich@ to the meionite
en#-mem.er- is o.taine# &rom either
re&ractive in#e$ #etermination or a
measurement o& .ire&ringenceB G34H
Specimen from edge of p"logopite!
pegmatite, near MafilefB,
Madagascar# +X
2
CO!+ND+M
Al2"3
,ymetry - 1rigonal >-@
+: K - 1B76! - 1B763
J - 1B76 - 1B772

1he upper photograph sho9s a
num.er o& cor"nd"m crystals
em.e##e# in feldsparB :ts high relie& is
characteristic an# 9hen it sho9s a
slight .luish colour- as it #oes here-
this is an in#ication o& the presence o&
sapphire >.lue variety o& corun#um@B
1he almost .lack material is glass &ul
o& inclusionsB
:n the lo9er photograph- taken
un#er E%- the highest colours seen
are &irst-or#er yello9B 'ecause o& its
e$treme har#ness corun#um crystals
may .e thicker than the surroun#ing
minerals an# so sho9 slightly higher
colours than the .ire&ringence
in#icatesB Multiple t9inning is Iuite
common in corun#um .ut is not
present in any o& these crystalsB G4!5H
Specimen from buc"ite,
-ud"3a3%"romain Sill, -oss of Mull,
Scotland# 0X
4
!+TILE
1i"2
,ymetry - 1etragonal >?@
+: J - 2B6!5 - 2B613
K - 2B99 - 2B9!1
'irre&ringence - !B26 - !B296

1he upper an# mi##le photographs sho9
some &airly large crystals o& r"tile in a mass o&
altere# plagioclase feldsparB "ne o& the crystals
sho9s t9o goo# cleavages at an angle o&
appro$imately 6!PB 1he #eep gol#en-.ro9n colour
is &airly characteristic o& rutileB On#er E% >mi##le
photograph@ it can .e seen that there are t9in
lamellae parallel to the traces o& the t9o
cleavages- 9hich are pro.a.ly M!11NB 1his crystal
has .een set near to the e$tinction position to
sho9 the t9inningB 'ecause o& the strong
a.sorption colour it is not possi.le to estimate the
.ire&ringence 9hich is very high nor to .e a9are o&
the very high re&ractive in#icesB 1he other crystal
9hich #oes not sho9 t9inning appears to .e the
same colour in %% light an# un#er E%B
1he lo9er photograph- taken in %% light- sho9s
nee#les o& rutile 9ithin .iotiteB 1he occurrence o&
rutile as nee#les in .iotite an# Iuart* is &airly
common .ut 9hen the nee#les are as &ine as
those illustrate# here there is very little that can .e
#one optically to esta.lish that they are in#eee#
rutileB G415H
)pper and middle specimen from altered
anort"osite, -oseland, :irginia, )S*# +X
4ower specimen from unknown localit(# ;X
5
&E!OV%1ITE
(a1i"3
,ymetry - Monoclinic >pseu#o-cu.ic@ >?@
+: L - 2B3! - 2B3

1he upper photograph- taken in
%% light- sho9s a &e9 #ark .ro9n
crystals o& perovs'ite intergro9n 9ith
melilite >colourless@ an# 7e ore
>.lack@B 7oning o& the .ro9n colour o&
the perovskite can .e seenB 1he relie&
is very high .ut the strong a.sorption
colour ten#s to o.scure thisB
:n the lo9 photograph- taken un#er
E%- the perovskite crystals are
.ire&ringent an# sho9 comple$
multiple t9inningB 1his cross-hatche#
t9inning is a characteristic o&
perovskite an# serves to #istinguish it
&rom some other #ark mineralsB :ts
occurrence along 9ith melilite is
commonB G422H
Specimen from melilite rock, Scawt
Hill, %ount( *ntrim, 1reland# 43X
6
%&INEL
>2e- Mg@ Al2"4
,ymetry - (u.ic
+: L - 1B719 - 1B35

1he spinel group covers a 9i#e
range o& chemical composition .ut the
common varieties are aluminous 9ith
2e an# Mg su.stitutionB 1he range o&
+: given #oes not cover the &erric ion
an# chromium-rich varietiesB 1he
characteristic colours are #ark green
.ro9n an# the t9o microphotographs-
.oth taken in %% light- sho9 t9o
#i&&erent occurrencesB
1he upper photograph sho9s #ark
green spinel together 9ith olivineB
1he spinel crystals are su.he#ral in
shape an# their colour is *one# so
that some o& the crystals sho9
.ro9nish coresB
:n the lo9er photograph the spinel
is an even #arker olive-green colourB
1he shapes o& the crystals are
#etermine# .y the calcic plagioclase
9ith 9hich it is intergro9nB ,ome o&
the #ark regions in this &iel# o& vie9
consist o& glass cro9#e# 9ith
inclusions .ut these can .e rea#ily
#istinguishe# &rom the spinel .ecause
o& the high relie& o& the spinelB G424H
)pper specimen from spinel!forsterite!
=enolit", :esu$ius, 1tal(# 43X#
4ower specimen from buc"ite,
-ud"3a3%"romain Sill, -oss of Mull,
Scotland# +X#
7
3!+CITE
Mg >"8@2
,ymetry - 1rigonal >?@
+: J - 1B56! - 1B59!
K - 1B5! - 1B6!!
'ire&ringence - !B!12 - !B!2!

1he upper photograph- taken in
%% light- sho9s .r"cite >clear areas@
intergro9n 9ith dolomite >#arker
areas@B 1hese are pro.a.ly
pseu#omorphs a&ter periclase >Mg"@B
:n the vie9 un#er E% >lo9er
photograph@- the .rucite areas consist
o& aggregates o& &i.res 9ith lo9
.ire&ringenceB A &e9 regions 9hich
sho9 anomalous .lue colours are o&
serpentineB G434H
Specimen from brucite marble,
4edberg, *ss(nt, Scotland# ;X +X#

C)LCITE
(a("3
,ymetry - 1rigonal >-@
+: K - 1B46
J - 1B65
'ire&ringence - !B172

Most o& the &iel# o& vie9 is occupie# .y
calcite an# the upper an# mi##le photographs
taken in %% light sho9 the change in relie&
pro#uce# .y rotating the polari*er through 9!PB
1his is re&erre# to as St9inklingS an# is most easily
seen .y rotating the polari*er as has .een #one
hereB 'ecause o& the per&ect rhom.ohe#ral
cleavage most crystals sho9 at least one goo#
cleavageB
On#er E% >lo9er photograph@ the inter&erence
colours can .e seen to .e o& very high or#erD this
section may .e slightly less than the normal !B!3
mm in thickness since in sections o& stan#ar#
thickness the inter&erence colour pro#uce# is a
high-or#er 9hiteB 19inning can .e seen in a &e9
crystals an# this can .e use&ul in #istinguish
calcite &rom #olomiteB G476H
Specimen from diopside!forsterite marble, 4oc"
5uic", Scotland# 44X
9
DOLOMITE
(aMg >("3@2
,ymetry - 1rigonal >-@
+: K - 1B5!!
J - 1B679
'ire&ringence - !B179

1his section contains .oth calcite an#
dolomite an#- since the t9o minerals are #i&&icult
to #istinguish the thin section has .een staine#B
Most o& the staining techniIues use# #epen# on
the &act that calcite is rea#ily solu.le in #ilute 8(l
9hereas #olomite is not- so that the material
9hich is staine# re# in these photographs is the
calciteB :n the upper an# mi##le photographs-
taken in %% light- it can .e seen that there are
lamellae o& #olomite 9ithin the staine# calciteB
1he change in relie& o& the #olomite cause# .y
rotating the polari*er through 9!P is clearly
sho9nB
1he lo9er photograph >tanken un#er E%@
sho9s the high .ire&ringence associate# 9ith
#olomiteB 1he crystal sho9ing a yello9 colour to
the right o& the &iel# o& vie9 is forsteriteB G49H
Specimen from forsterite marble, Sri 4anka# 43X
9!
DOLOMITE
(aMg >("3@2
,ymetry - 1rigonal >-@
+: K - 1B5!!
J - 1B679
'ire&ringence - !B179

1hese photographs 9ere taken
&rom an unstaine# section o& the same
rock use# &or the previous
photographs o& #olomiteB :n the upper
photograph >taken un#er %% light@ t9o
rhom.ohe#ral cleavages can .e seen
at 12!P in the crystal in the upper part
o& the &iel#B
:n the lo9er photograph- taken
un#er E%- t9in lamellae are seen to
.isect the o.tuse angle .et9een the
cleavages- iBeB parallel to the short
#iagonal o& the rhom. shape &orme#
.y the cleavagesB 'oth dolomite an#
calcite may have t9in lamellae to the
long #iagonal an# parallel to the
rhom.ohe#ral cleavages themselves-
.ut only #olomite has t9in lamellae in
the position sho9n hereB G49H
Specimen from forsterite marble, Sri
4anka# 43X
91
)&)TITE
(a5>%"4@3 >"8-2-(l@
,ymetry - 8e$agonal >-@
+: K - 1B624 - 1B666
J - 1B629 - 1B667
'ire&ringence - !B!!1 - !B!!7

:n the upper photograph- taken
in %% light- nee#les an# small
he$agonal crystals o& apatite stan#
out in relie& against nepheline >clear@C
the opaIue mineral is ilmenite- some
o& the ilmenite crystals having rims o&
spheneB
1he lo9er photograph- taken un#er
E%- sho9s that the .ire&ringence o&
apatite is a.out the same as that o&
the nepheline- an# this taken along
9ith the high +: is use&ul &or
i#enti&icationB 1he one grain sho9ing a
.lue-green inter&erence colour is
aegirine5a"giteB G5!4H
Specimen from apatite!nep"eline rock,
4o$o7ero, Kola, )SS-# 4+X
92
7L+O!ITE
(a22
,ymetry - (u.ic
+: L - 1B433 - 1B435

1hese t9o photographs 9ere
.oth taken in %% lightB 1he upper
photograp sho9s a num.er o& purple
crystals o& fl"orite intergro9n 9ith a
rare mineral o& 4e.eriteB A &e9
crystals at the top o& the photograph
sho9 signs o& the per&ect M111N
cleavageB 2luorite has the lo9est
re&ractive in#e$ o& all the common
minerals an# hence sho9s
consi#era.le relie& against most other
mineralsB :n this case the purple colour
gives a use&ul clue to its i#entityB
1he lo9er photograph sho9s
&luorite as small anhe#ral grains
intergro9n 9ith m"scoviteB 8ere
again the pale purple colour 9hich is
unevenly #istri.ute# is use&ul &or
i#enti&icationD its isotropic character
an# very lo9 re&ractive in#e$ 9oul#
con&irm the i#enti&icationB G511H
)pper specimen from cr(olite deposit,
1$igtut, <est Greenland# 3X
4ower specimen from granite,
-ostowrack, %ornwall, England# 44X
93
DEE!ITE
2e>?2@122e>?3@6,i12"4! >"8@1!
,ymetry - Monoclinic
+: A - 1B5
'ire&ringence - !B!3

1he upper photograph- taken in
%% light- sho9s nee#le-shape#
deerite crystals intergro9n 9ith
*"art$B 1he .ro9n mineral at the
corners o& the &iel# is stilpnomelaneB
1he #eerite crystals are slightly
transparent an# sho9 a .ro9n colourB
1here is a suggestion o& a #iamon#
shape in some o& the section #ue to
the #evelopment o& the M11!N &ormB
On#er E% >lo9er photograph@ no
inter&erence colours can .e seen
.ecause o& the intense a.sorptionB
Specimen from metamorp"osed
siliceous ironstone, 4a(ton$ille,
%alifornia, )S*# 43X
94
O0IEITE
Na>2e-Mn@1! >2e-Al@2 ,i12 >"- "8@44
,ymetry - 1riclinic
+: A - 1B72!
'ire&ringence - !B!33

Most o& the &iel# o& vie9 is occupie# .y
ho4ieite crystals an# the pleochroism &rom
yello9 to green to a lilac-grey can .e seen in
#i&&erent crystals .y comparing the upper an#
mi##le photographsB :n most o& the orientation
present- there are signs o& cleavageB
On#er E% >lo9er photograph@- the
inter&erence colours are secon#-or#er- .ut are
maske# to some e$tent .y the a.sorption
coloursB 1he almost .lack mineral intergro9n
9ith ho9ieite is deeriteB
Specimen from metamorp"osed siliceous
ironstone, 4a(ton$ille, %alifornia, )S*# 4X
95
#+%%M)NITE
< >2e- Mg- Mn@13 Al2,i17 >"-"8@56
,ymetry - 1rigonal >-@
+: K - 1B623
J - 1B643
'ire&ringence - !B!2!

(omparision o& the upper an# mi##le
photographs- taken in %% light- sho9s
$"ssmanite- 9hich is pleochroic &rom pale yello9
to pale green- occupying most o& the &iel#B A very
goo# cleavage is present in some crystals an# the
relie& against *"art$ is highB
1he lo9er photograph- taken un#er E%-
reveals that the crystals sho9ing the lo9est
inter&erence colours are those not sho9ing a
cleavageB ,ections cut nearly parallel to the
per&ect cleavage sho9 unia$ial inter&erence
&iguresB
1he .ro9n mineral accompanying *ussmanite
is stilpnomelaneB
Specimen from metamorp"osed siliceous
ironstone, 4a(ton$ille, %alifornia, )S*# 43X
96
2ODE!ITE
Al3Mg,i2" >"8@
,ymetry - monoclinic >?@
+: T - 1B691
'ire&ringence - !B!26

1he spetacular pleochroism o& yoderite
&rom purple to a .ro9nish colour can .e seen .y
comparing the t9o photographs taken in %% light
>upper an# mi##le photographs@B :ts relie& against
the surroun#ing *"art$ is highB 1he purple colour
is similar to that seen in Sglaucophane or crossiteB
:n the lo9er photograph- taken un#er E%- the
inter&erence colour seen is a com.ination o& the
a.sorption colour an# a colour close to &irst-or#er
re#B 'ecause only one orientation is represente#
here 9e cannot see the &ull range o& pleochroism
or inter&erence coloursB
:n this rock the yo#erite occurs along 9ith
Iuart* an# talc an# yo#erite crystals usually
contain a core o& kyanite 9hich is not seen in this
sectionsB
Specimen from 6uart7!k(anite!talc sc"ist, Mautia
Hill, >an7ania# 3X
97